Both passed the examination successfully.
The conversation and the examination of the accounts with Mitenka did not last long.
The third, or major examination, which qualifies for registration as a pharmaceutical chemist, is not, like the minor, a compulsory one, but ranks as an honours examination.
Charles devoted the rest of his life to the gigantic task of rehabilitating Sweden by means of a reduktion, or recovery of alienated crown lands, a process which involved the examination of every title deed in the kingdom, and resulted in the complete readjustment of the finances.
Careful examination was made of the books in raised print in the library of the Perkins Institution to learn if any extracts from this volume could be found there; but nothing was discovered.
The first lasts four years, and at the end of this the pupil may obtain (after examination) the certificate of secondary studies.
You are amazed at all the things you know which are not on the examination paper.
His examination didn't last long, and the sensations faded.
The second examination qualifies for registration as a chemist and druggist.
I saw them Wednesday last when I went to Dr. Rowan's for my weekly examination and both were ill from the mountain cold and drafty quarters.
Careful examination soon shows an.
It dashes at once into the middle of the subjects with the examination of a problem which had baffled the ancients, and seems as if it were tossed at the heads of the French geometers as a challenge.
The examination papers were given out at nine o'clock at Harvard and brought to Radcliffe by a special messenger.
During the interval elapsing between Dampier's two voyages, an accident led to the closer examination of the coasts of Western Australia by the Dutch.
If educated at home, the child (after two years of the compulsory period has expired) must undergo a yearly examination, and if it is unsatisfactory the parents will be compelled to send him to a public or private school.
A royal decree, dated February 1891, established three classes of prisons: judiciary prisons, for persons awaiting examination or persons sentenced to arrest, detention or seclusion for less than six months; penitentiaries of various kinds (ergastoli, case di reclusione, detenzione or custodia), for criminals condemned to long terms of imprisonment; and reformatories, for criminals under age and vagabonds.
Nevertheless, on careful examination of these three successive stages, it will easily be seen that, in spite of the apparent difference between them, all have a common foundation, source and purpose.
From the Springs the expedition went north-west and made a useful examination of the country lying between 119° and 115° meridians and between 26° and 28° S.
The preliminary, or classical examination, is usually that of university matriculation, or its equivalent.
The chemists and druggists, recognizing that no institution for the systematic education and examination of chemists and druggists existed in England, and that no proof could be given that each individual possessed the necessary qualifications, decided that this objection must be met, and that pharmacy must be placed upon a more scientific footing.
The college authorities did not allow Miss Sullivan to read the examination papers to me; so Mr. Eugene C. Vining, one of the instructors at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was employed to copy the papers for me in American braille.
The college authorities would not permit Miss Sullivan to read the examination papers to me; so Mr. Eugene C. Vining, one of the instructors at the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was employed to copy the papers for me in braille.
4 Examination of Sir Wm.
4 Examination of Sir Wm.
It is covered with numerous large papillae, and forms, like the trunk of the elephant, an admirable organ for the examination and prehension of food.
In the optical examination we may, if we prefer it, polarize the primary light; but it is usually more convenient to analyse the scattered light.
He also published works on the Last Days of the Life of Jesus, on Judaism in the Time of Christ, on John of Damascus (1879) and an Examination of the Vatican Dogma in the Light of Patristic Exegesis of the New Testament.
We are justified in concluding, therefore, that among the Greeks and Romans likewise the examination of the liver was the basis of divination in the case of the sacrificial animal.
Amongst his scientific, theological and grammatical works mention may be made of De diis, containing an examination of various cults and ceremonials; treatises on divination and the interpretation of dreams; on the sphere, the winds and animals.
Both Mr. Keith and I were distressed and full of forebodings for the morrow; but we went over to the college a little before the examination began, and had Mr. Vining explain more fully the American symbols.
He had expressed an opinion that the true art of memory was not to be gained by technical devices, but by a philosophical apprehension of things; and the cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, was so struck by the tone of the remarks as to impress upon the speaker the duty of spending his life in the examination of truth.
§ 186), furnishing the date (274 B.C.) when the examination of the heart was for the first time introduced by the side of the liver as a means of divining the future, while the lungs are not mentioned till we reach the days of Cicero (de Divinatione, i.
An examination of their language seems to indicate that, it belongs to the Mon-Khmer group of languages, and the anthropological information forthcoming concerning the Sakai points to the conclusion that they show a greater affinity to the people of the Mon-Khmer races than to the Malayan stock.
A second coating is then laid on, and after it passes through a similar process of examination a third coating is applied, and so on until the requisite number is completed.
Chemists in business before the granting of the charter were entitled to join the society as members, but those who wished to join it subsequently could do so only on condition of passing an examination for the purpose of testing their knowledge of pharmacy.
This is known as the minor examination, and must be passed before anyone can legally dispense, compound and sell scheduled poisons.
The result of this decision was that any chemist who failed to pass the qualifying examination could constitute himself with a few others, even if ignorant of pharmacy, into a limited liability company, which would then have been outside the powers of the act, and not subject to its provisions.
Very complete examination, however, has now been made of many instances, and the name mycorhila has been given to the symbiotic union.
But on the night before the algebra examination, while I was struggling over some very complicated examples, I could not tell the combinations of bracket, brace and radical.
From the examination of specimens collected by Dr Sven Hedin, Professor W.
von Soden (1885), with well-considered principles of criticism, made a similar examination and found a much larger nucleus, and later still, (1893), in his commentary, reduced the non-Pauline material to a negligible minimum.
If a mass of living plant-tissue is cut, the first change observed is one of color: the white flesh of a potato or an apple turns biown as the air enters, and closer examination shows that cell walls and contents are alike affected.
In some cases it shows, when submitted to a careful examination under the highest powers of the microscope, and especially when treated with reagents of various kinds, traces of a more or less definite structure in the form of a meshwork consisting of a clear homogeneous substance containing numerous minute bodies known as microsomes, the spaces being filled by a more fluid ground-substance.
These first days, before the eighth of September when the prisoners were had up for a second examination, were the hardest of all for Pierre.
He did not venture to repeat what he had said at his first examination, yet to disclose his rank and position was dangerous and embarrassing.
Men physically unfit are wholly exempted, and men who have not, at the tinie of the examination, attained the required physical standard are put back for re-examination after an interval.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
Article 8 prohibited the seizure or examination of any ecclesiastical papers, documents, books or registers of purely spiritualcharacter.
On the 11th of December Giolitti laid these and other papers before the Chamber, in the hope of ruining Crispi, but upon examination most of thm were found to be worthless, and the rest of so private a nature as to be unfit for publication.
Holtzmann (1872) subjected both Colossians and Ephesians to a rigorous examination, and found in Colossians at least a nucleus of Pauline material.
The phenomena have been the subject of very careful and critical examination for many years, and may be regarded as satisfactorily established.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
To become professor in a lyce it is necessary to pass an examination known as the agrgation, candidates for which must be licentiates of a faculty (or have passed through the cole normale suprieurc).
Still examination must be had whether persons have been expelled from the congregation by any episcopal small-mindedness (µucpokxia), or contentious spirit, or such-like harshness (evibia).
Fred scratched his head as he held up the skull for close examination.
He held the items out for her examination.
The difficult task of rounding her up and holding her down wasn't his greatest concern about an examination.
The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where the specific term alone occurs.
similarities have broken down on close examination.
On a second voyage, in 1556, Chancellor was drowned; and three subsequent voyages, led by Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in small craft of 50 tons and under, carried on an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara sea.
For an impartial examination of the Wakefield system, see LeroyBeaulieu, De la colonisation chez les peuples modernes (3rd ed.
The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
In some cases the closest examination has failed to detect any distinction that may be called specific between the members of their avifauna; but in most it is possible to discover just sufficient difference to warrant a separation of the subjects.
The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
bearings; in each case are openings, closed by sliding tubes, for examination and lubrication.
On examination of the metal and its salts it was shown to be identical with the hypothetical element ekasilicon, whose properties had been predicted by D.
When, however, on the 6th of August, the new law was promulgated, it was found that the " Imperial Duma " 5 was to be no more than a consultative body, charged with the examination of legislative proposals before these came before the Imperial Council, the duty and right of passing them into law being still reserved for the autocrat alone.
He was soon promoted to be one of Edward VI.'s chaplains and prebendary of Westminster, and in October 1552 was one of the six divines to whom the Forty-two articles were submitted for examination before being sanctioned by the Privy Council.
In 2778 the Few Remarks by a Gentleman (Francis Eyre), the Reply of Loftus, the Letters of Apthorpe and the Examination of Davies appeared.
In the immense region which Gibbon surveyed there is hardly a section which has not been submitted to the microscopic examination of specialists.
See John Clarke, Examination of the Notion of Moral Good and Evil advanced in a late book entitled The Religion of Nature Delineated (London, 1725); Drechsler, Ober Wollaston's Moral-Philosophie (Erlangen, 1802); Sir Leslie Stephen's History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1876), ch.
He made no attempt at a critical examination of historical traditions, and wrote in a flowery and often bombastic style, but in spite of this drawback, Mirkhond's Rauzat remains one of the most marvellous achievements in literature.
His examination for mathematical honours exhibited some of the peculiarities of his character and mental powers.
