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evolved

evolved Sentence Examples

  • He had simply evolved into the profes­sion from his duties in the Army.

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  • Over time, the earth has evolved because of humans using it for agriculture.

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  • Any evolved gas must be examined.

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  • Jason evolved from a cheery young boy into a moody adolescent.

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  • Tina has evolved from a timid and kind child to a rambunctious and angsty teenager.

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  • Probably by unconscious selection of surviving plants through long ages this type has been evolved in Guatemala, and experiments have been made to develop weevil-resistant races in the United States.

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  • The system has evolved from a simple process to a complex sequence of procedures.

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  • Aaron's knowledge on biology has evolved from knowing a few basic facts to having a deep understanding of the subject.

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  • Moisture is evolved from substances containing water of crystallization or decomposed hydrates.

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  • After the middle school graduation, the mothers reflected how their children had evolved and matured.

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  • Moisture is evolved from substances containing water of crystallization or decomposed hydrates.

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  • Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour.

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  • Over the century, the small town evolved with the generations of people that inhabited its neighborhoods.

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  • It's almost ludicrous what ultimately evolved to how it began.

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  • In the hot springs of Bath it amounts to about one-thousandth part of the gas evolved.

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  • From Australia, where we have the best chance of studying rudimentary religion in some bulk, comes a certain amount of evidence showing that in the two ways just mentioned some inchoate prayer is being evolved.

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  • Andrews likewise found that when the heat evolved on.

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  • Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+[12]-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.

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  • As the result of this analysis, combined with an investigation into the surroundings man lives in, a "content" - a moral code - becomes gradually evolved.

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  • Then he treated oil of vitriol in the same way, but got nothing until by accident he dropped some mercury into the liquid, when "vitriolic acid air" (sulphur dioxide) was evolved.

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  • The increase in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube gives the weight of carbon dioxide evolved.

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  • If the chemical changes which occur in the cell were allowed to take place in a closed vessel without the performance of electrical or other work, the change in energy would be measured by the heat evolved.

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  • When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.

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  • When we use platinum electrodes in acidulated water, hydrogen and oxygen are evolved.

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  • Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.

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  • In Englishspeaking countries the ore is commonly known as magnetite, and pieces which exhibit attraction as magnets; the cause to which the attractive property is attributed is called magnetism, a name also applied to the important branch of science which has been evolved from the study of phenomena associated with the magnet.

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  • It is probable that the Pedipalpi, Araneae, and Podogona have been separately evolved as distinct lines of descent from the ancient aquatic Arachnida.

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  • The deepest line of cleavage is naturally between the view that episcopacy is a divinely ordained institution essential to the effective existence of a church as a channel of grace, and the view that it is merely a convenient form of church order, evolved as the result of a variety of historical causes, and not necessary to the proper constitution of a church.

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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.

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  • Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.

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  • Another heat test, that of Will, consists in heating a weighed quantity of the guncotton in a stream of carbon dioxide to 130° C., passing the evolved gases over some red-hot copper, and finally collecting them over a solution of potassium hydroxide which retains the carbon dioxide and allows the nitrogen, arising from the guncotton decomposition, to be measured.

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  • The oil separates from the fat-cells and is found lying free, while the sulphuretted hydrogen evolved as one of the products of putrefaction reacts upon the iron of the blood and throws down a precipitate of sulphide of iron, which in course of time imparts to the limb a range of colour commencing in green and terminating in black.

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  • When the solution in the strong acid is allowed to stand, some nitric acid is first evolved, and as the temperature rises this is followed by a general decomposition of the substance, though not necessarily an explosive one.

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  • Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.

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  • These, however, were inapplicable to London, and it was realized Metro- Instead, the London Government Act of 1899 was evolved.

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  • It is probable that flintglass was not invented, but gradually evolved, that potash-lead glasses were in use during the latter part of the 17th century, but that the mixture was not perfected until the middle of the following century.

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  • confusion the people turned to him as their only hope, and gradually a new government was evolved, each law being enacted as the result of his exhortations.

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  • His waters were said to pass beneath the sea and rise again in the fountain Arethusa at Syracuse; such is the earlier version from which later mythologists and poets evolved the familiar myth of the loves of Alpheus and Arethusa.

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  • The reduction is not due to electrolysis, but to the action of carbon on alumina, a part of the carbon in the charge being consumed and evolved as carbon monoxide gas, which burns at the orifice in the cover so long as reduction is taking place.

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  • Sidney Young has suggested conducting the operation in a current of carbon dioxide which sweeps out the vapours as they are evolved, and also heating in a vapour bath, e.g.

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  • From what we know of the Platyelmia, however, it is more probable that the two are quite independent and have been evolved separately.

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  • If the Phylactolaemata were evolved from the type of structure represented by Phoronis or the Pterobranchia, the Gymnolaen ata should be a further modification of this type, and the comparative study of the embryology of the.two orders would appear to be meaningless.

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  • As a sort of theoretic basis for this adhesion to national type in literature, he conceived the idea that literature and art, together with language and national culture as a whole, are evolved by a natural process, and that the intellectual and emotional life of each people is correlated with peculiarities of physical temperament and of material environment.

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  • Thus the main features of the Japanese dwelling-house were evolved, and little change took place subsequently, except that the brush of the painter was freely used for decorating partitions, and in aristocratic mansions unlimited care was exercised in the choice of rare woods.

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  • At the same time, the diffusion of these compounds into contact with the cathode leads to a partial reduction to chloride, by the removal of combined oxygen by the instrumentality of the hydrogen there evolved.

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  • Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.

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  • This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.

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  • This highly organized financial system must have been gradually evolved, and no doubt reached its perfection only after the treasury was transferred to Athens.

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  • In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.

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  • The heat evolved in this process may be represented by s"(o' - o"), where s" is the specific heat of the substance in the second state at saturation pressure.

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  • Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (p' - p") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.

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  • They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved during the operation.

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  • The bath is used at 65° to 70° C. (150° to 158° F.), and if free chlorine be evolved, which is known at once by its pungent smell, the temperature is raised, or more acid is added, to promote the solubility of the gold.

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  • It was included in Charlemagne's empire and was divided by him into counties, which evolved there as elsewhere into hereditary fiefs; but after the break-up of Charlemagne's empire, the Burgundian kingdom revived and Savoy was again absorbed in it.

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  • It is only by a gradual process that social science in its whole complexity can be evolved.

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  • The nature of the gases evolved by coal when freshly exposed to the atmosphere has been investigated by several chemists, more particularly by Lyon Playfair and Ernst von Composi- Meyer.

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  • The latter observer found the gases given off tion of gas by coal from the district of Newcastle and Durham evolved by to contain carbonic acid, marsh gas or light carburetted coal.

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  • The gases evolved from the sudden outbursts or blowers in coal, which are often given off at a considerable tension, are the most dangerous enemy that the collier has to contend with.

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  • Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.

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  • He also made the corresponding sodium compound and showed that it evolved the same gas, whilst in 1862 F.

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  • The formation of hydrogen is caused by small traces of metallic calcium occasionally found free in the carbide, and cases have been known where this was present in such quantities that the evolved gas contained nearly 20% of hydrogen.

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  • When carbide is acted upon by water considerable heat is evolved; indeed, the action develops about one-twentieth of the heat evolved by the combustion of carbon.

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  • The term "spontaneous combustion" is used when a substance smoulders or inflames apparently without the intervention of any external heat or light; in such cases, as, for example, in heaps of cotton-waste soaked in oil, the oxidation has proceeded slowly, but steadily, for some time, until the heat evolved has raised the mass to the temperature of ignition.

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  • Methyl chloride CH 3 C1, is a gas, boiling at - 23°, obtained by chlorinating methane, or better, from methyl alcohol; wood spirit is treated with salt and sulphuric acid, or hydrochloric acid gas conducted into the boiling spirit in the presence of zinc chloride, the evolved gas being washed with potash and dried by sulphuric acid.

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  • The quantity of heat evolved, according to Julius Thomsen, is 34,116 calories for each gram of hydrogen burned.

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  • Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.

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  • On heating with an oxide or carbonate they yield a trimetallic orthophosphate, carbon dioxide being evolved in the latter case.

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  • The pandean pipes continued in favour with the rustic populations of the West long after the organ evolved from it had eclipsed this humble prototype.

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  • "With the council of the confederacy," it has been said, "and, more generally, in the confederacy, sovereignty arises and the true political tradition is evolved" (F.

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  • It has been suggested that the modern conception of it was evolved from the contest between three powers: the Church, the Roman Empire, of which the individual states in Europe were theoretically provinces, and the great landowners and corporations.

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  • From this conception his thievish character may have been evolved.

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  • If he was evolved from the wind, his character had become so anthropomorphic that the Greeks had practically lost the knowledge of his primitive significance; nor did Greek cult ever associate him with the wind.

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  • To the curial system, so evolved, and continually fortifying its position in the domains of theology, ecclesiastical law and politics, the episcopal system stands in diametrical opposition.

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  • He evolved the theory, among other things, that the boundaries of the old counties or pagi (Gaue) were identical with those of the dioceses.

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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

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  • The U-shaped electrolytic vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.

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  • For the transference of a bishopric a special legal form was evolved - that of investiture, the king investing the bishop elect with the see by delivering to him the ring and pastoral staff.

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  • The remarks made above would not apply to the coherent system of idealism which may be evolved from Kant's writings, and which many would consider alone to deserve the name of Kantianism or Criticism.

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  • During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.

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  • On solution in water, heat is evolved and hydrates formed.

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  • On placing a piece of potash on a platinum plate, connected to the negative of a powerful electric battery, and bringing a platinum wire, connected to the positive of the battery, to the surface of the potassium a vivid action was observed: gas was evolved at the upper surface of the fused globule of potash, whilst at the lower surface, adjacent to the platinum plate, minute metallic globules were formed, some of which immediately inflamed, whilst others merely tarnished.

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  • It is certain that the snakes have been evolved as a specialized branch from some Lacertilian stock, and that both "orders" are intimately related, but it is significant that it is only through the degraded members of the 1 For the etymology of this word, see Crocodile.

