The forces of a dozen European nations burst into Russia.
The storm-tossed sea of European history had subsided within its shores and seemed to have become calm.
Cremona's reputation had now become European, and in 1879 he was elected a corresponding member of the Royal Society.
And such had European life, politics, Freemasonry, philosophy, and philanthropy seemed to him.
The European system was already founded; all that remained was to organize it.
EDGAR MORTARA, an Italian Jew, of a Bologna family, whose abduction in early childhood (1858) by the Inquisition occupied for several years the attention of European diplomacy.
In the ancient world, it was Greek in the European arena.
His gaze roved over Jule's European front.
Whether the preservation of my father's house in Moscow, or the glory of the Russian arms, or the prosperity of the Petersburg and other universities, or the freedom of Poland or the greatness of Russia, or the balance of power in Europe, or a certain kind of European culture called "progress" appear to me to be good or bad, I must admit that besides these things the action of every historic character has other more general purposes inaccessible to me.
One of those little Eastern European pocket-sized countries?
Both in Gaelic and in old French it is cat, although sometimes taking the form of chater in the latter; the Gaelic designation of the European wild cat being cat fiadhaich.
Possibly those domesticated cats with unusually short and bushy tails may have a larger share of European wild-cat blood; while, conversely, such wild cats as show long tails may have a cross of domesticated blood.
Great Britain and all the larger European states have consulates there.
Great Britain and all the larger European states have consulates there.
Jule, we'll leave for the European front tomorrow.
Something was really wrong in Europe, and he needed to figure out what, before the European front was overrun by vamps.
It is the oldest existing European settlement on the South American continent, having been founded by Diego Castellon in 1523 under the name of Nueva Toledo.
He listened, refraining from a reply, and involuntarily wondered how this old man, living alone in the country for so many years, could know and discuss so minutely and acutely all the recent European military and political events.
The story became public property, and protest was aroused in nearly every European country.
Hamilton, "the measurement of a number of tails of the [European] wild cat and of the domestic cat gives a range between 11 in.
Grande and Pierre are joining us from our European front.
Damian replaced his necklace around her neck, a small comfort until his work in the European front was finished.
In the European wild cat, on the other hand, the black is limited to a small round spot on the pads, while the colour of the hair as far back as the heel-bone is yellowish or yellowish-grey.
The striped (as distinct from the blotched) short-haired tabby is probably the one most nearly allied to the wild ancestors, the stripes being, however, to a great extent due to the European wild cat.
There are also several Albanian settlements in European Turkey and Asia Minor, some founded by military colonists who received grants of land from successive sultans, others owing their origin to enforced migrations after insurrections in Albania.
It is hunted chiefly for the sake of the ivory of its immense tusks, of which it yields the principal source of supply to the European market, and the desire to obtain which is rapidly leading to the extermination of the species.
On the other hand, in the short-chinned mastodons, as represented by the Pleistocene North American Mastodon americanus and the Pliocene European M.
The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
"As if the European front wasn't enough," Dusty muttered.
Cats of the striped type are no doubt descended from the European and North African wild cats; but the origin of cats exhibiting the blotched pattern appears to be unknown.
3.-Skins Of The European Wild Cat, From Ross-Shire, Scotland.
On the European continent the game can scarcely be said to be played on scientific principles.
Memnon the Rhodian, now in supreme command of the Persian fleet, saw the European coasts exposed and set out to raise Greece, where discontent always smouldered in Alexander's rear.
The human flea is considerably exceeded in size by certain other species found upon much smaller hosts; thus the European Hystrichopsylla talpae, a parasite of the mole, shrew and other small mammals, attains a length of 5z millimetres; another large species infests the Indian porcupine.
They are typical Berbers in physique, tall, well made and muscular, with European features and fair skins bronzed by the sun.
The Ibn Tibbon family thus rendered conspicuous services to European culture, and did much to further among Jews who did not understand Arabic the study of science and philosophy.
His position rather than any personal qualities enabled him to play an important part in a great crisis of European politics.
was childless, and the disposal of his inheritance became a question of great interest to the European powers.
After an account of the ancient history of Macedonia and of the intrigue of Nectanebus we are told how Philip dies, and how Alexander subdues Rome and receives tribute from all European nations.
Our European front has been growing progressively weaker the past hundred years.
By their describers, the dwarf European elephants were regarded as distinct species, under the names of Elephas melitensis, E.
It is the largest military cantonment in Bengal, with accommodation for two batteries of artillery, a European and a native infantry regiment.
Since in all domesticated cats retaining the colouring of the wild species the soles of the hind-feet correspond in this particular with the Egyptian rather than with the European wild cat, the presumption is in favour of their descent from the former rather than from the latter.
Claire's been on the European front for a hundred years.
It was mainly accident which determined that from the 12th to the 17th century Avicenna should be the guide of medical study in European universities, and eclipse the names of Rhazes, Ali ibn al-Abbas and Avenzoar.
The best-known amongst them, and that to which Avicenna owed his European reputation, is the Canon of Medicine; an Arabic edition of it appeared at Rome in 1593 and a Hebrew version at Naples in 1491.
Albert sought to play an important part in European affairs.
Both European and African fruit trees grow in the island; there are in places considerable orange groves, especially at Milis, to the north of Oristano.
As it was to a cat of the latter kind that Linnaeus gave the name of Felis catus, Pocock urges that this title is not available for the European wild cat, which he would call Felis sylvestris.
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
If the frequent presence of a kink in the tail be an inherent feature, the breed is evidently related to the other kink-tailed Malay cats which, as already stated, have a cry differing from that of European cats.
He sent large armies into European Greece, and his generals occupied Athens.
It consists, besides' the European houses, of two bazaars.
The manufacture is chiefly carried out in India, Persia and the Balkans; the last named supplying the bulk of the European demand.
In 1850 James Richardson, accompanied by Heinrich Barth and Adolf Overweg, reached the lake, also via Tripoli, and Overweg was the first European to navigate its waters (1851).
The Phddon was an immediate success, and besides being often reprinted in German was speedily translated into nearly all the European languages, including English.
It may be compared in some degree to such European societies as the Carbonara, Young Italy, the Tugendbund, the Confreries of France, the Freemasons in Catholic countries, and the Vehmgericht.
In the north, however, the hot lowlands are malarial and unsuited to north European settlement, while the dry, elevated plateaus are celebrated for their healthiness, those of Catamarca having an excellent reputation as a sanatorium for sufferers from pulmonary and bronchial diseases.
The pampas were almost destitute of animal life before the horses and cattle of the Spanish invaders were there turned out to graze, and the puma and jaguar never came there until the herds of European cattle attracted them.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
There is a superior council for the whole of Indo-China on which the natives and the European commercial community are represented, while in Cochin-China a privy council, and in the protectorates a council of the protectorate, assists in the work of administration.
A European commissioner resides.
It is found in European streams, and is caught by anglers, being also a favourite in aquariums. The well-known and important industry of "Essence Orientale" and artificial pearls, carried on in France and Germany with the crystalline silvery colouring matter of the bleak, was introduced from China about the middle of the 17th century.
Though this statement is probably to be rejected, it may be regarded as certain that Aegina was the first state of European Greece to coin money.
not later than the earlier half of the 7th century B.C. In the next century Aegina is one of the three principal states trading at the emporium of Naucratis, and it is the only state of European Greece that has a share in this factory (Herod.
Besides these interesting European fossils, a certain number of didelphian bones have been found in the caves of Brazil, but these are either closely allied to or identical with the species now living in the same region.
Amphitherium, of the Stonesfield Slate, typifies the family Amphitheriidae, which includes the American Dryolestes, and in which some would class the European Purbeck genus Amblotherium, although Professor H.
Dividing the land into zones of average summer temperature, the following are the areas which would fall to each: - Judging from the figures just given, it must be conceded that a considerable area of the continent is not adapted for colonization by European races.
Two species of mackerel, differing somewhat from the European species, are also caught on the coasts.
995 European Specific timber.
There is also to a limited extent a European element present.
1 - The Australian people are mainly of British origin, only 34% of the population of European descent being of non-British race.
The death rate of Australia is much below that of European countries and is steadily declining.
Physically the typical Australian is the equal of the average European in height, but is inferior in muscular development,.
The efficacy of this legislation is in its administration, the language in which coloured aliens are usually tested being European.
Before coming, however, to the history of federation, and the evolution of the Labour party, we must refer briefly to some other questions which have been of general interest very soon after the gold discoveries, the European miners objecting strongly to the presence of these aliens upon the diggings.
Aloys Karolyi entered the Austrian diplomatic service, and was attached successively to embassies at various European capitals.