Routh, q.v.) in the higher ordeal of the Smith's prize examination.
On the other hand, the opinion of Cardinal Pitra, who referred the Physiologus to the more orthodox though somewhat peculiar teaching of the Alexandrians, is fully borne out by a close examination of the irregularities of doctrine pointed out in the Physiologus by Cahier, all which are to be met with in Origen.
The critical examination of the nature and growth of this compilation has removed much that had formerly caused insuperable difficulties and had quite unnecessarily been made an integral or a relevant part of practical religion.
Those in Israel who remembered the previous war between 1 Careful examination shows that no a priori distinction can be drawn between " trustworthy " books of Kings and " untrustworthy books " of Chronicles.
But closer examination reveals remarkable gaps and irreconcilable historical standpoints.
The condition of the European Jews seems, on a superficial examination, abject enough.
Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
is shown by the fact that since 1905 a monthly periodical has appeared in Paris on this subject, entitled Revue historique de la question Louis XVII., also by the promised examination of the subject by the Societe d'Histoire contemporaine.
Two years later he passed the examination for the "baccalaureat es sciences" enabling him to become candidate for the Ecole normale.
His next treatise, The Subjection of Women, was not published till 1869.1 His Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy, published in 1865, had engaged a large share of his time for three years before.
1865); Utilitarianism (1863); Examination of Sir W.
Every hypothesis must be tested by an appeal to the facts of life, and modified or abandoned if it will not bear examination, unless we are convinced on genuine evidence that it may for a time be employed as a useful approximation, without prejudice to the later stages of the investigation we are conducting.
We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
In most cases the interpretation of the facts is far from obvious, and we have to try several hypotheses before we reach one which will bear the strain of a critical examination in the light of further evidence.
On examination this is found to be the under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of which has just been described as lying beneath the shell.
This, however, is not the primitive form of the legend, which a close examination shows to be derived from the following story related by Eusebius in his Historia Ecclesiastica (vii.
As the result of an examination conducted in September 1785 by Laplace, Bonaparte was included among those who entered the army without going through an intermediate stage.
On a slighter accusation than this many had perished; but an examination into the details of the mission of Bonaparte to Genoa and the new instructions which arrived from Carnot, availed to procure his release on the 10th of August.
251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.
The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.
Further examination also revealed the fact 3 that in certain groups the number of " primaries," or quill-feathers growing from the manus or distal segment of the wing, formed another characteristic easy of observation.
at hatching far more developed than are those of the herons or the cormorants; and, in a general way, nearly every one of the asserted peculiarities of the two subclasses breaks down under careful examination.
Further examination of the enormous collections gathered by the author, and preserved in the Museum of Yale University at New Haven, Connecticut, showed him that this last bird, and another to which he gave the name of Apatornis, had possessed welldeveloped teeth implanted in sockets in both jaws, and induced him to establish (v.
Microscopic examination of a specimen of mature cotton shows that the hairs are flattened and twisted, resembling somewhat in general appearance an empty and twisted fire hose.
Examination showed that although the weevil attacked the young buds these did not drop off, but that a special growth of tissue inside the bud frequently killed the grub.
A field is gone over carefully, and perhaps some 5 o of the best plants selected; a second examination in the field reduces these perhaps to one half, and each plant is numbered.
This selection of one market for detailed examination does not rob our sketch of generality, as might at first be thought, since broadly the history of the development of one market is the history of the development of all, and on the whole the economic explanation of the evolution that has taken place may be universalized.
However, it is made clear as the result of an elaborate examination that the generality of these correspondences cannot be affirmed.'
Having finished his university course, he returned to Hamburg, and passed his examination for the Christian ministry.
He wrote nothing but a critical examination of the story of Don Carlos, but he returned to Germany a master of his craft.
In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
What we do find is a slight transverse furrow on each side of the head, close to the tip, but the most careful examination of sections made through the tissues of the head and brain shows the absence of any further apparatus comparable to that described above.
He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
The cranial measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian races.
The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.
The complete analysis involves an examination of the fatty matter, of the various forms in which the alkalis are present - free and combined glycerin, &c.
In 1717 he was elected professor of mathematics in Marischal College, Aberdeen, as the result of a competitive examination.
At the instance of Euric's son, Alaric II., an examination was made of the Roman laws in use among Romans in his dominions, and the resulting compilation was approved in 506 at an assembly at Aire, in Gascony, and is known as the Breviary of Alaric, and sometimes as the Liber Aniani, from the fact that the authentic copies bear the signature of the referendarius Anian.
He controls the expenditure of public money for school purposes, the examination and the appointment of teachers, whose nominations by the municipal school boards are referred to the commissioner.
dissecare, to cut apart), the separation into parts by cutting, particularly the cutting of an animal or plant into parts for the purpose of examination or display of its structure.
To him is also due a rigorous examination of the nature of elements and compounds; he held the same views that were laid down by Boyle, and with the same prophetic foresight predicted that some of the elements which he himself accepted might be eventually found to be compounds.
In 1878 Marignac, having subjected Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examination, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia.
The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.
Examination of the absorption spectra of coloured compounds shows that certain groupings displace the absorption bands in one direction, and other groupings in the other.
The sentences are much longer and less vivacious, as any one can see by a superficial examination.
Interesting conclusions as to the early ethnology of Egypt have been derived from the systematic examination of the necropolises of Nubia, necessitated by the heightening of the Aswan dam, as a consequence of which the northern portion of the valley S.
of the dam became flooded, so that a complete examination of the archaeology of the district had to be carried out in order to save historical evidence from destruction.
For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bks.
He ought not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination, when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the whole of the information available.
Again, on the map illustrating Livingstone's " Last Journals " the Luapula is shown as issuing from the Bangweulu in the north-west, when an examination of the account of the natives who carried the great explorer's remains to the coast would have shown that it leaves that lake on the south.
Mill's Examination of Hamilton.
When a similar motion was brought forward in the Lords the consideration of it was postponed to the following year, in order to give time for the examination of witnesses by a committee of the House.
Without taking a degree he removed his name from the college books in April 1798, as a protest against the inquisitorial examination of the political views of the students conducted by Lord Clare as chancellor of the university.
An examination of extant papyri has had the result of proving that sheets of large size, measuring about 12 in., were sometimes used.
The reasons for believing that this roll was substantially identical with the book of Deuteronomy were already appreciated by Jerome, Chrysostom, Theodoret and others,' and a careful examination shows that the character of the reformation which followed agrees in all its essential features with the prescriptions and exhortations of that book.
It is convenient to place in a small envelope gummed to an upper corner of the sheet any flowers, seeds or leaves needed for dissection or microscopical examination, especially where from the fixation of the specimen it is impossible to examine the leaves for oilreceptacles and where seed is apt to escape from ripe capsules and be lost.
At the request of the Indian government the Nepalese government had the pillar, which was half buried, excavated for examination; and Dr Fiihrer, then in the employ of the Archaeological Survey, arrived soon afterwards at the spot.
After careful examination of the nine Acillii, who were consuls, De Rossi concludes that this was the resting-place of that Acilius Glabrio, consul with Trajan, A.D.
In the same year building operations in the Via di Sant' Onofrio revealed the presence of catacombs beneath the foundations: examination of the loculi showed that no martyrs or illustrious persons were buried here.
Thus Russell's contradiction vanishes, and an examination of the other contradictions shows that they vanish also.
Petersburg and passed his bar examination there.
Passing now to the examination of the budget, it should be observed that the method of estimating the revenues - a matter of great difficulty owing to the previous want of method - is described by Laurent as follows: " For every nature of receipts the total effective collections for the five last known years were set out, the averages were taken of these and the increase or decrease of the yearly average of those same years was worked out and added to or deducted from the figure previously obtained.
In consequence of this 560,000 claims were received, and a first examination showed that the aggregate amount reached by these claims was not less than £T13,000,000.
Specimens may be sent to Europe for expert examination up to an aggregate weight of 2000 tons, on paying the requisite duties.
No longer haughtily imposed on the vanquished, as was the case with former treaties, it was submitted to the examination and discussion of both parties before being signed.
A critical examination of the history of the Israelite ark renders it far from certain that the object was originally the peculiar possession of all Israel.
A complete examination of a series of different latices has shown that, in many cases, e.g.
In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.
Van Buren was not an orator, but... the oft-repeated charge that he refrained from declaring himself on crucial questions is hardly borne out by an examination of his senatorial career.
The royal taille naturally retained the distinctive characteristics of the seigniorial, as can be seen from an examination of the way in which it was assessed and collected; the chief characteristic being that ecclesiastics and nobles, who were exempt from the seigniorial taille, were also exempt from the royal.
The magnetic qualities of various alloys of iron have been submitted to a very complete examination by W.
Later papers 7 give the results of a more minute examination of those specimens which were remarkable for very low and very high permeabilities, and were therefore likely to be of commercial importance.
of the second volume is especially interesting to English thinkers as containing a profound examination of the Induction theories of Bacon, J.
Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Sir John Murray for examination there were detected specimens of nearly pure phosphate of lime, a discovery which eventually led, in June 1888, to the annexation of the island to the British crown.
His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
where he took the first prize in mathematics and physics; at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he stood first at the exit examination in 1819; and at the Ecole des Mines (1819-1822), where he began to show a decided preference for the science with which his name is associated.