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  • Presumably the presence of osteoderms and of complete cranial arches are more archaic than their absence, just as we conclude that limbless forms have been evolved from various groups possessed of fully developed limbs.

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  • Thus the collective fauna of ancient South America mimics the independently evolved collective fauna of North America, the collective fauna of modern Australia mimics the collective fauna of the Lower Eocene of North America.

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  • It should be borne in mind, first, that wherever a new animal suddenly appears or a new character suddenly arises in a fossil horizon we must consider whether such appearance may be due to the non-discovery of transitional links with older forms, or to the sudden invasion of a new type or new organ which has gradually evolved elsewhere.

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  • Soc., 1909, 95, p. 656), is a lemon-yellow solid obtained by acting on iodic acid with sulphuric acid, oxygen being evolved.

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  • As an alternative method it may be decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and the amount of evolved oxygen measured: 2K 3 Fe(NC) 5 + 2KHO + H 2 O 2 = 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 2H,0 + 02.

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  • Modern experiments in cross-fertilization in Lancashire by the Garton Brothers have evolved the most extraordinary "sports," showing, it is claimed, that the plant has probably passed through stages of which until the present day there had been no conception.

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  • The chief types of Mollusca were already differentiated at the beginning of the geological record, and the metamerism which occurs in the Cephalopoda has been evolved within the limits of that class.

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  • The peculiar odour evolved by many rodents is due to the secretions of special glands, which may open into the prepuce, as in Mus, Microtus and Cricetus, or into the rectum, as in Arctomys and Thryonomys, or into the passage common to both, as in the beaver, or into pouches opening near the vent, as in hares, agoutis and jerboas.

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  • He not only agrees with Laplace and Lyell about the evolution of the solar system, but also supposes that the affinities, pointed out by Lothar Meyer and Mendeleeff, between groups of chemical elements prove an evolution of these elements from a primitive matter (prothyl) consisting of homogeneous atoms. These, however, are not ultimate enough for him; he thinks that everything, ponderable and imponderable or ether, is evolved from a primitive substance, which condenses first into centres of condensation (pyknatoms), and then into masses, which when they exceed the mean consistency become ponderables, and when they fall below it become imponderables.

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  • Hence, when he returns to organisms, it does not surprise us that he assigns to ova and spermatozoa cell-souls, to the impregnated ovum germ-soul, to plants tissue-souls, to animals nerve-souls; or that he regards man's body and soul as born together in the impregnated ovum, and gradually evolved from the bodies and souls of lower animals.

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  • He holds indeed that, in accordance with the law of substance, consciousness must be evolved from unconsciousness with the development of sense organs and a central nervous organ.

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  • The greater part of the process is a change in the facts of nature before consciousness; and in all that part, at all events, the phenomena evolved must mean physical facts which are not conscious affections, but, as they develop, are causes which gradually produce life and consciousness.

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  • He regarded everything known as evolved from matter, and reduced consciousness to a mere collateral product (` ` epiphenomenon ") of cerebral operations without any power of influencing them.

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  • Scholars like Langenstein, Gerson and Zabarella, evolved a new theory as to ecumenical councils, which from the point of view of Roman Catholic principles must be described as revolutionary.

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  • Liberal churchmen in Italy, while rejecting Mazzini's dream of a republic, had evolved projects for attaining national unity while preserving the temporal power.

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  • It follows that if the thermodynamic heat of solution be positive, that is, if heat be absorbed to keep the system at constant temperature, the solubility will increase with rising temperature, while if heat be evolved on dissolution, the solubility falls when the system is heated.

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  • In a very dilute solution no appreciable heat is evolved or absorbed when solvent is added, but such heat effects are generally found with more concentrated solutions.

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  • The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.

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  • - This may be called the natural means of increasing the number of any particular kind of plant, but it is to be remembered that we do not by that means secure an exact reproduction of the parent, especially in the case of plants raised or evolved in the course of generations by hybridization and selection.

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  • Whether the strong odour of trimethylamine evolved by the spores of Tilletia attracts insects is not known.

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  • The indispensableness of such abundant things as air, water and light is readily explained by saying that their very abundance has evolved a creature dependent on them.

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  • The heat evolved by this process of solidification retards the fall of temperature; but after this the rate of cooling remains regular until T (750°) on the line Sa (Ar 3) is reached, when a second retardation occurs, due to the heat liberated by the passage within the pasty mass of part of the iron and carbon from a state of mere solution to that of definite combination in the ratio Fe 3 C, forming microscopic particles of cementite, while the remainder of the iron and carbon continue dissolved in each other as austenite.

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  • io), by means of the surface of several fire-brick walls, catches in one phase the heat evolved by the burning gas as it sweeps through, and in the other phase returns that heat to the entering blast as it sweeps through from left to right.

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  • A cold lump of ore chills the slag immediately around it, just where its oxygen, reacting on the carbon of the metal, generates carbonic oxide; the slag becomes cool, viscous, and hence easily made to froth, just where the froth-causing gas is evolved.

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  • From the historical point of view it may be suggested that neither North nor South was correct in theory in 1861: the United States were not a nation; neither were the states sovereign; but from the embryo political communities of 1776-1787, in which no proper sovereignty existed anywhere, two nationalities were slowly being evolved and two sovereignties were in the making; the North and the South each fulfilled most of the requirements for a nation and they were mutually unlike and hostile.

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  • It may then be learnt who made the first cup of tea, who planted the earliest bushes, and how the primitive methods of manufacture were evolved.

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  • The machinery in use is very varied in character, and it has been evolved principally by practical planters of a mechanical turn.

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  • In 1195 Hubert issued an ordinance by which four knights were to be appointed in every hundred to act as guardians of the peace, and from this humble beginning eventually was evolved the office of justice of the peace.

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  • Above all it evolved the Customs-Union (Zollverein), which gradually attached the smaller states, by material interests if The not by sympathy, to the Prussian system.

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  • To counteract it celibacy was finally imposed on the clergy, and the great mendicant orders evolved; while the constant polemic of the Cathar teachers against the cruelty, rapacity and irascibility of the Jewish tribal god led the church to prohibit the circulation of the Old Testament among laymen.

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  • The sacrament of "extreme unction" was also evolved by way of competing with the death-bed corisolamentum.

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  • The later story, with its episode of Peeping Tom, has been evolved by later chroniclers.

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  • had to be evolved under the pressure of a somewhat acute military situation.

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  • This, when garlic has been eaten, is evolved by the excretory organs, the activity of which it promotes.

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  • Experience had evolved the working principle which was officially formulated at a much later period:

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  • These feelings were gradually removed after constant protests, but not until the war had been in progress for nearly three years was a system evolved which by degrees gave the correspondents a reasonable amount of freedom.

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  • The corner-stone of Central College was laid in October 1817, and Jefferson, who was rector of its board of trustees, evolved a plan for its development into the university of Virginia.

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  • Thallous sulphate, T1 2 SO 4, forms rhombic prisms, soluble in water, which melt at a red heat with decomposition, sulphur dioxide being evolved.

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  • Riegler (ibid., 18 94, 33, p. 49) decomposes urea solutions by means of mercury dissolved in nitric acid, and measures the evolved gas.

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  • Habits of foreign adventure and of thrift were evolved, which were of advantage to the empire when, too long after the union of 1707, Scottish men were admitted to participate in its privileges and in its administration.

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  • They had evolved or inherited anti-papal heresies much like those of the reformers of 1559, but James turned their trial into a jest.

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  • Manganous Sulphate, MnSO 4, is prepared by strongly heating a paste of pyrolusite and concentrated sulphuric acid until acid fumes cease to be evolved.

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  • Considerations of weight had long prevented Lavoisier from accepting this doctrine, but he was now able to explain the process fully, showing that the hydrogen evolved did not come from the metal itself, but was one product of the decomposition of the water of the dilute acid, the other product, oxygen, combining with the metal to form an oxide which in turn united with the acid.

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  • It is a curious process by which the monster that symbolized heathenism conquered by Christianity has been evolved out of the first great rival of the God of Israel.

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  • The gaseous hydrochloric acid evolved during all this time must be absorbed in water, unless it is directly converted into chlorine (see below, 2 and 3).

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  • This requires more time and fuel than the work in " open " furnaces, but in the muffles the gaseous hydrochloric acid is separated from the fire-gases, just like that evolved in the pot, and can therefore be condensed into strong hydrochloric acid, like the pot-acid.

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  • The intermediate layer of the salt solution, floating over the caustic soda solution, plays the part of a diaphragm, by preventing the chlorine evolved in the bell from acting on the sodium hydrate formed outside, and this solution offers much less resistance to the electric current than the ordinary diaphragms. This process therefore consumes less power than most others.

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  • It is best prepared by heating methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid to 140° C. and leading the evolved gas into sulphuric acid.

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  • It is supposed that sea-going merchants, mostly Dravidians, and not Aryans, availing themselves of the monsoons, traded in the 7th century B.C. from the south-west ports of India to Babylon, and that there they became acquainted with a Semitic alphabet, which they brought back with them, and from which all the alphabets now used in India, Burma, Siam and Ceylon have been gradually evolved.

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  • If the latter are considered to be in an early state this presents no difficulty; but if both Antarian and carbon stars are held to be evolved from solar stars, we may consider them to be, not successive, but parallel stages of development, the chemical constitution of the star deciding whether it shall pass into the third or fourth type.

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  • A new technique of manipulation - it is, of course, no more - had been evolved.

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  • He first, so far as we know, sought to go behind the infinite multiplicity of phenomena in the hope of finding an infinite unity from which all difference has been evolved.

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  • Denying any form of moral sense or conscience, he regards all the social virtues as evolved from the instinct for self-preservation, the give-and-take arrangements between the partners in a defensive and offensive alliance, and the feelings of pride and vanity artificially fed by politicians, as an antidote to dissension and chaos.

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  • Real force was not in it, but rather in that counterpart to its unlimited pretensions, the church, which had evolved it from barbarian night, and which used her own more vital energies for undermining the rival of her creation.

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  • But the cause in which German intellect and will were enlisted was so different that it is difficult not to make a formal separation between that movement which evolved culture in Italy and that which restored religion in Germany, establishing the freedom of intelligence in the one sphere and the freedom of the conscience in the other.

