The examinations are three in number.
Higher education is represented by the provincial university, which teaches science and mathematics, holds examinations, distributes scholarships, and grants degrees in all subjects.
In the universities of the Netherlands and of lower Germany, as yet free from the conservatism of the old-established seats of learning, the new system gained an easy victory over Aristotelianism, and, as it was adapted for lectures and examinations, soon became almost as scholastic as the doctrines it had supplanted.
The arts colleges of the churches carry on the several courses required by the university, and send their students to the examinations of the university.
In several university towns there are free teaching establishments for women, supported by subscription, with programmes and examinations equal to those of the universities.
In 1862 she became secretary to the committee which was formed for the purpose of procuring the admission of women to university examinations, and from 1870 to 1873 was a member of the London school board.
Rank is nominally determined by merit, as tested by competitive examinations.
Many Basuto at the public examinations take higher honours than competitors of European descent.
The "Cleveland plan," in force in the public schools, minimizes school routine, red tape and frequent examinations, puts great stress on domestic and manual training courses, and makes promotion in the grammar schools depend on the general knowledge and development of the pupil, as estimated by a teacher who is supposed to make a careful study of the individual.
studies and going over to Cambridge for the examinations.
' The most remarkable feature of the discussion since 1862 is that the successive examinations of the subject have led to a continually diminishing value, so that at the present time it seems possible that the actual parallax of the sun is almost as near to the old value of Encke as to that which first replaced it.
The candidate whose work is notified as tres bien is admitted to the examinations at Hue, which qualify for the title of doctor and the holding of administrative offices.
The function of the academic department is to control the teaching branch, internal examinations, &c., and that of the external department to control external examinations, while the university extension system occupies a third department.
- The Royal Institute of British Architects, Conduit Street, conducts examinations and awards diplomas.
The College of Preceptors, Bloomsbury, conducts examinations of persons engaged in education and awards diplomas.
In the case of the cheaper and more abundant minerals, such as coal and iron ore, and of large deposits of low-grade ores, the extent and character of the deposit can generally be determined by surface examinations at comparatively small expense.
On one of the islands in the lake is the great Wen-lan-ko or pavilion of literary assemblies, and it is said that at the examinations for the second degree, twice every three years, from 10,000 to 15,000 candidates come together.
In 1900 she entered Radcliffe College, and successfully passed the examinations in mathematics, &c. for her degree of A.
In the same year (6th of September) a law was passed to compel all candidates for the priesthood to pass the government examinations.
The school is primarily divided into classical and modern sides, with a special department for preparation for army, navy or professional examinations.
After passing his final examinations in 1825, he spent a year in Switzerland, during part of the time acting as companion and secretary to C. von Bonstetten (1745-1832); the year 1827 was spent chiefly in Rome.
An order in council was enacted in 1899 providing that no Maltese (except students of theology) should thenceforth suffer any detriment through inability to pass examinations in Italian, in either the schools or university, but the fraction of the Maltese who claim to speak Italian (13.24%) still command sufficient influence to hamper the full enjoyment of this emancipation by the majority.
He was educated for the legal profession at Oviedo, and passed the necessary examinations.
He was examiner in logical and moral philosophy (1857-1862 and 1864-1869) to the university of London, and in moral science in the Indian Civil Service examinations.
In 655, after repeated examinations, in which he maintained his theological opinions with memorable constancy, he was banished to Byzia in Thrace, and afterwards to Perberis.
- Periodical examinations of the coins issued by the Mint have been made from very early times in England by persons appointed by the Crown.
The state controls professional and technical schools through the regents' examinations of candidates for admission to such schools and to the professions, determines the minimum requirements for admission to college by the regents' academic examinations, maintains the large State Library and the valuable State Museum, and occasionally makes a gift to a college or a university for the support of courses in practical industries; but it maintains no college or university that is composed of a teaching body.
Revenues for state purposes are derived from special taxes collected from the liquor traffic, corporations, transfers of decedents' estates, transfers of shares of stock, recording tax on mortgages, sales of products of state institutions, fees of public officers including fines and penalties, interest on deposits of state funds, refunds from department examinations and revenue from investments of trust funds, the most important of which are the common school fund and the United States deposit fund.
The annual reports, of which he was the chief author, became controversial pamphlets; he published bold replies to criticisms upon the work of the Commission; he explained its purposes to newspaper correspondents; when Congress refused to appropriate the amount which he believed essential for the work, he made the necessary economies by abandoning examinations of candidates for the Civil Service in those districts whose representatives in Congress had voted to reduce the appropriation, thus very shrewdly bringing their adverse vote into disfavour among their own constituents; and during the six years of his commissionership more than twenty thousand positions for government employes were taken out of the realm of merely political appointment and added to the classified service to be obtained and retained for merit only.
Among the definitions of sovereignty may be quoted these: "That which decides in questions of war and peace, and of making or dissolving alliances, and about laws and capital punishment, and exiles and fines, and audit of accounts and examinations of administrators after their term of office" (Aristotle, Politics, 4.4.
During this period they receive regular instruction in theoretical and practical knowledge, and have to pass periodical examinations.
The Medico-Psychological Association of Great Britain and Ireland holds examinations and grants certificates in mental nursing; candidates must undergo three years' regular training, with instruction by lectures, &c., which may be obtained in a large number of public asylums by arrangement with the Association; one county asylum (Northampton) gives its own certificates after a three years' course.
His lectures were thinly attended, for he did not care to adapt them to the requirements of the university examinations, and he was not perhaps well fitted to teach young men.
Here he studied law, and also prepared himself for the military examinations.
They contain an admirable collection, well housed and carefully managed, a specially interesting feature being the careful quarantine system of new arrivals and the post-mortem examinations of animals that have died.
In the patronage of learning and in the exercise of authority over the morals and education of youth Laud was in his proper sphere, many valuable reforms at Oxford being due to his activity, including the codification of the statutes, the statute by which public examinations were rendered obligatory for university degrees, and the ordinance for the election of proctors, the revival of the college system, of moral and religious discipline and order, and of academic dress.
