Examination sentence example

examination
  • Both passed the examination successfully.
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  • Charles devoted the rest of his life to the gigantic task of rehabilitating Sweden by means of a reduktion, or recovery of alienated crown lands, a process which involved the examination of every title deed in the kingdom, and resulted in the complete readjustment of the finances.
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  • He held the items out for her examination.
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  • His examination didn't last long, and the sensations faded.
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  • Fred scratched his head as he held up the skull for close examination.
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  • You are amazed at all the things you know which are not on the examination paper.
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  • The difficult task of rounding her up and holding her down wasn't his greatest concern about an examination.
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  • The exact meaning of these features is not clear, but if it be remembered (a) that the Levites of post-exilic literature represent only the result of a long and intricate development, (b) that the name "Levite," in the later stages at least, was extended to include all priestly servants, and (c) that the priesthoods, in tending to become hereditary, included priests who were Levites by adoption and not by descent, it will be recognized that the examination of the evidence for the earlier stages cannot confine itself to those narratives where the specific term alone occurs.
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  • The third, or major examination, which qualifies for registration as a pharmaceutical chemist, is not, like the minor, a compulsory one, but ranks as an honours examination.
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  • Careful examination soon shows an.
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  • He was soon promoted to be one of Edward VI.'s chaplains and prebendary of Westminster, and in October 1552 was one of the six divines to whom the Forty-two articles were submitted for examination before being sanctioned by the Privy Council.
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  • In 2778 the Few Remarks by a Gentleman (Francis Eyre), the Reply of Loftus, the Letters of Apthorpe and the Examination of Davies appeared.
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  • See John Clarke, Examination of the Notion of Moral Good and Evil advanced in a late book entitled The Religion of Nature Delineated (London, 1725); Drechsler, Ober Wollaston's Moral-Philosophie (Erlangen, 1802); Sir Leslie Stephen's History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1876), ch.
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  • Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
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  • We cannot assume that the fluctuations in wages were due to the action or inaction of magistrates without the most careful examination of the other influences affecting the trades.
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  • In most cases the interpretation of the facts is far from obvious, and we have to try several hypotheses before we reach one which will bear the strain of a critical examination in the light of further evidence.
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  • It is because of the failure of this endeavour to bring the technique of induction within the setting of his Humian psychology of belief that the separation of his contribution to the applied logic of science from his sensationism became necessary, as it happily 1 Mill, Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, cap. 17.
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  • The conversation and the examination of the accounts with Mitenka did not last long.
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  • On a second voyage, in 1556, Chancellor was drowned; and three subsequent voyages, led by Stephen Burrough, Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman, in small craft of 50 tons and under, carried on an examination of the straits which lead into the Kara sea.
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  • The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
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  • In some cases the closest examination has failed to detect any distinction that may be called specific between the members of their avifauna; but in most it is possible to discover just sufficient difference to warrant a separation of the subjects.
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  • The resulting " classification is based on the examination, mostly autoptic, of a far greater number of characters than any that had preceded it; moreover, they were chosen in a different way, discernment being exercised in sifting and weighing them, so as to determine, so far as possible, the relative value of each, according as that value may vary in different groups, and not to produce a mere mechanical ` key ' after the fashion become of late years so common " (Newton's Dictionary of Birds, Introduction, p. 103).
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  • On the other hand, the opinion of Cardinal Pitra, who referred the Physiologus to the more orthodox though somewhat peculiar teaching of the Alexandrians, is fully borne out by a close examination of the irregularities of doctrine pointed out in the Physiologus by Cahier, all which are to be met with in Origen.
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  • The critical examination of the nature and growth of this compilation has removed much that had formerly caused insuperable difficulties and had quite unnecessarily been made an integral or a relevant part of practical religion.
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  • Those in Israel who remembered the previous war between 1 Careful examination shows that no a priori distinction can be drawn between " trustworthy " books of Kings and " untrustworthy books " of Chronicles.
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  • The condition of the European Jews seems, on a superficial examination, abject enough.
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  • Two years later he passed the examination for the "baccalaureat es sciences" enabling him to become candidate for the Ecole normale.
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  • His next treatise, The Subjection of Women, was not published till 1869.1 His Examination of Hamilton's Philosophy, published in 1865, had engaged a large share of his time for three years before.
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  • Every hypothesis must be tested by an appeal to the facts of life, and modified or abandoned if it will not bear examination, unless we are convinced on genuine evidence that it may for a time be employed as a useful approximation, without prejudice to the later stages of the investigation we are conducting.
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  • On examination this is found to be the under surface of the posterior limb of the gland, the upper surface of which has just been described as lying beneath the shell.
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  • As the result of an examination conducted in September 1785 by Laplace, Bonaparte was included among those who entered the army without going through an intermediate stage.
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  • On a slighter accusation than this many had perished; but an examination into the details of the mission of Bonaparte to Genoa and the new instructions which arrived from Carnot, availed to procure his release on the 10th of August.
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  • The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.
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  • Further examination also revealed the fact 3 that in certain groups the number of " primaries," or quill-feathers growing from the manus or distal segment of the wing, formed another characteristic easy of observation.
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  • Microscopic examination of a specimen of mature cotton shows that the hairs are flattened and twisted, resembling somewhat in general appearance an empty and twisted fire hose.
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  • Examination showed that although the weevil attacked the young buds these did not drop off, but that a special growth of tissue inside the bud frequently killed the grub.
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  • A field is gone over carefully, and perhaps some 5 o of the best plants selected; a second examination in the field reduces these perhaps to one half, and each plant is numbered.
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  • This selection of one market for detailed examination does not rob our sketch of generality, as might at first be thought, since broadly the history of the development of one market is the history of the development of all, and on the whole the economic explanation of the evolution that has taken place may be universalized.
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  • However, it is made clear as the result of an elaborate examination that the generality of these correspondences cannot be affirmed.'
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  • Having finished his university course, he returned to Hamburg, and passed his examination for the Christian ministry.
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  • He wrote nothing but a critical examination of the story of Don Carlos, but he returned to Germany a master of his craft.
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  • In the routine examination of crude petroleum it is customary to determine the specific gravity, and the amount of water and earthy matter in suspension; the oil is also frequently subjected to a process of fractional distillation in order to ascertain whether there has been any addition of distilled products or residue.
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  • What we do find is a slight transverse furrow on each side of the head, close to the tip, but the most careful examination of sections made through the tissues of the head and brain shows the absence of any further apparatus comparable to that described above.
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  • He had submitted the doctrine of transubstantiation (already generally received both by priests and people, although in the west it had been first unequivocally taught and reduced to a regular theory by Paschasius Radbert in 831) to an independent examination, and had come to the conclusion that it was contrary to reason, unwarranted by Scripture, and inconsistent with the teaching of men like Ambrose, Jerome and Augustine.