Large quantities of fruits - apples, pears, quinces, peaches, nectarines, apricots, grapes and melons - were exported by special trains to central Europe, where the Turkestan crop was received a short time before the south European supplies ripened.
Abd-ul-Hamid had always resisted the pressure of the European Powers to the last moment, in order to seem to yield only to overwhelming force, while posing as the champion of Islam against aggressive Christendom.
On an average day in this part of the peninsula the temperature in a European house ranged from 88° to 68°.
A change of climate, however, is imperatively necessary every five or six years, and the children of European parents should not be kept in the peninsula after they have attained the age of four or five years.
Owing to the mildness of its climate Algiers has become a favourite resort for those seeking to escape the rigours of a European winter.
Repeated attempts were made by various European nations to subdue the pirates, and in 1816 the city was bombarded by a British squadron under Lord Exmouth, assisted by Dutch men-of-war, and the corsair fleet burned.
But Cromwell's dream of putting himself at the head of European Protestantism never even approached realization.
European geographers have been accustomed to divide the islands into three groups for purposes of nomenclature, calling the northern group the Parry Islands, the central the Beechey Islands and the southern the Coffin or Bailey Islands.
Beyond this parallel the gradient is directed towards the north-west, and temperatures are much higher on the European than on the American side.
ADRIANOPLE, a vilayet of European Turkey, corresponding with part of the ancient Thrace, and bounded on the N.
The dry wind from the Sahara called harmattan, which carries great quantities of fine red sand, causes a fall of temperature in the (European) summer.
Cotton growing under European direction began about 1900, with the result that in 1901-1902 over 100,000 lb of cotton grown from native, American and Egyptian seed were shipped to Bremen.
The care of his diocese and of his new foundation were not enough for his ardent charity, and in 1609 he published his famous introduction to a Devout Life, a work which was at once translated into the chief European languages and of which he himself published five editions.
This was a very important position owing to the amount of information concerning European affairs which passed through the hands of the representative of Spain.
Hughes's form was taken up by the French government in 1860, and is very largely in use not only in France but in all European countries, including Great Britain.
In 1906 there were 30,551, equal to 7.2 per cent., more telephone stations in the United Kingdom than in the ten European countries of Austria, Hungary, Belgium, Denmark, Holland, Italy; Norway, Portugal, Russia, Sweden and Switzerland, having a combined population of 288 millions as against a population of 42 millions in the United Kingdom.
Apart from France, Germany and Switzerland, there was no European country that had as many telephones working as London.
The only European country which can be compared with the United Kingdom in telephone development is Germany.
by European Turkey, and connected by the Dardanelles with the Sea of Marmora, and so with the Black Sea.
In view of these differences from the domesticated breed, and the resemblance of the skull or lower jaw to that of the extinct European species, it becomes practically impossible to regard the wild camels as the offspring of animals that have escaped from captivity.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
nearly 10 per inhabitant per annum in 1904, as against 5-65 in 1888) the average is considerably below that of,most other European countries.
The increase is partly covered by contravvenzioni, but almost every class of penal offence shows a rise except homicide, and even in that the diminution is slow, 5418 in 1880, 3966 in 1887, 4408 in 1892, 4005 in 1897, 3202 in 1902; and Italy remains, owing to the frequent use of the knife, the European country lit which it is most frequent.
Philips Austrian successors reduced it to the rank of a secondary European power.
It did little for the moral education of the people, but the same criticism applies more or less to all the European governments of the day.
The European ferment of ideas which preceded the French Revolution expressed itself in men like Alfieri, the fierce denouncer of tyrants, Beccaria, the philosopher of criminal jurisprudence, Volta, the physicist, and numerous political economists of Tuscany.
The grand-duke of Tuscany was the first of the European sovereigns who made peace with, and recognized the French republic, early in 1795.
A British alliance would have been preferable, but the British government was too much concerned with the preservation of European peace.
The tsar, Alexander III., under the impression of the assassination of his father, desired, however, the renewal of the Dreikaiserbund, both as a guarantee of European peace and as a conservative league against revolutionary parties.
The sudden fall of Gambetta (26th January 1882) having removed the fear of immediate European complications, the cabinets of Berlin and Vienna again displayed diffidence towards Italy.
Though kept in the dark as to the Skierniewice arrangement, the Italian government soon discovered from the course of events that the triple alliance had practically lost its object, European peace having been assured without Italian co-operation.
Italian army and navy, but, in virtue of the AngloItalian understanding, assured the practical adhesion of Great Britain to the European policy of the central powers, a triumph probably greater than any registered by Italian diplomacy since the completion.
at Constantinople, promoted by Mancini, Italian minister for foreign affairs, in the hope of preventing European intervention.
On the 11th of October Italy communicated article 7 of the treaty of Uccialli to the European powers, interpreting it as a valid title to an Italian protectorate over Abyssinia.
Menelek had previously notified the chief European powers of his coronation at Entotto (i4th December 1889), but Germany and Great Britain replied that such notification should have been made through the Italian.
This theory is generally ranked as the earliest appearance in European thought of the cosmological argument.
This tree is widely spread and forms a valuable export to European markets.
The garrison consists of 140 British and 300 Indian troops, with a few local European volunteers.
Many species are known, of which three are common in European waters.
On the European continent the courts Christian often carried.
The first book edited by a European in Pali was the Mahazamsa, or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, published there in 18 37 by Tumour, then colonial secretary in the island.
This was so nearly correct that the usage has been followed by other European scholars, and is being increasingly adopted.
A very excellent edition of the twentyseven canonical books has been recently printed there, and there exist in our European libraries a number of Pali MSS.
Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid.
Wheeler with his small band of soldiers and the European and Eurasian residents were exposed for 21 days to the fire of the mutineers, is merely a bare field, containing the well where many women and children were shot while getting water.
The above description applies to all European and North American tadpoles, and to the great majority of those known from the tropics.
Among European forms, some tadpoles of Pelobates attain a length of seven inches, the body being of the size of a hen's egg.
Such plants, which comprise the b ~eat majority of the species of the central European flora, ~himper termed tropophytes.
Britain is fairly typical of the west European district.
The cardoon and milk thistle, both European plants, cover tracts of country in South America with impenetrable thickets in which both man and beast may be hopelessly lost.
At the close of the Pliocene the European flora was apparently little different from that now existing, though some warmer types such as the waterchestnut (Trapa natans) had a more northern extension.
The great tropical family of the Gesneraceae has left behind a few outliers: Ramondia in the Pyrenees, Haberlea in the Balkans, and Jankaea in Thessaly; the Pyrenees also possess a minute Dioscorea, sole European survivor of the yams of the tropics.
Its extreme richness in number of species (it comprises six-sevenths of the European flora) and the extremely restricted areas of many of them point to a great antiquity.
Such are the date in Mesopotamia (a second species of Phoenix occurs in the Canaries); most European fruits, e.g.
African sub-regiou.Western Arabia must be added to th~ African continent, which, with this exception and possibly a formel European connexinn in the far west, has had apparently from a very early period an almost insular character.
Soc., 1869, p. 25) points out that the west European species of Erica, Genisteae, Lobelia, Gladiolus, &c., an some of them more nearly allied to corresponding Cape species thai they are to each other; and many of the somewhat higher races of ~, mrnl ~prmprs, h,i-mr~ pvdprii-1v div~rmred from stock now unrepresented anywhere but in South Africa.
At first sight a South African Euphorbia might be mistaken for a South American Cactus, an Aloe for an A gave, a Senecio for ivy, or a New Zealand Veronica for a European Salicornia.
Odoric set out on his travels about 1318, and his journeys embraced parts of India, the Malay Archipelago, China and even Tibet, where he was the first European to enter Lhasa, not yet a forbidden city.
The European country which had come the most completely under the influence of Arab culture now began to send forth explorers Spanish to distant lands, though the impulse came not from the Moors but from Italian merchant navigators in Spanish explora- service.
He was the first European who gave an account of the interior of Yemen.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.
Several European missionaries had previously found their way from India to Tibet.
Antonio Andrada, in 1624, was the first European to enter Tibet since the visit of Friar Odoric in 1325.
New colonial forms have been developed during the partition of Africa amongst European powers, the sphere of influence being especially worthy of notice.
We distinguish between a Siberian, Mongolian, Mediterranean and European province, none of which can be well defined.
Meshed had formerly a great transit trade to Central Asia, of European manufactures, mostly Manchester goods, which came by way of Trebizond, Tabriz and Teheran; and of Indian goods and produce, mostly muslins and Indian and green teas, which came by way of Bander Abbasi.