Milton, in his Tractate on Education (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines, protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language, denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject appointed to consider the studies and examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in the Reporter for December 17, 1904.
At the Head Masters' Conference of December 1907 a proposal to lower the standard of Greek in the entrance scholarship examinations of public schools was lost by 10 votes to 16, and the " British Association report " was adopted with reservations in 1908.
The superintendent of public instruction is appointed by the governor and council for a term of two years, and it is his duty to prescribe the form of register to be kept in the schools, to investigate the condition of the schools, to make suggestions and recommendations for improving them, to lecture upon educational subjects in the towns and cities, to hold at least one teachers' institute each year in each of the counties, and to designate the times and places for holding examinations of those who wish to teach.
The undergraduate has certain examinations in each year, and four "commencements" are held every year for the purpose of conferring degrees.
No teaching was carried on, but examinations were held and degrees conferred, both on men and on women.
New York, Massachusetts and a few other states have systems of civil service examinations, similar to those in the Federal administration, which serve to keep certain branches out of politics.
The civil service commission, established in 1883, conducts competitive examinations for appointments to subordinafe positions under all of the administrative departments.
Nevertheless the system of competitive examinations for appointments was introduced in some of the great executive departments in Washington, and in the custom-house and the post-office in New York.
After studying in his native town and taking the university course in Berlin (1842-1843) he went to Paris, and passed first in the examination for fellowship (agregation) of the lycees (1845), first in the examinations on leaving the Ecole des Chartes, and first in the examination for fellowship of the faculties (1849).
More detailed examinations of the " canal-rays " by J.
Its main disadvantage is the lack of harbours - Honolulu and Pearl Harbor are the only ones in the archipelago; but under the River and Harbour Act of 1905 examinations and surveys were made to improve Hilo Bay on the island of Hawaii.
In1678-1679he spent some time at Grenoble as tutor in a private family; on his return to Geneva he passed his examinations and received ordination.
A Rechtsanwalt, having studied law at a university for four years and having passed two state examinations, if desiring to practise must be admitted as defending counsel by the Arnlsgericht or Landgericht, or by both.
The Corwin or "Witch" house, so called from a tradition that Jonathan Corwin, one of the judges in the witchcraft trials, held preliminary examinations of witches here, is said to have been the property of Roger Williams. The Pickering house, built before 1660, was the homestead of Timothy Pickering and of other members of that family.
He studied at Aberdeen, and, after passing his law examinations in Edinburgh, he quickly took a leading position at the Scottish bar, being made a Lord of Session in 1767 with the title of Lord Monboddo.
The student who has passed his examinations at Constantinople or Cairo may take up the purely religious office of imam (president in worship) or khatib (preacher) at a mosque.
In this department Schurz put in force his theories in regard to merit in the Civil Service, permitting no removals except for cause, and requiring competitive examinations for candidates for clerkships; he reformed the Indian Bureau and successfully opposed a bill transferring it to theWar Department; and he prosecuted land thieves and attracted public attention to the necessity of forest preservation.
It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.
He gave the counsel of perfection that "pass" examinations ought to cease; but he recognized that this change "must wait on the reorganization of the educational institutions immediately below the university, at which a passman ought to finish his career."
- The oldest known system of examinations in history is that used in China for the selection of officers for the public service (c. 1115 B.e.), and the periodic tests which they undergo after entry (c. 2200 B.C.).
Bullock, " Competitive Examinations in China " (Nineteenth Century, July 1894); and Etienne Zi, Pratique des examens litteraires en Chine (Shanghai, 1894).
The majority of examinations in western countries are derived from the university examinations of the middle ages.
The early universities of Europe, being under the same religious authority and animated by the same philosophy, resembled each other very closely in curriculum and general organization and examinations, and by the authority of the emperor, or of the pope in most cases, the permission to teach granted by one university was valid in all (jus ubicunque docendi).
The earliest university examinations of which a description is available are those in civil and in canon law held at Bologna at a period subsequent to 1219.
At their worst, even with venal examiners (and additional fees were often offered as a bribe), Rashdall regards these examinations (at the end of the 13th century) as probably " less of a farce than the pass examinations of Oxford and Cambridge almost within the memory of persons now living."
In some universities the sons of nobles were regularly excused certain examinations.
In the medieval examinations described above we find most of the elements of our present examinations: certificates of previous study and good conduct, preparation of set-books, questioning on subjects not specially prepared, division of examinations into various parts, classification in order of merit, payment of fees, the presentation of a dissertation, and the defence and publication of a thesis (a term of which the meaning has now become extended).
Rouse Ball in his History of the Study of Mathematics at Cambridge (1889), p. 193, states that he can find no record of any European examinations by means of written papers earlier than those introduced by R.
The number of subjects in which examinations are held has since grown immensely.
We can only sketch in outline the transformations of certain typical university systems of examinations.
Examinations were definitely introduced for the B.A.
Further changes were made in 1807 and 1825; and in 1830 a distinction was made between honours examinations of a more difficult character, at which successful candidates were divided into four classes, and pass examinations of an easier character.
The standard of examinations was raised in Cambridge at an earlier date than at Oxford, and in the 18th century the tripos " established the reputation of Cambridge as a School of Mathematical Science."
At Cambridge there is no intermediate examination between the " Previous Examination " (commonly called " Little-go "), which corresponds to Oxford " Responsions " or " Smalls " and the triposes and examinations for the " Poll " degree, which correspond to the Oxford final honours and pass examinations respectively.
The incorporation of the university of London in 1836 marks an era in the history of examinations; the teaching and examining functions of a university were dissociated for the first time.
Until 1858 the London examinations were open only to students in affiliated colleges, and the teachers had no share in the appointment of the examiners or indetermining the curricula for examinations; in 1858 the examinations were thrown open to all comers, and no requirements were insisted on with regard to courses of study except for degrees in the faculty of medicine.
