It is also obtained by carefully evaporating a solution of the metal in chlorine water.
The normal nitrate, Bi(N03)3.5H20, is obtained in large transparent asymmetric prisms by evaporating a solution of the metal in nitric acid.
Diammonium hydrogen phosphate, (NH 4) 2 HPO 4, is formed by evaporating a solution of phosphoric acid with excess of ammonia.
Establishments for evaporating fruit are now found in most of the larger apple-growing districts, and canning factories and jam factories have been established in many parts of Canada, and are conducted with advantage and profit.
Thus, supposing that moo lb of coal were required to work a single vacuum pan, evaporating, say, 6000 lb of water in a given time, then 500 lb of coal would be required for a double-effect apparatus to do the same work, 333 lb for a triple effect, 250 for a quadruple effect, and 200 lb for a quintuple effect.
Meeting with no evaporating surface, and with no temperature colder than that to which it is subjected on the mountain-tops, this wind reaches the ocean before it becomes charged with fresh moisture.
The habitats which they affect are the hot, dry regions of tropical America, the aridity of which they are enabled to withstand in consequence of the thickness of their skin and the paucity of evaporating pores or stomata with which they are furnished, - these conditions not permitting the moisture they contain to be carried off too rapidly; the thick fleshy stems and branches contain a store of water.
The determination of salinity was formerly carried out by evaporating a weighed quantity of sea-water to dryness and weighing the residue.
Evaporating to dryness hydrochloric acid is given off as the temperature is raised to expel the last of the water, and Tornoe found that carbonic acid was also liberated and that the loss of both acids was very variable.
The sulphate, Zr(S04)2, is a white mass obtained by dissolving the oxide or hydroxide in sulphuric acid, evaporating and heating the mass to nearly a red heat.
A preparation sufficing for most purposes is obtained by digesting the commercial article in absolute alcohol, decanting and evaporating the solution to dryness and fusing in silver vessels.
Potassium carbonate, K 2 CO 3, popularly known as "potashes," was originally obtained in countries where wood was cheap by lixiviating wood ashes in wooden tubs, evaporating the solution to dryness in iron pots and calcining the residue; in more recent practice the calcination is carried out in reverberatory furnaces.
Crude potash is used for the manufacture of glass, and, after being causticized, for the making of soft soap. For many other purposes it must be refined, which is done by treating the crude product with the minimum of cold water required to dissolve the carbonate, removing the undissolved part (which consists chiefly of sulphate), and evaporating the clear liquor to dryness in an iron pan.
Many streams descend from the ravines only to wither away on the desert basin floors before uniting in a trunk river along the axis of a depression; others succeed in uniting in the winter season, when evaporation is much reduced, and then their trunk flows for a few score miles, only to disappear by sinking (evaporating) farther on.
OK, is obtained; on evaporating the ether solution, after it has stood for 24 hours, red prisms of the amidochromate separate; it is slowly decomposed by boiling water, and also by nitrous acid, with liberation of nitrogen.
On evaporating the solution dark purple octahedra of the alum :are obtained.
It is then run into settling tanks, from which it next passes into the evaporating pans, which are shallow leadlined pans heated by the gases of the soffioni.
The nitrate, Al(N03)3, is obtained as deliquescent crystals (with 81120) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in nitric acid.
Similar results have been obtained by using diazotized para-anisidine, a synand an anticompound being formed, as well as a third isomeric cyanide, obtained by evaporating para-methoxybenzenediazonium hydroxide in the presence of an excess of hydrocyanic acid at ordinary temperatures.
Rend., 1905, 40, p. 1181), by the action of chlorine or hydrochloric acid on the residue obtained by evaporating the oxide with hydrochloric acid.
It may be obtained from urine by evaporating to dryness on the water bath, taking up the residue in absolute alcohol and evaporating the alcoholic solution to dryness again.
The crude oxide of the metal is obtained from cerite, by evaporating the mineral with strong sulphuric acid, removing excess of acid and dissolving the residue in ice-cold water; sulphuretted hydrogen is passed through the solution, which is then filtered, acidified with hydrochloric acid, and precipitated as oxalate by oxalic acid; the oxalate is then converted into oxide by ignition.
The most efficient evaporating apparatus, as far as economy of fuel is concerned, is the vacuum-pan, of which from two to five are combined to form a set, but it has the drawback that the removal of the salts is much more difficult than with the ?,,..
By this means the latent heat of the steam, issuing from all pans but the last, is utilized for evaporating purposes, and from half to three-fourths of the fuel is saved.
Ann., 1830, 96, p. 155), or in the form of blue octahedra by evaporating a solution of nickel chloride in aqueous ammonia.
On boiling gelatinous silica with ammonium polytungstate and evaporating with the occasional addition of ammonia, ammonium silicodecitungstate is obtained as short rhombic prisms. On adding silver nitrate and decomposing the precipitated silver salt with hydrochloric acid, a solution is obtained which on evaporation in a vacuum gives the free acid as a glassy mass.
- The sodium salt, NaW0 4 H 2 O, is obtained by evaporating in a vacuum the product of boiling a solution of sodium paratungstate with hydrogen peroxide.
His method consisted in using magnesia instead of lime for the recovery of the ammonia (which occurs in the form of ammonium chloride in the ammonia-soda process), and then by evaporating the magnesium chloride solution and heating the residue in steam, to condense the acid vapours and so obtain hydrochloric acid.