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  • As there was nothing despotic in the temper of the ruling classes, nothing oppressive in English culture, the literature of that age evolved itself freely from the people.

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  • The sulphurous acid evolved destroys such micro-organisms as may be in the cask, and in addition, as it reduces the supply of oxygen, renders the wine less prone to acidulous fermentation.

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  • during the whole time the flax is in steep. In a short time a brisk fermentation is set up, gases at first of pleasant odour, but subsequently becoming very repulsive, being evolved, and producing a frothy scum over the surface of the water.

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  • Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.

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  • of the Semitic peoples constituted a group of powers fertilizing the land with water-springs, the givers of corn and wine and oil, out of which under conditions of superior political development a high-god like the Tyrian Baal, the majestic City-King, might be evolved.

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  • One of the earliest and most exhaustive series of experiments was made on Rio Tinto ores at the John Brown works by John Hollway, with the aim of both smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the same furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of their sulphur and iron.

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  • They have been ousted by the more gorgeous looking hybrids, which have been evolved during the past Too years.

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  • The finest forms since 1880 have been evolved from H.

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  • It was in the third century that the cult of Mithras, with its mysteries and a theology evolved from Zoroastrianism, attained the widest diffusion in all Latin-speaking provinces of the Roman dominion; and it even seemed for a while as though the Sot invictus Mithras, highly favored by the Caesars, would become the official deity-in-chief of the empire.

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  • Here, again, the theology was further developed, and an attempt made to annul the old dualism by envisaging both Ormuzd and Ahriman as emanations of an original principle of infinite time (Zervan), a doctrine which long enjoyed official validity under the Sassanids till, in the reign of Chosroes I., the sect of Zervanites was pronounced heretical.i But, above all, the ritual and the doctrine of purity were elaborated and expanded, and there was evolved a complete and detailed system of casuistry, dealing with all things allowed and forbidden, the forms of pollution and the expiation for each, &c., which, in its arid and spiritles1 monotony vividly recalls the similar prescriptions in the Pentateuch.

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  • By mixing equal quantities of the two forms in aqueous solution heat is evolved and racemic acid, (C4H606)2.2H20, is obtained.

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  • It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.

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  • and at the same time the law, of the world that He had evolved from Himself.

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  • The normal type evolved from this fusion of many races is dark-haired, sallow-skinned, browneyed and of low stature.

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  • It is readily soluble in dilute nitric acid, nitric oxide and silver nitrate being formed; it also dissolves in hot, strong sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide being evolved.

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  • It forms with silver nitrate the yellowish green solid, Ag 2 S AgNO 3, and with silver sulphate the orange-red powder, Ag 2 S Ag 2 SO 4 Silver sulphate, Ag 2 SO 4, is obtained as white crystals, sparingly soluble in water, by dissolving the metal in strong sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide being evolved, or by adding strong sulphuric acid to a solution of the nitrate.

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  • In his Misere de la philosophie (1847) he lays down the principle that social relationships largely depend upon modes of production, and therefore the principles, ideas and categories which are thus evolved are no more eternal than the relations they express, but are historical and transitory products.

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  • Thus the mitre over an English bishop's coat-of-arms is a survival which indicates him as the successor of bishops who actually wore mitres, while armorial bearings themselves, and the whole craft of heraldry, are survivals bearing record of a state of warfare and social order whence our present state was by vast modification evolved.

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  • It is not improbable that the three genera of this ancient phylum survive as types of a blindly-ending branch of the Gymnosperms; but be that as it may, it is in the Gnetales more than in any other Gymnosperms that we find features which help us to obtain a dim prospect of the lines along which the Angiosperms may have been evolved.

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  • It is an energetic reducing agent; for example, when boiled with copper sulphate metallic copper is precipitated and hydrogen evolved.

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  • All the intellectual processes are evolved from sensibility, and sensibility itself is a property of the nervous system.

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  • When strong sulphuric acid is mixed with water there is a great development of heat; the heat evolved when four parts of acid are mixed with one of water being sufficient to raise the temperature from o° to 100° C. (Hence the laboratory precaution of always adding the acid to the water and not the water to the acid.) In addition to the heat evolution there is also a diminution in volume, the maximum occurring when the components are present in the ratio H2S04:2H20, thus pointing to the existence of a hydrate H 2 SO 4, 2H20.

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  • I); and since it was believed that the stem always grew by addition of ossicles immediately below the infrabasals, it was inferred that this pentagonal plate was the centro-dorsal in its primitive position, as though the wine-glass had been evolved from a tumbler by pulling the bottom out to form the foot.

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  • All the complicated structures of Blastoidea are evolved from a fairly simple type, which in its turn is linked on to one of the cystid orders.

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  • Although, in the extreme correlation of the radial food-grooves, nerves, watervessels, and so forth, with a radiate symmetry of the theca, such a type differs from the Cystidea, while in the possession of jointed processes from the radial plates, bearing the grooves and the various body-systems outwards from the theca, it differs from all other Echinoderms, nevertheless ancient forms are known which, if they are not themselves the actual links, suggest how the crinoid type may have been evolved from some of the more regular cystids.

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  • It is true that some specialized forms, such as the Brisingidae among starfish, A strophiura and Ophioteresis among ophiurans, contravene the usual diagnoses; but this neither obscures their systematic position, nor does it alter the fact that since early Palaeozoic times these two great groups of stellate echinoderms have evolved along separate lines.

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  • fealdan) meant originally to double back a piece of cloth or other material so as to form a pleat, whence has evolved its various senses of to roll up, to enclose, enfold or embrace as with the arms, to clasp the hands or arms together, &c. The word is common to Teutonic languages, cf.

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  • the Curia Regis, the character of the question to be tried settled the capacity in which they should sit, and two separate courts were evolved.

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  • Opinions differ as to the mode in which the more complicated cheek-teeth of mammals have been evolved from a simpler type of tooth.

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  • Gadow, in a paper on the origin of mammals contributed to the Zeitschrift fiir Morphologie, sums up as follows: " Mammals are descendants of reptiles as surely as they [the latter] have been evolved from Amphibia.

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  • paraffins, under the influence of heat, split up into simpler members of the same series and into olefines; and if we imagine the action in its simplest form, we should have the gases, as they were evolved, consisting of (say) ethane and ethylene.

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  • The gas developed by the coal near the mouth of the retort is quickly washed out into the ascension pipe by the push of the gas behind, and the period for which it has been exposed to the radiant heat from the walls of the retort is practically nil; whilst the gas evolved in the portion of the retort farthest from the mouthpiece has only its own rate of evolution to drive it forward, and has to traverse the longest run possible in tile retort, exposed during the whole of that period to radiant heat and to contact with the highly heated surface of the retort itself.

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  • As the temperature is raised, the yield of gas from a given weight of coal increases; but with the increase of volume there is a marked decrease in the illuminating value of the gas evolved.

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  • When concentrated the solution is nearly black, and on heating it yields a yellow solution of potassium ferrite, oxygen being evolved.

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  • It would appear as if the latter was more suited to the conditions of the existing flora, and many of the specific forms within it may rather be regarded as recently evolved than as simply persistent.

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  • - This group of Pteridophyta differs from the others in being well represented in our present flora by forms, many of which can be regarded not as archaic types which have persisted to the present day, but as having been evolved in comparatively recent periods.

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  • Such renal caecal tubes seem to be readily evolved from either metenteron or proctodaeum when the conditions of the out-wash of nitrogenous waste-products are changed by the transference from aquatic to terrestrial life.

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  • The discovery of the so-called evolution of morality out of non-moral conditions is very frequently an unconscious subterfuge by which the evolutionist hides the fact that he is making a priori judgments upon the value of the moral concepts held to be evolved.

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  • All the bishops in a coenobium were subject to the abbot; but besides the bishop in the monastic families, every tuath or tribe had its own bishop. The church in Ireland having been evolved out of the monastic nuclei already described the tribe bishop was an episcopal development of a somewhat later period.

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  • By reflection on dreams, in which the self, or " spirit," of the savage seems to wander free from the bounds of time and space, to see things remote, and to meet and recognize dead friends or foes; by speculation on the experiences of trance and of phantasms of the dead or living, beheld with waking eyes; by pondering on the phenomena of shadows, of breath, of death and life, the savage evolved the idea of a separable soul or spirit capable of surviving bodily death.

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  • This being cannot have been evolved out of the cult of ancestors, where ancestors are not worshipped; and he is not even regarded as a spirit, but, in Matthew Arnold's phrase, as " a magnified non-natural man."

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  • It is plain that the All-Father belief, in favourable circumstances, especially if ghost worship remained undeveloped, might be evolved into theism.

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  • In another class of myths, man was evolved out of the lower animals - lizards in Australia; coyotes, beavers, apes and other beasts in America.

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  • He stumbled unawares upon the revolt of a proud national spirit, evolved through ten historic centuries; and the trap of Bayonne, together with the enthroning of Joseph Bonaparte, made the contemptible prince of the Asturias the elect of popular sentiment, the representative of religion and country.

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  • Secondly, the form may be looked at as the similarity evolved by a process of comparison, as the work of mental reflection, and in that way as essentially expressing a relation.

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  • The same amount of heat is evolved when water becomes ice.

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  • If C is the intensity of the current through a simple thermocouple, the junctions of which are at temperatures t and 1', a quantity of heat, P X C, is absorbed by the passage of the current per second at the hot junction, t, and a quantity, P X C, is evolved at the cold junction, t'.

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  • (5) If we might also regard the couple as a reversible thermodynamic engine for converting heat into work, and might neglect irreversible effects, such as conduction, which are independent of the current, we should expect to find the ratio of the heat absorbed at the hot junction to the heat evolved at the cold junction, namely, PIP', to be the same as the ratio T/T of the absolute temperatures of the junctions.

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  • He also succeeded in showing that a current from hot to cold evolved heat in copper, but the effect was smaller and more difficult to observe than in iron.

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  • If the current flows from A to B there will be heat absorbed in AC and evolved in CB by the Thomson effect, if the specific heat of electricity in AB is positive as in copper.