The sole function of the university was to examine, and its examinations for matriculation and for degrees in arts and science were carried on by means of written papers not only in London but in many centres in the United Kingdom and the colonies.
1881, and at Oxford women were admitted to examinations for honours by statute of 29th April 1884.
In medicine the examinations were made both wider in range and more searching than those of any other examining body.
By an act passed in 1898, of which the provisions came into force in 1900, the university of London was reconstituted as a teaching university, although provision was made for the continuance of the system of examinations by " external examiners " for " external students," together with " internal examinations " for " internal students," in which the teachers and the external examiners of the university are associated.
The examinations in music and the final examinations in law and medicine are carried on  both for " internal " and " external " students by " external " examiners only, who are, however, appointed on the recommendation of boards of studies consisting mainly of London teachers.
At the university of Dublin, examinations have been maintained both for the B.A.
degrees, and students may be admitted to the examinations in subjects other than divinity, law, medicine, and engineering without attendance at university courses.
The examinations of the newer universities, the Victoria University of Manchester, Birmingham, Liverpool, Leeds, Sheffield and Wales, are open only to students at these universities, and are conducted by the teachers in association with one or more external examiners for each subject.
The student desiring to proceed to the doctorate is free from examinations thereafter until he presents his thesis for the doctor's degree,' when, if it is accepted, he is submitted to a public oral examination not only in his principal subject (Haupt f ach), but also as a rule in two or more collateral subjects (Nebenfeicher).
The licentiateship has been preserved in the faculties of arts, science and laws, and is in point of difficulty about equal to the pass degree examinations of the university of London, though differing in the nature of the tests.
For the doctorate in law, a thesis and two oral examinations are required.
In the faculty of medicine there is no licentiateship, but for the doctorate six examinations must be passed and a thesis submitted.
- University examinations for degrees having ceased to be used as technical tests of teaching capacity, new examinations have been devised for this purpose.
There are also examinations for primary teachers.
The universities and the College of Preceptors conduct examinations for teaching diplomas.
The Board of Education holds special examinations (Preliminary Certificate examination and Certificate examination, &c.) for primary teachers.
A system of professional examinations carried on by professional bodies, in some cases with legal sanction, was developed in England during the 19th century.
Thus the first two years of the arts curriculum in English and American universities correspond, roughly speaking, to the last two years spent in a secondary school of Germany or' France, and the continental " school-leaving examinations " correspond to the intermediate examinations of the newer English universities and to the pass examinations for the degree at Oxford and Cambridge (Mark Pattison, Suggestions on Academical Organization, 1868, p. 238, and Matthew Arnold, Higher Schools and Universities in Germany, 1892, p. 209).
There are in England a number of school examinations which, under prescribed conditions, also serve as school-leaving examinations, and give entrance to certain universities, especially the Oxford and Cambridge local examinations (both established in 1858),and the examinations of the Oxford and Cambridge "Joint Board."
A movement to reduce the number of entrance examinations and to secure uniformity in their standard was set on foot in 1901.
The committee were of opinion that a central board, consisting of representatives of the Board of Education and the different examining bodies, should be established, to co-ordinate and control the standards of the examinations, and to secure interchangeability of certificates, &c., as soon as a sufficient number of such bodies signified their willingness to be represented on the board.
- Examinations may test (i.) knowledge, or, more exactly, the power of restating facts and arguments of a kind that may be learnt by rote; (ii.) the power i See E.
Examinations are carried out at present by means of (r) written papers; (2) oral examinations; (3) practical, including in medicine clinical, tests; (4) theses; or a combination of these.
In written examinations the candidates are, as a rule, supplied with a number of printed questions, of which they must answer all, or a certain proportion, within a given time, Written.
varying, as a rule, from i 2 to 3 hours, the latter being the duration most generally adopted for higher examinations in England.
In many subjects, the written examinations test memory rather than capacity.
A candidate who obtains only 50% of the marks in performing such operations cannot be regarded as being able to perform them; and, if the examination is to be treated as a test of his capacity to perform them, he should be rejected unless he obtains full marks, less a certain allowance (say 10, or at most 20%) in view of the more or less artificial conditions inherent in all examinations.
tongue, or in a foreign language, and may be used (as in the examination for entrance to the Osborne Naval College) to test the important qualities (hardly tested in any other examinations at present), readiness of wit, common-sense and nerve.
It may be objected that candidates are heavily handicapped by nervousness in oral examinations, but this objection does not afford sufficient ground for rejecting the test, provided that it is supplemented by others.
Oral tests are used almost invariably in medical examinations; and there is a growing tendency to make them compulsory in dealing with modern languages.
Oral examinations are much more used abroad than in England, where the pupils during their school years receive but little exercise in the art of consecutive speaking.
- University Of London School Examination, Matriculation Standard examinations) the examination may be prolonged over one or more days, and may test higher powers of investigation.
At the French examinations for the prix de Rome the candidates are required to execute a painting in a given number of days, under strict supervision (en loge).
In medicine the clinical examination of a patient is a test carried out under conditions more nearly approaching those of actual work than any other; and distinction in medical examinations is probably more often followed by distinction in after life than is the case in other examinations.
Of recent years the Thesls thesis has been introduced into lower examinations; it is required for the master's degree at London in the case of internal students, in subjects other than mathematics (1910); both at Oxford and London, the B.Sc. degree, and at Cambridge the B.A.
and B.Sc. examinations at Manchester and Liverpool, candidates may take the written portion of the examination at the end of the second year's course of study and submit a dissertation at the end of the third year.
- The arrangement of students in order of merit led naturally to the use of examinations not only as a qualifying but also as a selective test, and to the offering of money prizes (including exhibitions, scholarships and fellowships) on the results.