With the opening of the Russian railway from the Caspian to Merv, Bokhara and Samarkand in 1886-1887, Russian manufacturers were enabled to compete in Central Asia with their western rivals, and the value of European manufactures passing Meshed in transit was much reduced.
A few of these have been translated, but as yet no European scholar possesses knowledge sufficient to enable him to study these valuable documents at first hand.
Hanoi resembles a European city in the possession of wide well-paved streets and promenades, systems of electric light and drainage and a good water-supply.
A crowded native quarter built round a picturesque lake lies close to the river with the European quarter to the south of it.
The Begova Djamia (Djamia), or mosque of Husref Bey, is only surpassed, among European mosques, by those of Adrianople and Constantinople.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
He corresponded with many of the European savants of his day, and contributed largely to the Ada Eruditorum of Leipzig.
Gold was discovered here in 1682 by Bartholomeu Bueno, the first European explorer of this region, and the settlement founded by him was called Santa Anna, which is still the name of the parish.
A wealthy publisher of European reputation attended the court of his native town, the capital of a small grand-duchy, in virtue of the honorary title Hofrat; his wife, not being noble, did not accompany him.
The Portuguese traveller Pero de Covilham visited Calicut in 14,87 and described its possibilities for European trade; and in May 1498 Vasco da Gama, the first European navigator to reach India, arrived at Calicut.
A detachment of European troops is generally stationed here to overawe the fanatical Moplahs.
The best-known species, Myrmeleon formicarius, which may be found adult in the late summer, occurs in many countries on the European continent, though like the rest of this group it is not indigenous in England.
From the 16th century onwards, English, Dutch, German, French and other European traders contested the commerce of this coast with the Portuguese, and finally drove them away.
From Holland, earlier, had proceeded an apologetic work by a man of European fame.
Their colour is usually a darker brown than that of their kinsfolk of the eastern Pacific, but light-complexioned Maoris, almost European in features, are met with.
Founded in 1519 by Pedro Arias de Avila, Panama is the oldest European town on the mainland of America.
In many genera of Lampyridae the female can fly as well as the male; among these are the South European "fireflies."
In the European species of Sitaris and Meloe these little larvae have the instinct of clinging to any hairy object.
Since 1880 the city has been almost entirely renovated in the " European " style; the narrow tortuous lanes and mean houses of the Turkish epoch have almost disappeared, and a new town with straight parallel streets has been constructed in the eastern suburb.
RUSSIA (Rossiya), the general name for the European and Asiatic dominions of the " Tsar of All the Russias."
Although the name is thus correctly applied, both in English and Russian, to the whole area of the Russian empire, its application is often limited, no less correctly, to European Russia, or even to European Russia exclusive of Finland and Poland.
of European Russia.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
There are thirty-four cities in European Russia and Poland, and forty in the entire empire, with from 50,000 to 100,000 inhabitants each.
European Russia thus embraces 59 governments and 1 province (that of the Don).
Since 1870 the municipalities in European Russia have had institutions like those of the zemstvos.
European Russia Geography.
- The administrative boundaries of European Russia, apart from Finland, coincide broadly with the natural limits of the East-European plains.
The great territory occupied by European Russia - 1600 m.
The Ural, in its lower part, constitutes the frontier between European Russia and the Kirghiz steppe; it receives the Sakmara on the right and the Ilek on the left.
Vast areas in Russia are quite unfit for cultivation, 19% of the aggregate surface of European Russia (apart from Poland and Finland) being occupied by lakes, marshes, sand, &c., 39% by forests, 16% by prairies, and only 26% being under cultivation.
European climate contends against the Asiatic, and where a struggle is carried on between the forest and the steppe.
Europe have held their ground; while in the Urals only a few - now Siberian, but formerly also European - are met with.
European plains - the tundras, including the Arctic islands, the forest region, especially the coniferous part of it, and the ante-steppe and steppes of the black earth region.
The following are the chief subdivisions of the Turko-Tatars in European Russia: - (i) The Tatars, of whom three different branches must be distinguished: (a) the Kazan Tatars on both banks of the Volga, below the mouth of the Oka, and on the lower Kama, but penetrating farther S.
Europeans, the Germans only attain considerable numbers in European Russia.
The chief occupation of approximately seven-eighths of the population of European Russia is agriculture, but its character varies considerably according to the soil, the climate and Agri- the geographical position of the different regions.
The actual distribution of arable land, forests and meadows, in European Russia and Poland is shown in the following table The land in European Russia and Poland (Caucasia being excluded) is divided amongst the different classes of owners as follows Down to January 1st 1903, the peasants had actually redeemed out of the land allotted to them in 1861 a total of 280,530,516 acres..
Taking the whole of European Russia and Poland, almost exactly two-thirds of the total area is sown every year with cereals.
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
The state is the chief owner of forests (almost exclusive owner in Archangel), and owns no less than 289,226,000 acres in European Russia and Poland (235,000,000 acres of good forests), while private persons own 171,800,000 acres, the peasant communities 67,250,000 and the imperial family 22,400,000 acres.
The two principal mining centres of European Russia are the Urals, Ekaterinoslav, Kharkov and the Don Cossacks territory.
The amount of iron and steel produced in the Urals is not quite 20% of the total in all European Russia and Poland.
The output of coal in the Urals is, altogether, less than 3% of the total for all the empire and 4% of the output of European Russia (exclusive of Poland) alone.
Altogether, no fewer than 16,600 fairs are held in Russia, 85% of them in European Russia.
1 0m.or8 34, 5 4'3% were in European Russia and nearly 6400 m.
Like the European settlers on the coast of Africa in more recent times, they wished the barbarians of the interior to be restricted to the use of their primitive weapons.
During the first years of the French Revolution Catherine's sympathy with philosophic liberalism rapidly evaporated, and the European sovereigns to the democratic movement; but she carefully abstained from joining the Coalition, and waited patiently for the moment when the complications in western Europe would give her an opportunity of solving independently the Eastern Question in accordance with Russian interests.
Now she was beginning to consider herself a powerful member of the European family of nations, and she aspired to exercise a predominant influence in all European questions.
This tendency was already shown by Catherine when she created the League of Neutrals as an arm against the naval supremacy of England, and by Paul when he insisted that his peace negotiations with Bonaparte should be regarded as part of a general European pacification, in which he must be consulted.
When peace was finally concluded, he had obtained that predominant position in European politics which had been the object of his ambition since the commencement of his reign, and he now believed firmly that he had been chosen by Providence to secure the happiness of the world in general and of the European nations in particular.
Like Alexander in the last period of his reign, Nicholas considered himself the supreme guardian of European order, and was ever on the watch to oppose revolution in all its forms. Hence he was generally in strained relations with France, especially in the time of Louis Philippe, who became king not by the grace of God but by the will of the people.
Until the country had completely recovered from the exhaustion of the Crimean War the government remained in the back ground of European politics.
Even in European Russia the regions near the frontier contain a great variety of nationalities, languages and religions.
59), he ordered Batum to be transformed into a fortified naval port, but in the Balkan Peninsula he persistently refrained, under a good deal of provocation, from any intervention that might lead to a European war.
The assassination of the minister of the interior Plehve, on the 14th of July, by the revolutionist Sazonov was remarkable as a of the symptom mainly owing to the widespread sympathy of the European press of all shades of opinion with War.
As a result it has been far easier for the American than for the European railway builder to take advantage of the speculative instinct in obtaining money.
Instead of the borrowing power being restricted to a small percentage of the total capital, as in European countries, most of the railway mileage of America has been built with borrowed money, represented by bonds, while stock has been given freely as an inducement to subscribe to the bonds on the XXII.
In France and other European countries there is also an important mileage of metre gauge, and even narrower, on lines of local or secondary importance.
In Great Britain, Germany and France, at least 90% of the wooden sleepers are " treated " before they are laid, to ii.crease their resistance to decay, and the same practice is followed to some extent in other European countries.
Used on several English lines for fast passenger traffic, and also on many European railways.
The leading dimensions of a few locomotives typical of English, American and European practice are given in Table Xxii.
The gondola or flat car corresponds to the European open wagons and is used to carry goods not liable to be injured by the weather; but in the United States the practice of covering the load with tarpaulins is unknown, and therefore the proportion of box cars is much greater than in Europe.
About 1875 their average capacity differed little from that of British wagons of the present day, but by 1885 it had grown to zo or 22 short tons (z000 ib) and now it is probably at least three times that of European wagons.
Automatic couplers resembling the Janney are adopted in a few special cases in Great Britain and other European countries, FIG.
Cultivation has been extended under European and American rule, and in 1904 the exports from the German islands had reached a value of 83,750, and those from the American islands of is'4200.
