Evolution Sentence Examples

evolution
  • The doctrine of evolution in its finished and definite form is a modern product.

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  • Darwin's theory of evolution is based upon the idea of natural selection.

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  • He played a conspicuous part in the modern doctrine of evolution.

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  • As such, moreover, it is a much more limited theory of evolution than the ancient.

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  • The man who breaks the law is himself a product of social evolution and cannot be regarded as solely responsible for his disposition to transgress.

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  • The next great chapter in the history of against Italian evolution is the war of the burghs against the nobles, nobles.

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  • But fuller conceptions of evolution raise further difficulties for intuitionalism in its wonted forms. Knowledge cannot be divided into the two components - immediate certainties, precarious inferences.

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  • Yet on the whole Aristotle leans to a teleological theory of evolution, which he interprets dualistually by means of certain metaphysical distinctions.

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  • Aristotle's teleological conception of organic evolution often approaches modern mechanical conceptions.

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  • One great change and only one since Kant's day has affected the outlook upon theistic problems - the increasing belief in evolution.

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  • Aristotle is much nearer a conception of evolution than his master Plato.

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  • The Christian apologist indeed may himself seek, following John Fiske, to philosophize evolution as a restatement of natural theology - " one God, one law, one element and one far-off divine event " - and as at least pointing towards personal immortality.

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  • All this evolution is the necessary consequence of the determination of the ego by the non-ego.

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  • But besides the innumerable characters which are visible and measurable, there are probably thousands which we cannot measure or which have not been discovered, since every part of the organism enjoys its gradual and independent evolution.

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  • It is certainly a very striking fact that wherever we have been able to trace genetic series, either of invertebrates or vertebrates, in closely sequent geological horizons, or life zones, we find strong proof of evolution through extremely gradual mutation simultaneously affecting many parts of each organism, as set forth above.

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  • Henceforth the evolution followed different lines.

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  • There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.

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  • Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in the anhydrous acid with evolution of hydrogen and formation of x.

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  • In the study of the classics, as in other spheres, it was revolution rather than evolution that was loudly demanded.

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  • Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.

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  • Non-committal as regards evolution, he vastly broadened the field of vertebrate palaeontology by his descriptions of the extinct fauna of England, of South America (including especially the great edentates revealed by the voyage of the " Beagle "), of Australia (the ancient and modern marsupials) and of New Zealand (the great struthious birds).

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  • This law of recapitulation, subsequently termed the " biogenetic law " by Ernest Haeckel, was the greatest philosophic contribution of this period, and proved to be not only one of the bulwarks of the evolution theory but one of the most important principles in the method of palaeontology.

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  • A close study of the exact modes of evolution and of the philosophy of evolution is the distinguishing feature of this period.

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  • This law, that in the stages of growth of individual development (ontogeny), an animal repeats the stages of its ancestral evolution (phylogeny) was, as we have stated, anticipated by d'Orbigny.

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  • D'Orbigny, being a special creationist, failed to recognize the bearing of these individual stages on evolution.

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  • This definitely directed evolution, or development in a few determinable directions, has since been termed " orthogenetic evolution," and is recognized by all workers in invertebrate palaeontology and phylogeny as fundamental because the facts of invertebrate palaeontology admit of no other interpretation.

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  • New and unheard-of orders of amphibians, reptiles and mammals came to the surface of knowledge, revolutionizing thought, demonstrating the evolution theory, and solving some of the most important problems of descent.

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  • In the face of the continuous series of characters and types revealed by palaeontology, the Linnaean terminology, the individual order of development and the ancestral order of evolution.

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  • In tracing the phylogeny, or ancestral history of organs, palaeontology affords the only absolute criterion on the successive evolution of organs in time as well as of (progressive) evolution in form.

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  • During the past century it was and even now is the very " will-o'-the-wisp " of evolution, always tending to lead the phylogenist astray.

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  • It is one of the most striking cases known of the law of analagous evolution.

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  • The ingenuity of nature, however, in adapting animals is not infinite, because the same devices are repeatedly employed by her to accomplish the same adaptive ends whether in fishes, reptiles, birds or mammals; thus she has repeated herself at least twenty-four times in the evolution of long-snouted rapacious swimming types of animals.

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  • Step by step there have been established in palaeontology a number of laws relating to the evolution of the parts of animals which closely coincide with similar laws discovered by zoologists.

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  • Independent evolution of parts is well shown among invertebrates, where the shell of an ammonite, for example, may change markedly in form without a corresponding change in suture, or vice versa.

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  • Similarly, there is no correlation in the rate of evolution either of adjoining or of separated parts; the middle digit of the foot of the three-toed horse is accelerated in development, while the lateral digits on either side are retarded.

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  • The first exponent of the theory of sudden appearance of new parts and new types, to our knowledge, was Geoffroy St Hilaire, who suggested saltatory evolution through the direct action of the environment on development, as explaining the abrupt transitions in the Mesozoic Crocodilia and the origin of the birds from the reptiles.

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  • The essence of Waagen's law is orthogenesis, or evolution in a definite direction, and, if there does exist an internal hereditary principle controlling such orthogenetic evolution, there does not appear to be any essential contradiction between its gradual operation in the " mutations of Waagen " and its occasional hurried operation in the " mutations of de Vries," which are by their definition discontinuous or saltatory (Osborn, 1907).

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  • A very important evolutionary principle is that in such secondary returns to primary phases lost organs are never recovered, but new organs are acquired; hence the force of Dollo's dictum that evolution is irreversible from the point of view of structure, while frequently reversible, or recurrent, in point of view of the conditions of environment and adaptation.

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  • The polyphyletic law was early demonstrated among invertebrates by Neumayr (1889) when he showed that the ammonite genus Phylloceras follows not one but five distinct lines of evolution of unequal duration.

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  • The brachiopods, generally classed collectively as Spirifer mucronatus, follow at least five distinct lines of evolution in the Middle Devonian of North America, while more than twenty divergent lines have been observed by Grabau among the species of the gastropod genus Fusus in Tertiary and recent times.

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  • The requirements of an elongate body moving through the resistant medium of water are met by the evolution of similar entrant and exit curves, and the bodies of most swiftly moving aquatic animals evolve into forms resembling the hulls of modern sailing yachts (Bashford Dean).

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  • Internal causes of extinction are to be found in exaggeration of body size, in the hypertrophy or over-specialization of certain organs, in the irreversibility of evolution, and possibly, although this has not been demonstrated, in a progressive reduction of variability.

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  • The evolution of insect life in driving animals from feeding ranges and in the spread of disease probably has been a prime cause of extinction.

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  • Great waves of extinction have followed the long periods of the slow evolution of relatively inadaptive types of tooth and foot structure, as first demonstrated by Waldemar Kowalevsky; thus mammals are repeatedly observed in a cul-de-sac of structure from which there is no escape in an adaptive direction.

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  • Little proof is afforded among the mammals of extinction through arrested evolution or through the limiting of variation, although such laws undoubtedly exist.