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  • It is not, however, necessarily implied in the reasoning or in the equations given by Thomson, which are not founded on any assumptions with regard to the seat of the E.M.F., but only on the balance of heat absorbed and evolved in all the different parts of the circuit.

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  • The balance (p" - p')T is evolved at the junction.

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  • These he carried on for two years before he evolved the essential idea of his proc.:ss, which is the decarbonization of cast iron by forcing a blast of air through the mass of metal when in the molten condition.

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  • The sites on which it has been observed range from Dakka to Halfa, that is to say within the precise limits which late Latin and Greek writers assign to the Blemyes, and there is good reason to identify the people that evolved it with this hitherto almost unknown barbarian nation.

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  • The apparatus was then gradually improved, and thus were evolved the modern forms of the screw press, next the Dutch or stamper press, and finally the hydraulic press.

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  • The methods of bleaching by oxygen include all those which aim at the bleaching by exposure to the air and to sunlight (as in the case of artists' linseed-oil), or where oxygen or ozone is introduced in the form of gas or is evolved by chemicals, as manganese dioxide, potassium bichromate or potassium permanganate and sulphuric acid..

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  • This plan of structure, apparently evolved out of the rhachitomous type by suppression of the pleurocentra and the downward extension of the neural arch, leads to that characteristic of frogs in which, as development shows, the vertebra is formed wholly or for the greater part by the neural arch (14).

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  • He discovered that heat is evolved when iron filings and sulphur are rubbed together to a paste with water, and the artificial volcan de Lemery was produced by burying underground a considerable quantity of this mixture, which he regarded as a potent agent in the causation of volcanic action.

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  • It's almost ludicrous what ultimately evolved to how it began.

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  • He explained that like most athletic activities such as running, climbing, swimming or skiing, ice climbing evolved from the practical necessity of getting someplace not otherwise easily accessed.

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  • He had simply evolved into the profes­sion from his duties in the Army.

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  • Right. I think the consensus is that they were called buffs by Europeans because of the color of cured hides and that evolved to buffalo.

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  • The way the project evolved was a travesty of organic reality.

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  • The development of science requires mental skills, many of which are evolved adaptations.

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  • Once it was accepted that humans had evolved from primate ancestors, the quest for the chronology of events was on.

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  • Ironically some of the most highly evolved cursors, such as saiga antelope, addax or bison have evolved short, light legs.

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  • Just at the time the threat of a nuclear apocalypse was lifting, ecologists evolved their own expression of end times.

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  • architecture evolved at the lower levels to that of Fig.

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  • bombardier beetle have evolved this means of defense without killing itself in the process?

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  • At the end of the century the waistline rose and the poke bonnet evolved.

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  • branch office was opened in Bahrain which evolved into the head office.

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  • breatheic animals have evolved various methods of breathing underwater.

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  • No.20 - The Turtle Dove (Roud 422) - this popular lament is shown to have evolved from seventeenth century broadside ballads.

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  • carnivorous plants have evolved to eat meat!

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  • The new exhaust with a two-way catalytic converter is an efficient back up for a more evolved injection system.

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  • These have evolved from learning models to large population settings and ultimately converged on biological concepts.

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  • The Cephalopoda are a class of highly evolved mollusks that include the cuttlefishes, squids and octopuses.

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  • The technique of oesophageal dilatation has evolved considerably in recent years.

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  • disarmament treaties has evolved over time.

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  • From a general disinterest in cross country racing, the long distance endurance events have evolved.

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  • We have to therefore accept that our understanding of the meaning of an ideogram evolved by a radically divergent culture may be deficient.

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  • He is also studying how germ cell determining mechanisms evolved in vertebrate embryos.

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  • Those ideas of exploring, fighting and befriending have evolved, but the thrill of discovery remains eternal.

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  • evolved predispositions to behave in a particular way.

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  • evolved psychological mechanisms situated in individuals living in groups.

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  • evolved considerably over the past few decades.

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  • evolved gradually.

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  • evolved which outlines the various tasks that the RN may be expected to perform.

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  • evolved to accommodate it.

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  • evolved to survive under a range of often extreme environmental pressures.

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  • Everyone knows humans evolved from apes which, in turn, ultimately evolved from apes which, in turn, ultimately evolved from single-celled life forms.

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  • evolved from primate ancestors, the quest for the chronology of events was on.

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  • evolved from dinosaurs.

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  • evolved from small agile insect-eating mammals that lived in trees.

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  • Ultimately, as forms of creative expression have evolved, IP rights have evolved to protect them.

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  • In 2 cases PPC was the consequence of a pancreatic fistula evolved in acute pancreatitis of the stump.

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  • As plants evolved, they developed antioxidants to fight free radicals, Heber says.

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  • Over the years the business has evolved and now offers an extended range of outdoor furniture.

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  • They were technically on three route cards but evolved into one amorphous gestalt.

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  • The earliest iron truss bridges were evolved from the plate girders which came into use all over Great Britain in the railroad age.

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  • gouache on heavy paper using a hard edge technique that has evolved into the lino cut reduction works.

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  • As plants evolved so did animal life on earth with cereal grains being the most advanced plant form creating humans.

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  • Giant Plants These isolated island habitats have many plants that have evolved to large or even grotesque forms.

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  • hominids evolved quickly when they set off on their own evolutionary path.

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  • human race evolved on a diet with a ratio of about 1:1 of these acids.

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  • ill-considered scheme to create a single work evolved.

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  • Ecological Reasons Individual species and ecosystems have evolved over millions of years into a complex interdependence.

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  • He's evolved for this EP and the flow patterns sound more intricate than ever.

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  • The red kangaroo is the most recently evolved kangaroo.

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  • The technologies developed for treating leachate have evolved to achieve compliance with increasingly strict discharge consent limits.

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  • A new lingo evolved: let's call it Hackney Down.

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  • In the later Middle Ages, these evolved into stone versions called machicolations.

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  • Software support Most IT Support Companies have evolved from a break-fix hardware maintenance background.

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  • We have obtained 6 epochs of VLBA 22 GHz water maser data, monitoring the masers around the pulsating evolved star U Orionis.

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  • I like to think he would be pleased with how his own great meme has evolved.

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  • millenniume earliest example in Cornwall During the first millenium ad, what is now Cornwall evolved from a Roman division of territory.

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  • nebulae ionized by hot evolved stars.

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  • The first three have apparently evolved from the adenine nucleotide carrier.

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  • Once you've evolved to the maximum you can still collect these blue orbs to power up the bar.

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  • In the late 1750s the baroque style evolved into a rococo characterized by rich surface ornamentation in a lavish use of decorative motifs.

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  • We therefore evolved with the ability to become phobic.

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  • poke bonnet evolved.

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  • They are evolved to pull down stags and their jaws are hugely powerful.

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  • They are voracious predators which the water vole has not evolved to cope with.

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  • EP thus attempts to explain human nature exclusively in terms of evolved predispositions to behave in a particular way.

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  • protean behavior would have evolved.

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  • The human race evolved on a diet with a ratio of about 1:1 of these acids.

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  • As plants evolved, they developed antioxidants to fight free radicals, Heber says.

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  • To sum up: A consensus has existed for 60 years among students of deer that European red deer evolved as capable runners.

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  • The purple bacteria evolved oxygen respiration by reversing the flow of molecules through their carbon fixing pathways and modifying their electron transport chains.

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  • That's right, those skinny modern racing tires are evolved from a fat old roadster!

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  • saiga antelope, addax or bison have evolved short, light legs.

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  • sessile organisms have evolved potent chemical defense systems utilizing compounds with novel architecture.

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  • sixtyties rock music had evolved (like all rock and roll) from rhythm and blues which was based around the same four chords.

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  • Never say, and never take seriously anyone who says, " I cannot believe that so-and-so could have evolved by gradual selection.

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  • To think life evolved from some primordial soup of chemicals is ridiculous.

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  • early station wagons, however, evolved from trucks and were viewed as Commercial Vehicles, not consumer automobiles.

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  • These collective systems have evolved by means of natural SELECTION to exhibit striking problem-solving capacities, while functioning within a complex, dynamic ENVIRONMENT.

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  • surrealism evolved from the Paris wing of the Dada movement several years later.

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  • I like to think that the modern day symphony orchestra has evolved to the state that it has.

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  • Cavefish have evolved regressive characters such as a degenerate eye, small optic tectum, and less pigment.

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  • Information coming from this project suggests ways in which biological energy transduction systems might have evolved in primitive life.

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  • Gram negative bacteria have evolved a number of different protein translocation pathways across the outer membrane.

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  • trike unit suspended under a wing evolved from the hang glider.

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  • The discovery, unveiled in the journal Nature, might reveal how early tyrannosaurs evolved into the T rex 100 million years later.

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  • Aquatic animals have evolved various methods of breathing underwater.

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  • It's not wholly unreasonable to suppose that life has evolved elsewhere.

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  • voracious predators which the water vole has not evolved to cope with.

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  • weathered granite took place as a generally radial drainage network evolved around the granite dome.

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  • The cries of animals are but the working of the curiously-contrived machine, in which, when one portion is touched in a certain way, the wheels and springs concealed in the interior perform their work, and, it may be, a note supposed to express joy or pain is evolved; but there is no consciousness or feeling.

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  • Hillebrand, who had noticed, in examining the mineral uraninite, that an inert gas was evolved when the mineral was decomposed with acid.

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  • In the hot springs of Bath it amounts to about one-thousandth part of the gas evolved.

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  • It is believed, however, that a satisfactory type of automatic rifle (see RIFLE) has been evolved and is now (1908) in process of manufacture.

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  • Like Gardiner, he could hardly repudiate that royal supremacy, in the establishment of which he had been so active an agent; but he began to doubt that supremacy when he saw to what uses it could be put by a Protestant council, and either he or Gardiner evolved the theory that the royal supremacy was in abeyance during a royal minority.

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  • Whilst others busied themselves with the application of the accepted rules of the Dutch, the German, and other formal schools of tactical thought, Cromwell almost alone saw clearly into the heart of the questions at issue, and evolved the strategy, the tactics, and the training suited to the work to which he had set his hand.