Although the coast of Brazil shows a large number of bays and tide-water river channels which are apparently suitable for commercial ports, a close examination of them reduces the number of good ports to less than a dozen.
megvizsgdlasa (Chemical Examination of the most famous Tobaccos of Hungary), by Dr Thomas Kosutany (1877).
The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.
to its limit X by direct examination of the value of X - S r.
Stories of tailless kittens, puppies and calves, born from parents one of whom had been thus injured, are abundant, but they have hitherto entirely failed to stand before examination.
The very cases which are advanced as only to be explained on the Lamarckian assumption are found on examination and experiment to be better explained, or only to be explained, by the Darwinian principle.
In many cases the subject of examination is a luminous line of uniform intensity, the various points of which are to be treated as independent sources of light.
The best object for examination is a grating of fine wires, about fifty to the inch, backed by a sodium flame.
If the subject of examination be a luminous line parallel to n, we shall obtain what we require by integrating (4) with respect to 77 from - oo to + oo.
2s = 277-h/A f (14) e = Af /h (15) The bands are thus of the same width as those due to two infinitely narrow apertures coincident with the central lines of the retarded and unretarded streams, the subject of examination being itself a fine luminous line.
Fresnel commenced his researches with an examination of the fringes, external and internal, which accompany the shadow of a narrow opaque strip, such as a wire.
The division into five books was known to Hippolytus, but a closer examination of the doxologies shows that it does not represent the original scheme of the Psalter; for, while the doxologies to the first three books are no part of the psalms to which they are attached, but really mark the end of a book in a pious fashion not uncommon in Eastern literature, that to book IV., with its rubric addressed to the people, plainly belongs to the psalm, or rather to its liturgical execution, and does not therefore really mark the close of a collection once separate.
He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.
Secondly, the external evidence does not bear examination.
The mandarinate or official class is recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination.
Next above this is the school of the district capital, where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which are selected those eligible for the course of higher education given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction of a doc-hoc, or inspector of studies.
The cytology of bone marrow, with the technique of blood examination, is of great assistance in the diagnosis of different pathological conditions.
Health is simply that condition of structure and function which, on examination of a sufficient number of examples, we find to be commonest.
From the histological examination of tumour cells there is no evidence to show that they resemble the protozoal unicellular organisms in occasionally passing through a sexual process of reproduction, i.e.
In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps.
In a series of letters, De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published when he was in his eightieth year, he describes the appearances met with at the post mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases.
Now the cellular pathology of the blood, investigated by the aid of modern staining methods, is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator - indeed, apart from research, no practitioner at this day - can dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it contains being evidence of many def i nitely morbid states of the body.
A minute knowledge of printed books and a methodical examination of departmental and communal archives furnished him with material for a long course of successful lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and significance of the urban communities in France.
The Council of Legal Education superintends the education and subsequent examination of students.
Privileges It is only necessary to mention these here, but each fthe lord of the privileges requires an exhaustive examination o, as to its origin.
The examination of the air of metal mines has shown that in most cases it is much worse than the air of crowded theatres or other badly ventilated buildings.
A careful examination, however, of the "we" sections shows that words and expressions characteristic of the author of the third Gospel and the Acts are found in them to an extent which is very remarkable, and that in many instances they belong to the very texture of the passages.
A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.
The existence of internal strains in glass can be readil y recognized by examination in polarized light, any signs of double refraction indicating the existence of strain.
The examination of small test-pieces of the glass withdrawn from the crucible by means of an iron rod having shown that the molten mass is free from bubbles, the stirring process may be begun, the object of this manipulation being to render the glass as homogeneous as possible and to secure the absence of veins or striae in the product.
As the fractured surfaces of the glass in this condition are unsuitable for delicate examination a good deal of glass that passes this inspection has yet ultimately to be rejected.
For the purpose of rendering this minute examination possible, opposite plane surfaces of the glass are ground approximately flat and polished, the faces to be polished being so chosen as to allow of a view through the greatest possible thickness of glass; thus in slabs the narrow edges are polished.
This led to an examination of the New Testament foundation of the Christian Church, and in 1725, in a letter to Francis Archibald, minister of Guthrie, Forfarshire, he repudiated the obligation of national covenants.
Thus a bishop of the English Church appoints examining chaplains who conduct the examination of candidates for holy orders; such officials generally hold ordinary benefices also.
He took a leading part in the examination into the army plot; was one of the commissioners appointed to attend the king to Scotland in August 1641; and was nominated one of the committee of safety in July 1642.
Our suspicion is justified by a further examination of Mark xiii.
The continued attacks upon the Presbyterians led him to publish his Short, Sober, Pacific Examination of Exuberances in the Common Prayer, as well as the Apology for Tender Consciences touching Not Bowing at the Name of Jesus.
In North Germany the mature tapeworm was found on post-mortem examination once in every 200 bodies examined, while its embryo, the Cysticercus cellulosae, was found in in every 76 bodies.
His principal works (5 vols., Andover, 1849-50) were Lectures on the Inspiration of the Scriptures (1829), Memoirs of American Missionaries (1833), Examination of the Doctrine of Perfection (1841), Lectures on Church Government (1843), and Lectures on Swedenborgianism (1846); he also wrote a History of Andover Seminary (1848), completed by his son.
He taught with great regularity for upward of thirty years, the only interruptions being that of 1813-1814 (occasioned by the War of Liberation, during which the university was closed) and those occasioned by two prolonged literary tours, first in 1820 to Paris, London and Oxford with his colleague Johann Karl Thilo (1794-1853) for the examination of rare oriental manuscripts, and in 1835 to England and Holland in connexion with his Phoenician studies.
An examination of the soil shows it to be composed of a vast number of small particles of sand, clay, chalk and humus, in which are generally imbedded larger or smaller stones.
Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.
After examination his Erlangen degree was recognized, and in 1824 he was appointed extraordinary professor of chemistry at Giessen, becoming ordinary professor two years later.
Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.
The entire construction of the history is based, as has already been said, on a critical examination and chronological arrangement of the available documents.
A further examination of the epistle shows that it must have been written towards the close of the B&erla An of Acts xxviii.
It is in Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy that the classical statement of the Relativity of Knowledge is to be found.
Others again assert the buffaloes to have been there from time immemorial; in which case it is very desirable that a specimen should be submitted for examination.
To this committee was entrusted the task of the examination of all election returns, and of the proclamation of the names of successful candidates for seats in congress.
Such, at least, is Echard's conclusion, derived from an examination of the earliest extant MSS.
The mechanism of protrusion in the Cyclostomata is a subject which requires further examination.
For a critical examination of the story, see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk.
Duff gave much thought and time to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the prominence given to physical sciences to his influence.
Maurice, which he afterwards published, along with a fuller examination of the doctrine of the essays.
" I hardly know if even to you," he writes to his wife, " I dare disclose the sweet and softened feeling that comes over me when I find a young man whose examination is thoroughly satisfactory.
In April 1772 he passed his theological examination, and soon after became professor of Greek at the Collegium Humanitatis.
successful; for example, in the case of steel, which is an alloy of iron and carbon, a microscopical examination gives valuable information concerning the suitability of a sample of steel for special purposes.
This general case has been discussed at length because a careful study of it will much facilitate the comprehension of the similar but more complicated cases that occur in the examination of alloys.
Microscopic examination fully confirms the existence of these compounds.
This is the case with the copper-tin alloys containing less than 9% by weight of tin; a microscopic examination reveals only one material, a copper-like substance, the tin having disappeared, being in solution in the copper.
He also acted for a time as chairman of the secret committee of the Commons, and drew up the report on the examination of the Jesuit Coleman, secretary to the duchess of York.
The allegations made in Sacheverell's report on the examination of Coleman prompted the country party to demand the exclusion of James, duke of York, from the succession to the throne, the first suggestion of the famous Exclusion Bill being made by Sacheverell on the 4th of November 1678 in a debate- "the greatest that ever was in Parliament," as it was pronounced by contemporaries - raised by Lord Russell with the object of removing the duke from the King's Council.
The number of students who enter the university without passing any examination in Italian is rapidly increasing; the longer the period of transition, the greater the detriment to the rising generation.
After some years of hesitation he resolved to be ordained, and in 1802 he passed with great distinction the examination for candidatus theologiae, and attracted the regard of F.
The bottle is again cleaned and dried, and the operations repeated with the liquid under examination instead of water.
Disgusted with an employment which afforded him neither leisure for original work nor opportunities for acquiring scientific instruction, he presented himself in 1819 at the examination for admission to the staff corps Oat-major) and obtained a lieutenancy.
Though for many centuries they have thus been treated as separate compositions, we have abundant evidence that they were anciently regarded as forming but one book, and a careful examination proves that together with the book of Chronicles they constitute one single work.
In all areometer work it is necessary to ascertain the temperature of the water sample under examination with great exactness, as the volume of the areometer as well as the specific gravity of the water varies with temperature.
Among his principal publications are An Examination of Ferrier's "Knowing and Being," and the Scottish Philosophy - (a work which gave him the reputation of being an independent Hamiltonian in philosophy); Memoir of John Brown, D.D.