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  • We have shown that the direct observation of the origin of new characters in palaeontology brings them within that domain of natural law and order to which the evolution of the physical universe conforms. The nature of this law, which, upon the whole, appears to be purposive or teleological in its operations, is altogether a mystery which may or may not be illumined by future research.

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  • In other words, the origin, or first appearance of new characters, which is the essence of evolution, is an orderly process so far as the vertebrate and invertebrate palaeontologist observes it.

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  • In other words, a balance appears to be always sustained between the internal (hereditary and ontogenetic) and the external (environmental and selectional) factors of evolution.

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  • Among American contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, 'the development of Cope's theories is to be found in the volumes of his collected essays, The Origin of the Fittest (New York, 1887), and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 1896).

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  • In North Borneo we seem to see the evolution of a god in the three stages of the cult of the hawk among the Kenyahs, the Kayans and the sea Dyaks.

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  • Bouillier (1813-1899), which makes life, or life and mind, the directive principle in evolution and growth, holding that all cannot be traced back to chemical and mechanical processes, but that there is a directive force which guides energy without altering its amount.

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  • Thus we pass from Egoistic to Universalistic hedonism, Utilitarianism, Social Ethics, more especially in relation to the still broader theories of evolution.

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  • The end of the evolution process is the production of a "social tissue" which will be "vitally efficient."

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  • It has all the characteristics of an acid, dissolving many metals with evolution of hydrogen and formation of salts, called iodides.

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  • The few rivers of the region must have reached the quiescence of old age iii the earlier cycle, but were revived by uplift to a vigorous youth in the current cycle; and it is to this newly introduced cycle of physiographic evolution that the deep canyons of the Plateau province are due.

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  • Ostwald (ibid., 1900, 35, pp. 33, 204) has observed that on dissolving chromium in dilute acids, the rate of solution as measured by the evolution of gas is not continuous but periodic. It is largely made as ferro-chrome, an alloy containing about 60-70% of chromium, by reducing chromite in the electric furnace or by aluminium.

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  • Attention has been especially directed to the investigation of the most primitive forms in each group, and accordingly we can now form much more definite conceptions of the phylogeny and evolution of the various classes.

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  • From such beginnings the evolution of the Turbellaria leads first through the Acoelous forms in which the central syncytium is partly differentiated into digestive, muscular and skeletotrophic tissue, then to the more specialized Rhabdocoela, and so through the Alloeocoela to the Triclads and finally to the Polyclads.

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  • There were, however, further changes, the result partly of doctrinal developments, partly of that passion for symbolism which by the 13th century had completed the evolution of the Catholic ritual.

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  • Of all the mixed motives that went to the evolution of church architecture in the middle ages, this rivalry in ostentation was probably the most fertile in the creation of new forms. A volume might be written on the economic effects of this locking up of vast capital in unproductive buildings.

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  • But with the decline of dogmatic belief and the spread of religious doubt - as the special sciences also grow more general, and the natural sciences become more speculative about matter and force, evolution and teleology - men begin to wonder again about the nature and origin of things, just as it was the decay of polytheism in Greek religion and his own discoveries in natural science which impelled Aristotle to metaphysical questions.

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  • These advances in natural science, which pointed to a unity and gradual evolution in nature, were accompanied by a growth in commerce, manufactures and industrialism; the same kind of spirit showed itself in the revolutionary upheaval of 1848, and in the materialistic publications which immediately followed, while these XVIII.

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  • Passing from Moleschott to Lyell's view of the evolution of the earth's crust and later to Darwin's theory of natural selection and environment, he reached the general inference that, not God but evolution of matter, is the cause of the order of the world; that life is a combination of matter which in favourable circumstances is spontaneously generated; that there is no vital principle, because all forces, non-vital and vital, are movements; that movement and evolution proceed from life to consciousness; that it is foolish for man to believe that the earth was made for him, in the face of the difficulties he encounters in inhabiting it; that there is no God, no final cause, no immortality, no freedom, no substance of the soul; and that mind, like light or heat, electricity or magnetism, or any other physical fact, is a movement of matter.

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  • His strong point consists in inferring the fact of evolution of some sort from the consideration of the evidence of comparative anatomy, palaeontology and embryology.

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  • On the strength of the consilience of arguments for evolution in the organic world, he carries back the process in the whole world, until he comes to a cosmology which recalls the rash hypotheses of the Presocratics.

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  • He not only agrees with Laplace and Lyell about the evolution of the solar system, but also supposes that the affinities, pointed out by Lothar Meyer and Mendeleeff, between groups of chemical elements prove an evolution of these elements from a primitive matter (prothyl) consisting of homogeneous atoms. These, however, are not ultimate enough for him; he thinks that everything, ponderable and imponderable or ether, is evolved from a primitive substance, which condenses first into centres of condensation (pyknatoms), and then into masses, which when they exceed the mean consistency become ponderables, and when they fall below it become imponderables.

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  • At the same time he admits, firstly, that to mark the barrier between unconscious and conscious is difficult; secondly, that it is impossible to trace the first beginning of consciousness in the lower animals; and, thirdly, that " however certain we are of the fact of this natural evolution of consciousness, we are, unfortunately, not yet in a position to enter more deeply into the question " (Riddle of the Universe, 191).

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  • He finds that throughout the universe there is an unceasing redistribution of matter and motion, and that this redistribution constitutes evolution when there is a predominant integration of matter and dissipation of motion, and constitutes dissolution where there is a predominant absorption of motion and disintegration of matter.

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  • He supposes that evolution is primarily integration, from the incoherent to the coherent, exemplified in the solar nebula evolving into the solar system; secondly differentiation, from the more homogeneous to the more heterogeneous, exemplified by the solar system evolving into different bodies; thirdly determination, from the indefinite to the definite, exemplified by the solar system with different bodies evolving into an order.

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  • He supposes that this evolution does not remain cosmic, but becomes organic. In accordance with Lamarck's hypothesis, he supposes an evolution of organisms by hereditary adaptation to the environment (which he considers necessary to natural selection), and even the possibility of an evolution of life, which, according to him, is the continuous adjustment of internal to external relations.

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  • Next, he supposes that mind obeys the same law of evolution, and exemplifies integration by generalization, differentiation by the development of the five senses, and determination by the development of the order of consciousness.

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  • He holds that we pass without break from the phenomena of bodily life to the phenomena of mental life, that consciousness arises in the course of the living being's adaptation to its environment, and that there is a continuous evolution from reflex action through instinct and memory up to reason.

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  • Now, Spencer has clearly, though unconsciously, changed the meaning of the term " phenomenon " from subjective affection of consciousness to any fact of nature, in regarding all this evolution, cosmic, organic, mental, social and ethical, as an evolution of phenomena.

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  • He also admits himself that mental evolution exemplifies integration of matter and dissipation of motion only indirectly.

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  • But here he becomes hopelessly inconsistent, because he had already said, in defining it, that " evolution is an integration of matter and concomitant dissipation of motion " (First Principles, § 145).

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  • However, with all the author's disclaimers, the general effect left on the reader's mind is that throughout the universe there is an unceasing change of matter and motion, that evolution is always such a change, that it begins with phenomena in the sense of physical facts, gradually issues in life and consciousness, and ends with phenomena in the sense of subjective affections of consciousness.