In certain scholarship examinations held formerly by the London County Council a percentage was added to the marks of each candidate proportionate to the number of months by which his age fell short of the maximum age for entry.
The organization and conduct of examinations, in such a way that each candidate shall be treated in precisely the same way as every other candidate, is a complex matter, especially where several thousand candidates are concerned.
The question of the mental fatigue produced by examinations has been studied by certain German observers, but has not yet been fully investigated.
But examinations consist as a rule of a number of tests, each one of which is complex; and a mark is recorded in respect of each test or portion of a test in order to enable the examining body to estimate the performance, considered as a whole, of the candidate.
Edgeworth, in two papers on " The Statistics of Examinations " and the " Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations " (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1888 and 1890), has dealt with the subject, although on somewhat limited lines.
The order of merit in the two examinations is, as a rule, very different.
In some examinations, unless say a0% or more marks are obtained for a particular subject, no credit is given for the paper in that subject.
Latham (The Action of Examinations, 1877, p. 490) describes other numerical adjustments used to meet this difficulty, especially that used in English civil service examinations.
In pass examinations of a well-known character there is a maximum just beyond the pass mark, this being the point of efficiency at which many students aim.
Much of the evil attributed to, and resulting from, examinations is due to the fact that this question has not been definitely put, and that a test legitimate for certain purposes has been used for others to which it is unsuited.
Examinations are suited in the first instance for the purpose for which they were originally designed in medieval universities - the test of technical and professional capacity; it has never been proposed to abolish qualifying examinations for doctors, pharmaceutical chemists, &c.; the tests applied are (or should be) direct tests of capacity carried out under conditions as nearly as possible like those of actual practice.
Examinations as tests of the knowledge of isolated facts are necessarily of relatively small value, because the memory of such facts is transient; and memorization of a large number of facts for examination purposes is generally admitted to be specially transient; the " knowledge-test," considered apart from a test of capacity, is in fact not a test of permanent knowledge, but of the power of retaining facts for a length of time which it is impossible to estimate and which with some candidates extends over a few weeks only.
When used as tests of " general culture," examinations, in the view of Paulsen, based on a study of German education, not only fail in their purpose, but tend to destroy the faculties which it is desired to develop (Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts, ii.
If pushed to its logical conclusion the view of Paulsen must, it is submitted, lead to the complete abandonment at examinations of tests of " knowledge " as distinguished from direct tests of capacity.
They might possibly be supplemented by easy oral examinations to test both range of knowledge and readiness of mind.
The present system merely leads to the transmission of the sterile art of passing examinations.
(At Oxford and Cambridge many fellowships are now awarded on the results of examination; it is sometimes stated, in defence of this system, that young men cannot be expected to carry out research in classics or philosophy.) On the other hand, the defenders of examinations reply that (xiii.) examinations are necessary in order to test the efficiency of schools to which grants of public money are given (this argument has become somewhat out of date owing to the recent substitution of " inspection " for examination as a test of the efficiency of schools; a combination of inspection and examination is also sometimes used); (xiv.) they serve as a necessary incentive to steady and concentrated work 1 (the reply made to this is that the incentive is a bad one, and that with efficient teachers it is unnecessary); (xv.) they show both student and teacher where they have failed (unnecessary for efficient teachers); (xvi.) though possibly harmful to the highest class of men, they are good for the mass (reply: no system which damages the highest class of men is tolerable); (xvii.) they are indispensable as an impartial means of selecting men for the civil service; (xviii.) in a difficult examination like the first class civil service examination the qualities of quickness of comprehension, industry, concentration, power of rapidly passing 1 The Oxford commissioners of 1852 reported that " the examinations have become the chief instruments not only for testing the proficiency of the students but also for stimulating and directing the studies of the place " (Report, p. 61).
from one subject to another, good health, are necessary for success, though not tested directly, and these qualities are valuable in any kind of work (this appears to be incontrovertible); (xix.) examination records show that success in examinations is generally followed by success in after-life, and the test is therefore efficient (it does not follow that certain rejected candidates may not be extremely efficient); (xx.) as a plea for purely " external examinations," teachers cannot be trusted to be impartial and it is better for a boy to " cram " than to curry favour with his teacher (Latham).
It can scarcely be doubted that in spite of the powerful objections that have been advanced against examinations, they are, in the view of the majority of English people, an indispensable element in the social organization of a highly specialized democratic state, which prefers to trust nearly all decisions to committees rather than to individuals.
Acland, Some Account of the Origin and Objects of the New Oxford Examinations for the Title of Associate in Arts (London, 1858); Matthew Arnold, Higher Schools and Universities in Germany (1874); Graham Balfour, The Educational Systems of Great Britain and Ireland (2nd ed., Oxford, 1903); W.
Edgeworth, " The Statistics of Examinations," and " The Element of Chance in Competitive Examinations," Journal of the Statistical Society, 1888 and 1890 respectively; H.
Hartog, " Universities, Schools and Examinations " in the University Review (July 1905); P. J.
Langdon, The Writing of English (1907); Auberon Herbert (edited by), The Sacrifice of Education to Examination, Letters from " All Sorts and Conditions of Men " (1889); Influence of Examinations, Report by a Committee, British Association Reports for 1903, p. 434, and for 1904, p. 360; John Jebb, Remarks upon the Present Mode of Education in the University of Cambridge (4th ed., 1774); Henry Latham, On the Action of Examinations (Cambridge, 1877); H.
Sadler, " Memorandum on the Leaving Examinations.
Bompas Smith, and others, British Association Report, 1907, pp. 707-718; Arthur Schuster, article on " ` Universities and Examinations " in the University Review (May 1905); W.
Eventually he became the strongest advocate for open examinations, for the claims not only of philosophy and classics but also of natural science, and, as vice-chancellor in 1862, for the admission of women to examinations.
The "Royal Examinations" in Chinese literature held in Seoul up to 1894, which were the entrance to official position, being abolished, the desire for a purely Chinese education diminished.