The opening and laying out, or, as it is generally called, "winning," of new collieries is rarely Prelimin- undertaken without a ary trial preliminary examination of coal= of the character of the workings.
The management of such places, therefore, requires the most constant vigilance on the part of the workmen, especially in the examination of the working places that have been standing empty during the night, in which gas may have accumulated, to see that they are properly cleared before the new shift commences.
For a detailed examination of the question of the authenticity of the letters see the introduction to Lettres de Marie Antoinette.
But as a rule most of those who have adopted this view have done so without the full and patient examination which the matter demands; they have been misled by the difference in tone and style between the earlier and later writings, and have concluded that underlying this was a fundamental difference of philosophic conception.
Of Franklin's examination, in February 1766, by the House in Committee of the Whole, as to the effects of the Stamp Act, Burke said that the scene reminded him of a master examined by a parcel of schoolboys, and George Whitefield said: " Dr Franklin has gained immortal honour by his behaviour at the bar of the House.
In 1811 Espartero was appointed a lieutenant of Engineers in Cadiz, but having failed to pass his examination he entered a line regiment.
Moreover, the existing canons are to be subjected to the examination of a commission appointed by the king, half its members from parliament, half from the clergy, to abrogate with the king's assent such provisions as the majority find do not stand with God's laws and the laws of the realm.
After the examination he assigned the case to the proper court, and presided over it during the trial, which took place in the open air, that the judges and the accuser might not be polluted by being brought under the same roof with the offender (Ant.
The references of the time of the Exodus, the Invasion and the " Judges " - whatever chronological scheme be adopted - must be taken in connexion with a careful examination of all the evidence.
Journ., 1828), he devoted himself chiefly to the examination of fluid-filled cavities in crystals, and of the microscopic structure of various kinds of fossil wood.
After passing his leaving examination from a Realschule, young Stinnes was placed in an office at Coblentz where he speedily picked up the elements of a business training.
4, where the Chaldaeans are said to have spoken to the king in Aramaic. But the cuneiform inscriptions show that the language of the Chaldaeans was Assyrian; and an examination of the very large part of the Hebrew Old Testament written later than the exile proves conclusively that the substitution of Aramaic for Hebrew as the vernacular of Palestine took place very gradually.
Bib., " Amos," and the introduction to Robertson Smith's Prophets of Israel (2), though in some cases the final decision will have to be preceded by a more thorough examination of the traditional text.
On the 18th of May 1866 he made the first spectroscopic examination of a temporary star (Nova Coronae), and found it to be enveloped in blazing hydrogen.
Coins of foreign mints are generally submitted to examination by a committee of eminent chemists and metallurgists whose report is published in the official journals.
For the classified service of the state and of the minor civil divisions, except cities, the commission makes rules (subject to the governor's approval and to statutory and constitutional provisions) governing the classification of offices, the examination of candidates for office, and the appointment and promotion of employees.
This body very largely determines the course of study in the elementary schools, high schools, normal school and the normal departments of the University and the State College, approves the requirements for entrance to the University and the State College, and prepares the questions for the examination of teachers.
The question whether the two differed to any, and if so to what, extent can be decided only from an examination of the Gospel itself.
A closer examination of those parts of Ezra and Nehemiah which are not extracted from earlier documents or original memoirs leads to the conclusion that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally one work, displaying throughout the peculiarities of language and thought of a single editor, who, however, cannot be Ezra himself as tradition would have it.
Passages in the books of Samuel and Kings which might appear to point to the contrary require careful examination; they prove to be glosses or interpolations, or are relatively late as a whole.
An entire action may be referred, if all parties consent, or if it involves any prolonged examination of documents, or scientific or local examination, or consists wholly or partly of matters of account.
The brilliant way in which he sustained his preliminary examination won him the friendship of the examiner, Bishop Jasper Brokman, at whose palace he first met Frederick III.
The Marine Department was created a separate branch of the board of trade in 1850, about which time many new and important marine questions came under the board of trade, such, for example, as the survey of passenger steamers, the compulsory examination of masters and mates, the establishment of shipping offices for the engagement and discharge of seamen.
But this is not the original picture, and, since very contradictory representations of Solomon's reign can be clearly discerned, it is necessary in the first instance to view them in the light of an independent examination of the history of the preceding and following periods where, again, serious fluctuation of standpoint is found.
The importance of the work has, however, been much overrated; a close examination of the sources for the exposition of the Gnostic system which is con " tained in it has Proved that the information it gives is not always trustworthy.
It is evident, therefore, that the request for a definition of Ultramontanism cannot be answered with a concise formula, but that the varied character of its manifestations necessitates a more detailed examination of its peculiar objects.
Clark, the queen's physician, and the result was that Lady Flora was subjected to the indignity of a medical examination, which,.
At St Bartholomew's, St George's, the London Hospital, St Thomas's and others, probationers must enter for four years, and at St Bartholomew's they have to pass an entrance examination in elementary anatomy, physiology and other subjects.
He obtained a scholarship at Trinity College, Oxford, and a second class in the degree examination, and was elected fellow of his college (1845).
It dates from 1381, and is well worth more careful examination than it receives.
In this rapid glance at some of the chief priesthoods of antiquity we have hitherto passed over the pure Semites, whose priesthoods call for closer examination because of the profound influence which one of them - that of the Jews - has exercised on Christianity, and so on the whole history of the modern world.
There is probably no nature religion among races above mere savagery which has not had a priesthood; but an examination of other examples would scarcely bring out any important XXII.
scrutinium, from scrutari, to search or examine thoroughly), careful examination or inquiry.
The word is specifically applied in the early church to the examination of the catechumens or those under instruction in the faith.
Sickly animals should be at once isolated, and their cages and enclosures disinfected, whilst as a matter of routine the enclosure in which any animal has died should be cleansed, and according to the results of post-mortem examination, which should be made in every case, appropriate measures of disinfection employed.
Professor Zimmer, in his examination of the story, sees reason to believe that the main incidents may repose on a genuine historic tradition, dating back to the 9th or 10th century, the period of Viking rule in Ireland.
For an exhaustive study of the Tristan legend and literature, see the recent work by Professor Golther; also an examination of the Welsh fragments by Ivor John in the Grimm Library.
An examination of the name lists given in duplicate in Ezra ii.
For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische &eschichte, bk.
Among his pamphlets are A Candid Examination of the Mutual Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies (1775); Historical and Political Reflections on the Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion (1780); Cool Thoughts on the Consequences to Great Britain of American Independence (1780); and The Claim of the American Loyalists Reviewed and Maintained upon Incontrovertible Principles of Law and Justice (1788).
See Thomas Balch (Ed.), The Examination of Joseph Galloway by a Committee of the House of Commons (Philadelphia, 18 55); Ernest H.
The same volume included a critical examination of the " Theory of Classical Education " by Henry Sidgwick, and an attack on compulsory Greek and Latin verse composition by F.
The question of the position of Greek in secondary education has from time to time attracted attention in connexion with the requirement of Greek in Responsions at Oxford, and in the Previous Examination at Cambridge.
On the 9th of March 1871 a syndicate recommended that, in the Previous Examination, French and German (taken together) should be allowed in place of Greek; on the 27th of April this recommendation (which only affected candidates for honours or for medical degrees) was rejected by 51 votes to 48.
All the other proposals and votes relating to Greek in the Previous Examination in 1870-1873, 1878-1880, and 1891-1892 are set forth in the Cambridge University Reporter for November 11, 1904, pp. 202-205.
Milton, in his Tractate on Education (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines, protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language, denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject appointed to consider the studies and examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in the Reporter for December 17, 1904.
On the 3rd of March 1905 a proposal for accepting either French or German as an alternative for either Latin or Greek in the Previous Examination was rejected by 1559 to 1052 votes, and on the 26th of May 1906 proposals distinguishing between students in letters and students in science, and (inter alia) requiring the latter to take either French or German for either Latin or Greek in the Previous Examination, were rejected b y 746 to 241.
Greek, however, was still recognized as part of the examination held for the appointment of schoolmasters.
As an alternative to the second cycle, which normally ends in the examination for the baccalaureat, there is a shorter course, mainly founded on modern languages or applied science and ending in a public examination without the baccalaureat.
The leaving examination (Abgangspriifung), instituted in that year, required Greek translation at sight, with Greek prose composition, and ability to speak and to write Latin.
An examination of the Sethite genealogy, vv.
An examination of the extant MSS.
The considerations from which he acutely and accurately draws far-reaching and important conclusions might be suggested by a very superficial examination of the literature; they involve, for example, no special philological knowledge.
Much of the voluminous detailed work in this and other works is naturally enough provisional, but in the Introduction there emerge most of the broad conclusions of literary criticism (sometimes incomplete) which, after more than a century of keen examination by scholars unwilling to admit them, have passed by more or less general consent into the number of historical certainties or high probabilities.
Nor again is it possible to survey the more special developments of literary criticism which have later emerged, amongst which one of the most important has been the radical examination of the prophetic writings introduced and developed by (amongst others) Stade, Wellhausen, Duhm, Cheyne, Marti.'
The first stage in their work must be the establishment of the earliest form of each version, and the collection and examination of the quotations in all the early writers.
There were in 1909 62 city public high schools whose graduates are admitted to the State University without examination.