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  • But later times nearly strangled Zoroastrian piety, not only by laws of ritual purity but also by newly evolved secondary deities - personified attributes, and the like.

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  • medusa-buds) in the extreme of degeneration, then it follows from Brooks's theory that Hydra must be descended from an archaic form in which the medusan type of organization had not yet been evolved.

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  • If it is assumed that all these genera bore gonophores ancestrally, then medusa of similar type must have been evolved quite inde pendently in a great number of cases.

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  • 2 If we read between the lines of this singular exhibition of force of one kind and weakness of another, it is clear that Descartes believed that he had divined the mode in which the physical universe had been evolved; and the Traits de l'homme and the essay Sur les passions afford abundant additional evidence that he sought for, and thought he had found, an explanation of the phenomena of physical life by deduction from purely physical laws.

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  • Resuming the Talmudic idea of an Over-soul present in every Israelite on the Sabbath, Luria and his school made play with this Over-soul, fed it with spiritual and material dainties and evolved an intricate maze of mystic ceremonial, still observed by countless masses.

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  • I, B) out of which is evolved the nucleolus and nuclear network (figs.

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  • The first definite geographical theories to affect the western world were those evolved, or at least first expressed, by the Greeks.'

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  • From Australia, where we have the best chance of studying rudimentary religion in some bulk, comes a certain amount of evidence showing that in the two ways just mentioned some inchoate prayer is being evolved.

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  • The immense volumes of sulphurous acid evolved give rise to many complaints; all the minor pits suspend work during the summer to avoid destruction of the crops.

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  • The very essence of their philosophy was the negation of the graces of social courtesy; it was impossible to "return to nature" in the midst of a society clothed in the accumulated artificiality of evolved convention without shocking the ingrained sensibilities of its members.

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  • Caird (Evolution of Religion, 1893) tries to vindicate Christianity as the highest working of nature - true just because evolved from lower religions.

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  • was evolved, in which the lower table was made of smaller size and was intended merely as a support, not as a surface to be used by the wheels.

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  • Webb evolved the type of threec y linder compound with which his name is associated in 1882.

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  • He ventures into a more disputable region when he penetrates into the obscure realm of the Abrahamic migration and finds in the Abrahamic traditions of Genesis the higher Canaanite monotheistic tendencies evolved out of Babylonian astral religion, and reflected in the name El `Elyon (Gen.

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  • 4b-9 (which may have been composed in the 9th century B.C.) clearly suggests, and it is strongly sustained by the overwhelming evidence of the powerful influence of Babylonian culture in the Palestinian region during the centuries 2000-1400 B.C. 2 Probably in our modern construction of ancient Hebrew history sufficient consideration has not been given to the inevitable coexistence of different types and planes of thought, each evolved from earlier and more primordial forms. In other words we have to deal not with one evolution but with evolutions.

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  • Andrews, for example, found that when a series of acids were under similar conditions used to neutralize a given amount of a base, the quantity of heat evolved on the neutralization was the same in all cases.

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  • Andrews likewise found that when the heat evolved on.

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  • the displacement from its salts of a metal M' by a metal M is added to the heat of displacement of another metal M" by M', the sum is equal to the heat which is evolved on the direct displacement of M" from its salts by M.

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  • Since the intrinsic energies of the two systems under given conditions are invariable, the difference between them is constant, so that the heat evolved when the first system is converted into the second is equal to that absorbed when the second system is re-transformed into the first (cf.

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  • This electrical energy, however, is equivalent to the heat which has disappeared, for it has been shown experimentally that if it is converted into heat and added to the heat actually evolved, the total quantity of heat obtained is exactly equal to that produced by the direct dissolution of the zinc in the absence of platinum.

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  • indicates that 71100 calories are evolved when 32 grammes of sulphur react with 2 X 16 grammes of free oxygen to form sulphur dioxide.

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  • Thus the equation Cl 2 -1-2KI, Aq=2KC1, Aq+12+52400 cal., or (C12) +2KI, Aq =2KC1, Aq+[12]-I-52400 cal., would express that when gaseous chlorine acts on a solution of potassium iodide, with separation of solid iodine, 52400 calories are evolved.

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  • A grand " palace style " of vase painting was at the same time evolved, in harmony with the general decoration of the royal halls.

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  • The military spirit was evolved, not in raids and massacres of the usual Asiatic type which create little but intense racial hatred, but in feuds between families and factions of the same race, which restrained ferocity and tended to create a temper like that of the feudal chivalry of Europe.

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  • As the result of this analysis, combined with an investigation into the surroundings man lives in, a "content" - a moral code - becomes gradually evolved.

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  • Though displaying a preponderance of Oriental characteristics, it retained a quality of its own quite unlike the styles evolved by other Western countries.

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  • The ducal palace, like St Mark's, is a symbol and an epitome of the race which evolved it.

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  • In Europe the Slavonic area is the principal seat of vampire beliefs, and here too we find, as a natural development, that means of preventing the dead from injuring the living have been evolved by the popular mind.

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  • The Book of Torgau was evolved, circulated and criticized; a new committee, prominent on which was Martin Chemnitz, sitting at Bergen near Magdeburg, considered the criticisms and finally drew up the Formula Concordiae.

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  • Then he treated oil of vitriol in the same way, but got nothing until by accident he dropped some mercury into the liquid, when "vitriolic acid air" (sulphur dioxide) was evolved.

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  • Probably by unconscious selection of surviving plants through long ages this type has been evolved in Guatemala, and experiments have been made to develop weevil-resistant races in the United States.

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  • United The present method of drilling has been evolved from States.

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  • He evolved an ingenious solution of the duplication of the cube, which shows considerable knowledge of the generation of cylinders and cones.

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  • The main doctrines of the Eleatics were evolved in opposition, on the one hand, to the physical theories of the early physical philosophers who explained all existence in terms of primary matter (see Ionian School), and, on the other hand, to the theory of Heraclitus that all existence may be summed up as perpetual change.

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  • The first, made by Sir William Ramsay in 1896, was that the mineral evolved a peculiar gas when treated with sulphuric acid; this gas, helium (q.v.), proved to be identical with a constituent of the sun's atmosphere, detected as early as 1868 by Sir Norman Lockyer during a spectroscopic examination of the sun's chromosphere.

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  • Note whether any moisture condenses on the cooler parts of the tube, a gas is evolved, a sublimate formed, or the substance changes colour.

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  • Any evolved gas must be examined.

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  • The increase in weight of the potash bulbs and soda-lime tube gives the weight of carbon dioxide evolved.

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  • They also showed that carbon monoxide was given off towards the end of the reaction, and oxygen was not evolved unless the temperature exceeded 100 °.

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  • of nitrogen liberated; (2) by Will and Varrentrapp's method, in which the substance is heated with soda-lime, and the ammonia evolved is absorbed in hydrochloric acid, and thence precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate or estimated volumetrically; or (3) by Kjeldahl's method, in which the substance is dissolved in concentrated sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate added, the liquid diluted and boiled with caustic soda, and the evolved ammonia absorbed in hydrochloric acid and estimated as in Will and Varrentrapp's method.

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  • the heat evolved when an organic compound is completely burned in oxygen; the heat of formation is deduced from the fact that it is equal to the heats of formation of the products of combustion less the observed heat of combustion.

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  • If twelve grammes of amorphous carbon be burnt to carbon dioxide under constant volume, the heat evolved (96.96 cal.) does not measure the entire thermal effect, but the difference between this and the heat required to break down the carbon molecule into atoms. If the number of atoms in the carbon molecule be denoted by n, and the heat required to split off each atom from the molecule by d, then the total heat required to break down a carbon molecule completely into atoms is nd.

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  • If a be the heat evolved by each carbon atom, and # that by each hydrogen atom, the thermal effect may be expressed as H =na+2m/ - A, where A is the heat required to break the molecule into itsconstituent atoms. If the hydrocarbon be saturated, i.e.

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  • On warming solutions of pyrrol in dilute acid, ammonia is evolved, and an amorphous powder of variable composition, known as pyrrol-red, separates out.

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  • They were evolved in the following order.

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  • Thus the Kabbalah linked the old scholasticism with the new and independent inquiries in learning and philosophy after the Renaissance, and although it had evolved a remarkably bizarre conception of the universe, it partly anticipated, in its own way, the scientific study of natural philosophy.

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  • Simon on the doctrine of transmigration as evolved from Exod.

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  • Nitric acid (up to 50%) is formed in the first tower, and weaker acids in the successive ones; the last tower contains milk of lime which combines with the gases to form calcium nitrite and nitrate (this product, being unsuitable as a manure, is decomposed with the acid, and the evolved gases sent back).

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  • The former gas is continually being evolved by the plants and absorbed by the animals, and precisely the reverse actions occur in the case of carbonic acid.

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  • He developed an original system of divinity, somewhat on the structural plan of that of Samuel Hopkins, and, in Emmons's own belief, contained in and evolved from Hopkinsianism.

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  • If, instead of using copper electrodes, we take plates of platinum, copper is still deposited on the cathode; but, instead of the anode dissolving, free sulphuric acid appears in the neighbouring solution, and oxygen gas is evolved at the surface of the platinum plate.

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  • Thus, with a dilute solution of sulphuric acid and platinum electrodes, hydrogen gas is evolved at the cathode, while, as the result of a secondary action on the anode, sulphuric acid is there re-formed, and oxygen gas evolved.

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  • Again, with the solution of a salt such as sodium chloride, the sodium, which is primarily liberated at the cathode, decomposes the water and evolves hydrogen, while the chlorine may be evolved as such, may dissolve the anode, or may liberate oxygen from the water, according to the nature of the plate and the concentration of the solution.

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  • Carlisle found that hydrogen and oxygen were evolved at the surfaces of gold and platinum wires connected with the terminals of a battery and dipped in water.

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  • During the earliest investigation of the subject it was thought that, since hydrogen and oxygen were usually evolved, the electrolysis of solutions of acids and alkalis was to be regarded as a direct decomposition of water.