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  • The cranial measurements of the Malays and an examination of their hair sections seem to bear out the theory that they are distinct from the Mongolian races.
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  • The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.
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  • The complete analysis involves an examination of the fatty matter, of the various forms in which the alkalis are present - free and combined glycerin, &c.
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  • In 1717 he was elected professor of mathematics in Marischal College, Aberdeen, as the result of a competitive examination.
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  • At the instance of Euric's son, Alaric II., an examination was made of the Roman laws in use among Romans in his dominions, and the resulting compilation was approved in 506 at an assembly at Aire, in Gascony, and is known as the Breviary of Alaric, and sometimes as the Liber Aniani, from the fact that the authentic copies bear the signature of the referendarius Anian.
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  • He controls the expenditure of public money for school purposes, the examination and the appointment of teachers, whose nominations by the municipal school boards are referred to the commissioner.
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  • To him is also due a rigorous examination of the nature of elements and compounds; he held the same views that were laid down by Boyle, and with the same prophetic foresight predicted that some of the elements which he himself accepted might be eventually found to be compounds.
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  • In 1878 Marignac, having subjected Mosander's erbia, obtained from gadolinite, to a careful examination, announced the presence of a new element, ytterbium; this discovery was confirmed by Nilson, who in the following year discovered another element, scandium, in Marignac's ytterbia.
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  • Examination of the absorption spectra of coloured compounds shows that certain groupings displace the absorption bands in one direction, and other groupings in the other.
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  • The sentences are much longer and less vivacious, as any one can see by a superficial examination.
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  • For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bks.
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  • He ought not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination, when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the whole of the information available.
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  • Again, on the map illustrating Livingstone's " Last Journals " the Luapula is shown as issuing from the Bangweulu in the north-west, when an examination of the account of the natives who carried the great explorer's remains to the coast would have shown that it leaves that lake on the south.
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  • When a similar motion was brought forward in the Lords the consideration of it was postponed to the following year, in order to give time for the examination of witnesses by a committee of the House.
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  • Without taking a degree he removed his name from the college books in April 1798, as a protest against the inquisitorial examination of the political views of the students conducted by Lord Clare as chancellor of the university.
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  • An examination of extant papyri has had the result of proving that sheets of large size, measuring about 12 in., were sometimes used.
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  • It is convenient to place in a small envelope gummed to an upper corner of the sheet any flowers, seeds or leaves needed for dissection or microscopical examination, especially where from the fixation of the specimen it is impossible to examine the leaves for oilreceptacles and where seed is apt to escape from ripe capsules and be lost.
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  • At the request of the Indian government the Nepalese government had the pillar, which was half buried, excavated for examination; and Dr Fiihrer, then in the employ of the Archaeological Survey, arrived soon afterwards at the spot.
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  • After careful examination of the nine Acillii, who were consuls, De Rossi concludes that this was the resting-place of that Acilius Glabrio, consul with Trajan, A.D.
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  • Thus Russell's contradiction vanishes, and an examination of the other contradictions shows that they vanish also.
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  • In consequence of this 560,000 claims were received, and a first examination showed that the aggregate amount reached by these claims was not less than £T13,000,000.
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  • Specimens may be sent to Europe for expert examination up to an aggregate weight of 2000 tons, on paying the requisite duties.
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  • No longer haughtily imposed on the vanquished, as was the case with former treaties, it was submitted to the examination and discussion of both parties before being signed.
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  • A critical examination of the history of the Israelite ark renders it far from certain that the object was originally the peculiar possession of all Israel.
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  • A complete examination of a series of different latices has shown that, in many cases, e.g.
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  • In 1861, while conducting a spectroscopic examination of the residue left in the manufacture of sulphuric acid, he observed a bright green line which had not been noticed previously, and by following up the indication thus given he succeeded in isolating a new element, thallium, a specimen of which was shown in public for the first time at the exhibition of 1862.
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  • Van Buren was not an orator, but... the oft-repeated charge that he refrained from declaring himself on crucial questions is hardly borne out by an examination of his senatorial career.
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  • The royal taille naturally retained the distinctive characteristics of the seigniorial, as can be seen from an examination of the way in which it was assessed and collected; the chief characteristic being that ecclesiastics and nobles, who were exempt from the seigniorial taille, were also exempt from the royal.
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  • Later papers 7 give the results of a more minute examination of those specimens which were remarkable for very low and very high permeabilities, and were therefore likely to be of commercial importance.
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  • Among the rocks then obtained and submitted to Sir John Murray for examination there were detected specimens of nearly pure phosphate of lime, a discovery which eventually led, in June 1888, to the annexation of the island to the British crown.
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  • His travels had convinced him that a full and comprehensive knowledge of classical antiquity could only be acquired by a thorough acquaintance with Greek and Roman monuments and works of art, and a detailed examination of the topographical and climatic conditions of the chief localities of the ancient world.
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  • Although the coast of Brazil shows a large number of bays and tide-water river channels which are apparently suitable for commercial ports, a close examination of them reduces the number of good ports to less than a dozen.
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  • The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.
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  • Stories of tailless kittens, puppies and calves, born from parents one of whom had been thus injured, are abundant, but they have hitherto entirely failed to stand before examination.
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  • The very cases which are advanced as only to be explained on the Lamarckian assumption are found on examination and experiment to be better explained, or only to be explained, by the Darwinian principle.
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  • In many cases the subject of examination is a luminous line of uniform intensity, the various points of which are to be treated as independent sources of light.
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  • The best object for examination is a grating of fine wires, about fifty to the inch, backed by a sodium flame.
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  • If the subject of examination be a luminous line parallel to n, we shall obtain what we require by integrating (4) with respect to 77 from - oo to + oo.
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  • Fresnel commenced his researches with an examination of the fringes, external and internal, which accompany the shadow of a narrow opaque strip, such as a wire.
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  • The division into five books was known to Hippolytus, but a closer examination of the doxologies shows that it does not represent the original scheme of the Psalter; for, while the doxologies to the first three books are no part of the psalms to which they are attached, but really mark the end of a book in a pious fashion not uncommon in Eastern literature, that to book IV., with its rubric addressed to the people, plainly belongs to the psalm, or rather to its liturgical execution, and does not therefore really mark the close of a collection once separate.
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  • He was a good palaeographer, and excelled in textual criticism, in examination of authorship, and other such matters, while his vast erudition and retentive memory made him second to none in interpretation and exposition.
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  • Secondly, the external evidence does not bear examination.
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  • The mandarinate or official class is recruited from all ranks of the people by competitive examination.
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  • Next above this is the school of the district capital, where a half-yearly examination takes place, by means of which are selected those eligible for the course of higher education given at the capital of the province in a school under the direction of a doc-hoc, or inspector of studies.
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  • The cytology of bone marrow, with the technique of blood examination, is of great assistance in the diagnosis of different pathological conditions.
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  • Health is simply that condition of structure and function which, on examination of a sufficient number of examples, we find to be commonest.