The islands, especially Upolu, now began to attract American and European (mostly German) capitalists, and the Hamburg firm of J.
In his episcopal capacity he attended several diets of the empire, as well as the opening meetings of the council of Trent; and the influence of his father, now chancellor, led to his being entrusted with many difficult and delicate pieces of public business, in the execution of which he developed a rare talent for diplomacy, and at the same time acquired an intimate acquaintance with most of the currents of European politics.
The fossil remains which have been discovered in Britain are not larger than, nor in any way to be distinguished from, the corresponding bones and teeth of European wolves of the present day.
From the numerous incidental references in his works, and from his knowledge of European literature, it may be inferred that he spent some time abroad.
The first recorded person of European descent to enter the limits of Nevada was Francisco Garces (1738-1781), of the Order of St Francis, who set out from Sonora in 1775 and passed through what is now the extreme southern corner of the state on his way to California.
Besides the lithographed editions of the whole work in folio (Bombay, 1853, and Teheran, 1852-1856) and a Turkish version (Constantinople, 1842), the following portions of Mirkhond's history have been published by European Orientalists: Early Kings of Persia, by D.
In the tropics "no European house should be located nearer to a native village than half a mile" (Manson), and, since children are almost universally infected, "the presence of young natives in the house should be absolutely interdicted" (Manson).
His reputation as a consistent moderating influence in European policy and one of the chief guarantors of European peace was indeed rudely shaken in October 1908, the year in which he celebrated his ixty years jubilee as emperor, by the issue of the imperial Iscript annexing Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Habsburg ominions, in violation of the terms of the treaty of Berlin.
The political changes involved in the Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian or Persian conquests surely affected it as little as the subsequent waves of Greek, Roman and other European invasions.
This was the original of all the medieval forms of oath more judaico, which still prevailed in many European lands till the 19th century, and are even now maintained by some of the Rumanian courts.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
The condition of the European Jews seems, on a superficial examination, abject enough.
The story of the Jews in Russia and Rumania remains a black spot on the European record.
Anti-Semitism.-It is saddening to be compelled to close this record with the statement that the progress of the European Jews received a serious check by the rise of modern anti-Semitism in the last quarter of the 19th century.
It is clear, however that he did not share the "passion" of his colleagues for "peace with honour," clear also that he wholly misread the intentions of the European powers in the event of war.
The prospect of a final settlement was improved by the withdrawal of Germany and Austria, which had favoured Turkish pretensions, from the European concert (April 1898); the remaining powers divided the island into four departments, which they severally undertook to administer.
Throughout he kept up his work of relief, and at the beginning of 1921 was collecting funds as chairman of the European Relief Council, for the starving children of central Europe.
In March he entered the Cabinet of President Harding as Secretary of Commerce, stipulating that he be allowed to carry out his European relief work, already begun.
The first European settlement in Mississippi was founded in 1699 by Pierre Lemoyne, better known as Iberville, at Fort Maurepas (Old Biloxi) on the north side of Biloxi Bay, in what is now Harrison county.
portion of the Mountain Region; and that mica was mined here before any European settlement of the country seems proved by numerous excavations and by huge heaps on which are large oak and chestnut trees, some fallen and decayed.
Formica sanguinea is a well-known European slavemaking ant that inhabits England; its workers raid the nests of F.
sanguinea can live either with or without slaves, but another European ant (Polyergus rufescens) is so dependent on its slaves - various species of Formica - that its workers are themselves unable to feed the larvae.
Lubbock's (Lord Avebury) Ants, Bees and Wasps (London, 1882), dealing with British and European species, has been followed by numerous important papers by A.
Minas Geraes was first explored by Fernando Dias Paes Leme between 1664 and 1677, though he was not the first European to penetrate it.
Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
St Petersburg, again, is connected with Greenwich by European systems of triangulation; and the Greenwich meridian is adopted by Russia as the zero for all her longitude values.
Further geodetic connexion with the European systems remains to be accomplished.
Robert Barkley Shaw and George Hayward were the European pioneers of geography into the central dominion of Kashgar, arriving at Yarkand within a few weeks of each other in 1868.
Although within the limits of western Asiatic states, still under Asiatic government and beyond the active influence of European Persia.
While British India has so far avoided actual geographical contact with one great European power in Asia on the north and west, she has touched another on the east.
Along the warm temperate zone, from the Mediterranean to the Himalaya, extends a flora essentially European in character.
Many European species reach the central Himalaya, though few are known in its eastern parts.
The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.
Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
The European forms seem to extend to about 30° N., south of which the Indo-Malayan types are met with, Japan being of the Europeo-Asiatic group. The northern forms extend generally along the south coast of the Mediterranean up to the border of the great desert, and from the Levant to the Caspian.
Jenghiz Khan and Timur covered more ground than Napoleon, and no European has had such an effect on the world as Mahomet.
On the other hand Christianity, though Asiatic in its origin and essential ideas, has to a large extent taken its present form on European soil, and some of its most important manifestations - notably the Roman Church - are European reconstructions in which little of the Asiatic element remains.
Apart from European conquests, the internal history of Asia in the last 2000 years is the result of the interaction of four main influences: (a) Chinese, (b) Indian, (c) Mahommedan, (d) Central Asian.
Any general statement as to the debt owed by early European civilizations to western Asia would at present be premature, for though important discoveries have been made in Crete and Babylonia the best authorities are chary of positive conclusions as to the relations of Cretan civilization to Egypt and Babylonia.
European influence on Asia has been specially strong at two epochs, firstly after the conquests of Alexander the Great, and secondly from the r6th century onwards.
Looking at eastern Europe and western Asia only, one must say that Asiatic influences have on the whole prevailed hitherto (though perhaps the tide is turning), for Islam is paramount in this region and European culture at a low ebb.
It will thus be seen that European (excluding Russian) power in Asia is based almost entirely on improved navigation.
There was no attempt to overwhelm whole empires by pouring into them masses of troops, but commerce was combined with territorial acquisition, and a continuity of European interest secured by the presence of merchants and settlers.
The course of oriental conquest followed the events of European politics, and the possessions of European powers in the East generally changed hands according to the fortunes of their masters at home.
The ultimate victory of England seems due less to any particular aptitude for dealing with oriental problems than to a better command of the seas and to considerations of European politics.
Another category of European possessions in Asia comprises those acquired towards the end of the 19th century, such as Indo-China (France), Burma and Wei-Hai-Wei (Britain), and Kiao-Chow (Germany).
Whereas the earlier conquests were mostly the results of large half-conscious national movements working out their destinies in the East, these later ones were annexations deliberately planned by European cabinets.
As the Russian possessions in Asia are continuous with European Russia, it is only natural that they should have been russified far more thoroughly than the British possessions have been anglicized.
But the mental constitution of Asiatics is less easily modified than their institutions, and even Japan has assimilated European methods rather than European ideas.
He owed his success to the confidence placed in him by Queen Victoria, to his wide knowledge of European politics, to his intimate friendship with Guizot, and not least to his own conciliatory disposition.
Bernhard Walther, a rich patrician, became his pupil and patron; and they together equipped the first European observatory, for which Regiomontanus himself constructed instruments of an improved type (described in his posthumous Scripta, Nuremberg, 1544).
In 1720, by the peace of Stockholm, Swedish Pomerania was curtailed by extensive concessions to Prussia, but the district to the west of the Peene remained in the possession of Sweden until the general European settlement of 1815.
The monarchical principle was shaken to its foundations by the English revolution of 1688; it was shattered by the French revolution of 1789; and though it survives as a political force, more or less strongly, in most European countries, "monarchists," in the strict sense of the word, are everywhere a small and dwindling minority.
Leather goods of all kinds are also manufactured, and from Kano come most of the "morocco leather" goods on the European markets.
This last class trades with the other three and despatches caravans to Illorin and other places, where the Kano goods, the "potash" and other merchandise are exchanged for kolas and European goods.
Here in 1743 Christopher Sauer, one of the sect's first pastors, and a printer by trade, printed the first Bible (a few copies of which are still in existence) published in a European language in America.
and in several European countries; and also in 1882 of the: radicals, or Progressives, who objected to a distinctive dress and'.
cared only for England; Wolsey's object was to play a great part on the European stage.
Such systems have been elaborated chiefly by modern thinkers, but the germs of the ideas are found widely spread in the older Oriental philosophies and in pre-Christian European thought.
Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.
Translations of the Works or of separate treatises have appeared in most European languages.
In a favourable soil and open situation it becomes the tallest and one of the stateliest of European trees, rising sometimes to a height of from 150 to 170 ft., the trunk attaining a diameter of from 5 to 6 ft.