His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
The pressure to which the Sheffield plate was submitted produces a definite colour and texture which is absent from the surface produced by the deposit of silver in a liquid medium by electrical means, and the coat of silver is spread by the latter uniformly over the whole surface without a break, while in the former the junction between the embossed ornaments and the silver strips covering the cut edges may often be detected on careful examination.
derived from 20.63--mainly in endeavouring to get a basis for the Greek and Roman feet; but these are really connected with the digit system, and the monumental or literary evidence for such a division of 20.63 will not bear examination.
But to his wide, deep and accurate learning, to his conscientious and impartial examination of the facts and the authorities at first hand, and to "his exact quotation of the sources and works illustrating them, and careful discussion of the most minute details," all succeeding historians are indebted.
He suggests as the mode of enforcing this obligation the requirement of submission to a test examination "before any one could obtain the freedom in any corporation, or be allowed to set up a trade in any village or town corporate."
He then introduced the practice of following the lecture with a viva voce examination on what had been delivered.
2 A careful examination of the history of the method is given by Scheibel in his Einleitung zur mathematischen Bucherkenntniss, Stuck vii.
In the same year, 1866, Franz Martin Hilgendorf (1839 - studied the shells of Planorbis from the Miocene lake basin underlying the present village of Steinheim in Wurttemberg, and introduced the method of examination of large numbers of individual specimens, a method which has become of prime importance in the science.
We were in the midst of more thorough examination of the ancient world of Patagonia, of the Pampean region and of its submerged sister continent Antarctica, when the scene shifted to North Africa through the discoveries of Hugh J.
After a preliminary examination of all possible different attempts at a solution of the problem of evil, the attempt is here made to represent the devil as an instrument of God.
But how widespread was the idea of seven powers, who created this lower material world and rule over it, has been clearly proved, especially by the systematic examination of the subject by Anz (Ursprung des Gnosticismus).
But on closer examination we can clearly see that it has a wide influence on Gnosticism.
The audiencia councils also advised the viceroy in matters of administration; and, as with other officials, his career was subject at its close to a formal examination by a commission - a process known as " taking his residencia."
The conflicts, which may at first sight seem to be merely between rival generals, are seen upon closer examination to be mainly (r) between the privileged classes, i.e.
The Influence of Sea Power upon History, by Captain Mahan, gives the best critical examination of the naval aspects of the war.
In post-mortem examination, the most obvious pathological lesion is hypertrophy of the spleen, which may be very pronounced; the lymphatic glands in the neck, inguinal region, &c., are also often greatly swollen.
Parliament Square, contains the chapel (1798), with a Corinthian portico, the public theatre or examination hall (1787), containing portraits of Queen Elizabeth, Molyneux, Burke, Bishop Berkeley and other celebrities, and the wainscotted dining hall, also containing portraits.
A vacancy among the fellows is filled up by the provost and a select number of the fellows, after examination comprised in five principal courses, mathematics, experimental science, classics, mental and moral science and Hebrew.
Students after an examination are admitted as fellow-commoners, pensioners or sizars.
Sizarships are awarded on examination to students of limited means, and carry certain relaxations of fees.
The mode of admission to the university is in all cases by examination.
A brilliant examination for the degree of bachelor procured him, in 1588, admittance on the foundation to the university of Tubingen, where he laid up a copious store of classical erudition, and imbibed Copernican principles from the private instructions of his teacher and life-long friend, Michael Maestlin.
Kepler immediately hastened to Wurttemberg, and owing to his indefatigable exertions she was acquitted after having suffered thirteen month's imprisonment, and endured with undaunted courage the formidable ordeal of "territion," or examination under the imminent threat of torture.
For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk.
But such a tacit sanction on the part of the compilers of the second Prayer-Book is in the highest degree improbable, in view of their known opinions on the subject; and an examination of contemporary writings hardly justifies the contention that the two words are so carefully used as the argument would demand.
Examination will, however, show that a modification similar to that which has transformed the comparatively simple molar tooth of the mastodon into the extremely complex grinder of the Indian elephant has served to change the tooth of the common pig into that of Phacochoerus.
Sometimes the abscess declares itself by a bulging at the surface, but if not an incision should be made through the belly-wall over the most tender spot, and a direct examination of the surface of the liver made.
Sometimes in the course of a post-mortem examination a gall-bladder is found packed full of gall-stones which during life had caused no inconvenience and had given rise to no suspicion of their presence.
The first step towards the restoration of a text is the examination of the evidence upon which it is or is to be based.
For the proper consideration of such points a personal examination, autopsy, of the MSS.
After every such critical examination four conclusions are possible - acceptance, doubt, rejection and alteration.
Zimmer, Nennius Vindicatus (Berlin, 1893), an examination into the credibility of Nennius; Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Britonum (translations of both histories are in Bohn's Library); Wace, the Brut (ed.
This will be seen by an examination of the rateable value of the three townships now comprised in the borough.
All banks, except national banks, are subject to examination by a public official, and their charters expire within twenty years of their issue.
The state treasurer is the bank examiner, and to him all banks must make a quarterly statement and submit their books for examination twice a year.
Thomas (1880) is an elaborate and valuable examination of all matters connected with Servius; many points are treated also by O.
He also wrote a preface to the Report on the Proceedings of the Board of General Officers on their Examination into the Conduct of Lieutenant-General Sir John Cope, in which he gave an apology for the battle of Prestonpans.
To this list should also be added the Oxford and Cambridge preliminary examination for candidates for holy orders, with which he was from the first most closely identified.
He made the first detailed examination of the Great Zimbabwe.
In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
After studying in his native town and taking the university course in Berlin (1842-1843) he went to Paris, and passed first in the examination for fellowship (agregation) of the lycees (1845), first in the examinations on leaving the Ecole des Chartes, and first in the examination for fellowship of the faculties (1849).
Under the rules adopted, the examination of witnesses is conducted by the president in accordance with the system prevailing in most continental countries; members of the commission may only put questions to witnesses for the eliciting of further information; and they may not interrupt the witness when he is in course of making his statement, but they may ask the president to put any additional questions.
A further Note submitting the programme proposed gave more precision to this item, which thereupon took the following form: " An understanding not to increase for a fixed period the present effectives of the armed military and naval forces, and at the same time not to increase the budgets pertaining thereto; and a preliminary examination of the means by which even a reduction might be effected in future in the forces and budgets above mentioned."
After many expressions of regret at finding no method of giving effect to the proposal, the commission confined itself to recording its opinion that " a further examination of the question by the Powers would prove a great benefit to humanity."
These results were unexpected, and, in fact, inexplicable by existing theories; and an examination of the telescope showed that the observed anomalies were not due to instrumental errors.
The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.
The collimator has a vertical slit at its outer end, the width of which may be regulated by a micrometer screw; in some instruments one half of the slit is covered by a small total reflection prism which permits the examination of two spectra simultaneously.
On the one side it was a critical examination of the Rabbinic literature and much influenced subsequent investigators.
In spite of the disadvantage that it is impossible to separate advantageously the history and critical examination of any doctrine in the arbitrary manner which de Gerando chose, the work has great merits.
But natural realism, as finally interpreted by Hamilton, was too dogmatic, too unsystematic, and too confused with elements derived from Kantian idealism to withstand the brilliant criticism of Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy (1865), a work which for a time almost persuaded us that Nature as we know it from sensations is nothing but permanent possibilities of sensation, and oneself only a series of states of consciousness.
australis, and the examination of a large series led him to conclude that under that name two distinct species were confounded.
The most obvious feature the Apteryges afford is the presence of a back toe, while the extremely aborted condition of the wings, the position of the nostrils - almost at the tip of the maxilla - and the absence of an after-shaft in the feathers, are characters nearly as manifest, and others not less determinative, though more recondite, will be found on examination.
Liveing, one of his colleagues at Cambridge, he began in 1878 a long series of spectroscopic observations, the later of which were devoted to the spectroscopic examination of various gaseous constituents separated from atmospheric air by the aid of low temperatures; and he was joined by Professor J.
About 1892 the idea occurred to him of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the storage of liquid gases, and so efficient did this device prove in preventing the influx of external heat that it is found possible not only to preserve the liquids for comparatively long periods, but also to keep them so free from ebullition that examination of their optical properties becomes possible.
After several days' trial, during which Cullen was submitted to a very close examination, the verdict was given for the plaintiff with 4d.
On K nearer examination, however, it appears that kingship was intermittent in some tribes, while in others, which had no kings, we find mention of royal families.
In 1498, Columbus, when exploring the Gulf of Pal-la, which receives a large part of the outflow of the Orinoco, noted the freshness of its waters, but made no examination of their origin.
After a tedious and captious examination, he was in March brought before convocation, and, on refusing to subscribe certain articles, was excommunicated and imprisoned; but through the interference of the king he was finally released after he had voluntarily signified his acceptance of all the articles except two, and confessed that he had erred not only " in discretion but in doctrine."
To the former were attached two commissions, one for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
With the latter is connected the commission for the examination of the liturgical books of the East (Commissio pro corrigendis libris ecclesiae Orientalis) .
Since the constitution Sapienti, its competency has been confined to the examination, at the request of the secretary of state, of questions which are submitted to it, and especially those arising from civil laws and concordats.