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  • From the histological examination of tumour cells there is no evidence to show that they resemble the protozoal unicellular organisms in occasionally passing through a sexual process of reproduction, i.e.
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  • In the application of chemistry to the examination of secretions Willis made some important steps.
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  • In a series of letters, De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published when he was in his eightieth year, he describes the appearances met with at the post mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases.
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  • Now the cellular pathology of the blood, investigated by the aid of modern staining methods, is as important as that of the solid organs; no clinical investigator - indeed, apart from research, no practitioner at this day - can dispense with examination of the blood for purposes of diagnosis; its coagulability and the kinds and the variations of the cells it contains being evidence of many def i nitely morbid states of the body.
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  • A minute knowledge of printed books and a methodical examination of departmental and communal archives furnished him with material for a long course of successful lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and significance of the urban communities in France.
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  • The Council of Legal Education superintends the education and subsequent examination of students.
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  • Privileges It is only necessary to mention these here, but each fthe lord of the privileges requires an exhaustive examination o, as to its origin.
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  • The examination of the air of metal mines has shown that in most cases it is much worse than the air of crowded theatres or other badly ventilated buildings.
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  • A careful examination, however, of the "we" sections shows that words and expressions characteristic of the author of the third Gospel and the Acts are found in them to an extent which is very remarkable, and that in many instances they belong to the very texture of the passages.
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  • A Patamabyan examination for marks in the Pali language was first instituted in 1896 and is held annually.
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  • The existence of internal strains in glass can be readil y recognized by examination in polarized light, any signs of double refraction indicating the existence of strain.
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  • The examination of small test-pieces of the glass withdrawn from the crucible by means of an iron rod having shown that the molten mass is free from bubbles, the stirring process may be begun, the object of this manipulation being to render the glass as homogeneous as possible and to secure the absence of veins or striae in the product.
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  • As the fractured surfaces of the glass in this condition are unsuitable for delicate examination a good deal of glass that passes this inspection has yet ultimately to be rejected.
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  • For the purpose of rendering this minute examination possible, opposite plane surfaces of the glass are ground approximately flat and polished, the faces to be polished being so chosen as to allow of a view through the greatest possible thickness of glass; thus in slabs the narrow edges are polished.
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  • This led to an examination of the New Testament foundation of the Christian Church, and in 1725, in a letter to Francis Archibald, minister of Guthrie, Forfarshire, he repudiated the obligation of national covenants.
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  • Thus a bishop of the English Church appoints examining chaplains who conduct the examination of candidates for holy orders; such officials generally hold ordinary benefices also.
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  • He took a leading part in the examination into the army plot; was one of the commissioners appointed to attend the king to Scotland in August 1641; and was nominated one of the committee of safety in July 1642.
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  • Our suspicion is justified by a further examination of Mark xiii.
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  • The continued attacks upon the Presbyterians led him to publish his Short, Sober, Pacific Examination of Exuberances in the Common Prayer, as well as the Apology for Tender Consciences touching Not Bowing at the Name of Jesus.
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  • In North Germany the mature tapeworm was found on post-mortem examination once in every 200 bodies examined, while its embryo, the Cysticercus cellulosae, was found in in every 76 bodies.
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  • His principal works (5 vols., Andover, 1849-50) were Lectures on the Inspiration of the Scriptures (1829), Memoirs of American Missionaries (1833), Examination of the Doctrine of Perfection (1841), Lectures on Church Government (1843), and Lectures on Swedenborgianism (1846); he also wrote a History of Andover Seminary (1848), completed by his son.
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  • He taught with great regularity for upward of thirty years, the only interruptions being that of 1813-1814 (occasioned by the War of Liberation, during which the university was closed) and those occasioned by two prolonged literary tours, first in 1820 to Paris, London and Oxford with his colleague Johann Karl Thilo (1794-1853) for the examination of rare oriental manuscripts, and in 1835 to England and Holland in connexion with his Phoenician studies.
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  • An examination of the soil shows it to be composed of a vast number of small particles of sand, clay, chalk and humus, in which are generally imbedded larger or smaller stones.
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  • Careful examination of a large number of individuals of one variety growing under similar conditions reveals differences in such characters as number of leaves per plant, the size and shape of the leaves, tendency to form suckers, time of maturing and resistance to disease.
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  • After examination his Erlangen degree was recognized, and in 1824 he was appointed extraordinary professor of chemistry at Giessen, becoming ordinary professor two years later.
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  • Both parties visited many sites where Himyaritic remains and inscriptions were found, but the hostile attitude of the natives, more particularly of the Seyyids, the religious hierarchy of Hadramut, prevented any adequate examination, and much of archaeological interest undoubtedly remains for future travellers to discover.
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  • The entire construction of the history is based, as has already been said, on a critical examination and chronological arrangement of the available documents.
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  • A further examination of the epistle shows that it must have been written towards the close of the B&erla An of Acts xxviii.
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  • It is in Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy that the classical statement of the Relativity of Knowledge is to be found.
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  • Others again assert the buffaloes to have been there from time immemorial; in which case it is very desirable that a specimen should be submitted for examination.
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  • To this committee was entrusted the task of the examination of all election returns, and of the proclamation of the names of successful candidates for seats in congress.
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  • Such, at least, is Echard's conclusion, derived from an examination of the earliest extant MSS.
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  • The mechanism of protrusion in the Cyclostomata is a subject which requires further examination.
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  • For a critical examination of the story, see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk.
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  • Duff gave much thought and time to the university of Calcutta, which owes its examination system and the prominence given to physical sciences to his influence.
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  • Maurice, which he afterwards published, along with a fuller examination of the doctrine of the essays.
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  • In April 1772 he passed his theological examination, and soon after became professor of Greek at the Collegium Humanitatis.
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  • This general case has been discussed at length because a careful study of it will much facilitate the comprehension of the similar but more complicated cases that occur in the examination of alloys.
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  • Microscopic examination fully confirms the existence of these compounds.
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  • This is the case with the copper-tin alloys containing less than 9% by weight of tin; a microscopic examination reveals only one material, a copper-like substance, the tin having disappeared, being in solution in the copper.
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  • He also acted for a time as chairman of the secret committee of the Commons, and drew up the report on the examination of the Jesuit Coleman, secretary to the duchess of York.
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  • The allegations made in Sacheverell's report on the examination of Coleman prompted the country party to demand the exclusion of James, duke of York, from the succession to the throne, the first suggestion of the famous Exclusion Bill being made by Sacheverell on the 4th of November 1678 in a debate- "the greatest that ever was in Parliament," as it was pronounced by contemporaries - raised by Lord Russell with the object of removing the duke from the King's Council.
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  • The number of students who enter the university without passing any examination in Italian is rapidly increasing; the longer the period of transition, the greater the detriment to the rising generation.