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  • Thus, if the current be passed through dilute sulphuric acid between hydrogen electrodes, and through a solution of copper sulphate, it will be found that the mass of hydrogen evolved in the first cell is to the mass of copper deposited in the second as i is to 31.8.

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  • When the solution is weak, hydrogen and oxygen are evolved; but, as the concentration is increased, and the current raised, more and more chlorine is liberated.

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  • If the anode consist of platinum, cyanogen gas is evolved thereat from the anion Ag(CN) 2, and the platinum becomes covered with the insoluble silver cyanide, AgCN, which soon stops the current.

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  • In the electrolysis of a concentrated solution of sodium acetate, hydrogen is evolved at the cathode and a mixture of ethane and carbon dioxide at the anode.

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  • For instance, sulphuric acid, which in the fairly strong solutions used by Thomsen is only about half dissociated, gives a higher value for the heat of neutralization, so that heat must be evolved when it is ionized.

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  • The heat of formation of a substance from its ions is, of course, very different from that evolved when it is formed from its elements in the usual way, since the energy associated with an ion is different from that possessed by the atoms of the element in their normal state.

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  • If the chemical changes which occur in the cell were allowed to take place in a closed vessel without the performance of electrical or other work, the change in energy would be measured by the heat evolved.

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  • When one gramme of zinc is dissolved in dilute sulphuric acid, 1670 thermal units or calories are evolved.

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  • When we use platinum electrodes in acidulated water, hydrogen and oxygen are evolved.

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  • If we regard the thermal effect at each junction as a measure of the potential-difference there, as the total thermal effect in the cell undoubtedly is of the sum of its potentialdifferences, in cases where the temperature coefficient is negligible, the heat evolved on solution of a metal should give the electrical potential-difference at its surface.

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  • Long digestion of the acid with excess of phosphorus pentachloride results in the formation of the acid chloride, C 6 (0001),, which crystallizes in needles, melting at 190° C. By heating the ammonium salt of the acid to 150-160° C. as long as ammonia is evolved, a mixture of CO paramide (mellimide), C6 (CO > NH) 3, and ammonium euchroate is obtained.

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  • In Englishspeaking countries the ore is commonly known as magnetite, and pieces which exhibit attraction as magnets; the cause to which the attractive property is attributed is called magnetism, a name also applied to the important branch of science which has been evolved from the study of phenomena associated with the magnet.

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  • The one-sided specialization and the peculiar metallic colouring of the lateral tail feathers mark them as the extreme terms of a degenerative series, whilst the symmetry, likeness of constituent parts inter se, and absence of specialized pigment, as well as the fact that they differ little from any average feather of birds in general, mark the contour feather as primitively simple, and as the starting-point from which the highly elaborated eye-painted tail feather has gradually evolved.

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  • It is probable that the Pedipalpi, Araneae, and Podogona have been separately evolved as distinct lines of descent from the ancient aquatic Arachnida.

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  • The deepest line of cleavage is naturally between the view that episcopacy is a divinely ordained institution essential to the effective existence of a church as a channel of grace, and the view that it is merely a convenient form of church order, evolved as the result of a variety of historical causes, and not necessary to the proper constitution of a church.

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  • Finally, it brought the simplest living matter or formless protoplasm before the mental vision as the startingpoint whence, by the operation of necessary mechanical causes, the highest forms have been evolved, and it rendered unavoidable the conclusion that this earliest living material was itself evolved by gradual processes, the result also of the known and recognized laws of physics and chemistry, from material which we should call not living.

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  • Guncottons are examined for degree of nitration by the nitrometer, in which apparatus they are decomposed by sulphuric acid in contact with mercury, and all the nitrogen is evolved as nitric oxide, NO, which is measured and the weight of its contained nitrogen calculated.

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  • Another heat test, that of Will, consists in heating a weighed quantity of the guncotton in a stream of carbon dioxide to 130° C., passing the evolved gases over some red-hot copper, and finally collecting them over a solution of potassium hydroxide which retains the carbon dioxide and allows the nitrogen, arising from the guncotton decomposition, to be measured.

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  • The oil separates from the fat-cells and is found lying free, while the sulphuretted hydrogen evolved as one of the products of putrefaction reacts upon the iron of the blood and throws down a precipitate of sulphide of iron, which in course of time imparts to the limb a range of colour commencing in green and terminating in black.

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  • When the solution in the strong acid is allowed to stand, some nitric acid is first evolved, and as the temperature rises this is followed by a general decomposition of the substance, though not necessarily an explosive one.

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  • Laennec, it is hardly too much to say that this simple and purely mechanical invention has had more influence on the development of modern medicine than all the "systems" evolved by the most brilliant intellects of the 18th century.

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  • These, however, were inapplicable to London, and it was realized Metro- Instead, the London Government Act of 1899 was evolved.

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  • It is probable that flintglass was not invented, but gradually evolved, that potash-lead glasses were in use during the latter part of the 17th century, but that the mixture was not perfected until the middle of the following century.

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  • confusion the people turned to him as their only hope, and gradually a new government was evolved, each law being enacted as the result of his exhortations.

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  • His waters were said to pass beneath the sea and rise again in the fountain Arethusa at Syracuse; such is the earlier version from which later mythologists and poets evolved the familiar myth of the loves of Alpheus and Arethusa.

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  • Another point to be considered in this connexion is that the masses of sulphur dioxide evolved, being destructive of vegetable life, are an intolerable nuisance to the neighbourhood in which the operations take place.

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  • Kiliani found that the sponge was produced chiefly when a weak solution, or a low current-density, was used, and that hydrogen was usually evolved simultaneously; sound deposits resulted from the use of a current-density of 200 amperes, or more, per sq.

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  • The reduction is not due to electrolysis, but to the action of carbon on alumina, a part of the carbon in the charge being consumed and evolved as carbon monoxide gas, which burns at the orifice in the cover so long as reduction is taking place.

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  • Sidney Young has suggested conducting the operation in a current of carbon dioxide which sweeps out the vapours as they are evolved, and also heating in a vapour bath, e.g.

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  • From what we know of the Platyelmia, however, it is more probable that the two are quite independent and have been evolved separately.

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  • If the Phylactolaemata were evolved from the type of structure represented by Phoronis or the Pterobranchia, the Gymnolaen ata should be a further modification of this type, and the comparative study of the embryology of the.two orders would appear to be meaningless.

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  • As a sort of theoretic basis for this adhesion to national type in literature, he conceived the idea that literature and art, together with language and national culture as a whole, are evolved by a natural process, and that the intellectual and emotional life of each people is correlated with peculiarities of physical temperament and of material environment.

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  • Thus the main features of the Japanese dwelling-house were evolved, and little change took place subsequently, except that the brush of the painter was freely used for decorating partitions, and in aristocratic mansions unlimited care was exercised in the choice of rare woods.

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  • At the same time, the diffusion of these compounds into contact with the cathode leads to a partial reduction to chloride, by the removal of combined oxygen by the instrumentality of the hydrogen there evolved.

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  • Kellner, who in 1886 patented the use of cathode (caustic soda) and anode (chlorine) liquors in the manufacture of cellulose from wood-fibre, and has since evolved many similar processes, has produced an apparatus that has been largely used.

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  • This halt in the cooling, due to the heat evolved in the solidification of the first crystals that form in the liquid, is called the freezingpoint of the mixture; the freezing-point can generally be observed with considerable accuracy.

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  • This highly organized financial system must have been gradually evolved, and no doubt reached its perfection only after the treasury was transferred to Athens.

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  • In the collected Scientific Papers of Lord Kelvin (3 vols., Cambridge, 1882), of James Clerk Maxwell (2 vols., Cambridge, 1890), and of Lord Rayleigh (4 vols., Cambridge, 1903), the advanced student will find the means for studying the historical development of electrical knowledge as it has been evolved from the minds of some of the master workers of the 19th century.

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  • The heat evolved in this process may be represented by s"(o' - o"), where s" is the specific heat of the substance in the second state at saturation pressure.

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  • Finally, the substance is reconverted into the first state at the temperature 0", completing the cycle by the abstraction of a quantity of heat By the application of the first law, the difference of the quantities of heat absorbed and evolved in the cycle must be equal to the work represented by the area of the cycle, which is equal to (p' - p") (v" - v') in the limit when the difference of pressure is small.

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  • They are provided with lids, made either of lead or of wood lined with lead, which have openings to serve for the introduction of the alloy and acid, and a vent tube to lead off the vapours evolved during the operation.

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  • The bath is used at 65° to 70° C. (150° to 158° F.), and if free chlorine be evolved, which is known at once by its pungent smell, the temperature is raised, or more acid is added, to promote the solubility of the gold.

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  • It was included in Charlemagne's empire and was divided by him into counties, which evolved there as elsewhere into hereditary fiefs; but after the break-up of Charlemagne's empire, the Burgundian kingdom revived and Savoy was again absorbed in it.

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  • It is only by a gradual process that social science in its whole complexity can be evolved.

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  • The nature of the gases evolved by coal when freshly exposed to the atmosphere has been investigated by several chemists, more particularly by Lyon Playfair and Ernst von Composi- Meyer.

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  • The latter observer found the gases given off tion of gas by coal from the district of Newcastle and Durham evolved by to contain carbonic acid, marsh gas or light carburetted coal.

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  • The gases evolved from the sudden outbursts or blowers in coal, which are often given off at a considerable tension, are the most dangerous enemy that the collier has to contend with.

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  • Before the commercial production of calcium carbide made it one of the most easily obtainable gases, the processes which were most largely adopted for its preparation in laboratories were: - first, the decomposition of ethylene bromide by dropping it slowly into a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, and purifying the evolved gas from the volatile bromethylene by washing it through a second flask containing a boiling solution of alcoholic potash, or by passing it over moderately heated soda lime; and, second, the more ordinarily adopted process of passing the products of incomplete combustion from a Bunsen burner, the flame of which had struck back, through an ammoniacal solution of cuprous chloride, when the red copper acetylide was produced.

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  • He also made the corresponding sodium compound and showed that it evolved the same gas, whilst in 1862 F.