In the sphere of European diplomacy, no less than in that of French politics, the results of the coup d'etat of Fructidor were momentous.
But here we may point out the influence of the expedition on Egypt, on European politics and on the fortunes of Bonaparte.
The treaty of Tilsit, then, far from being merely a European event, was an event of the first importance in what may be termed the Welt-politik of Napoleon.
Indeed, along with other serious checks in Spain, which involved the conquest of that land, it cut through the wide meshes of his policy both in Levantine, Central European and commercial affairs.
The threat naturally did not tend to reassure statesmen at Vienna; and the tsar now resolved to prevent the total wreck of the European system by screening the House of Habsburg from the wrath of his ally.
The aim in all these changes, it will be observed, was to acquire control over the seaboard, or, failing that, the commerce of all European states.
He under stood the relations of the European states, and the interests of Great Britain among them.
In addition to these he compiled several volumes of excerpts from ancient authors, and wrote a number of works on geography, music and other subjects, many of which still exist in MS. in various European libraries.
Stevens (London, 1740), and into other European languages.
In this work he ably combated the views of Turgot and other European writers as to the viciousness of the framework of the state governments.
The United States was, at this time, drawn into the vortex of European complications, and Adams, instead of taking advantage of the militant spirit which was aroused, patriotically devoted himself to securing peace with France, much against the wishes of Hamilton and of Hamilton's adherents in the cabinet.
Many European forms of this age have been described by C. Brongniart, and American by S.
Other European countries, though not quite so prolific as Germany, bore some ornithological fruit at this period; but.
Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.
Two supplementary parts were issued in 1835 and 1840 respectively, and the work for many years deservedly maintained the highest position as the authority on European ornithology-indeed in England it may almost without exaggeration be said to have been nearly the only foreign ornithological work known; but, as could only be expected, grave defects are now to be discovered in it.
Noble's List of European Birds (1898) is a useful compilation, and Dresser's magnificent Eggs of the Birds of Europe is another great contribution by that author to European ornithology.
251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.
This method, which in process of time was dignified by the title of a Physiological Arrangement, was insisted upon with more or less pertinacity by the author throughout a long series of publications, some of them separate books, some of them contributed to the memoirs issued by many scientific bodies of various European countries, ceasing only at his death, which in July 1857 found him occupied upon a Conspectus, Generum Avium, that in consequence remains unfinished.
It is divided into European, Indian and native quarters.
Midway between the European and Indian quarters stands the town hall.
In 1902 the surrounding highlands were found to be suitable for European settlement, and Nairobi speedily grew in importance; in 1907 the headquarters of the administration were transferred to it from Mombasa.
For the possible connexion between the Ephthalites and the European Huns see Huns.
The European wild boar (Sus scrof a) is distributed over Europe, northern Africa, and central and northern Asia.
She was raised at once to the position of a European power.
So far as European politics are concerned, the latter years of the republic are made memorable by one important event: the resistance which Venice, under the guidance of Fra Paolo Sarpi, offered to the growing claims of the Curia Romana, advanced by Pope Paul V.
Venice was placed under interdict (1606), but she asserted the rights of temporal sovereigns with a courage which was successful and won for her the esteem and approval of most European sovereigns.
But these beliefs are far from being confined to the uncivilized; Greek philosophers like Porphyry, no less than the fathers of the Church, held that the world was pervaded with spirits; side by side with the belief in witchcraft, we can trace through the middle ages the survival of primitive animistic views; and in our own day even these beliefs subsist in unsuspected vigour among the peasantry of the more uneducated European countries.
Outside the European area vegetation spirits of all kinds seem to be conceived, as a rule, as anthropomorphic; in classical Europe, and parts of the Slavonic area at the present day, the tree spirit was believed to have the form of a goat, or to have goats' feet.
In the folklore of European countries goblindom is peopled by gods and nature-spirits of an earlier heathendom.
He misjudged the character both of the colonists and of the natives, his cardinal mistake being in regarding the African as little removed from the European in intellect and capacity.
The ruins of the English factory, St Thomas's church, and the houses of the European residents lie along the river banks.
The weaving industry and the manufacture of fine Dacca muslins have greatly fallen off, owing to the competition of European piece goods.
European mackerel are of two kinds, of which one, the common mackerel, Scomber scomber, lacks, while the other possesses, an air-bladder.
Of extra-Atlantic species the mackerel of the Japanese seas are the most nearly allied to the European, those of New Zealand and Australia, and still more those of the Indian Ocean, differing in many conspicuous points.
This deviation is the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by the European fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) and by the marine spider Desis, which is found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Cape Colony to eastern Australia.
This letter corresponds to the second symbol in the Phoenician alphabet, and appears in the same position in all the European alphabets, except those derived, like the Russian, from medieval Greek, in which the pronunciation of this symbol had changed from b to v.
While the insect fauna of European countries was investigated by local naturalists, the spread of geographical exploration brought ever-increasing stores of exotic material to the great museums.
Loew on the European Diptera, of John Curtis on British insects, of H.
Staudinger on the European Lepidoptera, of R.
M`Lachlan on the European and of H.
The bulk of the cotton is of very short staple, about three-quarters of an inch, and is not well suited to the requirements of the English spinner, but very large mills specially fitted to deal with short-stapled cottons have been erected in India and consume about one-half the total crop, the remainder being exported to Germany and other European countries, Japan and China.
Some cotton is produced in European Russia in the southern Caucasus, but Turkestan in central Asia is by far the 1 Cotton Production 1906, U.S.A. Bureau of the Census, Bulletin No.
The annual average shipments from Bombay to the European continent and to Great Britain in 1900-1904 were as follows: To the continent.
He made clear his belief that the question was closely connected with the problems of the Pacific and Far East, and invitations were also sent accordingly to China and to the smaller European powers with Far-Eastern interests - Holland, Belgium and Portugal.
The recommendations of Metternich opened to him almost every library except the Vatican; and it was during these three years of study in Venice, Ferrara, Rome, Florence and other cities, that he obtained that acquaintance with European history which was to make him the first historian of his time.
Henceforth his name was known in all European countries; the English translation by Mrs Austin was the occasion of one of Macaulay's most brilliant essays.
The latter appears mainly in Palestine, and has of late been considerably strengthened by immigration of European Jews, who have almost doubled the population of Jerusalem, and settled upon several fertile spots throughout the Holy Land.
The land is poor in minerals, including coal; water-power also is deficient, so that the introduction of European industries is attended with difficulties even apart from the insecurity of affairs, which forbids such experiments as the improvement of agriculture by means of European capital.
The chiefs have jurisdiction in cases affecting natives, but there is a right of appeal to the courts of the commissioners, who try all cases in which any of the parties are European.
Many Basuto at the public examinations take higher honours than competitors of European descent.
Many Basuto profess Christianity and have adopted European clothing.
Buali, the capital, was situated on the banks of a small river not far from the port of Loango, where were several European "factories."
Archiv fiir Zoologie, ii.; Id., " The Genera of European Nemerteans critically revised," Notes from the Leyden Museum (1879); Id., " Zur Anatomie u.
They are much addicted to gambling, and formerly were much given to fighting, though they never display that passion for war in the abstract which is characteristic of some of the white races, and their courage on the whole is not high if judged by European standards.
The motive is often inadequate from the point of view of a European, but to the Malay it is sufficient to make him weary of life and anxious to court death.
Teeth and jaws probably referable to the Condylarthra have been obtained in European early Tertiary formations.
The attention of many students has naturally been concentrated on the ancient city, the birthplace of European art and literature, and a great development of investigation and discussion in the special domain of Athenian archaeology has given birth to a voluminous literature.
The scenery of Formosa is frequently of majestic beauty, and to this it is indebted for its European name, happily bestowed by the early Spanish navigators.
Travellers are especially struck with the beauty of some of the wild flowers, more especially with the lilies and convolvuluses; and European greenhouses have been enriched by several Formosan orchids and other ornamental plants.
The use of Manchester prints and other European goods is fairly general; and the women, who make a fine native cloth from hemp, introduce coloured threads from the foreign stuffs, so as to produce ornamental devices.
On the expulsion of the Ming dynasty in China, a number of their defeated adherents came over to Formosa, and under a leader called in European accounts Coxinga, succeeded in expelling the Dutch and taking possession of a good part of the island.
By the treaty of Tientsin (1860) Taichu was opened to European commerce, but the place was found quite unsuitable for a port of trade, and the harbour of Tam-sui was selected instead.
In 1515 its European population may have been 400.
The commoner European slugs of small size all belong to the genus Limax, in which the opening of the mantle-chamber is posterior.