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  • The bottle is again cleaned and dried, and the operations repeated with the liquid under examination instead of water.
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  • Though for many centuries they have thus been treated as separate compositions, we have abundant evidence that they were anciently regarded as forming but one book, and a careful examination proves that together with the book of Chronicles they constitute one single work.
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  • In all areometer work it is necessary to ascertain the temperature of the water sample under examination with great exactness, as the volume of the areometer as well as the specific gravity of the water varies with temperature.
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  • Among his principal publications are An Examination of Ferrier's "Knowing and Being," and the Scottish Philosophy - (a work which gave him the reputation of being an independent Hamiltonian in philosophy); Memoir of John Brown, D.D.
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  • The opening and laying out, or, as it is generally called, "winning," of new collieries is rarely Prelimin- undertaken without a ary trial preliminary examination of coal= of the character of the workings.
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  • The management of such places, therefore, requires the most constant vigilance on the part of the workmen, especially in the examination of the working places that have been standing empty during the night, in which gas may have accumulated, to see that they are properly cleared before the new shift commences.
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  • For a detailed examination of the question of the authenticity of the letters see the introduction to Lettres de Marie Antoinette.
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  • But as a rule most of those who have adopted this view have done so without the full and patient examination which the matter demands; they have been misled by the difference in tone and style between the earlier and later writings, and have concluded that underlying this was a fundamental difference of philosophic conception.
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  • In 1811 Espartero was appointed a lieutenant of Engineers in Cadiz, but having failed to pass his examination he entered a line regiment.
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  • Moreover, the existing canons are to be subjected to the examination of a commission appointed by the king, half its members from parliament, half from the clergy, to abrogate with the king's assent such provisions as the majority find do not stand with God's laws and the laws of the realm.
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  • The references of the time of the Exodus, the Invasion and the " Judges " - whatever chronological scheme be adopted - must be taken in connexion with a careful examination of all the evidence.
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  • After passing his leaving examination from a Realschule, young Stinnes was placed in an office at Coblentz where he speedily picked up the elements of a business training.
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  • Bib., " Amos," and the introduction to Robertson Smith's Prophets of Israel (2), though in some cases the final decision will have to be preceded by a more thorough examination of the traditional text.
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  • On the 18th of May 1866 he made the first spectroscopic examination of a temporary star (Nova Coronae), and found it to be enveloped in blazing hydrogen.
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  • Coins of foreign mints are generally submitted to examination by a committee of eminent chemists and metallurgists whose report is published in the official journals.
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  • For the classified service of the state and of the minor civil divisions, except cities, the commission makes rules (subject to the governor's approval and to statutory and constitutional provisions) governing the classification of offices, the examination of candidates for office, and the appointment and promotion of employees.
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  • This body very largely determines the course of study in the elementary schools, high schools, normal school and the normal departments of the University and the State College, approves the requirements for entrance to the University and the State College, and prepares the questions for the examination of teachers.
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  • The question whether the two differed to any, and if so to what, extent can be decided only from an examination of the Gospel itself.
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  • A closer examination of those parts of Ezra and Nehemiah which are not extracted from earlier documents or original memoirs leads to the conclusion that Chronicles-Ezra-Nehemiah was originally one work, displaying throughout the peculiarities of language and thought of a single editor, who, however, cannot be Ezra himself as tradition would have it.
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  • Passages in the books of Samuel and Kings which might appear to point to the contrary require careful examination; they prove to be glosses or interpolations, or are relatively late as a whole.
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  • An entire action may be referred, if all parties consent, or if it involves any prolonged examination of documents, or scientific or local examination, or consists wholly or partly of matters of account.
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  • The brilliant way in which he sustained his preliminary examination won him the friendship of the examiner, Bishop Jasper Brokman, at whose palace he first met Frederick III.
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  • The Marine Department was created a separate branch of the board of trade in 1850, about which time many new and important marine questions came under the board of trade, such, for example, as the survey of passenger steamers, the compulsory examination of masters and mates, the establishment of shipping offices for the engagement and discharge of seamen.
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  • But this is not the original picture, and, since very contradictory representations of Solomon's reign can be clearly discerned, it is necessary in the first instance to view them in the light of an independent examination of the history of the preceding and following periods where, again, serious fluctuation of standpoint is found.
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  • The importance of the work has, however, been much overrated; a close examination of the sources for the exposition of the Gnostic system which is con " tained in it has Proved that the information it gives is not always trustworthy.
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  • It is evident, therefore, that the request for a definition of Ultramontanism cannot be answered with a concise formula, but that the varied character of its manifestations necessitates a more detailed examination of its peculiar objects.
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  • Clark, the queen's physician, and the result was that Lady Flora was subjected to the indignity of a medical examination, which,.
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  • At St Bartholomew's, St George's, the London Hospital, St Thomas's and others, probationers must enter for four years, and at St Bartholomew's they have to pass an entrance examination in elementary anatomy, physiology and other subjects.
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  • He obtained a scholarship at Trinity College, Oxford, and a second class in the degree examination, and was elected fellow of his college (1845).
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  • It dates from 1381, and is well worth more careful examination than it receives.
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  • In this rapid glance at some of the chief priesthoods of antiquity we have hitherto passed over the pure Semites, whose priesthoods call for closer examination because of the profound influence which one of them - that of the Jews - has exercised on Christianity, and so on the whole history of the modern world.
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  • There is probably no nature religion among races above mere savagery which has not had a priesthood; but an examination of other examples would scarcely bring out any important XXII.
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  • The word is specifically applied in the early church to the examination of the catechumens or those under instruction in the faith.
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  • Sickly animals should be at once isolated, and their cages and enclosures disinfected, whilst as a matter of routine the enclosure in which any animal has died should be cleansed, and according to the results of post-mortem examination, which should be made in every case, appropriate measures of disinfection employed.
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  • Professor Zimmer, in his examination of the story, sees reason to believe that the main incidents may repose on a genuine historic tradition, dating back to the 9th or 10th century, the period of Viking rule in Ireland.
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  • For an exhaustive study of the Tristan legend and literature, see the recent work by Professor Golther; also an examination of the Welsh fragments by Ivor John in the Grimm Library.
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  • An examination of the name lists given in duplicate in Ezra ii.
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  • For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische &eschichte, bk.
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  • Among his pamphlets are A Candid Examination of the Mutual Claims of Great Britain and the Colonies (1775); Historical and Political Reflections on the Rise and Progress of the American Rebellion (1780); Cool Thoughts on the Consequences to Great Britain of American Independence (1780); and The Claim of the American Loyalists Reviewed and Maintained upon Incontrovertible Principles of Law and Justice (1788).
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  • The question of the position of Greek in secondary education has from time to time attracted attention in connexion with the requirement of Greek in Responsions at Oxford, and in the Previous Examination at Cambridge.