He revived the name Ch'ao-Hsien, changed the capital from Song-do to Seoul, organized an administrative system, which with some modifications continued till 1895, and exists partially still, carried out vigorous reforms, disestablished Buddhism, made merit in Chinese literary examinations the basis of appointment to office, made Confucianism the state religion, abolished human sacrifices and the burying of old men alive, and introduced that Confucian system of education, polity, and social order which has dominated Korea for five centuries.
Chinese literary examinations ceased to be a passport to office.
At the head of the public school system is a Board of Education of seven members, including the governor and the superintendent of public instruction; this Board apportions the school fund among the counties, selects the text-books and prepares the examinations for teachers.
The Caroline Institute (Karolinska Mediko-Kirurgiska Institut) is a medical foundation dating from 1815, which ranks since 1874 with the state universities of Upsala and Lund in the right to hold examinations and confer degrees in its special faculty.
At the schools examinations are held for entrance to the universities and certain higher special schools.
The private schools usually conform to the official requirements in regard to studies and examinations, which facilitates subsequent admission to the university and the obtainment of degrees; probably they do better work than the public schools, especially in the German settlements of the southern provinces.
Candidates for the diplomatic and consular services have to undergo the same training and pass the same examinations, i.e.
In Germany it was enacted by the law of February 28, 1873, that German consuls must be either trained jurists, or must have passed special examinations.
They had a great influence on Rousseau, who left elaborate examinations of some of them, and reproduced not a few of their ideas in his own work.
London University, the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, and many other examining bodies refused to admit her to their examinations; but in the end the Society of Apothecaries, London, allowed her to enter for the License of Apothecaries' Hall, which she obtained in 1865.
The examinations are open to candidates irrespective of where they have studied, but under the Higher Education Act grants are paid to seven colleges that specially devote themselves to preparing students for the graduation courses.
Similar examinations by means of the stop-valves on the mains are also made, and it often happens that the residual leakage (400 gallons an hour in the last case) recorded on the diagram, but not shut off by the house stop - cocks, is mentioned by the inspector as an " outside waste," and localized as having been heard at a stop-cock and traced by sounding the pavement to a particular position under a particular street.
All leakages found on private property are duly notified to the water tenant in the usual way, and subsequent examinations are made to ascertain if such notices have been attended to.
Agricultural training is given under government control, and the Cambridge local examinations and those of the University of London are held annually.
Left by the death of his grandfather and uncle the possessor of an independent fortune under his mother's sole guardianship, he was somewhat idle at the university, though he acquitted himself in the examinations with credit; but in his serious years he "could not look back without unfeigned remorse" on the opportunities he had then neglected.
He was a member of the General Board of Studies from its foundation in 1882 till 1899; he was also a member of the Council of the Senate of the Indian Civil Service Board and the Local Examinations and Lectures Syndicate, and chairman of the Special Board for Moral Science.
He helped to start the higher local examinations for women, and the lectures held at Cambridge in preparation for these.
In 1905 the number who matriculated was 947, of whom 218 were females, and the number of students who passed the academic examinations was 2190.
The administration of this fund was entrusted to a board of commissioners, who were to apply its revenue for the purposes of the act (1) by carrying on a system of public examinations, (2) by awarding exhibitions, prizes and certificates to students, and (3) by the payment of results fees to the manager of schools.
An amending act was passed in 1900 and the examinations are now held under rules made in virtue of that act.
The examinations were held at 259 centres in 99 different localities.
Numbers of young men received a full course of medical and surgical training, and were awarded diplomas after passing strict examinations.
Besides agriculture, the course of instruction at the college includes chemistry, natural and mechanical philosophy, natural history, mensuration, surveying and drawing, and other subjects of practical importance to the farmer, proficiency in which is tested by means of sessional examinations.
Among the institutions affected by this law are numerous Jesuit and other ecclesiastical schools for boys, and a Jesuit university at Deusto, near Bilb~, whose pupils have to pass their final secondary examinations and to take all degrees in the state establishments as free scholars.
He completed his studies at Berlin, and in 1835 passed the examinations which admitted him to the public service.
The royal pupils spent their lesson hours, as Nicholas afterwards confessed, " partly in dreaming, partly in drawing all sorts of nonsense," in the end " cramming " just enough to scrape through their examinations without discredit.
Dean had arisen thousands of times in his nearly 40 years; risen to the fear of final examinations, to the anxiety of court appearances, to the dreaded knowledge there was a war going on outside.
My comments on the others are based on relatively perfunctory examinations of what is on the offer.
Dominic uses a computer for all writing activities - apart from examinations when he has an amanuensis.
arisegiarism in Examinations A case arose whereby a group of students had undertaken a small credit rated unit.
You are assessed mainly through examinations, with some assessed assignments for more practical modules.
Barium examinations are a common test using this method which shows up the digestive system with the use of a liquid called barium examinations are a common test using this method which shows up the digestive system with the use of a liquid called barium.
bastardy examination examinations taken in the parish of Chelsea between 1733 and 1766.
calculators in examinations Can I take a dictionary into an exam?
Previous examinations had wrongly concluded it was either a Danish galley or a mid-nineteenth century merchant ship.
Particularly in the summer birds rapidly decompose beyond the point where PM examinations are possible.
disastrous slump in the numbers of candidates taking GCE Mathematics examinations in June.
Students may need to take examinations in a separate room to avoid distractions.
Assessment B1 and B2 are assessed through term-time essays, oral presentations, and examinations.
Resit examinations would be held at the normal time.
Pupils sit three examinations at the end of year 12.
Post-mortem examinations found that Mr Ladyman, the driver, and Mr Friday were well over the drink-drive limit.
The results envelopes are handed out at the College by a senior examiner or a member the Examinations Section staff.
excludes tasks such as performances and presentations, but is required for all formal written examinations.
If you haven't taken your examinations yet your teacher should be able to give you an idea of your predicted grades.
honourerm 3 of senior Honors, students take formal examinations.