In general European politics Baron Marschall had taken during his Foreign Secretaryship a strongly imperialist attitude.
The European quarter lies to the west of the native town, on both sides of the river Barna.
The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
The town is built on the northern sweep of the harbour and is European in character.
Adjoining the governor's residence are the botanical gardens, where many European plants are tested with a view to acclimatization.
Of course, generally speaking, less advance was made than in many previous decades, owing to the interregnum caused by the World War, when all British, French, German, and Austrian work was held up, and only the Americans and to a lesser degree the so-called " Egyptian " Service of Antiquities (manned by French and English) did any digging at all; while in all the European countries the energies of all the archaeologists who were not superannuated were transferred to the field of war, and there was no time left to write little papers, still less big books.
It is sometimes almost central European in look.
If they were Semitic speakers, the present facial contours of the northern Semites, which have spread all over the world, are not Semitic at all: for the Egyptian Armenoids in the statues of the Old Kingdom look like Europeans, and must have been of " European " blood.
MACEDONIAN EMPIRE, the name generally given to the empire founded by Alexander the Great of Macedon in the countries now represented by Greece and European Turkey, Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, Persia and eastwards as far as northern India.'
The reforms proved a failure, mainly owing to the tacit opposition of the Turkish authorities, the insufficient powers attributed to the European officials, the racial feuds and the deplorable financial situation.
He was however expelled by Lysimachus and Pyrrhus in 288; and in 285 Lysimachus took possession of all the European part of the Macedonian Empire..
It had long the reputation of being almost constantly ice-bound, but after the Norwegian captain Johannesen had demonstrated its accessibility in 1869, and Nordenskield had crossed it to the mouth of the Yenisei in 1875, it was considered by many to offer a possible trade route between European Russia and the north of Siberia.
Even Strabo (c. 30 B.C.) adopted its main features, but while he improved the European frontier, he rejected the valuable information secured by Pytheas and retained the connexion between the Caspian and the outer ocean.
In the same year Adrian Gerritsz published a valuable Paskaarte of the European Sea.
Of Russia in Europe only the more densely peopled governments have been surveyed, since 1816, in the manner of other European countries, while for most regions there R are only so-called "military surveys."
A trigonometrical survey of British India was begun in 1800 and the country can now boast of a survey which in most respects is equal to those of most European states.
In the meantime large scale maps prepared by European authorities are to be welcomed, such as maps of Chih-li and Shan-tung (1:200,000), from surveys by Prussian officers, 1901-1905, maps on East China (1:1,000,000) and of Yun-nan by British, German and Indian officers, of the Indo-Chinese frontier (1:200,000, Paris 1908), and of the upper Yangtsze-kiang by S.
Hund), and it is suggested that the "English dog"- for this was a regular phrase in continental European countries - represented a special breed.
most European countries, are descendants of the foxhound which have been taught to follow game by general body scent, not by tracking, nose to the ground, the traces left by the feet of the' quarry, and, on approaching within sight of the game, to stand rigid, "pointing" in its direction.
In 1895 Bottego, with three European companions, left Brava to investigate the river system north of Lake Rudolf, and succeeded in tracing the Omo to that lake.
The exports are chiefly coffee, hides, ivory (all from Abyssinia), gum, mother-of-pearl and a little gold; the imports cotton and other European stuffs, cereals, beverages, tobacco and arms and ammunition for the Abyssinians.
The headland is known to the Somali as Girdif or Yardaf - whence in all probability comes the European form Guardafui.
Chandernagore has played an important part in the European history of Bengal.
The European town is situated at the bottom of a beautiful reach of the Hugli, with clean wide thoroughfares, and many elegant residences along the river-bank.
In 1747 was published the first volume of Espana Sagrada, teatro geograficohistorico de la Iglesia de Espana, a vast compilation of Spanish ecclesiastical history which obtained a European reputation, and of which twenty-nine volumes appeared in the author's lifetime.
When Edwards wrote (1791), the number of European factories on the coasts of Africa was 40; of these 14 were English, 3 French, 15 Dutch, 4 Portuguese and 4 Danish.
As correct a notion as can be obtained of the numbers annually exported from the continent about the year 1790 by traders cf the several European countries engaged in the traffic is supplied by the following statement: - " By the British, 38,000; by the French, 20,000; by the Dutch, 4000; by the Danes, 2000; by the Portuguese, 10,000; total 74,000."
The hunting of human beings to make them slaves was greatly aggravated by the demand of the European colonies.
In 1807 the African Institution was formed, with the primary objects of keeping a vigilant watch on the slave traders and procuring, if possible, the abolition of the slave trade by the other European nations.
By all these measures the slave trade, so far as it was carried on under the flags of European nations or for the supply of their colonies, ceased to exist.
The example of Great Britain was gradually followed by the other European states, and some American ones had already taken action of the same kind.
The serfs were bought, sold, and given in presents, sometimes with the land, sometimes without it, sometimes in families and sometimes individually, sale by public auction being alone forbidden, as " unbecoming in a European state."
The complete control of the seaboard by European powers has rendered the smuggling of slaves to Arabia and Persia a difficult and dangerous occupation.
of Belgium and the partition of the greater part of Africa between various European powers.
In parts where European authority remained weak, as in the hinterland of the Portuguese province of Angola and the adjacent regions of Central Africa, native potentates continued to raid their neighbours, and from this region many labourers were (up to 1910) forcibly taken to work on the cocoa plantation in St Thomas.
Though the fondness of this species for the seeds of flax (Linum) and hemp (Cannabis) has given it its common name in so many European languages,' it feeds largely, if not chiefly in Britain on the seeds of plants of the order Compositae, especially those growing on heaths and commons.
Apparently the musk-ox (Ovibos moschatus) has little or no near relationship to either the oxen or the sheep; and it is not improbable that its affinities are with the Asiatic takin (Budorcas) and the extinct European Criotherium of the Pliocene of Samos.
The narrow winding streets and the Arab bazaars present an Oriental scene contrasting with the European aspect of the district already described.
The majority of these were Greeks, Italians, Syrians, Armenians and other Levantines, though almost every European and Oriental nation is represented.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
Being the starting-point of the "overland route" to India, and the residence of the chief foreign consuls, it quickly acquired a European character and attracted not only Frank residents, but great numbers of Greeks, Jews and Syrians.
It placed the author in the front rank of European publicists, and won him the friendship of some of the most distinguished men of the time, including Burke himself.
Lophiodochoerus apparently represents this stage in the European Lower Eocene; Isectolophus, of the American Middle Eocene, represents a distinct advance, the last upper premolar becoming molar-like, while a second species from the Upper Eocene is still more advanced; the third lobe is, however, retained in the last lower molar.
With the short-skulled, short-footed, three-toed and generally horned rhinoceroses ranging in Europe and America from the Lower Miocene to the Lower Pliocene, typified by the European R.
To this group belongs the extinct European and Asiatic woolly rhinoceros, Rhinoceros (Diceros) antiquitatis, of Pleistocene age, of which the frozen bodies are sometimes found in Siberia, and R.
Prominent among the " nine hundred theses " which Mirandola had placarded in Rome, and which he undertook to defend in the presence of all European scholars, whom he invited to the Eternal City, promising to defray their travelling expenses, was the following: " No science yields greater proof of the divinity of Christ than magic and the Kabbalah."
1 Jewish theosophy, then, with its good and evil tendencies, and with its varied results, may thus claim to have played no unimportant part in the history of European scholarship and thought.
Including all unions the total is below the European proportion, but above that of Porto Rico or Jamaica in 1899.
It will be seen that the net result of Lassalle's life was to produce a European scandal, and to originate a socialistic movement in Germany, which, at the election of 1903, returned to the Reichstag eighty-one members and polled 3,010,771 votes, and at the election of 1907 returned forty-three members and polled 3,258,968 votes.
Viewing the subject as a whole, and apart from remote developments which have not in fact seriously influenced the great structure of the mathematics of the European races, it may be said to have had its origin with the Greeks, working on pre-existing fragmentary lines of thought derived from the Egyptians and Phoenicians.
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA, or Bosnia-Herzegovina, two provinces formerly included in European Turkey, which now, together with Dalmatia, form the southernmost territories of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
This feature of his character served him well when the World War brought about the long-expected upheaval of European society.
In the European provinces about two-thirds of the population are Christian and one-third Mahommedan.
So also did the " Midhat Constitution " promulgated by Abd-ul-Hamid almost immediately after his accession to the throne, owing largely to the reactionary spirit at that time of the' Ulema and of the sultan's immediate advisers, but almost, if not quite, in equal measure to the scornful reception of the Constitution by the European powers.