Experiments on alloys are, in some ways, easier to make than on pairs of non-metallic substances, partly owing to the possibility of polishing sections for microscopic examination, and the investigation of alloys has done much to elucidate the general phenomena of solution, of which metallic solution constitutes a special case.
The subject of its manufacture and examination is a most important and interesting one, and the special article dealing with it should be studied (see Cement).
Quite recently, however, the author of this article has made a more detailed examination of the question, operating upon several hundreds of rabbits.
Before this is granted the candidate is submitted to a double examination as to his fitness, first by a papal delegate at his place of residence (processus informativus in partibus electi), and afterwards by the Roman Congregation of Cardinals assigned for this purpose (processus electionis definitivus in curia).
This at least is the method of disguise suggested by examination of the dried insect; but representatives of the same or an allied species found in Mashonaland were observed in the living state to be green with the antlike parts represented in black pigment.
Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
The observations of Schwendener, however, received ample support from Bornet's (1873) examination of 60 genera.
With special reference to the controversy concerning the Casket Letters, in addition to the article Casket Letters and the abovementioned works by Sir John Skelton, the following should be consulted: Walter Goodall, Examination of the Letters said to be written by Mary Queen of Scots to Bothwell (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1 754), which contains the letters themselves; William Tytler, Inquiry into the Evidence against Mary Queen of Scots (2 vols., London, 1790); John Whitaker, Mary Queen of Scots Vindicated (3 vols., London, 1788); F.
It may be added that the Venetians prided themselves on possessing, not only the body of St Mark, but also the autograph of his Gospel; this autograph, however, proved on examination to be only part of a 6th-century book of the Gospels, the remainder of which was published by Bianchini as the Evangeliarium forojuliense; the Venetian part of this MS. was found some years ago to have been wholly destroyed by damp.
It is clear, nevertheless, from examination that as a rule the wood of the stock and the wood of the scion retain their external characters year by year without change.
An opportunity, however, presented itself: being required to work out from data supplied to him the "defilement" of a proposed fortress (an operation then only performed by a long arithmetical process), Monge, substituting for this a geometrical method, obtained the result so quickly that the commandant at first refused to receive it - the time necessary for the work had not been taken; but upon examination the value of the discovery was recognized, and the method was adopted.
No assemblage of stratified rocks has received such careful and detailed examination as the Carboniferous system; consequently our knowledge of the stratigraphical sequence in isolated local areas, where the coals have been exploited, is very full.
An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
The instruction given is essentially non-classical and scientific. In both schools certificates are awarded at the end of the course, that of the higher-burgher schools admitting to the natural science and medical branches of university education, a supplementary examination in Greek and Latin being required for other branches.
Then the furnaceman, controlling the decarburization and purification of the molten charge by his examination of test ingots taken from time to time, gradually oxidizes and so removes the foreign elements, and thus brings the metal simultaneously to approximately the composition needed and to a temperature far enough above its present meltingpoint to permit of its being cast into ingots or other castings.
It does not seem necessary to endeavour to follow his minute examination of the principle of real cognition with the same fulness.
The men evangelists have to pass an examination by the archdeacon of Middlesex, and are then (since 1896) admitted by the bishop of London as "lay evangelists in the Church"; the mission sisters must likewise pass an examination by the diocesan inspector of schools.
It remains to give a brief analysis of the qualifications and functions of the archons after the year 487 B.C. After election (in the time of Aristotle in the month Anthesterion; in the 3rd century in Munychion) a short time had to elapse before entering on office to allow of the dokimasia (examination of fitness).
Finally an examination took place at the end of the year of office, when each archon had to answer for his actions with person and possessions; till then he could not leave the country, be adopted into another family, dispose of his property, nor receive any " crown of honour."
"Examination of Dr Hurd's Commentary on Horace's Epistles" (Misc. Works, ed.
His father, who held a small post under government, made great efforts to send him to Paris, where a brilliant examination gained him, in 1831, admittance to the Ecole Polytechnique.
The essay in which he had studied a hypothetic future led him to examine the effects of the principle he had put forward on the past and present state of society; and he undertook an historical examination of these effects, and sought to draw such inferences in relation to the actual state of things as experience seemed to warrant.
It appears, however, from a careful examination of the remains that their work was only a reconstruction of a more ancient edifice, the date of the original form of which cannot be fixed; while its first alteration belongs to the "tufa" period, and three other periods in its history can be traced.
Of the numerous works of art discovered in the course of the excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether in marble or bronze, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, but some of the bronze statuettes are of exquisite workmanship, while the profusion of ornamental works and objects in bronze and the elegance of their design, as well as the finished beauty of their execution, are such as to excite the utmost admiration - more especially when it is considered that these are the casual results of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Herculaneum had not) after the eruption of 79.
A post mortem examination was held, which showed not only grave derangement in the stomach and other organs, but a serious lesion of the brain.
Closer examination, however, shows that if the prevailing slopes are not more than a few inches in the mile, yet they do exist, and scientific irrigation requires that the canals should be taken along the crests and drains along the hollows.
They soon resolved that it would be very much better if the original scheme of using the barrage could be carried out, and after a careful examination of the work they were satisfied that this could be done.
Nothing so good is to be found even in Wilhelm Meister's admirable examination of Hamlet.
The Greek Church, represented by the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Russian Church, represented by the Holy Synod, also canonize their saints after a preliminary examination of their titles to public cultus.
The preliminary examination is conducted by a judge, who does not sit on the bench at the trial.
Reserve and Landwelir officers are drawn from among officers and selected non-commissioned officers retired from the active army, and one-year volunteers who have passed a special examination.
Thus it came about that at the diet of Worms, which met in January 1521, without any thorough examination of Luthers position, Charles issued the famous edict, drawn up by Cardinal Aleandro, which denounced the reformer and his followers.
Of these, one forbade ministers of religion from abusing ecclesiastical punishment; the second, which was the most important, introduced a law already adopted in Baden, that no one should be appointed to any office in the Church except a German, who must have received his education in a German gymnasium, have studied for three years in a German university, and have passed a state examination in philosophy, history, German literature and classics; all ecclesiastical seminaries were placed under the control of the state, and all seminaries for boys were forbidden.
Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under such names as calcedonite,pseudocalcedonite,quartzine, lutecite and lussatite.
in 1501) gave special directions to the archbishops of Cologne, Mainz, Trier and Magdeburg regarding the growing abuses of the printing press; in 1515 the Lateran council formulated the decree De Impressione Librorum, which required that no work should be printed without previous examination by the proper ecclesiastica' authority, the penalty of unlicensed printing being excommunication of the culprit, and confiscation and destruction of the books.
The examination of the books is entrusted to censors, who have to study them without prejudice; if their report is favourable, the bishop gives the imprimatur (Nos.
Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.
With a view to more minute examination, the annual frequency can be expressed in Fourier series, whose terms represent waves, whose periods are 12, 6, 4, 3, &c. months.
meant the introduction of Czech into the government offices throughout the whole of the kingdom; (2) after 1903 no one was to be appointed to a post under the government in Bohemia until he had passed an examination in Czech.
He studied law at the universities of Vienna and Graz, but after passing the examination for employment in the state judicial service abandoned this career and, becoming a journalist, travelled extensively in south-east Europe, and visited Asia Minor and Egypt.
No detailed examination of the comparative military and naval resources of the combatants can here be attempted.
After careful study and a preliminary examination of the land, a scheme was passed which has given satisfaction to the landowning community, and which distributes the tax equitably in proportion to the fertility of the soil.
For historical pathology the examination of mummies and skeletons is yielding good results.
At first sight they may seem inaccurate, but on closer examination the Graecizing is seen to follow definite rules, especially in the Ptolemaic period.
Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it.
This examination is, in two respects, in striking contrast to that of certain other Neoplatonist writers.
As the non-existence of land to the north had been proved, the attempt to penetrate northwards was abandoned, and the last season was devoted to a survey and scientific examination of the archipelago, especially to the west; this was carried out by Messrs Jackson, Armitage, R.
Thus, while the long barrow is characteristic of the Stone Age, it is impossible to tell without direct examination whether it may be chambered or unchambered, or whether the burials within it may be those of burnt or of unburnt bodies.
xxiv.) brings vividly before us the scene so often suggested by the examination of the tumuli of prehistoric times.
Atropine is universally and constantly used in ophthalmic practice in order to dilate the pupil for examination of the retina by the ophthalmoscope, or in cases where the inflamed iris threatens to form adhesions to neighbouring parts.
Closer examination also of P's narrative of the manna shows that its true position is after the departure from Mt.
With but few exceptions the provenance of the individual sections may be said to have been finally determined by the labours of the critics, but even a cursory examination of their contents makes it evident that the sequence of events, which they now present, cannot be original, but is rather the outcome of a long process of revision, during which the text has suffered considerably from alterations, omissions, dislocations and additions.
1-9; and an examination of their contents makes it evident that, though the last two groups are unmistakably derived from E, they cannot have formed part of the original "Book of the Covenant"; for the "judgments," which are expressed in a hypothetical form, consist of a number of legal decisions on points of civil law.
occurrence of a food-reserve; many so-called exalbuminous seeds show to microscopic examination a distinct endosperm which may have other than a nutritive function.
This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants.