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  • The formation of hydrogen is caused by small traces of metallic calcium occasionally found free in the carbide, and cases have been known where this was present in such quantities that the evolved gas contained nearly 20% of hydrogen.

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  • When carbide is acted upon by water considerable heat is evolved; indeed, the action develops about one-twentieth of the heat evolved by the combustion of carbon.

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  • The term "spontaneous combustion" is used when a substance smoulders or inflames apparently without the intervention of any external heat or light; in such cases, as, for example, in heaps of cotton-waste soaked in oil, the oxidation has proceeded slowly, but steadily, for some time, until the heat evolved has raised the mass to the temperature of ignition.

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  • Methyl chloride CH 3 C1, is a gas, boiling at - 23°, obtained by chlorinating methane, or better, from methyl alcohol; wood spirit is treated with salt and sulphuric acid, or hydrochloric acid gas conducted into the boiling spirit in the presence of zinc chloride, the evolved gas being washed with potash and dried by sulphuric acid.

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  • The quantity of heat evolved, according to Julius Thomsen, is 34,116 calories for each gram of hydrogen burned.

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  • Gradually, from Eratosthenes to Tycho, Hipparchus playing the most important part among ancient astronomers, the complex astrolabe was evolved, large specimens being among the chief observa tory instruments of the 15th, 16th and even 17th centuries; while small ones were in use among travellers and learned men, not only for astronomical, but for astrological and topographical purposes.

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  • On heating with an oxide or carbonate they yield a trimetallic orthophosphate, carbon dioxide being evolved in the latter case.

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  • The pandean pipes continued in favour with the rustic populations of the West long after the organ evolved from it had eclipsed this humble prototype.

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  • "With the council of the confederacy," it has been said, "and, more generally, in the confederacy, sovereignty arises and the true political tradition is evolved" (F.

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  • It has been suggested that the modern conception of it was evolved from the contest between three powers: the Church, the Roman Empire, of which the individual states in Europe were theoretically provinces, and the great landowners and corporations.

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  • From this conception his thievish character may have been evolved.

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  • If he was evolved from the wind, his character had become so anthropomorphic that the Greeks had practically lost the knowledge of his primitive significance; nor did Greek cult ever associate him with the wind.

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  • To the curial system, so evolved, and continually fortifying its position in the domains of theology, ecclesiastical law and politics, the episcopal system stands in diametrical opposition.

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  • In 1865 Dellinger wrote: " The Ultramontane view can be summarized in a single, concise, and luminous proposition; but out of this proposition are evolved a doctrine and a view that embrace not merely religion and the Church, but science and the state, politics, morals and the social order - in a word, the whole intellectual life of men and nations.

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  • He evolved the theory, among other things, that the boundaries of the old counties or pagi (Gaue) were identical with those of the dioceses.

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  • A crude system, based on the external appearance of plants and their uses to man, was gradually evolved, and is well illustrated in the Herbal, issued in 1597 by John Gerard (1545-1612), a barber-surgeon, who had a garden in Holborn, and was a keen student of British plants.

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  • The amount of ammonia in ammonium salts can be estimated quantitatively by distillation of the salts with sodium or potassium hydroxide, the ammonia evolved being absorbed in a known volume of standard sulphuric acid and the excess of acid then determined volumetrically; or the ammonia may be absorbed in hydrochloric acid and the ammonium chloride so formed precipitated as ammonium chlorplatinate, (NH4)2PtC16.

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  • The U-shaped electrolytic vessel and the electrodes are made of an alloy of platinum-iridium, the limbs of the tube being closed by stoppers made of fluor-spar, and fitted with two lateral exit tubes for carrying off the gases evolved.

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  • For the transference of a bishopric a special legal form was evolved - that of investiture, the king investing the bishop elect with the see by delivering to him the ring and pastoral staff.

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  • The remarks made above would not apply to the coherent system of idealism which may be evolved from Kant's writings, and which many would consider alone to deserve the name of Kantianism or Criticism.

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  • During electrolysis, oxygen is evolved at the anode and escapes from the outer vessel, while the sodium deposited in globules on the cathode floats upwards into the iron cylinder, within which it accumulates, and from which it may be removed at intervals by means of a perforated iron ladle, the fused salt, but not the metal, being able to pass freely through the perforations.

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  • On solution in water, heat is evolved and hydrates formed.

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  • On placing a piece of potash on a platinum plate, connected to the negative of a powerful electric battery, and bringing a platinum wire, connected to the positive of the battery, to the surface of the potassium a vivid action was observed: gas was evolved at the upper surface of the fused globule of potash, whilst at the lower surface, adjacent to the platinum plate, minute metallic globules were formed, some of which immediately inflamed, whilst others merely tarnished.

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  • It is certain that the snakes have been evolved as a specialized branch from some Lacertilian stock, and that both "orders" are intimately related, but it is significant that it is only through the degraded members of the 1 For the etymology of this word, see Crocodile.

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  • Presumably the presence of osteoderms and of complete cranial arches are more archaic than their absence, just as we conclude that limbless forms have been evolved from various groups possessed of fully developed limbs.

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  • Thus the collective fauna of ancient South America mimics the independently evolved collective fauna of North America, the collective fauna of modern Australia mimics the collective fauna of the Lower Eocene of North America.

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  • It should be borne in mind, first, that wherever a new animal suddenly appears or a new character suddenly arises in a fossil horizon we must consider whether such appearance may be due to the non-discovery of transitional links with older forms, or to the sudden invasion of a new type or new organ which has gradually evolved elsewhere.

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  • Soc., 1909, 95, p. 656), is a lemon-yellow solid obtained by acting on iodic acid with sulphuric acid, oxygen being evolved.

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  • As an alternative method it may be decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solution and the amount of evolved oxygen measured: 2K 3 Fe(NC) 5 + 2KHO + H 2 O 2 = 2K 4 Fe(NC) 6 + 2H,0 + 02.

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  • Modern experiments in cross-fertilization in Lancashire by the Garton Brothers have evolved the most extraordinary "sports," showing, it is claimed, that the plant has probably passed through stages of which until the present day there had been no conception.

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  • The chief types of Mollusca were already differentiated at the beginning of the geological record, and the metamerism which occurs in the Cephalopoda has been evolved within the limits of that class.

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  • The peculiar odour evolved by many rodents is due to the secretions of special glands, which may open into the prepuce, as in Mus, Microtus and Cricetus, or into the rectum, as in Arctomys and Thryonomys, or into the passage common to both, as in the beaver, or into pouches opening near the vent, as in hares, agoutis and jerboas.

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  • He not only agrees with Laplace and Lyell about the evolution of the solar system, but also supposes that the affinities, pointed out by Lothar Meyer and Mendeleeff, between groups of chemical elements prove an evolution of these elements from a primitive matter (prothyl) consisting of homogeneous atoms. These, however, are not ultimate enough for him; he thinks that everything, ponderable and imponderable or ether, is evolved from a primitive substance, which condenses first into centres of condensation (pyknatoms), and then into masses, which when they exceed the mean consistency become ponderables, and when they fall below it become imponderables.

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  • Hence, when he returns to organisms, it does not surprise us that he assigns to ova and spermatozoa cell-souls, to the impregnated ovum germ-soul, to plants tissue-souls, to animals nerve-souls; or that he regards man's body and soul as born together in the impregnated ovum, and gradually evolved from the bodies and souls of lower animals.

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  • He holds indeed that, in accordance with the law of substance, consciousness must be evolved from unconsciousness with the development of sense organs and a central nervous organ.

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  • The greater part of the process is a change in the facts of nature before consciousness; and in all that part, at all events, the phenomena evolved must mean physical facts which are not conscious affections, but, as they develop, are causes which gradually produce life and consciousness.

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  • He regarded everything known as evolved from matter, and reduced consciousness to a mere collateral product (` ` epiphenomenon ") of cerebral operations without any power of influencing them.

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  • Scholars like Langenstein, Gerson and Zabarella, evolved a new theory as to ecumenical councils, which from the point of view of Roman Catholic principles must be described as revolutionary.

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  • Liberal churchmen in Italy, while rejecting Mazzini's dream of a republic, had evolved projects for attaining national unity while preserving the temporal power.

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  • It follows that if the thermodynamic heat of solution be positive, that is, if heat be absorbed to keep the system at constant temperature, the solubility will increase with rising temperature, while if heat be evolved on dissolution, the solubility falls when the system is heated.

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  • In a very dilute solution no appreciable heat is evolved or absorbed when solvent is added, but such heat effects are generally found with more concentrated solutions.

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  • The process exhibited several disadvantages, the electrolyte had to be kept constant in composition lest either fluorine vapours should be evolved or sodium thrown down, and the raw materials had accordingly to be prepared in a pure state.

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  • - This may be called the natural means of increasing the number of any particular kind of plant, but it is to be remembered that we do not by that means secure an exact reproduction of the parent, especially in the case of plants raised or evolved in the course of generations by hybridization and selection.

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  • Whether the strong odour of trimethylamine evolved by the spores of Tilletia attracts insects is not known.

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  • The indispensableness of such abundant things as air, water and light is readily explained by saying that their very abundance has evolved a creature dependent on them.

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  • The heat evolved by this process of solidification retards the fall of temperature; but after this the rate of cooling remains regular until T (750°) on the line Sa (Ar 3) is reached, when a second retardation occurs, due to the heat liberated by the passage within the pasty mass of part of the iron and carbon from a state of mere solution to that of definite combination in the ratio Fe 3 C, forming microscopic particles of cementite, while the remainder of the iron and carbon continue dissolved in each other as austenite.

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  • io), by means of the surface of several fire-brick walls, catches in one phase the heat evolved by the burning gas as it sweeps through, and in the other phase returns that heat to the entering blast as it sweeps through from left to right.

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  • A cold lump of ore chills the slag immediately around it, just where its oxygen, reacting on the carbon of the metal, generates carbonic oxide; the slag becomes cool, viscous, and hence easily made to froth, just where the froth-causing gas is evolved.