The theoretical absolutism of the sultan had, indeed, always been tempered not only by traditional usage, local privilege, the juridical and spiritual precepts of the Koran and the Sunnet, and their 'Ulema interpreters, and the privy council, but for nearly a century by the direct or indirect pressure of the European powers, and during the reigns of Abd-ul-Aziz and of Abd-ul-Hamid by the growing force of public opinion.
About 21 millions of acres are under wood, of which over 3 millions are in European Turkey.
Attar of roses is produced in large quantities both in European and Asiatic Turkey, and to aid in furthering the industry numerous rose plants are distributed gratuitously.
Apart from unimportant modifications, the form of the budget must have remained unchanged until the organic reforms of Selim III., while its complete transformation into European shape dates only from the year 1278 (1862), when Fuad Pasha attached a regular budget to his report on the financial situation of the empire.
In 1905 financial resources had to be found for the special administration of the three European vilayets as insisted upon by the powers, and to this end the Porte initiated negotiations with the latter to increase the import duties by 3%.
As regards the first of these, it is curious to observe that the budget decree of 1880 stringently limited the peace strength of the Ottoman army to 100,000 men, " including officers and generals," in order to put a stop to the rapidly increasing military expenditure; but this was merely the expression of a pious wish, at a time when European financial good will was indispensable, that expenditure might be kept down.
He began by building on the European med II.
Meanwhile on land Suleiman had taken full advantage of the European situation to tighten his grip on Hungary.
In the Mediterranean, Crete and Malta yet survived as outposts of Christendom; but the northern coasts of Africa from Egypt to Morocco acknowledged the supremacy of the sultan, whose sea power in the Mediterranean had become a factor to be reckoned with in European politics, threatening not only the islands, but the very heart of Christendom, Italy itself, and capable - as the alliance with France against Charles V.
had shown - of being thrown with decisive weight into the balance of European rivalries.
Apart from the heavy losses which it imposed on her, it constitutes a fresh departure in her history, as putting an end to her splendid isolation and rendering her dependent on the changes of European politics.
A serious outbreak took place at Adrianople in 1804, where 20,000 of the new troops had been sent, ostensibly to put down the revolt in Servia, but really to try to bring about the reform of the European provinces.
Such was the situation when the question of a European guarantee of Turkey was raised at the Congress of Vienna.
The Ottoman Empire thus remained outside the European concert; Russia maintained her claim to a special right of isolated intervention in its affairs; and the renewal of war between Russia and Turkey was only postponed by the preoccupation of Alexander with his dream of the " Confederation of Europe."
In spite of the emperor Alexander's engagements to the Grand Alliance and the ideal of European peace, this was no easy matter; for the murder of the patriarch was but the culmination of a whole series of grievances accumulated since the Treaty of Bucharest.
Admitted on equal terms to the European family of nations, the Ottoman government had given a solemn guarantee of its intention to make the long-promised reforms a reality.
The diplomacy of Europe had been searching in vain since the autumn Accession of 1875 for the means of inducing Turkey to institute of Abd-u1- effective administrative reforms and to grant to Hamid 11., its European provinces that autonomy which now 1876.
the last days of 1876 was startled by the salvo of artillery which heralded the promulgation of a liberal constitution, not for the European provinces only, but for the whole empire, and the institution of a Turkish parliament.
The decisions of the conference, moderate though they were, in the end requiring merely the nomination of an international commission to investigate the state of the European provinces of Turkey, and the appointment by the sultan, with the approval of the powers, of governors-general for five years, were rejected by the Porte.
Measures of reform in Armenia were also provided for, as also the convocation of an international commission for drawing up a reform scheme for the European provinces left to Turkey.
These belong to the new or European school, which, in spite of the bitter opposition of the partisans of the old Oriental system, has succeeded, partly through its own inherent superiority and partly through the talents and courage of its supporters, in expelling its rival from the position of undisputed authority which it had occupied for upwards of five hundred years.
The European style, on its introduction, encountered the most violent opposition, but now it alone is used by living authors of repute.
Though clad, armed and organized in European fashion, the soldiers retained in a marked degree the traditions of their Mongolian forerunners, their transport wagons were in type the survival of ages of experience, and their care for their animals equally the result of hereditary habit.
In cavalry they were weak, for the Russian does not take kindly to equitation and the horses were not equal to the accepted European standard of weight, while the Cossack was only formidable to stragglers and wounded.
These walls all fell into decay long since; at places they were used as brick quarries, and finally the great reforming governor, (1868-1872), Midhat Pasha, following the example set by many European cities, undertook to destroy them altogether and utilize the free space thus obtained as a public park and esplanade.
In recent years the demands of modern travel have led to the establishment of a hotel, which affords comfortable accommodation according to European methods.
There has also sprung up of late years considerable direct trade between the European and American markets and Bagdad, and several foreign houses, especially English, have established themselves there.
Even the Bedouin Arabs wear headdresses of cheap European cotton stuff purchased in Bagdad or thereabouts, while the common water vessels throughout the country are five-gallon petroleum tins, which also furnish metal for the manufacture of various utensils in the native bazaars.
Thus in 1822, at the congress of Verona, in order to overcome the objection of Great Britain to any interference of the European concert in Spain, identical notes were presented to the Spanish government instead of a collective note.
He was the first to penetrate into the second pyramid of Giza, and the first European in modern times to visit the oasis of Baharia, which he supposed to be that of Siwa.
The Moroccan system was visited, and in some instances crossed, by various European travellers carried into slavery by the Salli rovers, and was traversed by Rene Caille in 1828 on his journey home from Timbuktu, but the first detailed exploration was made by Gerhard Rohlfs in 1861-1862.
It was long a common belief that the fauna and flora of Greenland were essentially European, a circumstance which would make it probable that Greenland has been separated by sea from America during a longer period of time than from Europe.
The principle upon which the government acts is to give the natives low prices for their produce, but to sell them European articles of necessity at prime cost, and other stores, such as bread, at prices which will scarcely pay for the purchase.
The prices to be paid for European and native articles are fixed every year, the prices current in Danish and Eskimo being printed and distributed by the government.
These parsissoks, elected at the rate of about one representative to 120 voters, wear a cap with a badge (a bear rampant), and aid the European members of the council in distributing the surplus profit apportioned to each district, and generally in advising as, to the welfare of that part of Greenland under their partial control.
It might be expected that there should be a decrease in the Greenland seal fisheries, caused by the European and American sealers catching larger quantities every year, especially along the coasts of Newfoundland and Labrador, and so actually diminishing the number of the animals in the Greenland seas.
It was visited by whalers, chiefly Dutch, but nothing in the form of permanent European settlements was established until the year 1721, when the first missionary, the Norwegian clergyman Hans Egede, landed, and established a settlement near Godthaab.
The exact number of the Ostiak Samoyedes is not known; the Tavghi Samoyedes may number about woo, and the Yuraks, mixed with the former, are estimated at 6000 in Obdorsk (about 150 settled), 5000 in European Russia in the tundras of the Mezen, and about 350 in Yeniseisk.
The name Kambuja, whence the European form Cambodia, is derived from the Hindu Kambu, the name of the mythical founder of the Khmer race; it seems to have been officially adopted by the Khmers as the title of their country about this period.
The first European visitors to the territory now embraced in the state of Minnesota found it divided between two powerful Indian tribes, the Ojibways or Chippewas, who occupied the heavily wooded northern portion and the region along the Mississippi river, and the Sioux or Dakotas, who made their homes on the more open rolling country in the south and west and in the valley of the Minnesota.
Hence from the 10th to the 12th centuries there was great intercourse with Iceland and Greenland on the part of the English, Swedish and Danish, but at the end of the 13th century some change occurred, resulting in the southerly emigration of the Eskimos and the extinction of European civilization in Greenland.
He was a man of great talents and spoke and wrote many Oriental and European languages.
PARGA, a seaport of Albania, European Turkey, in the vilayet of Iannina, and on the Ionian Sea.
The tree has also been introduced along the Mediterranean shores of Europe; but as its fruit does not ripen so far north, the European plants are only used to supply leaves for the festival of Palm Sunday among Christians, and for the celebration of the Passover by Jews.
The dried fruit used for dessert in European countries contains more than half its weight of sugar, about 6% of albumen, and 12% of gummy matter.
From several European crowned heads he received, at various times, marks of special distinction, and the empress Maria Theresa granted him a yearly pension of Too sequins (50).
22 a rapidly transformed into a modern European town, with wide streets, electric tramways and electric lighting.
minutus, the harvest-mouse, is the smallest of the European mice, seldom exceeding 22 or 3 in.