But the presence of a second cotyledon in grasses is extremely doubtful, and though there may be ground for reconsidering the position of Nymphaeaceae, their association with the grasses as a distinct class is not warranted by a comparative examination of the members of the two orders.
The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
This account will not bear examination.
Little remains now of the ancient city, except colossal ruins of aqueducts and part of the Roman walls, which are used as quarries for modern Antakia; but no scientific examination of the site has been made.
depth of ruins; these needed the closest examination to discriminate the various buildings, and were recorded by over 4000 measurements and 1000 levellings (Petrie, Abydos, ii.).
An examination of the Pnyx in 1911 showed that the supporting wall is no earlier than the 4th century.
Further examination of towers in the town wall of Pagasae (or Demetrias) led to the discovery of many more painted gravestones, like those first found in 1907.
It was discovered in 1861 by Sir William Crookes, who, during a spectroscopic examination of the flue-dust produced in the roasting of seleniferous pyrites occurring at Tilkerode in the Harz, observed a green line foreign to all then known spectra.
He assisted Sir Wyville Thomson in the examination and classification of the collections of the "Challenger" exploring expedition, and wrote the Review of the Echini (2 vols., 1872-1874) in the reports.
A few apparent exceptions occur along the western seaboard of Sutherland, in Skye and elsewhere, but examination of their structure at once explains the reason of their prominence and confirms the rule.
It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.
The term " examination " (i.e.
The abolition of this system was announced in 1906, and, as a partial substitute, it was decided to hold an annual examination in Peking of Chinese graduates educated abroad (Times, 22nd of October 1906).
The student was admitted without examination as bachelor after from four to six years' study, and after from six to eight years' study became qualified as a candidate for the doctorate.
The doctoral examination at Bologna in the 13th-14th centuries consisted of two parts - a private examination which was the real test, and a public one of a ceremonial character (conventus) .
He was then presented to the archdeacon of Bologna by one or more doctors, who were required to have satisfied themselves of his fitness by private examination.
On the morning of the examination, after attending mass, he was assigned by one of the doctors of the assembled college two passages (puncta) in the civil or canon law, which he retired to his house to study, possibly with the assistance of the presenting doctor.
The successful candidate, who received the title of licentiate, was, on payment of a heavy fee and other expenses, permitted to proceed to the conventus or final public examination.
After five or six years from the date of beginning his studies (matriculation) and being twenty years of age (these conditions varied at different periods), a bachelor was permitted to present himself for the examination for the licentiateship, which was divided into two parts.
The first part was conducted in private by the chancellor and four examiners (temptatores in cameris), and included an inquiry into the candidate's residence, attendance at lectures, and performance of exercises, as well as examination in prescribed books; those candidates adjudged worthy were admitted to the more important examination before the faculty, and the names of successful candidates were sent to the chancellor in batches of eight or more at a time, arranged in order of merit.
(The order of merit at the examination for the licentiateship existed in Paris till quite recently.) Each successful candidate was then required to maintain a thesis chosen by himself (quodlibetica) in St Julian's church, and was finally submitted to a purely formal public examination (collatio) at either the episcopal palace or the abbey of Ste Genevieve, before receiving from the chancellor, in the name of the Trinity, the licence to incept or begin to teach in the faculty of arts.
In the 17th century the first class comprised the names of twelve, and the second, of twenty-four, candidates, who were divided on the report of their teachers into classes before the examination, and finally arranged in order of merit by the examiners (Vernulaeus, quoted by Sir W.
At Oxford there is no record of a process of formal examination on books similar to that of Paris (Rashdall, ii.
By the statutes of 1849 and 1858 an intermediate " Moderations " examination was instituted between the preliminary examination called " Responsions " and the final examination.
although fresh subjects of examination have been introduced,.
The bachelor's degree at Oxford tended from an early period to be postponed to an advanced stage of studies, while the requirements for the master's degree diminished until, in 1807, the examination for the M.A.
At Cambridge there is no intermediate examination between the " Previous Examination " (commonly called " Little-go "), which corresponds to Oxford " Responsions " or " Smalls " and the triposes and examinations for the " Poll " degree, which correspond to the Oxford final honours and pass examinations respectively.
The abolition of order of merit at this examination was decided on in 1 9 06, and names of candidates appeared in this order for the last time in 1909.
degree has become extinct, and the M.A., awarded on the results of examination, is the first degree in the faculty of arts.
degree is given after examination to students who have taken a pass, and without examination to those who have taken an honours degree.
The student desiring to proceed to the doctorate is free from examinations thereafter until he presents his thesis for the doctor's degree,' when, if it is accepted, he is submitted to a public oral examination not only in his principal subject (Haupt f ach), but also as a rule in two or more collateral subjects (Nebenfeicher).
1 It should be mentioned that the professors of chemistry of a number of German, Austrian and Swiss universities, have, by agreement, instituted an intermediate examination in that subject which students are required to pass before beginning work on the doctoral thesis.
The examination of the students is conducted by the teachers concerned.
In the faculty of sciences, the three subjects of examination selected may, under a recent regulation, be taken separately.
In the faculty of sciences a candidate for the doctorate may submit two theses, or else submit one thesis and undergo an oral examination.
von Humboldt instituted a special examination in 181o (Paulsen, Gesch.
pp. 283 and 393), and an examination for primary teachers was instituted in Prussia in 1794.
In France there is a competitive examination for secondary teachers, the agregation, originally established in 1766.
The Board of Education holds special examinations (Preliminary Certificate examination and Certificate examination, &c.) for primary teachers.
They recommended that the examination should be conducted by external and internal examiners, representing in each case the examining body and the school staff respectively, and that reports on the school work of candidates should be available for reference by the examiners (circular of the Board of Education of 12th of July 1904).
If the inspection is satisfactory, the school is accredited by a university for from one to three years, and upon the favourable report of its principal any of its students are admitted to the university by which it has been accredited without any entrance examination.
In practice it is found that many students whom their teachers refuse to certify are able to pass the university entrance examination.
Methods of Examination.
A further distinction is important, especially in such subjects as mathematics or foreign languages, in which it is legitimate to ask what precise power on the part of a candidate the passing of an examination shall signify.
A candidate who obtains only 50% of the marks in performing such operations cannot be regarded as being able to perform them; and, if the examination is to be treated as a test of his capacity to perform them, he should be rejected unless he obtains full marks, less a certain allowance (say 10, or at most 20%) in view of the more or less artificial conditions inherent in all examinations.
The oral examination is better suited than the written to discover the range of a candidate's knowledge; it also serves.
tongue, or in a foreign language, and may be used (as in the examination for entrance to the Osborne Naval College) to test the important qualities (hardly tested in any other examinations at present), readiness of wit, common-sense and nerve.
The laboratory examination may be used in subjects like physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, botany, anatomy, physiology, to test powers of manipulation and knowledge of experimental methods.
- Scotland: School-Leaving Examination Table Iv.
- University Of London School Examination, Matriculation Standard examinations) the examination may be prolonged over one or more days, and may test higher powers of investigation.
of original work, under conditions difficult to fulfil in the examination room or laboratory.
In medicine the clinical examination of a patient is a test carried out under conditions more nearly approaching those of actual work than any other; and distinction in medical examinations is probably more often followed by distinction in after life than is the case in other examinations.
and B.Sc. examinations at Manchester and Liverpool, candidates may take the written portion of the examination at the end of the second year's course of study and submit a dissertation at the end of the third year.
In 1854 selection by examination as a method of appointment to posts in the English public service was first substituted for the patronage system, which had caused grave dissatisfaction (see Macaulay's speech on the subject, The Times of the 25th of June 1853).
The first public competitive examination for the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, took place in 1855, and in 1870 the principle of open competition for the civil service was adcpted as a general rule.
To take a simple instance: a candidate partly educated in Germany may obtain more marks in German at a scholarship examination than another who is more gifted, but whose opportunities have been less; the question at once arises, are the examiners to take the circumstances of the candidate into account or not ?
The greatest precautions must be taken to ensure the secrecy of the examination papers before the examination, and the effective isolation of individual candidates during the examination.
In applying a single test in a qualifying examination it would be sufficient to mark candidates as passing or failing.
The fact may be stated in this way: - the general efficiency of the test being granted, it is true to say that the large majority of those who pass an examination will be superior in efficiency to those who fail; but a few of those who fail ma .y be superior to a few of those who pass.
These errors are not peculiar to the examination system, they are inherent in all human judgments.
In a pass examination the question has to be considered how far, if at all, excellence in one subject shall compensate for deficiency in another, a question which is indeterminate until the precise object of the whole examination is formulated.
In the competitive examination for the Indian civil service, places are allotted on the aggregate of marks obtained in a number of subjects selected by the candidate from a list of thirty-two.
The successful candidates are compared a year later on the results of another examination in which there is again a choice, though a much more limited one.
In order to estimate the efficiency of an examination as a test, the precise question should be asked in each case - what is it intended to test ?
If a student can auscultate correctly, or make up a prescription, at an examination, he will in all probability be able to do so in other circumstances.
Examinations as tests of the knowledge of isolated facts are necessarily of relatively small value, because the memory of such facts is transient; and memorization of a large number of facts for examination purposes is generally admitted to be specially transient; the " knowledge-test," considered apart from a test of capacity, is in fact not a test of permanent knowledge, but of the power of retaining facts for a length of time which it is impossible to estimate and which with some candidates extends over a few weeks only.