Acacia arabica is the gum-arabic tree of India, but yields a gum inferior to the true gum-arabic. An astringent medicine, called catechu or cutch, is procured from several species, but more especially from Acacia catechu, by boiling down the wood and evaporating the solution so as to get an extract.
These waters are frequently impregnated with alkali or salt, and on evaporating leave upon the bed of the lake a thin encrustation of snowy whiteness.
Antimony pentoxide is obtained by repeatedly evaporating antimony with nitric acid and heating the resulting antimonic acid to a temperature not above 275° C.; by heating antimony with red mercuric oxide until the mass becomes yellow (J.
Berzelius); or by evaporating antimony trichloride to dryness with nitric acid.
By this process of preparation a considerable portion of the narcotine, caoutchouc, resin, oil or fatty and insoluble matters are removed, and the prolonged boiling, evaporating and baking over a naked fire tend to lessen the amount of alkaloids present in the extract.
It is collected before sunrise, by shaking the grains of manna on to linen cloths spread out beneath the trees, or by dipping the small branches in hot water and evaporating the solution thus obtained.
By evaporating urine to dryness and distilling the residue with sand.
The acid may be prepared by evaporating in a vacuum the solution obtained by decomposing the barium salt with the equivalent amount of sulphuric acid.
The amount of water that escapes from plants through transpiration is clearly miniscule compared to the volume of water evaporating from oceans.
During the wet season the valleys often contain ephemeral lakes, whose waters on evaporating leave a playa, or mud flat, often covered with an alkaline encrustation of snowy whiteness.
Ferric fluoride, FeF 31 is obtained as colourless crystals (with 42H2O) by evaporating a solution of the hydroxide in hydrofluoric acid.
By evaporating in vacuo the solution obtained by dissolving iron in hydrochloric acid, there results bluish, monoclinic crystals of FeCl24H20, which deliquesce, turning greenish, on exposure to air, and effloresce in a desiccator.
By adding ammonium chloride to the solution, evaporating in vacuo, and then volatilizing the ammonium chloride, anhydrous ferrous chloride is obtained.
By evaporating a solution containing free sulphuric acid in a vacuum, the hepta-hydrated salt first separates, then the penta-, and then a tetra-hydrate, FeSO44H2O, isomorphous with manganese sulphate.
Instead, the trail was an illogical hodgepodge of unrelated sequences that had skipped forward until evaporating someplace west of Hays, Kansas.
Stannous Fluoride, SnF 2, is obtained as small, white monoclinic tables by evaporating a solution of stannous oxide in hydrofluoric acid in a vacuum.
The anhydrous acid is not known, since on evaporating the aqueous solution it gradually decomposes into silicon fluoride and hydrofluoric acid.
A due amount of moisture may be kept up by the use of evaporating troughs and by syringing the walls and pathways two or three times a day, but the leaves should not be syringed.
When the vines are in flower, and when the fruit is colouring, the evaporating troughs should be kept dry, but the aridity must not be excessive, lest the red spider and other pests should attack the leaves.
Milk sugar, lactose, lactobiose, C12H22011, found in the milk of mammals, in the amniotic liquid of cows, and as a pathological secretion, is prepared by evaporating whey and purifying the sugar which separates by crystallization.
A further saving of juice was sometimes possible if the market prices of sugar were such as to compensate for the cost of evaporating an increased quantity of added water, but a limit was imposed by the fact that water might be used in excess.
After the juice has been defecated or purified by any of the means above mentioned it is sent to the evaporating apparatus, hereinafter described, where it is concentrated to 26° or 28° Beaume, and is then conducted in a continuous stream either into the service tanks of the vacuum pan, if dark sugars are required, or, if a better colour is wanted, into clarifiers.
Of the acid orthophosphates, the mono-calcium salt, CaH4(P04)2, may be obtained as crystalline scales, containing one molecule of water, by evaporating a solution of the normal salt in hydrochloric or nitric acid.
Ferric sulphate, Fe2(S04)3, is obtained by adding nitric acid to a hot solution of ferrous sulphate containing sulphuric acid, colourless crystals being deposited on evaporating the solution.
The tri-iodide, AsI3 prepared by subliming arsenic and iodine together in a retort, by leading arsine into an alcoholic iodine solution, or by boiling powdered arsenic and iodine with water, filtering and evaporating, forms brick-red hexagonal tables, of specific gravity 4.39, soluble in alcohol, ether and benzene, and in a large excess of water; in the presence of a small quantity of water, it is decomposed with formation of hydriodic acid and an insoluble basic salt of the composition 4AsOI.
He also showed that crystals of alum cannot be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulphuric acid and evaporating the solutions, but when a solution of potash or ammonia is dropped into this liquid, it immediately deposits perfect crystals of alum (Sur la regeneration de l'alun, Marggraf's Opusc. ii.
This pigment is of great antiquity; Theophrastus called it kibOhov, and prepared it by acting on lead with vinegar, and Pliny, who called it cerussa, obtained it by dissolving lead in vinegar and evaporating to dryness.
It is obtained as fine lemon yellow deliquescent prisms by evaporating a solution of any of the oxides in nitric acid.
This salt is also formed by dissolving tin in strong hydrochloric acid and allowing it to crystallize, and is industrially prepared by passing sufficiently hydrated hydrochloric acid gas over granulated tin contained in stoneware bottles and evaporating the concentrated solution produced in tin basins over granulated tin.