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  • He supposes that the law of evolution is deducible from the law of persistent force, and includes in force what is now called energy.

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  • Lastly, when a theory of the world supposes a noumenal power, a resistent and persistent force, which results in an evolution, defined as an integration of matter and a dissipation of motion, which having resulted in inorganic nature and organic nature, further results without break in consciousness, reason, society and morals, then such a theory will be construed as materialistically as that of Haeckel by the reader, whatever the intention of the author.

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  • It will have asserted the evolution of man and his consciousness out of the phenomena of his consciousness.

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  • If everything knowable is an example of evolution, and evolution is by definition a transformation of matter and motion, then everything knowable is an example of a transformation of matter and motion.

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  • As an exponent of universal evolution Haeckel is more consistent than Spencer.

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  • The study of evolution, without considering how many conditions are required for " the integration of matter and the dissipation of motion " to begin, and the undoubted discoveries which have resulted from the study of inorganic and organic evolution, have led men to expect too much from this one law of Nature.

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  • A second argument for God is the prevailing goodness or adaptation of Nature to the ends of conscious beings, which might conceivably be explained by Lamarckian evolution, but has not yet been so explained, and if it were, would not be inconsistent with a divine design in evolution.

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  • It seems hopeless to expect that natural science, even with the aid of evolution, can explain by mere body the origin and nature of this fact of consciousness.

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  • Fechner first confused physics and metaphysics in psychophysics, and next proceeded to confuse them again in his work on evolution (Einige Ideen zur SchOpfungs and Entwicklungs-geschichte der Organismen, 1873).

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  • But his substitute was his own hypothesis of panpsychism, from which he deduced a "cosmorganic " evolution from a " cosmorganic " or original condition of the world as a living organism into the inorganic, by the principle of tendency to stability.

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  • By thus supposing a psychical basis to evolution, Fechner, anticipating Wundt, substituted a psychical development of organs for Darwinian accidental variation.

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  • If he is to be believed, at the bottom of all organic evolution organic impulses becoming habits produce structural changes, which are transmitted by heredity; and as an impulse thus gradually becomes secondarily automatic, the will passes to higher activities, which in their turn become secondarily automatic, and so on.

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  • As now he supposes feeling even in " impulsive will " to be directed to an end, he deduces the conclusion that in organic evolution the pursuit of final causes precedes and is the origin of mechanism.

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  • He maintained that the physical and the psychical are two orders which are parallel without interference; that the physical or objective order is merely phenomena, or groups of feelings, or " objects," while the psychical or subjective order is both a stream of feelings of which we are conscious in ourselves, and similar streams which we infer beyond ourselves, or, as he came to call them, " ejects "; that, if we accept the doctrine of evolution at all, we must carry these ejective streams of feelings through the whole organic world and beyond it to the inorganic world, as a " quasimental fact "; that at bottom both orders, the physical phenomena and the psychical streams, are reducible to feelings; and that therefore there is no reason against supposing that they are made out of the same " mind-stuff," which is the thing-in-itself.

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  • Howison, published The Limits of Evolution, and other Essays illustrating the Metaphysical Theory of Personal Idealism (1901).

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  • Matter he held to be mind at the minimum of its action, and evolution the " expansion de l'activite incessante de la cause finale."

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  • Fouillee meets the mechanics of evolution by the argument that will to live determines.

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  • He incurred their special reproaches by his condemnation of the irresistible evolution which impelled Rome to desire exclusive dominion over Catholic Europe and to devote her attention to earthly things.

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  • The result of this evolution is that Belgium is to-day the most staunchly Catholic land north of the Alps.

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  • The concurrence of the evidence indicated above enables us to form the following outline of the evolution of Tibetan.

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  • A familiar example is to be found in solutions of sodium sulphate, which may be cooled much below their saturation point and kept in the liquid state till a crystal of the hydrate Na 2 SO 4 IoH 2 O is dropped in, when solidification occurs with a large evolution of latent heat.

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  • Saunders, "Experimental Studies in the Physiology of Heredity," Reports to the Evolution Committee of the Royal Society, Report I..

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  • They appear, however, to have no appreciation of mimetic and warning colours, and have therefore not influenced in any way the evolution of mimetic resemblances dependent upon hues and patterns.

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  • Berlin (Jena, 1902); revised in Essays on Evolution, 271-292; id.

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  • A form which is primitive on the whole may show a more advanced stage of evolution in some particular system of organs than another animal which is on the whole more highly developed and specialized.

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  • And although embryology seems to prove that the Neomeniomorphs are derived from forms with a series of shell-valves, nevertheless it seems probable that the calcareous spicules which alone are present in adult Aplacophora preceded the solid shell in evolution.

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  • The modern theory of evolution, on the other hand, has reintroduced a scientific teleology of another type.

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  • On the other hand, the scientific doctrine of evolution has gone far towards obliterating the distinction between external and internal compulsion, e.g.

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  • It is decomposed by water, with evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen.

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  • The evolution of state rights as shown in the history of the United States is typical.

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  • It is also soluble in solutions of the caustic alkalis, with evolution of hydrogen a behaviour similar to that shown by aluminium.

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  • The crystals so obtained are very unstable and decompose rapidly with evolution of carbon dioxide.

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  • On the other hand, there was a large section, the leader of whom was Herr von Voilmar, who maintained that the social revolution would not come suddenly, as Bebel and the older leaders had taught, but that it would beagradual evolution; they were willing to co-operate with the government in remedial measures by which, within the existing social order, the prosperity and freedom of the working classes might be advanced; their position was very strong, as Vollmar had succeeded in extending Socialism even in the Catholic parts of Bavaria.

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  • His theory leaves the natural man, without hesitation, to be developed by the natural processes of animal evolution.

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  • In his books on geological subjects he maintained a distinctly theological attitude, declining to admit the descent or evolution of man from brute ancestors, and holding that the human species only made its appearance on this earth within quite recent times.

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  • The trend of the evolution of the plant kingdom has been in the direction of the establishment of a vegetation of fixed habit and adapted to the vicissitudes of a life on land, and the Angiosperms are the highest expression of this evolution and constitute the dominant vegetation of the earth's surface at the present epoch.

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  • The position of Angiosperms as the highest plant-group is unassailable, but of the point or points of their origin from the general stem of the plant kingdom, and of the path Phylogeny or paths of their evolution, we can as yet say little.

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  • We readily recognize in them nowadays the natural classes of Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons distinguished alike in vegetative and in reproductive construction, yet showing remarkable parallel sequences in development; and we see that the Dicotyledons are the more advanced and show the greater capacity for further progressive evolution.

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  • From a comparison of those Euchlorophyceae which have been most closely investigated, it appears probable that sexual reproductive cells have in the course of evolution arisen as the result of specialization among asexual reproductive cells, and that in turn oogamous reproduction has arisen as the result of differentiation of the two conjugating cells into the smaller male gamete and the larger male gamete.

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  • It is also decomposed by warm aqueous solutions of caustic alkalis, with evolution of ammonia and carbon dioxide.