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  • On the 9th of March 1871 a syndicate recommended that, in the Previous Examination, French and German (taken together) should be allowed in place of Greek; on the 27th of April this recommendation (which only affected candidates for honours or for medical degrees) was rejected by 51 votes to 48.
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  • All the other proposals and votes relating to Greek in the Previous Examination in 1870-1873, 1878-1880, and 1891-1892 are set forth in the Cambridge University Reporter for November 11, 1904, pp. 202-205.
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  • Milton, in his Tractate on Education (1644), advances further on Bacon's lines, protesting against the length of time spent on instruction in language, denouncing merely verbal knowledge, and recommending the study of a large number of classical authors for the sake of their subject appointed to consider the studies and examinations of the university, their report of November 1904 on the Previous Examination was fully discussed, and the speeches published in the Reporter for December 17, 1904.
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  • On the 3rd of March 1905 a proposal for accepting either French or German as an alternative for either Latin or Greek in the Previous Examination was rejected by 1559 to 1052 votes, and on the 26th of May 1906 proposals distinguishing between students in letters and students in science, and (inter alia) requiring the latter to take either French or German for either Latin or Greek in the Previous Examination, were rejected b y 746 to 241.
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  • Greek, however, was still recognized as part of the examination held for the appointment of schoolmasters.
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  • As an alternative to the second cycle, which normally ends in the examination for the baccalaureat, there is a shorter course, mainly founded on modern languages or applied science and ending in a public examination without the baccalaureat.
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  • The leaving examination (Abgangspriifung), instituted in that year, required Greek translation at sight, with Greek prose composition, and ability to speak and to write Latin.
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  • The considerations from which he acutely and accurately draws far-reaching and important conclusions might be suggested by a very superficial examination of the literature; they involve, for example, no special philological knowledge.
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  • Much of the voluminous detailed work in this and other works is naturally enough provisional, but in the Introduction there emerge most of the broad conclusions of literary criticism (sometimes incomplete) which, after more than a century of keen examination by scholars unwilling to admit them, have passed by more or less general consent into the number of historical certainties or high probabilities.
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  • Nor again is it possible to survey the more special developments of literary criticism which have later emerged, amongst which one of the most important has been the radical examination of the prophetic writings introduced and developed by (amongst others) Stade, Wellhausen, Duhm, Cheyne, Marti.'
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  • The first stage in their work must be the establishment of the earliest form of each version, and the collection and examination of the quotations in all the early writers.
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  • There were in 1909 62 city public high schools whose graduates are admitted to the State University without examination.
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  • His spare time and great part of his nights were devoted to the experimental examination of the different bodies which he dealt with, and the study of the standard works on chemistry.
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  • The pressure to which the Sheffield plate was submitted produces a definite colour and texture which is absent from the surface produced by the deposit of silver in a liquid medium by electrical means, and the coat of silver is spread by the latter uniformly over the whole surface without a break, while in the former the junction between the embossed ornaments and the silver strips covering the cut edges may often be detected on careful examination.
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  • But to his wide, deep and accurate learning, to his conscientious and impartial examination of the facts and the authorities at first hand, and to "his exact quotation of the sources and works illustrating them, and careful discussion of the most minute details," all succeeding historians are indebted.
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  • He suggests as the mode of enforcing this obligation the requirement of submission to a test examination "before any one could obtain the freedom in any corporation, or be allowed to set up a trade in any village or town corporate."
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  • He then introduced the practice of following the lecture with a viva voce examination on what had been delivered.
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  • After a preliminary examination of all possible different attempts at a solution of the problem of evil, the attempt is here made to represent the devil as an instrument of God.
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  • But how widespread was the idea of seven powers, who created this lower material world and rule over it, has been clearly proved, especially by the systematic examination of the subject by Anz (Ursprung des Gnosticismus).
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  • But on closer examination we can clearly see that it has a wide influence on Gnosticism.
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  • The audiencia councils also advised the viceroy in matters of administration; and, as with other officials, his career was subject at its close to a formal examination by a commission - a process known as " taking his residencia."
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  • The conflicts, which may at first sight seem to be merely between rival generals, are seen upon closer examination to be mainly (r) between the privileged classes, i.e.
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  • The Influence of Sea Power upon History, by Captain Mahan, gives the best critical examination of the naval aspects of the war.
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  • In post-mortem examination, the most obvious pathological lesion is hypertrophy of the spleen, which may be very pronounced; the lymphatic glands in the neck, inguinal region, &c., are also often greatly swollen.
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  • Parliament Square, contains the chapel (1798), with a Corinthian portico, the public theatre or examination hall (1787), containing portraits of Queen Elizabeth, Molyneux, Burke, Bishop Berkeley and other celebrities, and the wainscotted dining hall, also containing portraits.
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  • A vacancy among the fellows is filled up by the provost and a select number of the fellows, after examination comprised in five principal courses, mathematics, experimental science, classics, mental and moral science and Hebrew.
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  • Students after an examination are admitted as fellow-commoners, pensioners or sizars.
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  • Sizarships are awarded on examination to students of limited means, and carry certain relaxations of fees.
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  • The mode of admission to the university is in all cases by examination.
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  • A brilliant examination for the degree of bachelor procured him, in 1588, admittance on the foundation to the university of Tubingen, where he laid up a copious store of classical erudition, and imbibed Copernican principles from the private instructions of his teacher and life-long friend, Michael Maestlin.
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  • Kepler immediately hastened to Wurttemberg, and owing to his indefatigable exertions she was acquitted after having suffered thirteen month's imprisonment, and endured with undaunted courage the formidable ordeal of "territion," or examination under the imminent threat of torture.
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  • For a critical examination of the story see Schwegler, Romische Geschichte, bk.
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  • But such a tacit sanction on the part of the compilers of the second Prayer-Book is in the highest degree improbable, in view of their known opinions on the subject; and an examination of contemporary writings hardly justifies the contention that the two words are so carefully used as the argument would demand.
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  • Examination will, however, show that a modification similar to that which has transformed the comparatively simple molar tooth of the mastodon into the extremely complex grinder of the Indian elephant has served to change the tooth of the common pig into that of Phacochoerus.
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  • Sometimes the abscess declares itself by a bulging at the surface, but if not an incision should be made through the belly-wall over the most tender spot, and a direct examination of the surface of the liver made.
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  • Sometimes in the course of a post-mortem examination a gall-bladder is found packed full of gall-stones which during life had caused no inconvenience and had given rise to no suspicion of their presence.
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  • The first step towards the restoration of a text is the examination of the evidence upon which it is or is to be based.
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  • After every such critical examination four conclusions are possible - acceptance, doubt, rejection and alteration.
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  • This will be seen by an examination of the rateable value of the three townships now comprised in the borough.
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  • All banks, except national banks, are subject to examination by a public official, and their charters expire within twenty years of their issue.
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  • The state treasurer is the bank examiner, and to him all banks must make a quarterly statement and submit their books for examination twice a year.