These examinations employ a wide variety of question types including multiple-choice, essays and data-handling.
In 2000 over 10,000 eye examinations were undertaken by the optometrists.
passing professional examinations.
Helping students to prepare for examinations or assignments is likely to ease the pressure considerably.
raised at past examiners meetings about how to treat students who had performed very poorly in their Level 3 examinations.
More than 80,000 welfare recipients are forced to submit to examinations by the 15 doctors at HS Systems each year.
rescheduled examinations will be posted here from Friday 9 June.
rhinoceros horn cups were given to scholars who were successful in their examinations.
For many deep-sea seafarers especially, sitting OU examinations would not be possible without our support.
Teaching is based on a system of two twelve-week semesters over three terms followed by examinations at the end of each semester.
serenity of mind and heart as we prepare for the forthcoming examinations.
sit three examinations at the end of year 12.
Examinations to test children's sight are carried out on a regular basis by trained staff.
tripos examinations at the end of the Easter Term.
trophoblast inclusions by performing microscopic examinations of placental tissues.
The examinations business has been subject to extreme turbulence over the past two years and continues to be very uncertain.
ultrasound examinations were reported blind to the CT results.
Today, a routine urinalysis consists of the visual and the chemical examinations.
virginity examinations for " social reasons " .
This is granted (after two examinations) by the faculties of letters and sciences jointly (see below), and in most cases it is necessary for a student to hold this general degree before he may be enrolled in a particular faculty of a university and proceed to a Baccalaurat in a particular subject, such as law, theology or medicine.
So highly were his merits appreciated by his professors - Schleiermacher was accustomed to say that he possessed a special charisma for the science of "Introduction" - that in 1818 after he had passed the examinations for entering the ministry he was recalled to Berlin as Repetent or tutorial fellow in theology, a temporary post which the theological faculty had obtained for him.
2 a In discussing the value of medieval examinations of the kind described, Paulsen (The German Universities (1906), p. 25) asserts that they were well adapted to increase a student's alertness, his power of comprehending new ideas, and his ability quickly and surely to assimilate them to his own, and that " they did more to enable [students] to grasp a subject than the mute and solitary reviewing and cramming of our modern examinations can possibly do."
The universities which have departed furthest from the medieval system of examinations, at any rate in appearance, are those of Germany.
The baccalaureate has disappeared, but students cannot be matriculated without having passed the Abiturienten-examen (see below), probably the most severe of all entrance examinations (foreign students may be exempted under certain conditions).
There is also a special doctorate, the " doctorat d'Universite," awarded on a thesis and an oral examination; and there are diplomas (Diplo nes d'Etudes superieures) awarded on dissertations and examinations on subjects in philosophy, history and geography, classics or modern languages, selected mainly by the candidate and approved by the faculty.
A tabular summary is given (see Tables I., II., III., IV.) of the requirements of the secondary school-leaving examinations of France, Prussia (for the nine-year secondary schools) and Scotland, and of the university of London.
The numerical results of the civil service examinations are reduced so as to conform to a certain symmetrical "frequency-curve," of which the abscissae represent percentages of marks between definite limits and the ordinates the number of candidates obtaining marks between those limits.
Such examinations would test the " skill in the manipulation of facts which is the true sign of a trained intelligence " (cf.
The main arguments of those opposed to the examination system may be summarized as follows: (i.) Examinations tend to destroy natural interests and exclude from the attention of the pupil all matters outside the purview of the examination (they would not do so if examinations were so limited in character that preparation therefor could absorb only a fraction of the pupil's time); (ii.) they tend to cultivate a personal judgment where no personal basis of judgment is possible (this argument, directed mainly against the Oxford essay system, applies not to examinations in general, but to the character of the subjects set for essays); (iii.) competitive examinations on the home and Indian civil services scheme tend to diffuse mental energy over too many subjects (but see (xviii.) below); (iv.) examinations, especially competitive examinations, tend to become more and more difficult, difficulty being confused with efficiency - this has shown itself with the Cambridge mathematical tripos, in which for years questions of increasing difficulty were set on relatively unimportant subjects, until the examination was reformed (reply: all examinations should be overhauled periodically); (v.) they tend to paralyse the powers of exposition, all statements of knowledge being thrown into a form suitable, not for an uninstructed person, but for one who already possesses it, the, examiner (this tendency should be counteracted by definite training in composition); (vi.) the sample of knowledge and capacity yielded at an examination is frequently not a fair sample; it is liable to extreme variations in a favourable sense, if the candidate happens to have prepared the precise questions asked; in an unfavourable sense, if the candidate is suffering from misfortune or from accidental ill-health, the latter, owing to the periodic function, occurring much more frequently in the case of women than of men - [the reform of examination methods may remove to a great extent the element of chance in questions set; in a competitive examination it is impossible to allow for ill-health; in a qualifying examination it is difficult to make any allowance unless the examination is definitely conducted in whole or in part by the teachers, and the past record of the candidate is taken into account (cf.
Paulsen, The German Universities, pp. 344-345)1; (vii.) examinations of several hundred candidates at a time cannot be rationally conducted so as to be equally fair to the individuality of all candidates; the individual test is the only complete one (it is admitted that examinations on a large scale necessarily involve a margin of error; but this error may be reduced to a minimum, especially by a combination of oral and practical with written work); (viii.) the multiplicity of school examinations required for different reasons produces confusion in our secondary education (there is a growing tendency to admit equivalence of " schoolleaving " and entrance examinations; thus entrance examinations of Oxford, Cambridge and London, and the Northern Universities Joint Board are interchangeable under certain conditions); (ix.) the multiplicity of examinations tends to " underselling " (the success of the London examinations in medicine proves that a high standard attracts candidates as well as a low one; possibly intermediate standards may be killed in the competition; it is by no means obvious that a uniform system of examinations would conduce to efficiency); (x.) examinations produce physical damage to health, especially in the case of women-students (on this point more statistical evidence is needed; see, however, Engelmann quoted by G.