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  • Co-operation of the two factors appears to supply a causal theory of the occurrence of evolution; the suggestion of their co-operation and the comparison of the possible results with the actual achievements of breeders in producing varieties were the features of Charles Darwin's theoretical work which made it a new beginning in the science of biology, and which reduced to insignificance all earlier work on the theory of evolution.

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  • Osborn have made careful studies of preDarwinian writers on evolution, but the results of their inquiries only serve to show the greatness of the departure made by Darwin.

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  • Robert Chambers, in the once famous Vestiges of Creation, interested and shocked his contemporaries by his denial of the fixity of species and his insistence on creation by progressive evolution, but had no better theory of the cause of variation than to suppose that organisms - "from the simplest and oldest to the highest and most recent" were possessed of "an inherent impulse, imparted by the Almighty both to advance them from the several grades and modify their structure as circumstances required."

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  • Herbert Spencer from 1852 onwards maintained the principle of evolution and laid special stress on the moulding forces of the environment which called into being primarily new functions and secondarily new structures.

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  • Although the pre-Darwinian writers amongst them invoked nearly every principle that Darwin or his successors have suggested, they failed to carry conviction with regard to evolution, and they neither propounded a coherent philosophy of variation nor suggested a mechanism by which variations that appeared might give rise to new species.

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  • He recognized the existence of the large variations, but he believed these to be of little value in evolution, and he attached preponderating importance to relatively minute indeterminate variations.

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  • The theory of evolution is supported by a great range of evidence, much of which was first collected by Darwin, and which has been enormously increased by subsequent workers excited by his genius.

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  • On the other hand, the work of modern systematists shows an extraordinarily exact relation between their species and geographical locality, and the fact of divergent evolution can be almost demonstrated in museum collections when localities have been recorded exactly.

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  • It is plain that whilst the existence of variation can be demon strated and the occurrence of evolution established by induction and deduction, the part played by selection must remain largely theoretical.

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  • The evolution of the Christian pilgrimage moved on other lines.

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  • Parallel with this evolution, so to say, of the suttas, the short statements of doctrine, in prose, ran the treatment of the verses.

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  • It is typical, one may notice in passing, of the evolution of the epic elsewhere; in Iceland, for instance, id - Persia and in Greece.

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  • The manganites are amorphous brown solids, insoluble in water, and decomposed by hydrochloric acid with the evolution of chlorine.

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  • But not only can it be shown that patricians and plebeians coexisted as distinct orders in the Roman state at an earlier date than the evolution of citizenship by the clients.

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  • For this reason the book is at once the most brilliant and the most difficult of Hegel's works - the most brilliant because it is to some degree an autobiography of Hegel's mind - not the abstract record of a logical evolution, but the real history of an intellectual growth; the most difficult because, instead of treating the rise of intelligence (from its first appearance in contrast with the real world to its final recognition of its presence in, and rule over, all things) as a purely subjective process, it exhibits this rise as wrought out in historical epochs, national characteristics, forms of culture and faith, and philosophical systems. The theme is identical with the introduction to the Encyklopddie; but it is treated in a very different style.

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  • Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.

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  • The external evidence does not point to any intervening hiatus, and the archaeological data from the excavations do not reveal any dislocation of earlier conditions; earlier forms have simply developed and the evolution is a progressive one.

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  • This takes place with considerable evolution of heat which is removed by internal and external cooling with water.

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  • When once sexually ripe the axolotl are apparently incapable of changing, but their ancestral course of evolution is still latent in them, and will, if favoured by circumstances, reappear in following generations.

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  • The history of the colony since its acquisition by Great Britain has been one of social and political evolution.

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  • It is a legitimate speculation to suppose that these in the reverse order are the stages in the evolution of a double star.

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  • The divergences depend mainly on the different views taken by their authors as to the order of stellar evolution.

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  • Conflicting opinions are held as to the various steps in the process of evolution and the order in which the various types succeed one another, but the following perhaps represents in the main the most generally accepted view.

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  • The WolfRayet stars must probably be assigned to the earliest period of evolution; they are perhaps semi-nebulous.

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  • When evolution to that which is taking place in double stars; the latter appear to be separating from a single original mass and the former condensing into one.

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  • It may be that these fainter components are still in the stage when the temperature is rising, and the luminosity is as yet comparatively small; but it is not impossible that the massive stars (owing to their greater gravitation) pass through the earlier stages of evolution more rapidly than the smaller stars.

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  • If it is merely the aggregate of the stars, each star or small group of stars may be a practically independent unit, its birth and development taking place without any relation to the evolution of the whole.

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  • The following table shows the density with which stars brighter than the ninth magnitude are distributed in each of nine zones into which Seeliger divided the heavens and more generally recognized that the stars are not unrelated; they are parts of a greater system, and we have to deal with, not merely the history of a number of independent units, but with a far vaster conception, the evolution and development of an ordered universe.

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  • See, Evolution of Stellar Systems, and another list will be found in Lick Observatory Bulletin, No.

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  • When heated with oxy-acids it dissolves, with evolution of oxygen, and with hydrochloric acid it evolves chlorine.

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  • It is with Aristotle that the bookish tradition begins to dominate the evolution of logic. The technical perfection of the analysis which he offers is, granted the circle of presuppositions within which it works, so decisive, that what precedes, even Plato's logic, is not unnaturally regarded as merely preliminary and subsidiary to it.

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  • Herbart's influence is surely to be found too in the evolution of what is called Gegenstandstheorie.

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  • That solution lies doubtless in the evolution of the Idea, i.e.

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  • Both thinkers claim to exhibit the universe as the evolution of the Divine nature.

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  • The economic evolution of the state since Reconstruction has been in the main that common to all the old slave states developing from the plantation system of ante-bellum days, somewhat diversified and complicated by the special features of a young and border community.

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  • It changes on exposure to air and dissolves slightly in water to give a brown solution, the insoluble portion gradually being converted into an oxide with evolution of hydrogen.

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  • The marked steadiness in the evolution of the Venetian constitution is no doubt largely due to this fact.

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  • At the same time, apart from the gradual evolution of religious and other conceptions there are the more incidental and artificial influences which have shaped them.

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  • Perfectly dry hydrochloric acid gas has no action on metals, but in aqueous solution it dissolves many of them with evolution of hydrogen and formation of chlorides.

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  • The solution has a pale yellow colour, and is a strong oxidizing and bleaching agent; it is readily decomposed by hydrochloric acid, with evolution of oxygen.

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  • Further concentration leads to decomposition, with evolution of oxygen and formation of perchloric acid.

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  • But by placing Paley's facts in a new light, the theory of evolution has deprived his argument of its force, so far as it applies the idea of special contrivance to individual organs or to species.

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  • The evolution of modern European society has been continuous.

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  • Upon the whole, therefore, it would seem that not only was there no one middle age common to all branches of human evolution, except the period more definitely marked as the dark age, but that those characteristics which are generally regarded as "medieval" were by no means limited to a single epoch of European history.