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  • He also wrote a preface to the Report on the Proceedings of the Board of General Officers on their Examination into the Conduct of Lieutenant-General Sir John Cope, in which he gave an apology for the battle of Prestonpans.
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  • To this list should also be added the Oxford and Cambridge preliminary examination for candidates for holy orders, with which he was from the first most closely identified.
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  • He made the first detailed examination of the Great Zimbabwe.
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  • In Lower Egypt practically all the mummies have perished; but in Upper Egypt, as they were put out of reach of the inundation, the cemeteries, in spite of rifling and burning, yield immense numbers of preserved bodies and skeletons; attention has from time to time been directed to the scientific examination of these in order to ascertain race, cause of death, traces of accident or disease, and the surgical or medical processes which they had undergone during life, &c. This department of research has been greatly developed by Dr Elliott Smith in Cairo.
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  • After studying in his native town and taking the university course in Berlin (1842-1843) he went to Paris, and passed first in the examination for fellowship (agregation) of the lycees (1845), first in the examinations on leaving the Ecole des Chartes, and first in the examination for fellowship of the faculties (1849).
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  • Under the rules adopted, the examination of witnesses is conducted by the president in accordance with the system prevailing in most continental countries; members of the commission may only put questions to witnesses for the eliciting of further information; and they may not interrupt the witness when he is in course of making his statement, but they may ask the president to put any additional questions.
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  • After many expressions of regret at finding no method of giving effect to the proposal, the commission confined itself to recording its opinion that " a further examination of the question by the Powers would prove a great benefit to humanity."
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  • These results were unexpected, and, in fact, inexplicable by existing theories; and an examination of the telescope showed that the observed anomalies were not due to instrumental errors.
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  • The fact that benzene and its derivatives are remarkable for their powerful absorption of the most refrangible rays, and for some characteristic absorption bands appearing on dilution, led Hartley to a more extended examination of some of the more complicated organic substances.
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  • The collimator has a vertical slit at its outer end, the width of which may be regulated by a micrometer screw; in some instruments one half of the slit is covered by a small total reflection prism which permits the examination of two spectra simultaneously.
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  • On the one side it was a critical examination of the Rabbinic literature and much influenced subsequent investigators.
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  • In spite of the disadvantage that it is impossible to separate advantageously the history and critical examination of any doctrine in the arbitrary manner which de Gerando chose, the work has great merits.
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  • But natural realism, as finally interpreted by Hamilton, was too dogmatic, too unsystematic, and too confused with elements derived from Kantian idealism to withstand the brilliant criticism of Mill's Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy (1865), a work which for a time almost persuaded us that Nature as we know it from sensations is nothing but permanent possibilities of sensation, and oneself only a series of states of consciousness.
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  • The most obvious feature the Apteryges afford is the presence of a back toe, while the extremely aborted condition of the wings, the position of the nostrils - almost at the tip of the maxilla - and the absence of an after-shaft in the feathers, are characters nearly as manifest, and others not less determinative, though more recondite, will be found on examination.
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  • About 1892 the idea occurred to him of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the storage of liquid gases, and so efficient did this device prove in preventing the influx of external heat that it is found possible not only to preserve the liquids for comparatively long periods, but also to keep them so free from ebullition that examination of their optical properties becomes possible.
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  • After several days' trial, during which Cullen was submitted to a very close examination, the verdict was given for the plaintiff with 4d.
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  • On K nearer examination, however, it appears that kingship was intermittent in some tribes, while in others, which had no kings, we find mention of royal families.
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  • In 1498, Columbus, when exploring the Gulf of Pal-la, which receives a large part of the outflow of the Orinoco, noted the freshness of its waters, but made no examination of their origin.
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  • After a tedious and captious examination, he was in March brought before convocation, and, on refusing to subscribe certain articles, was excommunicated and imprisoned; but through the interference of the king he was finally released after he had voluntarily signified his acceptance of all the articles except two, and confessed that he had erred not only " in discretion but in doctrine."
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  • To the former were attached two commissions, one for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
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  • With the latter is connected the commission for the examination of the liturgical books of the East (Commissio pro corrigendis libris ecclesiae Orientalis) .
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  • Since the constitution Sapienti, its competency has been confined to the examination, at the request of the secretary of state, of questions which are submitted to it, and especially those arising from civil laws and concordats.
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  • Experiments on alloys are, in some ways, easier to make than on pairs of non-metallic substances, partly owing to the possibility of polishing sections for microscopic examination, and the investigation of alloys has done much to elucidate the general phenomena of solution, of which metallic solution constitutes a special case.
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  • The subject of its manufacture and examination is a most important and interesting one, and the special article dealing with it should be studied (see Cement).
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  • Quite recently, however, the author of this article has made a more detailed examination of the question, operating upon several hundreds of rabbits.
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  • Before this is granted the candidate is submitted to a double examination as to his fitness, first by a papal delegate at his place of residence (processus informativus in partibus electi), and afterwards by the Roman Congregation of Cardinals assigned for this purpose (processus electionis definitivus in curia).
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  • This at least is the method of disguise suggested by examination of the dried insect; but representatives of the same or an allied species found in Mashonaland were observed in the living state to be green with the antlike parts represented in black pigment.
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  • Microscopical examination of the wings, moreover, has shown that the transparency of the wings, common to all, has been acquired by a different modification of the scales in each of the genera exhibiting the Ithomiine type of coloration.
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  • The observations of Schwendener, however, received ample support from Bornet's (1873) examination of 60 genera.
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  • It may be added that the Venetians prided themselves on possessing, not only the body of St Mark, but also the autograph of his Gospel; this autograph, however, proved on examination to be only part of a 6th-century book of the Gospels, the remainder of which was published by Bianchini as the Evangeliarium forojuliense; the Venetian part of this MS. was found some years ago to have been wholly destroyed by damp.
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  • It is clear, nevertheless, from examination that as a rule the wood of the stock and the wood of the scion retain their external characters year by year without change.
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  • No assemblage of stratified rocks has received such careful and detailed examination as the Carboniferous system; consequently our knowledge of the stratigraphical sequence in isolated local areas, where the coals have been exploited, is very full.
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  • An examination of its lists of exports and imports will show that Holland receives from its colonies its spiceries, coffee, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cinnamon; from England and Belgium its manufactured goods and coals; petroleum, raw cotton and cereals from the United States; grain from the Baltic provinces, Archangel, and the ports of the Black Sea; timber from Norway and the basin of the Rhine, yarn from England, wine from France, hops from Bavaria and Alsace; ironore from Spain; while in its turn it sends its colonial wares to Germany, its agricultural produce to the London market, its fish to Belgium and Germany, and its cheese to France, Belgium and Hamburg, as well as England.
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  • The instruction given is essentially non-classical and scientific. In both schools certificates are awarded at the end of the course, that of the higher-burgher schools admitting to the natural science and medical branches of university education, a supplementary examination in Greek and Latin being required for other branches.