(At Oxford and Cambridge many fellowships are now awarded on the results of examination; it is sometimes stated, in defence of this system, that young men cannot be expected to carry out research in classics or philosophy.) On the other hand, the defenders of examinations reply that (xiii.) examinations are necessary in order to test the efficiency of schools to which grants of public money are given (this argument has become somewhat out of date owing to the recent substitution of " inspection " for examination as a test of the efficiency of schools; a combination of inspection and examination is also sometimes used); (xiv.) they serve as a necessary incentive to steady and concentrated work 1 (the reply made to this is that the incentive is a bad one, and that with efficient teachers it is unnecessary); (xv.) they show both student and teacher where they have failed (unnecessary for efficient teachers); (xvi.) though possibly harmful to the highest class of men, they are good for the mass (reply: no system which damages the highest class of men is tolerable); (xvii.) they are indispensable as an impartial means of selecting men for the civil service; (xviii.) in a difficult examination like the first class civil service examination the qualities of quickness of comprehension, industry, concentration, power of rapidly passing 1 The Oxford commissioners of 1852 reported that " the examinations have become the chief instruments not only for testing the proficiency of the students but also for stimulating and directing the studies of the place " (Report, p. 61).
from one subject to another, good health, are necessary for success, though not tested directly, and these qualities are valuable in any kind of work (this appears to be incontrovertible); (xix.) examination records show that success in examinations is generally followed by success in after-life, and the test is therefore efficient (it does not follow that certain rejected candidates may not be extremely efficient); (xx.) as a plea for purely " external examinations," teachers cannot be trusted to be impartial and it is better for a boy to " cram " than to curry favour with his teacher (Latham).
But in view of the extreme importance of the matter, and especially of the evidence that, for some cause or other (which may or may not be the examination system), intellectual interest and initiative seem to diminish in many cases very markedly during school and college life in England, the whole subject seems to call for a searching and impartial inquiry.
Garnett, " The Representation of certain Examination Results," Journ.
Langdon, The Writing of English (1907); Auberon Herbert (edited by), The Sacrifice of Education to Examination, Letters from " All Sorts and Conditions of Men " (1889); Influence of Examinations, Report by a Committee, British Association Reports for 1903, p. 434, and for 1904, p. 360; John Jebb, Remarks upon the Present Mode of Education in the University of Cambridge (4th ed., 1774); Henry Latham, On the Action of Examinations (Cambridge, 1877); H.
In modern times a critical examination has arrived at a more favourable judgment, and though Gossellin in his Recherches sur la giographie des anciens (iv.
From the first a devoted student and antiquary, he devoted much time to the examination of oriental MSS.
It can only be effected by a close examination of the style and language of the document, which may enable us in some instances to identify with comparative security certain passages which are found in St Luke, but which St Matthew did not regard as suitable for his purpose.
The uses of the term being so various, its special signification in any case must be determined by the character of the passage in which it occurs; and an examination of the contents of Proverbs shows that the thought of the book differs widely from that of the literature prior to the 5th century B.C. The book appears on its face to be a compilation, various authors being mentioned in the titles: Solomon in x.
Examination of titles in the Prophets and the Psalms (to say nothing of Ecclesiastes and Wisdom of Solomon) makes it evident that these have been added by late editors who were governed by vague traditions or fanciful associations or caprice, and there is no reason to suppose the titles in Proverbs to be .exceptions to the general rule.
With the general acceptance of its main principle that the real is the rational, there came in the eighties a more critical examination of the precise meaning to be attached to it and its bearing on the problems of religion.
The emperor even wrote to the elector of Saxony, asking him to bring Luther with him to the diet for examination.
In his Tripos examination, which through illness he was prevented from taking till 1837, he was placed as second wrangler, but being a Jew and unwilling to sign the Thirty-nine Articles, he could not compete for one of the Smith's prizes and was ineligible for a fellowship, nor could he even take a degree: this last, however, he obtained at Trinity College, Dublin, where religious restrictions were no longer in force.
It is now generally agreed that the present adjustment of the older historical books of the Old Testament to form a continuous record of events from the creation to the Babylonian' exile is due to an editor, or rather to successive redactors, who pieced together and reduced to a certain unity older memoirs of very different dates; and closer examination shows that the continuity of many parts of the narrative is more apparent than real.
Duges's statement that there is a second species of Amblystoma, which is normal in its metamorphosis, near Mexico but at a higher altitude, which may explain Velasco's observation that regularly transforming Amblystomas occur near that city; and thirdly, he made a careful examination of the two lakes, Chalco and Xochimilco, where the axolotls occur in abundance and are procured for the market.
He was a Republican member of the National House of Representatives from 1877 until 1899; was a member of the Potter Committee to investigate the disputed presidential election of 1876, and conducted the examination of Samuel J.
The highlands which shut off the Turkestan provinces from Southern Afghanistan have afforded the best opportunities for geological investigation, and as might be expected from their geographical position, the general result of the examination of exposed sections leads to the identification of geological affinity with Himalayan, Indian and Persian regions.
Plainly this is not the place for a full examination of the question; yet it may be remarked - (I) that the previous history of the sophists of the Euthydemus, who had been professors of tactics (Xenophon, Mem.
form such an opinion from actual examination of the heavens with a telescope.
These passages certainly prove that Bacon had very nearly, if not perfectly, arrived at theoretical proof of the possibility of constructing a telescope and a microscope; but his writings give no account of the trial of an actual telescope, nor any detailed results of the application of a telescope to an examination of the heavens.
Nevinson, A Modern Slavery (London, 1906), an examination of the system of indentured labour and its recruitment; Ornithologie d'Angola, by J.
north of Petra, Shobak, the Mont-royal of the Crusaders.2 More satisfactory evidence of the date at which the earliest Nabataean settlement began is to be obtained from an examination of the tombs.
The administrative head of the system fs the director of education, who is appointed by the commission, and who arranges the course of study, approves the plans for school houses, determines in what towns secondary schools shall be established and in what towns American teachers shall teach, divides the archipelago into school divisions and appoints a division superintendent in each, and supervises the examination of teachers and the application of insular school funds.
The speech against Vatinius was an attack upon a witness under examination; that de Domo was made before the Pontifices; that pro C. Rabirio perduellionis reo in the course of a provocatio to the people; and those pro Ligario and pro rege Deiotaro before Caesar.
Spectroscopic examination had already suggested prodigious velocities of the order of woo m.
These clusters present many unsolved problems. Thus Perrine, from an examination of ten globular clusters (including Messier 13 and Centauri), has found in each case that the stars can be separated into two classes of magnitudes.
The phenomenon of two drifts was discovered by an examination of the Bradley proper motions (Brit.
R.A.S., 1906, 67, P. 34; 1 9 10, 71, P. 4) By an examination of the stars of very large proper motion F.
They have been shown to prevail among fainter stars down to magnitude 9.5, by an examination of the Greenwich-Carri,Igton proper motions; these, however, only cover a region within 9° of the north pole.
Until the hypothesis has been thoroughly tested by an examination of the line-of-sight velocities of stars from the same point of view, this physical interpretation must be received with some degree of caution; but there can be no doubt of the reality of the anomalies in the statistical distribution of proper motions of the stars, and of these it offers a simple and adequate explanation.
Young Gay-Lussac received his early education at home under the direction of the abbe Bourdieux and other masters, and in 1794 was sent to Paris to prepare for the Ecole Polytechnique, into which he was admitted at the:end of 1797 after a brilliant examination.
Davy, passing through Paris on his way to Italy at the end of 1813, obtained a few fragments of iodine, which had been discovered by Bernard Courtois (1777-1838) in 1811, and after a brief examination by the aid of his limited portable laboratory perceived its analogy to chlorine and inferred it to be an element.
Nash, "he carried a sweeping hypothesis into the examination of the New Testament."
For an examination of the above and other methods see E.
Thenceforward he devoted his whole time to a systematic examination of the French caves, his first publication on the subject being The Antiquity of Man in Western Europe (1860), followed in 1861 by New Researches on the Coexistence of Man and of the Great Fossil Mammifers characteristic of the Last Geological Period.
But he forbade extortion and suppressed more than 1 Seyid Ameer Ali, A Critical Examination of the Life and Teachings of Mahomet, pp. 341-343.
The value of the History consists to-day primarily in its examination of the Athenian democracy, its growth and decline, an examination which is still the most inspiring, and in general the most instructive, in any language.
Mill paid a tribute to him in the preface to the third edition of his Examination of Sir Wm.
At an annual spiritual examination of the members, there are mutual criticisms and public confessions of sin.
But there were numbers of cases when the discussion as to servile status turned not on these formal points but on an examination of the services performed by the person claimed as a villein or challenged as holding in villenage.
During the eight years that he held the portfolio of state, he had con s tinually to defend the neutral rights of the United States against the encroachments of European belligerents; in 1806 he published An Examination of the British Doctrine which subjects to Capture a Neutral Trade not open in Time of Peace, a careful argument - with a minute examination of authorities on international law - against the rule of war of 1756 extended by Great Britain in 1 793 and 1803.
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