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  • It is characteristic of early literature that the evolution of the thought - that is, the grammatical form of the sentence - is guided by the structure of the verse; and the correspondence which consequently obtains between the rhythm and the grammar - the thought being given out in lengths, as it were, and these again divided by tolerably uniform pauses - produces a swift flowing movement, such as is rarely found when the periods have been constructed without direct reference to the metre.

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  • In fact, Brahma, having performed his legitimate part in the mundane evolution by his original creation of the universe, has retired into the background, being, as it were, looked upon as functus officio, like a venerable figure of a former generation, whence in epic poetry he is commonly styled pitamaha, " the grandsire."

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  • The exact process of the evolution of the two deities and their advance in popular favour are still somewhat obscure.

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  • The theory of the god and his Sakti as cosmic principles is perhaps already foreshadowed in the Vedic couple of Heaven and Earth, whilst in the speculative treatises of the later Vedic period, as well as in the post-Vedic Brahmanical writings, the assumption of the self-existent being dividing himself into a male and a female half usually forms the starting-point of cosmic evolution.'

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  • Aqueous solutions of the acid are decomposed in sunlight by uranium salts, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of propionic acid.

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  • The Revival of Learning must be regarded as a function of that vital energy, an organ of that mental evolution, which brought into existence the modern world, with its new conceptions of philosophy and religion, its reawakened arts and sciences, its firmer grasp on the realities of human nature and the world, its manifold inventions and discoveries, its altered political systems, its expansive and progressive forces.

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  • The Revival of Learning will be treated as a decisive factor in this process of evolution on a new plan.

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  • Here, if anywhere, it seemed as though the ecclesiastical and feudal fetters of the middle ages might be broken, and humanity might enter on a new stage of joyous unimpeded evolution.

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  • It was needful to study at some length the main phenomena of the Renaissance in Italy, because the history of that phase of evolution in the other Western races turns almost entirely upon points in which they either adhered of the to or diverged from the type established there.

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  • But they forget that France was bound by inexorable laws of human evolution to obey the impulse which communicated itself to every form of art in Europe.

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  • Here, as in Lombardy, a feeling for serene beauty derived from study of the antique has not interrupted the evolution of a style indigenous to France and eminently characteristic of the French temperament.

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  • The successful evolution of the Saumur sparkling wine industry is largely due to the fact that the range of limestone hills, at the foot of which the town is situated, afford by excavation illimitable cellarage, easy 1.

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  • They are all decomposed on heating, with evolution of oxygen; and in contact with concentrated sulphuric acid with liberation of chlorine peroxide.

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  • A brief description of the historical evolution of the earlier financial forms will be the most effective illustration of this statement.

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  • Thus some of the most valuable lessons as to the normal evolution of a system of finance are to be learned in this connexion.

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  • The most famous of the systematic exponents of evolutional utilitarianism is, of course, Herbert Spencer, in whose Data of Ethics (1819) the facts of morality are viewed in relation with his vast conception of the total process of cosmic evolution.

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  • Hobhouse's Morals in Evolution and Professor Westermarck's Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas (both published in 1906) deal with the matter from the side of anthropology.

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  • William Nicholson (1753-1815) and Sir Anthony Carlisle (1768-1840) in 1800 constructed a pile of silver and zinc plates, and placing the terminal wires in water noticed the evolution from these wires of bubbles of gas, which they proved to be oxygen and hydrogen.

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  • Under favourable circumstances a process of fermentation should immediately be set up, which soon makes itself manifest by the evolution of gaseous bubbles.

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  • But the most remarkable phenomenon in modern Wales has been the evident growth of a strong national sentiment, the evolution of a new Welsh Renaissance, which demanded special recognition of the Principality's claims by the Imperial parliament.

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  • Before dealing with modern machinery it will be necessary to consider the historical evolution of the printing-press, especially since the middle of the 19th century, from which point printing machinery has developed in a most remarkable manner.

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  • The Talmud outlived the reactionary tendencies of the Qaraites (q.v.) and of the Kabbalah, and fortunately, since these movements, important though they undoubtedly were for the evolution of thought, had not within them the power to be of lasting benefit to the rank and file of the community.

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  • Mr Andrew Lang, on the other hand, supposes that belief in a supreme being came first in order of evolution, but was afterwards thrust into the background by belief in ghosts and lesser divinities (Magic and Religion, 1901, p. 224).

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  • A decisive " moment " in the evolution of chiefship is the recognition of hereditary mana, bound up as this is with the handing on of ceremonies and cult-objects.

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  • With the evolution of rank, however, and the concentration of magico-religious power in the hands of certain orders, there is less solidarity and more individualism, or at all events more opportunity for sectional interests to be pursued at other than critical times; whereupon fraud and violence are apt to infect religion.

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  • Science, he reminds us, is based on final inexplicabilities; and its attempts by theories of evolution to find an historical origin for humanity in rudimentary matter show a misconception of the problem.

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  • The object to be attained as laid down was twofold; (a) complete organization of the territorial forces of each dominion or colony; (b) evolution of contingents of colonial general-service troops with which the dominion governments might assist the army of Great Britain in wars outside the immediate borders of each dominion.

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  • His romances have some likeness to those of Richard son; they are moral, long-winded, and slow in evolution, but written in an exquisite style, and with much knowledge of human nature.

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  • The first step in the evolution of the Breviary was the separation of the Psalter into a choir-book.

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  • He elected, to use his own words, to defend and to seek the realization of the substance of the programme of the Spanish revolution of 1868 by evolution, and legal, pacific means.

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  • Its geographical position and history have rendered Portugal very dependent for intellectual stimulus and literary culture on foreign countries, and writers on Portuguese literature are wont to divide their subjects into periods corresponding to the literary currents from abroad which have modified its evolution.

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  • Anthero de Quental, the chief of the Coimbrans, enshrined his metaphysical neo-Buddhistic ideas overshadowed by extreme pessimism, and marked the stages of his mental evolution, in a sequence of finely-wrought sonnets.

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  • Beyerinck and Jegunow have shown that some partially anaerobic sulphur bacteria can only exist in strata at a certain depth below the level of quiet waters where SH 2 is being set free below by the bacterial decompositions of vegetable mud and rises to meet the atmospheric oxygen coming down from above, and that this zone of physiological activity rises and falls with the variations of partial pressure of the gases due to the rate of evolution of the SH 2.

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  • Even when the light is not sufficiently intense, or the exposure is too short to kill the spores, the experiments show that attenuation of virulence, That bacterial fermentations are accompanied by the evolution of heat is an old experience; but the discovery that the " spontaneous " combustion of sterilized cotton-waste does not occur simply if moist and freely exposed to oxygen, philous bacteria.

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  • From the point of view of evolution we may suppose that certain races of a group of bacteria have gradually acquired the power of invading the tissues of the body and producing disease.

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  • The subject of artificial immunity has occupied a large proportion of bacteriological literature within recent years, and our endeavour has been mainly to indicate the general laws which are inrocess of evolution.

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  • The mesogloea is in itself an inert non-cellular secretion, but the immigration of muscular and other cells into its substance, from both ectoderm and endoderm, gives it in many cases a strong resemblance to the mesoderm of Triploblastica, - a resemblance which, while probably superficial, may yet serve to indicate the path of evolution of the mesoderm.