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  • Then the furnaceman, controlling the decarburization and purification of the molten charge by his examination of test ingots taken from time to time, gradually oxidizes and so removes the foreign elements, and thus brings the metal simultaneously to approximately the composition needed and to a temperature far enough above its present meltingpoint to permit of its being cast into ingots or other castings.
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  • It does not seem necessary to endeavour to follow his minute examination of the principle of real cognition with the same fulness.
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  • The men evangelists have to pass an examination by the archdeacon of Middlesex, and are then (since 1896) admitted by the bishop of London as "lay evangelists in the Church"; the mission sisters must likewise pass an examination by the diocesan inspector of schools.
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  • It remains to give a brief analysis of the qualifications and functions of the archons after the year 487 B.C. After election (in the time of Aristotle in the month Anthesterion; in the 3rd century in Munychion) a short time had to elapse before entering on office to allow of the dokimasia (examination of fitness).
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  • Finally an examination took place at the end of the year of office, when each archon had to answer for his actions with person and possessions; till then he could not leave the country, be adopted into another family, dispose of his property, nor receive any " crown of honour."
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  • His father, who held a small post under government, made great efforts to send him to Paris, where a brilliant examination gained him, in 1831, admittance to the Ecole Polytechnique.
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  • It appears, however, from a careful examination of the remains that their work was only a reconstruction of a more ancient edifice, the date of the original form of which cannot be fixed; while its first alteration belongs to the "tufa" period, and three other periods in its history can be traced.
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  • Of the numerous works of art discovered in the course of the excavations the statues and large works of sculpture, whether in marble or bronze, are inferior to those found at Herculaneum, but some of the bronze statuettes are of exquisite workmanship, while the profusion of ornamental works and objects in bronze and the elegance of their design, as well as the finished beauty of their execution, are such as to excite the utmost admiration - more especially when it is considered that these are the casual results of the examination of a second-rate provincial town, which had, further, been ransacked for valuables (as Herculaneum had not) after the eruption of 79.
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  • A post mortem examination was held, which showed not only grave derangement in the stomach and other organs, but a serious lesion of the brain.
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  • Closer examination, however, shows that if the prevailing slopes are not more than a few inches in the mile, yet they do exist, and scientific irrigation requires that the canals should be taken along the crests and drains along the hollows.
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  • They soon resolved that it would be very much better if the original scheme of using the barrage could be carried out, and after a careful examination of the work they were satisfied that this could be done.
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  • Nothing so good is to be found even in Wilhelm Meister's admirable examination of Hamlet.
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  • The Greek Church, represented by the patriarch of Constantinople, and the Russian Church, represented by the Holy Synod, also canonize their saints after a preliminary examination of their titles to public cultus.
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  • The preliminary examination is conducted by a judge, who does not sit on the bench at the trial.
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  • Reserve and Landwelir officers are drawn from among officers and selected non-commissioned officers retired from the active army, and one-year volunteers who have passed a special examination.
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  • Thus it came about that at the diet of Worms, which met in January 1521, without any thorough examination of Luthers position, Charles issued the famous edict, drawn up by Cardinal Aleandro, which denounced the reformer and his followers.
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  • Of these, one forbade ministers of religion from abusing ecclesiastical punishment; the second, which was the most important, introduced a law already adopted in Baden, that no one should be appointed to any office in the Church except a German, who must have received his education in a German gymnasium, have studied for three years in a German university, and have passed a state examination in philosophy, history, German literature and classics; all ecclesiastical seminaries were placed under the control of the state, and all seminaries for boys were forbidden.
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  • Optical examination of many chalcedonic minerals by French mineralogists has shown that they are aggregates of various fibrous crystalline bodies differing from each other in certain optical characters, whence they are distinguished as separate minerals under such names as calcedonite,pseudocalcedonite,quartzine, lutecite and lussatite.
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  • Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.
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  • With a view to more minute examination, the annual frequency can be expressed in Fourier series, whose terms represent waves, whose periods are 12, 6, 4, 3, &c. months.
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  • He studied law at the universities of Vienna and Graz, but after passing the examination for employment in the state judicial service abandoned this career and, becoming a journalist, travelled extensively in south-east Europe, and visited Asia Minor and Egypt.
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  • No detailed examination of the comparative military and naval resources of the combatants can here be attempted.
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  • After careful study and a preliminary examination of the land, a scheme was passed which has given satisfaction to the landowning community, and which distributes the tax equitably in proportion to the fertility of the soil.
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  • For historical pathology the examination of mummies and skeletons is yielding good results.
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  • At first sight they may seem inaccurate, but on closer examination the Graecizing is seen to follow definite rules, especially in the Ptolemaic period.
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  • Examination of the cerebellum by the method of Wallerian degeneration has shown that a large number of spinal and bulbar nerve cells send branches up into it.
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  • This examination is, in two respects, in striking contrast to that of certain other Neoplatonist writers.
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  • Thus, while the long barrow is characteristic of the Stone Age, it is impossible to tell without direct examination whether it may be chambered or unchambered, or whether the burials within it may be those of burnt or of unburnt bodies.
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  • Atropine is universally and constantly used in ophthalmic practice in order to dilate the pupil for examination of the retina by the ophthalmoscope, or in cases where the inflamed iris threatens to form adhesions to neighbouring parts.
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  • Closer examination also of P's narrative of the manna shows that its true position is after the departure from Mt.
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  • With but few exceptions the provenance of the individual sections may be said to have been finally determined by the labours of the critics, but even a cursory examination of their contents makes it evident that the sequence of events, which they now present, cannot be original, but is rather the outcome of a long process of revision, during which the text has suffered considerably from alterations, omissions, dislocations and additions.
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  • This, which we may distinguish as the French system, finds its most perfect expression in the classic Genera Plantarum (1862-1883) of Bentham and Hooker, a work containing a description, based on careful examination of specimens, of all known genera of flowering plants.
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  • But the presence of a second cotyledon in grasses is extremely doubtful, and though there may be ground for reconsidering the position of Nymphaeaceae, their association with the grasses as a distinct class is not warranted by a comparative examination of the members of the two orders.
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  • The other works of Lord Hailes include Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy (1769); An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem (1769); three volumes entitled Remains of Christian Antiquity (" Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century," 1776; " The Trials of Justin Martyr, Cyprian, &c.," 1778; The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius," 1780); Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church (1783); and editions or translations of portions of Lactantius, Tertullian and Minucius Felix.
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  • This account will not bear examination.
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  • Little remains now of the ancient city, except colossal ruins of aqueducts and part of the Roman walls, which are used as quarries for modern Antakia; but no scientific examination of the site has been made.
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  • An examination of the Pnyx in 1911 showed that the supporting wall is no earlier than the 4th century.
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  • Further examination of towers in the town wall of Pagasae (or Demetrias) led to the discovery of many more painted gravestones, like those first found in 1907.