588 et seq.); (xi.) examinations have in England mechanically cast the education of women into the same mould as that of men, without reference to the different social functions of the two sexes (the remedy is obvious); (xii.) it is unjustifiable to give a man a university position on the results of his performance in the examination room, a practice common in England though almost unknown on the continent; a just estimate of a man's powers in research or for teaching can only be properly based on his performance.
Mullinger, The University of Cambridge (Cambridge, 1873); How to pass Examinations successfully, by an Oxford Coach; Mark Pattison, Suggestions on Academical Organization (Edinburgh, 1868); Friedrich Paulsen, The German Universities and University Study (London, 1906) and Geschichte des gelehrten Unterrichts (Leipzig, 1896); George Peacock, Observations on the Statutes of the University of Cambridge (1841); Programme des examens du nouveau baccalaureat de l'enseignement secondaire, Delalain freres, Paris; Hastings Rashdall, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages (Oxford, 18 95); Rein's Encyklopddisches Handbuch der Piidagogik (2nd ed., 1902, &c.), articles " Priifungen " (by F.
Although 'she actual rising might have appeared a mere outburst of frantic passion, the private examinations of the most prominent conspirators disclosed to the government a plot so widely spread, and involving so many of the highest in the land, that it would have been perilous to have pressed home accusations against all who might be implicated.
Perhaps an explanation of the method that was in use when I took my examinations will not be amiss here.
It was thought advisable for me to have my examinations in a room by myself, because the noise of the typewriter might disturb the other girls.
I wish to say here that I have not had this advantage since in any of my examinations.
In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
All the other preliminary examinations were conducted in the same manner.
At the beginning we had agreed that I should, if necessary, take five years to prepare for college, but at the end of the first year the success of my examinations showed Miss Sullivan, Miss Harbaugh (Mr.
Two days before the examinations, Mr. Vining sent me a braille copy of one of the old Harvard papers in algebra.
The administrative board of Radcliffe did not realize how difficult they were making my examinations, nor did they understand the peculiar difficulties I had to surmount.
But the examinations are the chief bugbears of my college life.
One could have traveled round the word many times while I trudged my weary way through the labyrinthine mazes of grammars and dictionaries, or fell into those dreadful pitfalls called examinations, set by schools and colleges for the confusion of those who seek after knowledge.
As soon as my examinations were over, Miss Sullivan and I hastened to this green nook, where we have a little cottage on one of the three lakes for which Wrentham is famous.
The "examinations" mentioned in this letter were merely tests given in the school, but as they were old Harvard papers, it is evident that in some subjects Miss Keller was already fairly well prepared for Radcliffe.
You will be glad to hear that I passed my examinations successfully.
They were the entrance examinations for Harvard College; so I feel pleased to think I could pass them.
But I know you want to hear about my examinations.
All the time I was preparing for the great ordeal, I could not suppress an inward fear and trembling lest I should fail, and now it is an unspeakable relief to know that I have passed the examinations with credit.
But I must confess, I had a hard time on the second day of my examinations.
Of course they did not realize how difficult and perplexing they were making the examinations for me.
She said I had already shown the world that I could do the college work, by passing all my examinations successfully, in spite of many obstacles.
The facts about the braille examinations are as follows:
How I passed my Entrance Examinations for Radcliffe College.
On the 29th and 30th of June, 1899, I took my examinations for Radcliffe College.
I write all my themes and examinations on it, even Greek.
After she had passed her examinations and received her certificate of admission, she was advised by the Dean of Radcliffe and others not to go on.
Just the same as now--I ask you, Count--who will be heads of the departments when everybody has to pass examinations?
"Those who pass the examinations, I suppose," replied Kochubey, crossing his legs and glancing round.
Concern had been raised at past examiners meetings about how to treat students who had performed very poorly in their Level 3 examinations.
The rescheduled examinations will be posted here from Friday 9 June.
By the Tang dynasty, rhinoceros horn cups were given to scholars who were successful in their examinations.
Give us calmness and serenity of mind and heart as we prepare for the forthcoming examinations.
Examinations to test children 's sight are carried out on a regular basis by trained staff.
Assessment and Examination For the first two years undergraduates sit tripos examinations at the end of the Easter Term.
Kliman and the team identified trophoblast inclusions by performing microscopic examinations of placental tissues.
The ultrasound examinations were reported blind to the CT results.
Forty-five per cent of the doctors admitted conducting virginity examinations for " social reasons ".
Premature babies will need to make regular well-child visits to the pediatrician for routine examinations and vaccinations.
You will usually be instructed to bring your infant in to your pediatrician's office at two weeks after birth and on a regular basis thereafter, in which many of these same examinations will continue to be given.
Measurement for the infant's weight for age is also an important part of regular childhood examinations.
This will ultimately make it easier to handle her, which can come in handly during veterinary examinations.
Cats typically need annual vet checkups for booster shots, teeth cleanings and general physical examinations.
However, keep in mind that cruise line employment is subject to criminal background checks, physical examinations, drug testing, and reference checks.
Keep in mind employment with Princess Cruise Line is subject to criminal background checks, physical examinations, drug testing, and referrals.
Regular vet examinations and dental treatments are recommended for all dogs.
Researchers conducting examinations of human and animal brains surmise that a deficiency of cells called hypocretin may be a cause for narcolepsy.
To diagnose this, various scans and examinations are necessary.
Children should visit the dentist at least every six months for oral examinations and professional cleaning.
Diabetes and its complications can be detected by blood tests, indepth eye examinations, and studies that assess the flow of blood through blood vessels in the legs.
Ultrasound examinations play an important role in the care and treatment of multiple gestations.
It is sometimes used in psychiatric evaluations to assess disordered thinking and in forensic examinations to evaluate crime suspects, even though it is not a diagnostic test.