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  • His interest in the evolution of the rifle early extended itself to other weapons and instruments in the history of man, and he became a collector of articles illustrating the development of human invention.

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  • Wallace became convinced of the truth of evolution, and originated the theory of natural selection during these travels.

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  • Darwin died some years before the controversy upon the possibility of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters arose over the writings of Weismann, but Wallace has freely accepted the general results of the German zoologist's teaching, and in Darwinism has presented a complete theory of the causes of evolution unmixed with any trace of Lamarck's use or disuse of inheritance, or Buffon's hereditary effect of the direct influence of surroundings.

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  • A few Isopoda are known from Secondary rocks, but their systematic position is doubtful and they throw no light on the evolution of the group. The Amphipoda are not definitely known to occur till Tertiary times.

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  • The probable course of evolution of the different groups of Crustacea from this hypothetical ancestral form can only be touched on here.

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  • It is the same with the other sciences - especially the biological division, where the doctrine of evolution has induced an attitude of mind which is distinctly historical.

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  • Thus our whole society not only bears the marks of its evolution, but shows its growing consciousness of the fact in the most evident of its arts.

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  • But all this failed to give a satisfactory explanation of the laws which determine the direction of this evolution.

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  • Heeren who, at the opening of the 19th century, first laid that emphasis upon the economic factors in history which is to-day slowly replacing the Augustinian explanation of its evolution.

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  • It characterizes, not the real process of evolution, but an ideal which history has not realized.

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  • Histories of commerce and cities now rank beside those on war and kings, although there are readers still who prefer to follow the pennants or robber barons rather than to watch the slow evolution of modern conditions.

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  • Since its acquisition by the United States the history of Alaska has been mainly that of the evolution of its administrative system described above, and the varying fortunes of its fisheries and sealing industries.

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  • The Association was provided with a nominal capital of 40,000, but from the first its funds were largely supplemented from the private purse of King Leopold; and by a gradual process of evolution the work, which was originally, in name at least, international in character, became a purely Belgian enterprise.

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  • St George Mivart (Genesis of Species) propounded a theory of a natural evolution of man as to his body, combined with a supernatural creation as to his soul; but this attempt to meet the difficulties on both sides seems to have satisfied neither.

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  • On the other hand it does not follow necessarily from a theory of evolution of species that mankind must have descended from a single stock, for the hypothesis of development admits of the argument, that several simian species may have culminated in several races of man.

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  • The explanation that serves for the evolution of living matter, the vehicle of life, will serve for the evolution of life.

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  • The particular organic conditions of perception and the associative laws to which the mind, as a part of nature, is subjected, are facts in themselves indifferent to the philosopher; and therefore the development of psychology into an independent science, which took place during the latter half of the 10th century and may now be said to be complete, represents an entirely natural evolution.

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  • He defined his problem as the quid juris or the question of the validity of knowledge, not its quid facti or the laws of the empirical genesis and evolution of intellection (to use Croom Robertson's phraseology).

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  • Moreover, if philosophy is to complete its constructive work, it must bring the course of human history within its survey, and exhibit the sequence of events as an evolution in which the purposive action of reason is traceable.

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  • The philosophy of religion also traces in the different historical forms of religious belief and practice the gradual evolution of what it takes to be the truth of the matter.

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  • The science of religion gives a purely historical and comparative account of the various manifestations of the religious instinct without pronouncing on their relative truth or value and without, therefore, professing to apply the idea of evolution in the philosophical sense.

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  • Peter the Great regularized and completed this evolution by effecting a comprehensive cadastre and census of the rural population.

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  • The evolution of serfdom in Germany was effected by the working of somewhat more complicated causes.

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  • It was brought about chiefly by governmental measures, although the ground was to a great extent prepared by social evolution.

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  • Among existing Cycadophyta we find surviving types which, in their present isolation, their close resemblance to fossil forms, and in certain morphological features, constitute links with the past that not only connect the present with former periods in the earth's history, but serve as sign-posts pointing the way back along one of the many lines which evolution has followed.

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  • In a young cone the seminiferous scale appears as a hump of tissue at the base or in the axil of the carpellary scale, but Celakovsky, a strong supporter of the axillary-bud theory, attaches little or no importance to this kind of evidence, regarding the present manner of development as being merely an example of a short cut adopted in the course of evolution, and replacing the original production of a branch in the axil of each carpellary scale.

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  • Its salts are known as bromates, and are as a general rule difficultly soluble in water, and decomposed by heat, with evolution of oxygen.

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  • It slowly reacts with cold water to form phosphorous acid; but with hot water it is energetically decomposed, giving much red phosphorus or the suboxide being formed with an explosive evolution of spontaneously inflammable phosphoretted hydrogen; phosphoric acid is also formed.

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  • He was the author of The Study of Stellar Evolution (1908) and Ten Years' Work of a Mountain Observatory (1915), besides numerous papers in the Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory and other scientific publications.

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  • In the three generations of the Vacarescu one can follow this process of rapid ' evolution.

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  • In 1904 he published Social Evolution, the work by which he is best known.

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  • Ordinary sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4, may be prepared by dissolving sulphur trioxide in water, a reaction accompanied by a great evolution of heat; by the gradual oxidation of an aqueous solution of sulphur dioxide, a fact which probably explains the frequent occurrence of sulphuric acid in the natural waters rising in volcanic districts; or by deflagrating a mixture of sulphur and nitre in large glass bells or jars, absorbing the vapours in water and concentrating the solution.

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  • The latter are always set in a row of twelve or more, and are one after another charged once or twice a day at appropriate intervals, so that a regular evolution of gas takes place all the day round.

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  • Broadly speaking, these families make their first appearance in time in the order given above, and show a progressive morphological evolution along certain special lines.

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  • The calculation of a logarithm can be performed by successive divisions; evolution requires special methods.

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  • But, in attempting the inverse processes of subtraction, division, and either evolution or determination of index, the data may be such that a process cannot be performed.

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  • Logarithms.-Multiplication, division, involution and evolution, when the results cannot be exact, are usually most simply performed, at any rate to a first approximation, by means of a table of logarithms. Thus, to find the square root of 2, we have log A /2 = log (21)=1 log 2.

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  • The Pelmatozoic theory thus regards the Pelmatozoa as the more ancestral forms, and the Pelmatozoan stage as one that must have been passed through by all Echinoderms during their evolution from the Dipleurula.

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  • The second method is to work out by slow and sure steps the lines of descent of the different families, orders, and classes, and so either to arrive at the ancestral form of each class, or to plot out the curve of evolution, which may then legitimately be projected into "the dark backward and abysm of time."

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  • The evolution of the modern Echinoidea from their Palaeozoic ancestors is also well understood, but in this case the ancestral form to which the palaeontologist is led does not at first sight present many resemblances to the Pelmatozoa.

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  • And with this step the evolution of the system was completed.

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  • Perhaps the most important thing in history is the evolution of government, the development of consciousness and a will on the part of the state.