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  • It was discovered in 1861 by Sir William Crookes, who, during a spectroscopic examination of the flue-dust produced in the roasting of seleniferous pyrites occurring at Tilkerode in the Harz, observed a green line foreign to all then known spectra.
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  • He assisted Sir Wyville Thomson in the examination and classification of the collections of the "Challenger" exploring expedition, and wrote the Review of the Echini (2 vols., 1872-1874) in the reports.
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  • A few apparent exceptions occur along the western seaboard of Sutherland, in Skye and elsewhere, but examination of their structure at once explains the reason of their prominence and confirms the rule.
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  • It was separated from the English Department, and undertook the inspection of higher class schools (public, endowed and voluntary), and two years later instituted a leaving certificate examination, the pass of which is accepted for most of the university and professional authorities in lieu of their preliminary examinations.
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  • The abolition of this system was announced in 1906, and, as a partial substitute, it was decided to hold an annual examination in Peking of Chinese graduates educated abroad (Times, 22nd of October 1906).
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  • The student was admitted without examination as bachelor after from four to six years' study, and after from six to eight years' study became qualified as a candidate for the doctorate.
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  • The doctoral examination at Bologna in the 13th-14th centuries consisted of two parts - a private examination which was the real test, and a public one of a ceremonial character (conventus) .
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  • He was then presented to the archdeacon of Bologna by one or more doctors, who were required to have satisfied themselves of his fitness by private examination.
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  • On the morning of the examination, after attending mass, he was assigned by one of the doctors of the assembled college two passages (puncta) in the civil or canon law, which he retired to his house to study, possibly with the assistance of the presenting doctor.
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  • The successful candidate, who received the title of licentiate, was, on payment of a heavy fee and other expenses, permitted to proceed to the conventus or final public examination.
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  • After five or six years from the date of beginning his studies (matriculation) and being twenty years of age (these conditions varied at different periods), a bachelor was permitted to present himself for the examination for the licentiateship, which was divided into two parts.
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  • The first part was conducted in private by the chancellor and four examiners (temptatores in cameris), and included an inquiry into the candidate's residence, attendance at lectures, and performance of exercises, as well as examination in prescribed books; those candidates adjudged worthy were admitted to the more important examination before the faculty, and the names of successful candidates were sent to the chancellor in batches of eight or more at a time, arranged in order of merit.
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  • By the statutes of 1849 and 1858 an intermediate " Moderations " examination was instituted between the preliminary examination called " Responsions " and the final examination.
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  • The bachelor's degree at Oxford tended from an early period to be postponed to an advanced stage of studies, while the requirements for the master's degree diminished until, in 1807, the examination for the M.A.
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  • At Cambridge there is no intermediate examination between the " Previous Examination " (commonly called " Little-go "), which corresponds to Oxford " Responsions " or " Smalls " and the triposes and examinations for the " Poll " degree, which correspond to the Oxford final honours and pass examinations respectively.
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  • The abolition of order of merit at this examination was decided on in 1 9 06, and names of candidates appeared in this order for the last time in 1909.
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  • The student desiring to proceed to the doctorate is free from examinations thereafter until he presents his thesis for the doctor's degree,' when, if it is accepted, he is submitted to a public oral examination not only in his principal subject (Haupt f ach), but also as a rule in two or more collateral subjects (Nebenfeicher).
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  • The examination of the students is conducted by the teachers concerned.
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  • In the faculty of sciences, the three subjects of examination selected may, under a recent regulation, be taken separately.
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  • In the faculty of sciences a candidate for the doctorate may submit two theses, or else submit one thesis and undergo an oral examination.
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  • In France there is a competitive examination for secondary teachers, the agregation, originally established in 1766.
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  • The Board of Education holds special examinations (Preliminary Certificate examination and Certificate examination, &c.) for primary teachers.
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  • They recommended that the examination should be conducted by external and internal examiners, representing in each case the examining body and the school staff respectively, and that reports on the school work of candidates should be available for reference by the examiners (circular of the Board of Education of 12th of July 1904).
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  • If the inspection is satisfactory, the school is accredited by a university for from one to three years, and upon the favourable report of its principal any of its students are admitted to the university by which it has been accredited without any entrance examination.
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  • In practice it is found that many students whom their teachers refuse to certify are able to pass the university entrance examination.
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  • A further distinction is important, especially in such subjects as mathematics or foreign languages, in which it is legitimate to ask what precise power on the part of a candidate the passing of an examination shall signify.
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  • A candidate who obtains only 50% of the marks in performing such operations cannot be regarded as being able to perform them; and, if the examination is to be treated as a test of his capacity to perform them, he should be rejected unless he obtains full marks, less a certain allowance (say 10, or at most 20%) in view of the more or less artificial conditions inherent in all examinations.
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  • The oral examination is better suited than the written to discover the range of a candidate's knowledge; it also serves.
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  • The laboratory examination may be used in subjects like physics, chemistry, geology, zoology, botany, anatomy, physiology, to test powers of manipulation and knowledge of experimental methods.
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  • In medicine the clinical examination of a patient is a test carried out under conditions more nearly approaching those of actual work than any other; and distinction in medical examinations is probably more often followed by distinction in after life than is the case in other examinations.
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  • In 1854 selection by examination as a method of appointment to posts in the English public service was first substituted for the patronage system, which had caused grave dissatisfaction (see Macaulay's speech on the subject, The Times of the 25th of June 1853).
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  • The first public competitive examination for the Royal Military Academy, Woolwich, took place in 1855, and in 1870 the principle of open competition for the civil service was adcpted as a general rule.
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  • The greatest precautions must be taken to ensure the secrecy of the examination papers before the examination, and the effective isolation of individual candidates during the examination.
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  • In applying a single test in a qualifying examination it would be sufficient to mark candidates as passing or failing.
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  • These errors are not peculiar to the examination system, they are inherent in all human judgments.
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  • In a pass examination the question has to be considered how far, if at all, excellence in one subject shall compensate for deficiency in another, a question which is indeterminate until the precise object of the whole examination is formulated.
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  • In the competitive examination for the Indian civil service, places are allotted on the aggregate of marks obtained in a number of subjects selected by the candidate from a list of thirty-two.
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  • The successful candidates are compared a year later on the results of another examination in which there is again a choice, though a much more limited one.
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  • In order to estimate the efficiency of an examination as a test, the precise question should be asked in each case - what is it intended to test ?
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  • If a student can auscultate correctly, or make up a prescription, at an examination, he will in all probability be able to do so in other circumstances.
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  • Examinations as tests of the knowledge of isolated facts are necessarily of relatively small value, because the memory of such facts is transient; and memorization of a large number of facts for examination purposes is generally admitted to be specially transient; the " knowledge-test," considered apart from a test of capacity, is in fact not a test of permanent knowledge, but of the power of