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  • From the historical point of view it may be suggested that neither North nor South was correct in theory in 1861: the United States were not a nation; neither were the states sovereign; but from the embryo political communities of 1776-1787, in which no proper sovereignty existed anywhere, two nationalities were slowly being evolved and two sovereignties were in the making; the North and the South each fulfilled most of the requirements for a nation and they were mutually unlike and hostile.

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  • First of all, order had to be evolved from the chaos in which Sweden had been plunged by the disruption of the Union; and the shortest, perhaps the only, way thereto was to restore the royal authority, which had been in abeyance during ninety years.

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  • It may then be learnt who made the first cup of tea, who planted the earliest bushes, and how the primitive methods of manufacture were evolved.

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  • The machinery in use is very varied in character, and it has been evolved principally by practical planters of a mechanical turn.

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  • In 1195 Hubert issued an ordinance by which four knights were to be appointed in every hundred to act as guardians of the peace, and from this humble beginning eventually was evolved the office of justice of the peace.

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  • Above all it evolved the Customs-Union (Zollverein), which gradually attached the smaller states, by material interests if The not by sympathy, to the Prussian system.

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  • To counteract it celibacy was finally imposed on the clergy, and the great mendicant orders evolved; while the constant polemic of the Cathar teachers against the cruelty, rapacity and irascibility of the Jewish tribal god led the church to prohibit the circulation of the Old Testament among laymen.

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  • The sacrament of "extreme unction" was also evolved by way of competing with the death-bed corisolamentum.

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  • The later story, with its episode of Peeping Tom, has been evolved by later chroniclers.

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  • had to be evolved under the pressure of a somewhat acute military situation.

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  • This, when garlic has been eaten, is evolved by the excretory organs, the activity of which it promotes.

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  • Experience had evolved the working principle which was officially formulated at a much later period:

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  • These feelings were gradually removed after constant protests, but not until the war had been in progress for nearly three years was a system evolved which by degrees gave the correspondents a reasonable amount of freedom.

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  • The corner-stone of Central College was laid in October 1817, and Jefferson, who was rector of its board of trustees, evolved a plan for its development into the university of Virginia.

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  • Thallous sulphate, T1 2 SO 4, forms rhombic prisms, soluble in water, which melt at a red heat with decomposition, sulphur dioxide being evolved.

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  • Knop (ibid., 1870, 9, p. 226), in which the urea is decomposed by an alkaline hypobromite and the evolved nitrogen is measured (see A.

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  • Riegler (ibid., 18 94, 33, p. 49) decomposes urea solutions by means of mercury dissolved in nitric acid, and measures the evolved gas.

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  • Habits of foreign adventure and of thrift were evolved, which were of advantage to the empire when, too long after the union of 1707, Scottish men were admitted to participate in its privileges and in its administration.

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  • They had evolved or inherited anti-papal heresies much like those of the reformers of 1559, but James turned their trial into a jest.

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  • Manganous Sulphate, MnSO 4, is prepared by strongly heating a paste of pyrolusite and concentrated sulphuric acid until acid fumes cease to be evolved.

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  • Considerations of weight had long prevented Lavoisier from accepting this doctrine, but he was now able to explain the process fully, showing that the hydrogen evolved did not come from the metal itself, but was one product of the decomposition of the water of the dilute acid, the other product, oxygen, combining with the metal to form an oxide which in turn united with the acid.

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  • Mommsen that the plebeian order had its sole origin in the clients who attached themselves in a position of semi-freedom to the heads of patrician houses, and gradually evolved a freedom and citizenship of their own (see Patron And Client).

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  • It is a curious process by which the monster that symbolized heathenism conquered by Christianity has been evolved out of the first great rival of the God of Israel.

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  • The gaseous hydrochloric acid evolved during all this time must be absorbed in water, unless it is directly converted into chlorine (see below, 2 and 3).

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  • This requires more time and fuel than the work in " open " furnaces, but in the muffles the gaseous hydrochloric acid is separated from the fire-gases, just like that evolved in the pot, and can therefore be condensed into strong hydrochloric acid, like the pot-acid.

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  • The heat evolved by the compression in the air-pumps (which rises to four atmospheres or upwards) is again removed by cooling, and the gas is now passed upwards in the " Solvay tower " (fig.

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  • The intermediate layer of the salt solution, floating over the caustic soda solution, plays the part of a diaphragm, by preventing the chlorine evolved in the bell from acting on the sodium hydrate formed outside, and this solution offers much less resistance to the electric current than the ordinary diaphragms. This process therefore consumes less power than most others.

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  • It is best prepared by heating methyl alcohol and sulphuric acid to 140° C. and leading the evolved gas into sulphuric acid.

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  • It is supposed that sea-going merchants, mostly Dravidians, and not Aryans, availing themselves of the monsoons, traded in the 7th century B.C. from the south-west ports of India to Babylon, and that there they became acquainted with a Semitic alphabet, which they brought back with them, and from which all the alphabets now used in India, Burma, Siam and Ceylon have been gradually evolved.

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  • If the latter are considered to be in an early state this presents no difficulty; but if both Antarian and carbon stars are held to be evolved from solar stars, we may consider them to be, not successive, but parallel stages of development, the chemical constitution of the star deciding whether it shall pass into the third or fourth type.

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  • A new technique of manipulation - it is, of course, no more - had been evolved.

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  • He first, so far as we know, sought to go behind the infinite multiplicity of phenomena in the hope of finding an infinite unity from which all difference has been evolved.

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  • Denying any form of moral sense or conscience, he regards all the social virtues as evolved from the instinct for self-preservation, the give-and-take arrangements between the partners in a defensive and offensive alliance, and the feelings of pride and vanity artificially fed by politicians, as an antidote to dissension and chaos.

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  • Humanism, a word which will often recur in the ensuing paragraphs, denotes a specific bias which the forces liberated in the Renaissance took from contact with the ancient world, - the particular form assumed by human self-esteem at that epoch, - the ideal of life and civilization evolved by the modern nations.

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  • Real force was not in it, but rather in that counterpart to its unlimited pretensions, the church, which had evolved it from barbarian night, and which used her own more vital energies for undermining the rival of her creation.

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  • The touch of the new spirit which had evolved literature, art and culture in Italy sufficed in Germany to recreate Christianity.

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  • But the cause in which German intellect and will were enlisted was so different that it is difficult not to make a formal separation between that movement which evolved culture in Italy and that which restored religion in Germany, establishing the freedom of intelligence in the one sphere and the freedom of the conscience in the other.

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  • As there was nothing despotic in the temper of the ruling classes, nothing oppressive in English culture, the literature of that age evolved itself freely from the people.

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  • The sulphurous acid evolved destroys such micro-organisms as may be in the cask, and in addition, as it reduces the supply of oxygen, renders the wine less prone to acidulous fermentation.

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  • during the whole time the flax is in steep. In a short time a brisk fermentation is set up, gases at first of pleasant odour, but subsequently becoming very repulsive, being evolved, and producing a frothy scum over the surface of the water.

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  • Various schemes had been propounded with a view of increasing the output of the hand-press, and in 1790 William Nicholson (1753-1815) evolved his ideas on the subject, which were suggestions rather than definite Cylinder inventions.

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  • of the Semitic peoples constituted a group of powers fertilizing the land with water-springs, the givers of corn and wine and oil, out of which under conditions of superior political development a high-god like the Tyrian Baal, the majestic City-King, might be evolved.

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  • One of the earliest and most exhaustive series of experiments was made on Rio Tinto ores at the John Brown works by John Hollway, with the aim of both smelting the ore and concentrating the matte in the same furnace, by the heat evolved through the oxidation of their sulphur and iron.

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  • They have been ousted by the more gorgeous looking hybrids, which have been evolved during the past Too years.

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  • The finest forms since 1880 have been evolved from H.

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  • It was in the third century that the cult of Mithras, with its mysteries and a theology evolved from Zoroastrianism, attained the widest diffusion in all Latin-speaking provinces of the Roman dominion; and it even seemed for a while as though the Sot invictus Mithras, highly favored by the Caesars, would become the official deity-in-chief of the empire.

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  • Here, again, the theology was further developed, and an attempt made to annul the old dualism by envisaging both Ormuzd and Ahriman as emanations of an original principle of infinite time (Zervan), a doctrine which long enjoyed official validity under the Sassanids till, in the reign of Chosroes I., the sect of Zervanites was pronounced heretical.i But, above all, the ritual and the doctrine of purity were elaborated and expanded, and there was evolved a complete and detailed system of casuistry, dealing with all things allowed and forbidden, the forms of pollution and the expiation for each, &c., which, in its arid and spiritles1 monotony vividly recalls the similar prescriptions in the Pentateuch.

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  • By mixing equal quantities of the two forms in aqueous solution heat is evolved and racemic acid, (C4H606)2.2H20, is obtained.

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  • It is a greyish coloured solid, which combines very energetically with water to form the hydroxide, much heat being evolved during the combination; on heating to redness in a current of oxygen it combines with the oxygen to form the dioxide, which at higher temperatures breaks up again into the monoxide and oxygen.

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  • and at the same time the law, of the world that He had evolved from Himself.

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  • The normal type evolved from this fusion of many races is dark-haired, sallow-skinned, browneyed and of low stature.

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  • It is readily soluble in dilute nitric acid, nitric oxide and silver nitrate being formed; it also dissolves in hot, strong sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide being evolved.

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  • It forms with silver nitrate the yellowish green solid, Ag 2 S AgNO 3, and with silver sulphate the orange-red powder, Ag 2 S Ag 2 SO 4 Silver sulphate, Ag 2 SO 4, is obtained as white crystals, sparingly soluble in water, by dissolving the metal in strong sulphuric acid, sulphur dioxide being evolved, or by adding strong sulphuric acid to a solution of the nitrate.

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  • In his Misere de la philosophie (1847) he lays down the principle that social relationships largely depend upon modes of production, and therefore the principles, ideas and categories which are thus evolved are no more eternal than the relations they express, but are historical and transitory products.

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  • Thus the mitre over an English bishop's coat-of-arms is a survival which indicates him as the successor of bishops who actually wore mitres, while armorial bearings themselves, and the whole craft of heraldry, are survivals bearing record of a state of warfare and social order whence our present state was by vast modification evolved.

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