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  • The evolution of the army which won Crecy and Poitiers is accompanied by the accumulation of a mass of indentures and other military documents, the value of which has been illustrated in Dr Morriss Welsh Wars of Edward I.

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  • With regard to the evolution of marsupials and placentals, it has been pointed out that the majority of modern marsupials exhibit in the structure of their feet traces of the former opposability of the thumb and great toe to the other digits; and it has accordingly been argued that all marsupials are descended from arboreal ancestors.

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  • The gas developed by the coal near the mouth of the retort is quickly washed out into the ascension pipe by the push of the gas behind, and the period for which it has been exposed to the radiant heat from the walls of the retort is practically nil; whilst the gas evolved in the portion of the retort farthest from the mouthpiece has only its own rate of evolution to drive it forward, and has to traverse the longest run possible in tile retort, exposed during the whole of that period to radiant heat and to contact with the highly heated surface of the retort itself.

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  • It contains, as its principal constituents, ammonia, partly combined with carbonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen to form compounds which are decomposed on boiling, with evolution of ammonia gas, and partly combined with stronger acids to form compounds which require to be acted upon by a strong alkali before the ammonia contained in them can be liberated.

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  • It dissolves in dilute cold nitric acid with the formation of ferrous and ammonium nitrates, no gases being liberated; when heated or with stronger acid ferric nitrate is formed with evolution of nitrogen oxides.

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  • It oxidizes on exposure with considerable evolution of heat; it rapidly absorbs carbon dioxide; and readily dissolves in acids to form ferrous salts, which are usually white when anhydrous, but greenish when hydrated.

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  • Of not one do we as yet possess a critical and comparative text, and in the absence of such texts the publication of any definite and detailed theory as to the evolution and relative position of the separate branches of the Arthurian cycle is to be deprecated.

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  • Casting a backward glance once more over the evolution of Christian theology, we may say very roughly that at first it recognized as natural or rational truth the being of the Logos, and as special fact of revelation the Incarnation of the Word in Jesus Christ.

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  • They treat principally of the criticism of sources and the proper method of writing history, and occupy an important place in the evolution of the scientific study of history in France.

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  • A more detailed investigation of all the characters of the Ferns will be needed before the course of evolution thus broadly indicated can be traced, but the results obtained afford a deeper insight into the general method of progression and the selective factors in the process.

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  • It may even be regarded as an open question whether some of them may not have arisen independently and represent parallel lines of evolution from Bryophytic or Algal forms. This leads us to consider the question whether any indications exist as to the manner in which the Pteridophyta arose.

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  • It will be evident that no direct record of this evolution can be expected, and recourse must be had to hypotheses founded on the indirect evidence available.

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  • Although the antithetic theory is supported by many facts regarding the lifehistory and structure of the group of plants under consideration, it is quite possible that a stage in which the sporophyte was wholly dependent on the gametophyte may never have been passed through in their evolution.

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  • Probably the chaetae preceded the development of parapodia, and by their concentration and that of the muscular bundles connected with them at the sides of each segment, led directly to the evolution of the parapodia.

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  • However strange it may seem, we have to suppose that one by one in the course of long historical evolution somites have passed forwards and the mouth has passed backwards.

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  • Distinctive Particulars of Christian Morality 821 Development of Opinion in Early Christi C. Modern Ethics - continued Page Association and Evolution 837 Free-will.

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  • But in the Comtian conception of social science, of which ethics and politics are the practical application, the knowledge of the laws of the evolution of society is of fundamental and continually increasing importance; humanity is regarded as having passed through a series of stages, in each of which a somewhat different set of laws and institutions, customs and habits, is normal and appropriate.

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  • According to Hegel, the essence of the universe is a process of thought from the abstract to the concrete; and a right understanding of this process gives the key for interpreting the evolution in time of European philosophy.

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  • It is clear, therefore, that any moral science which is to be of value must wait until the " laws of life " and " conditions of existence " have been satisfactorily determined, presumably by biology and the allied sciences; and there are few more melancholy instances of failure in philosophy than the paucity of the actual results attained by Spencer in his lifetime in his application of the socalled laws of evolution to human conduct - a failure recognized by Spencer himself.

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  • A similar criticism might fairly be passed upon the majority of philosophers who approach ethics from the standpoint of evolution.

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  • The discovery of the so-called evolution of morality out of non-moral conditions is very frequently an unconscious subterfuge by which the evolutionist hides the fact that he is making a priori judgments upon the value of the moral concepts held to be evolved.

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  • Thus, after a fashion, he is able to reconcile the conflicting claims of egoism and altruism and succeed where most apostles of evolution fail.

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  • The Christian virtues, sympathy for the weak, the suffering, &c., represent a necessary stage to be passed through in the evolution of the Obermensch, i.e.

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  • For a good example of the evolution of such myths, see the argument under Aegina, History.

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  • According to the all-pervading law of evolution, the less complex form must have preceded the more complex.

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  • Again, the study of the evolution of human institutions from the lowest savagery to civilization is essentially a novel branch of research, though ideas derived from an unsystematic study of anthropology are at least as old as Aristotle.

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  • Another school (also somewhat divided against itself) believes that misunderstood language played but a very slight part in the evolution of mythology, and that the irrational element in myths is merely the survival from a condition of thought which was once common, if not universal, but is now found chiefly among savages, and to a certain extent among children.

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  • But Max Muller's system is based on scientific philology, not on conjecture, and is supported by a theory of the various processes in the evolution of myths out of language.

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  • Among the Arunta, the Alcheringa folk are part of a strangely elaborate theory of evolution and of animism, which leaves no room for a creative being, or for a future life of the spirit, which is merely reincarnated at intervals.

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  • Thus the doctrines of evolution and of creation, or the making of things, stand apart, or blend, in the metaphysics and religion of the lowest and least progressive of known peoples.

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  • Long traditional hymns give an account of the " becoming out of nothing " which resulted in the evolution of the gods and the world.

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  • White arsenic exists in two crystalline forms (octahedral and prismatic) and one amorphous form; the octahedral form is produced by the rapid cooling of arsenic vapour, or by cooling a warm saturated solution in water, or by crystallization from hydrochloric acid, and also by the gradual transition of the amorphous variety, this last phenomenon being attended by the evolution of heat.

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  • Charlemagne had for the moment succeeded in uniting western Europe under his sway, but he had not been able to arrest its evolution towards feudal dismemberment.

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  • This event completed the evolution of the forces that had produced feudalism, the basis of the medieval social system.

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  • Revering the monarchy and established institutions, they endured forty years of persecution before they took up arlns, It was only during the second half of Henry II.s reign that Protestantism, having achieved its religious evolution, became a political party.

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  • The memories of imperial Rome were for a third time, after Caesar and Charlemagne, to modify the historical evolution, of France.

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  • They refused to accept the doctrine of creation because it conflicted with the explanation of forms as the necessary evolution of matter.

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  • The application to sociological problems of the physical theory of organic evolution further developed the altruistic theory.

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  • He enclosed various metallic junctions in a Bunsen ice calorimeter, and observed the evolution of heat per hour with a current of about 1.6 amperes in either direction.