Neurologists perform neurological examinations of the nerves of the head and neck; muscle strength and movement; balance, ambulation, and reflexes; and sensation, memory, speech, language, and other cognitive abilities.
Ultrasound examinations may reveal the absence of a limb in some developing fetuses, but routine ultrasounds may not pick up signs of more subtle defects.
In children, the definition of FUO is applied when fever has been present for 14 days with no apparent cause, even though physical examinations have been made and laboratory tests performed.
If examinations do not reveal other reasons for the baby's noisy breathing, the air passages are assumed to be the cause of the problem.
An evaluation of neonatal reflexes is performed during well-baby examinations.
However, regular examinations are recommended to determine whether these tumors have changed in any way.
The rapidity with which decay can advance in baby teeth necessitates periodic dental examinations and cleanings.
Diagnosis of breath holding spells usually is based on the medical history of children and their families and on complete physical and neurological examinations to rule out other causes.
Physical examinations are not usually revealing.
Many of these siblings (about 36%) have no symptoms but are discovered through routine examinations prompted by their brother's or sister's problems.
Children who have been diagnosed with retinoblastoma should receive periodic dilated retinal examinations until the age of five.
After five years of age, periodic eye examinations are recommended.
It is also recommended that siblings continue to undergo periodic retinal examinations under anesthetic until they are three years of age.
For children three to seven years of age, periodic eye examinations are recommended.
The retinal examinations can be avoided if DNA testing indicates that the patient has a non-inherited form of retinoblastoma or if the sibling has not inherited the RB1 gene change/deletion.
The children of someone diagnosed with retinoblastoma should also undergo periodic retinal examinations under anesthetic.
In fact, physical examinations of children in cases of suspected sexual abuse supply grounds for further suspicion only 15 to 20 percent of the time.
Kidney function tests, coagulation tests, and stool examinations for occult blood may also be performed.
Sickle cell anemia will be monitored by regular eye examinations and diagnostic blood work.
Regular physical examinations can help evaluate a child's overall health and reveal possible signs or symptoms of anemia.
Chest CT examinations are used to assess complications from infectious diseases, such as pneumonia and tuberculosis, inflammation of the airways, and birth defects.
Although no side effects have been linked to radiation exposure from CT imaging, the Food and Drug Administration has issued guidance to physicians regarding levels of radiation during pediatric CT examinations.
Abdominal CT examinations usually require fasting for at least 12 hours before the scan.
Radiation exposure is a risk during CT examinations.
The only treatment necessary is observation of the hernia during routine physical examinations.
It is important for infants suspected of having congenital hip dysplasia to receive regular physical examinations.
Medical practitioners have differing levels of trust in certain basic examinations commonly conducted in the office.
Evaluation also includes physical examinations and diagnostic tests to determine underlying causes.
Well-baby examinations are scheduled regularly during the first two years of life due to the rapid growth and change that occurs during infancy.
An ear examination is a normal part of most routine physical examinations by a doctor or nurse.
Kidney function tests, coagulation tests, and stool examinations for occult (hidden) blood may also be performed.
Many doctors routinely include developmental screening in physical examinations.
In the United States, autopsy studies for DiGeorge syndrome accounted for 0.7 percent of 3469 postmortem examinations in the Seattle, Washington, area over a period of 25 years.
In addition to followup visits with the pediatrician and allergist, the child should have regular eye examinations as a safeguard against cataracts or other eye complications.
Personal and family medical history, description of seizure activity, and physical and neurological examinations help primary care physicians, neurologists, and epileptologists diagnose this disorder.
Other topical fluorides include fluoridated toothpastes and mouthwashes and fluoride gels that are applied to children's teeth at dental examinations.
Officials recorded information like the immigrant's name and occupation, and doctors performed medical examinations of the immigrants.
Upon graduation, most schools help their students prepare for state licensure examinations - an exam is necessary in order to practice the craft.
Optometrists can perform eye examinations and prescribe glasses and contact lenses based on their findings.
She may perform routine physical examinations, care for women during pregnancy, and deliver babies.
Job duties common to clinical medical assistant positions include taking medical histories, preparing patients for examinations and collecting specimens for laboratory tests.
Some duties are clerical in nature, but dental assistants often work alongside dentists during procedures and examinations.
Many provide family planning services and routine women's health examinations, such as pap smears and physical examinations.
They also must offer preventive care including patient education and counseling; breast and pelvic examinations; screenings for cervical cancer, STD's, and HIV; and pregnancy tests and counseling.
In many cases, candidates for hormone therapy and surgery must pass physical examinations and psychological evaluations before they will be admitted for any procedure.
Your physician's pre-natal examinations and sonograms can help you determine the best birth plan.
While on the island, men were separated from women and children, and all immigrants were subjected to humiliating medical examinations.
PlentyofFish.com- Currently boasts over 30 million members and offers features such as relationship analysis and romantic chemistry examinations.
Certified diamonds are stones that have undergone thorough, unbiased examinations and grading from independent laboratories.
Examinations are taken online and students communicate with instructors by phone or e-mail.
Semi-Annual or Annual Physical Examinations.
This is useful for events such as timing examinations where the invigilator may wish to remain in front of the class or sports events.
Health insurance covers your employees' health needs prescription drugs, doctor visits, examinations and tests, and emergency room treatments.
Individual plans, on the other hand, often require an applicant to answer a health questionnaire and undergo medical examinations.
Eye examinations and prescription eyewear can be significant annual expenses, especially for large families.
If the insurer claims to not have a waiting period for a policy, ensure this applies to all dental procedures and not just routine examinations.
United Concordia dental insurance is a popular choice when it comes to coverage for dental procedures and examinations.
The covered services include dental examinations, teeth cleanings and topical fluoride treatments provided for children under the age of 19 years.
Physical examinations made sure that all of these folks could withstand the demands the show placed on them.
At St Petersburg a women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D.
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