Brandes first drew European attention to Nietzsche by his famous essay in 1889; since then an enormous literature has grown up round the subject.
Each year, however, the output of " plantation " rubber will show a considerable increase, and it is to be expected that ultimately this will form the chief source of supply, unless unforeseen circumstances should arise to interfere with the development of the plantation industry, which has been vigorously started chiefly with European capital in the tropical possessions of Great Britain, France and Germany.
The islands derive their name from the sacred images found on them by the early European navigators.
Their bands under Ignaty Malchewsky, Michael Pac and Prince Charles Radziwill ravaged the land in every direction, won several engagements over the Russians, and at last, utterly ignoring the king, sent envoys on their own account to the principal European powers.
The following species, none of which are found in European Russia, are characteristic of the tundras - arbutus (Arctostaphilus alpina), heaths or andomedas (Cassiope tetragona and C. hypnoides), Phyllodoce taxifolia, Loiseleuria procumbens, a species of Latifolium, a Polar azalea (Osmothamnus fragrans) and a Polar willow (Salix arctica).
mongolica), maple (Acerginala, Max.), ash (Fraxinus manchurica), elm (Ulmus montana), hazel (Corylus heterophylla) and several other European acquaintances.
Farther east, in the Amur region, a great number of new species of European According to A.
As in European Russia, so in Siberia, three principal zones - the arctic, the boreal and the middle - may be distinguished, and these may be subdivided into several sub-regions.
European civilization made them familiar with all its worst sides and with none of its best.
JOHAN GYLLENSTJERNA, Count (1635-1680), Swedish statesman, completed his studies at Upsala and then visited most of the European states and laid the foundations of that deep insight into international politics which afterwards distinguished him.
There are numerous markets in which a considerable trade is done in native products and articles of European manufacture.
The Egbas are enthusiastic farmers and have largely adopted European methods of cultivation.
His journal and letters show that he had made acquaintance with a large number of languages, including Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, Coptic, Ethiopic, as well as the classical and the principal modern European languages.
Deir itself is a thrifty and rising town, having considerable traffic; it is singularly European in appearance, with macadamized streets and a public garden.
His treatises De mensura astrolabii and De utilitatibus astrolabii (to be found, on the authority of Salzburg MSS., in Pez, Thesaurus anecdotorum novissimus, iii.) being the first contributions of moment furnished by a European to this subject, Hermann was for a time considered the inventor of the astrolabe.
The property of orientation, in virtue of which a freely suspended magnet points approximately to the geographical north and south, is not referred to by any European writer before the 12th century, though it is said to have been known to the Chinese at a much earlier period.
It is probably the only tropical island that had never been inhabited by man before the European settlement.
" New Market"), a sanjak of European Turkey, in the vilayet of Kossovo.
By these performances Lagrange found himself, at the age of twenty-six, on the summit of European fame.
Of foxes certainly distinct specifically from the typical representative of the group, one of the best known is the Indian Vulpes bengalensis, a species much inferior in point of size to its European relative, and lacking the strong odour of the latter, from which it is also distinguished by the black tip to the tail and the pale-coloured backs of the ears.
425 is legendary), and acquired a European reputation as a school of jurisprudence under Pepo, the first known teacher at Bologna of Roman law (about 1076), and his successor Irnerius and their followers the glossators.
The town is the largest cantonment in Lower Bengal, having accommodation for two batteries of artillery, the wing of a European regiment and two native battalions.
to the south, and are now brought to Yap in European vessels.
France, Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands are the European states next in order.
Renault) in favour of the European contention, M.
It is now simply a title of honour and one, moreover, the social value of which differs enormously, not only in the different European countries, but within the limits of the same country.
In Germany, for instance, there are several categories of counts: (1) the mediatized princely counts (gefiirstete Grafen), who are reckoned the equals in blood of the European sovereign houses, an equality symbolized by the "closed crown" surmounting their armorial bearings.
Of all European countries Italy has been most prolific of counts.
Some of the plants are European forms, others belong to the Glossopteris flora characteristic of India and South Africa.
The largest of these is the marsh deer (C. paludosus), which in size resembles its European congeners.
Scorpions are common, but are considered less poisonous than some European species.
The immediate result of European colonization was the enslavement and extermination of the Indians along the coast and in all those favoured inland localities where the whites came into contact with them.
This strengthening of the white population of the South with fresh European blood must eventually divide Brazil into two distinct sections: the white states of the south, and the mixed or coloured states of the north.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
As a municipality covers a large extent of country, the population given is larger than that of the urban parishes, and is therefore not strictly correct according to European practice.
Very little attention has thus far been given to the cultivation of fruit for exportation, the exceptions being bananas for the Argentine and Uruguayan markets, and oranges and pineapples for European markets.
The Brazilian composer Carlos Gomes (1839-1896) is the best known of those who have adopted music as a profession, his opera Il Guarani having been produced at most of the European capitals.
The first settlement made under this new system was that of Caramuru, and thus a European community was established in the district.
The district in dispute was the site of the fabled Lake of Parima and the Golden City of Manoa, the search for which in the early days of European settlement attracted so many adventurous expeditions, and which fascinated the imagination of Raleigh and drew him to his doom.
Dr Campos Salles had signalized his administration, not only by the settlement of disputes with European powers, but by efforts to arrive at a good understanding with the neighbouring South American republics.
The university was served by a body of teachers and investigators who won for it a prominent position among European schools.
The public festivals of Siena known as the "Palio delle Contrade" have a European celebrity.
He wrote poems of all kinds in a language hitherto employed only for ballads and hymns; he instituted a theatre, and composed a rich collection of comedies for it; he filled the shelves of the citizens with works in their own tongue on history, law, politics, science, philology and philosophy, all written in a true and manly style, and representing the extreme attainment of European culture at the moment.
The European residents and Christians live outside in the Kitab and new Azizieh quarters, and the Jews in that of Bahsita.
Aleppo is an important consular station for all European powers, the residence of the Greek and Armenian Patriarchs of Antioch, and of Jacobite and Maronite bishops, and a station of Roman Catholic and Protestant missions.
In 1908 there were 52 government schools and 472 schools under inspection; 304 European, 21 coloured, 168 native and 31 Indian, with an aggregate attendance of 30,598 scholars.
with or possession of the country by any other European power," Sir George communicated this decision to the volksraad in September 1841.
As a result of consultations with Shepstone certain modifications were made in native policy, chiefly in the direction of more European supervision.
Every European was bound to pay the tax.
In 1897 an Indian Immigration Restriction Act was passed with the object of protecting European traders; in 1903 another Immigration Restriction Act among other things, permitted the exclusion of all would-be immigrants unable to write in the characters of some European language.
In the schools and universities of the middle age the intellect of the semi-barbarous European peoples had been trained for the work of the modern world.
He fell under the suspicion of the Inquisition; his mystical teaching was said to be heretical, and his most famous book, the Guia de Peccadores, still a favourite treatise and one that has been translated into nearly every European tongue, was put on the Index of the Spanish Inquisition, together with his book on prayer, in 1559 His great opponent was the restless and ambitious Melchior Cano, who stigmatized the second book as containing grave errors smacking of the heresy of the Alumbrados and manifestly contradicting Catholic faith and teaching.
He maintained that the future of European Turkey was in the hands of the Christian population, and that it would have been wiser for England to ally herself with them rather than with the doomed and decaying Mahommedan power.
4 in 1902), and its effect is counteracted largely by the appalling death-rate, which exceeds that of any other European country except Russia.
Some of the prelates - notably Janos Csezmeczey, better known as Janus Pannonius (4331 47 2) - had a European reputation for learning.
But by far the most prolific and talented novelist that Hungary can boast of is Maurus Jokai (q.v.), whose power of imagination and brilliancy of style, no less than his true representations of Hungarian life and character, have earned for him a European reputation.
As regards works of a scientific character, the Magyars until recently were confessedly behindhand as compared with many other European nations.
His work was directed toward a twofold aim: to make the royal power - his power - absolute and supreme at home, and to crush the rival European power of the Habsburgs.
The lines of the treaty of Westphalia, six years later, were already laid down by Richelieu; and its epochal importance in European history is a measure of the genius who threw the balance of power from Habsburg to Bourbon.
in European politics was largely due to the statesman who prepared France for his absolutism at home.
From this group came the young Bosnian Serb students Princip, Cabrinovic, Graben and others, who murdered the Archduke Francis Ferdinand and the Duchess of Hohenberg at Sarajevo on June 28 1914, and thus lit a spark in the European powder magazine.
He appended his signature to the decree of outlawry launched in 1815 by the European powers against Napoleon.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.