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  • We need not dwell upon the evolution from the crude idea, which first took form in the endeavour to compel beesto build straight combs in a given direction by offering them a guiding line of wax along the under side of each top-bar of the frame in which the combs were built; but we may glance at the more important improvements which gradually developed as time went on.

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  • In 1886 appeared Books, our Best Friends and Deadliest Foes; in 1888, An Utopian Dream and How it may be Realized; in 1892, Poets, the Interpreters of their Age; and in 1894, Evolution and the Religion of the Future.

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  • Dorner has formulated a theory which explains the development of the conception of Satan in the Holy Scriptures as in correspondence with an evolution in the character of Satan.

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  • In the book entitled Evil and Evolution there is "an attempt to turn the light of modern science on to the ancient mystery of evil."

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  • The author contends that the existence of evil is best explained by assuming that God is confronted with Satan, who in the process of evolution interferes with the divine designs, an interference which the instability of such an evolving process makes not incredible.

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  • Among his chief works were The Apostle Paul (3rd ed., 1896); Memoire sur la notion hebraique de l'Esprit (1879); Les Origines litteraires de l'Apocalypse (1888); The Vitality of Christian Dogmas and their Power of Evolution (1890); Religion and Modern Culture (1897); Historical Evolution of the Doctrine of the Atonement (1903); Outlines of a Philosophy of Religion (1897); and his posthumous Religions of Authority and the Religion of the Spirit (1904), to which his colleague Jean Reville prefixed a short memoir.

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  • The remains of the plants of former periods, which have come down to us in the fossilized state, are almost always fragmentary, and often imperfectly preserved; but their investigation is of the utmost importance to the botanist, as affording the only direct evidence of the past history of vegetable organisms. Since the publication of the Origin of Species the general acceptance of the doctrine of evolution has given a vastly increased significance to palaeontological data.

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  • On the whole, it cannot be said that the Palaeozoic remains have as yet thrown much light on the evolution of the Algae, though we may not be prepared to maintain, with Zeiller, that plants of this class appear never to have assumed a form very different from that which they present at the present day.

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  • The few and incomplete data which we at present possess as to Palaeozoic Fungi do not as yet justify any inferences as to the evolution of these plants.

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  • Anatomically the connexion of the family with the Pteridosperms (and through them, presumably, with some primitive group of Ferns) seems clear, but we have as yet no indications of the stages in the evolution of their reproductive organs.

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  • The Mesozoic era, as defined in geological textbooks, includes the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous epochs; but from the point of view of the evolution of plants and the succession of floras, this division is not the most natural or most convenient.

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  • The imperfection of the geological record, considered from the point of view of evolution, has been rendered familiar by Darwin's remarkable chapter in the Origin of Species.

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  • Breaks in the chain of life, as represented by gaps in the blurred and incomplete documents afforded by fragmentary fossils, are a necessary consequence of the general plan of geological evolution; they mark missing chapters rather than sudden breaks in an evolutionary series.

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  • Starting with the Permo-Carboniferous vegetation, and omitting for the moment the Glossopteris flora, we find a comparatively homogeneous flora of wide geographical range, consisting to a large extent of arborescent lycopods, calamites, and other vascular cryptogams, plants which occupied a place comparable with that of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms in our modern forests; with these were other types of the greatest phylogenetic importance, which serve as finger-posts pointing to lines of evolution of which we have but the faintest signs among existing plants.

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  • It is evident, however, that if climatic alternations, such as those just described, are part of the normal routine that has gone on through all geological periods, and are not merely confined to the latest, then such changes must evidently have had great influence on the evolution and geographical distribution both of species and of floras.

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  • The Phanerglossa are divided into two groups; Arcifera and Firmisternia, representing two stages of evolution.

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  • Historians are accustomed to divide the general current of speculation into epochs or periods marked by the dominance of some single philosophic conception with its systematic evolution.

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  • It is only in Hume that we have definitely and completely the evolution of the individualist notion as groundwork of a theory of knowledge; and it is in his writings, therefore, that we may expect to find the fundamental difficulty of that notion clearly apparent.

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  • Apparently there is here some gap in the line of descent of the horse, and may be suggested that the evolution took place, not as commonly supposed, in North America, but in eastern central Asia, of which the palaeontology is practically unknown; some support is given to this theory by the fact that the earliest species with which we are acquainted occur in northern India.

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  • It was more amenable to study than evolution.

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  • It was an incredibly rapid evolution, driven by avarice, compulsion, globalization, and changing societal values!

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  • The research gives insight into the theory of evolution.

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  • Regardless of the theory of evolution, we have accrued many benefits.

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  • Evolution can only work on the material at hand with almost absolute blindness.

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  • I am very far from surprised that " you have not committed yourself to full acceptation " of the evolution of man.

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  • He also objects to writers like H.G.Wells who use strongly affirmative language to describe evolution.

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  • For example there is a " evolution scheduler " which allows you to experiment with different scheduling algorithms for your Linux system.

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  • Businesses with an online presence wishing to succeed in this rapidly changing world are welcoming the next evolution in marketing analytics.

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  • Molecular characters have been used in conjunction with morphological characters to understand patterns of evolution within the genus arum.

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  • We noted earlier that Richard Dawkins claims that his belief in evolution enables him to be an intellectually fulfilled atheist.

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  • Finally, the dynamical aspects of Bose condensation are further investigated by studying the evolution of excited atoms.

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  • This contrasts with ACT in the sense that learning in a neural state automaton does not demand the physical changes associated with lifetime evolution.

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  • There has been an incremental evolution rather than a 'big bang ' revolution.

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  • However, I can't believe in an intelligent designer or creator, so I'll have to believe in evolution.

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  • It aims to synthesize 'any and all biological phenomena, from viral self-assembly to the evolution of the entire biosphere ' .

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  • Examine the ocean communities to address questions about the deep biosphere and evolution.

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  • The main theme will be the evolution from cave cartography to integrated speleological information systems.

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  • Of course, this splendid cavalcade of evolution must be expected to continue, with who knows what future forms developing.

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  • This type of evolutionary event not only led to the evolution of modern humans but also of modern chimpanzees and modern gorillas.

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  • Indeed it would be very interesting to follow the evolution of the modern clavichord through the database.

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  • We are a nationally-recognized clearinghouse for information and advice to keep evolution in the science classroom and " scientific creationism " out.

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  • It is not offered as a general theory of cultural evolution, nor a general theory of social contagion.

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  • The movement, inspired by the late Father Edward Holloway, posits that God works through evolution to bring about an ordered cosmos.

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  • Put it this way, if Evolution was in the Bible would there still be the same wackos supporting creationism?

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  • Those views, theistic evolution, progressive creationism, also deny the straightforward text of the book of Genesis.

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  • Fast visible image of an ELM in MAST Measurements of neoclassical island evolution appearing to confirm the strong stabilizing role of field curvature effects.

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  • An early dalliance with the Free Church ended abruptly over a dispute with one of the elders concerning evolution.

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  • Material heterogeneity and loading history are fundamental to the initiation and evolution of distributed brittle deformation.

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