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eugenius

eugenius Sentence Examples

  • He died in 926, and his brother and successor Guthfrith was soon afterwards expelled by "Ethelstan and fled to Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.

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  • Eugenius IV.

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  • repudiated the Basel decrees, and the negotiations terminated in what was called the "concordat of the princes," which was accepted by Eugenius IV.

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  • On the farther side of the eastern ravine stands a smaller but very well proportioned structure, the church of St Eugenius, the patron saint of Trebizond, now the Yeni Djuma djami, or New Friday mosque.

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  • In 392 Valentinian was secretly put to death at Vienne (in Gaul), and Arbogast, naming as his successor Eugenius, a rhetorician, descended into Italy to meet the expedition which Theodosius was heading against him.

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  • Eugenius was captured and executed, but Arbogast escaped to the mountains, where however he slew himself three days afterwards (8th of September 394).

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  • And what Martin managed to regain Eugenius lost.

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  • He related his adventures to Poggio Bracciolini, secretary to Pope Eugenius IV.; and the narrative contains much interesting information.

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  • VITALIANUS, bishop of Rome from 657 to 672, succeeded Eugenius I.

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  • The cypress doors of the ancient St Peter's at Rome, when removed by Eugenius IV., were about i ioo years old, but nevertheless in a state of perfect preservation.

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  • Pope Eugenius (1442) issued a fiercely intolerant missive; the Franciscan John of Capistrano moved the masses to activity by his eloquent denunciations; even Casimir IV.

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  • 997 Owain (Eugenius) 1018 See Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, edited by W.

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  • This attitude he showed clearly when he attended the council of Basel as legate of Eugenius IV.

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  • Having become a haunt of pirates, and exceedingly injurious to Italian commerce, it was made the object of a crusade proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III.

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  • Early in 1145 news had come from Antioch to Eugenius III.

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  • The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.

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  • It would be wrong, however, to believe that Eugenius IV.

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  • Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.

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  • Eugenius IV., however much he may have wished to keep on good terms with the fathers of Basel, was neither able nor willing to accept or observe all their decrees.

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  • Hence arose a double negotiation between him and Eugenius IV.

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  • The chief object of the latter was to fix the meeting-place at a place remote from the influence of the pope, and they persisted in suggesting Basel or Avignon or Savoy, which neither Eugenius nor the Greeks would on any account accept.

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  • Finally, in 1447 Frederick III., king of the Romans, after negotiations with Eugenius, commanded the burgomaster of Basel not to allow the presence of the council any longer in the imperial city.

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  • He was finally apprehended by order of Pope Eugenius IV., condemned and burnt for heresy.

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  • The reign of Julian and the usurpation of Eugenius renewed the hopes of its devotees, but the victory of Theodosius (394) may be considered the end of its existence.

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  • In 1431 a fresh war with Florence broke out, caused by the latter's attempt upon Lucca, and continued in consequence of the Florentines' alliance with Venice and Pope Eugenius IV., and that of the Sienese with the duke of Milan and Sigismund, king of the Romans.

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  • although it was disadvantageous to the Sienese and temptations to break it were frequently urged upon them, they faithfully adhered to its terms. During this period of comparative tranquillity Siena was honoured by the visit of Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • He knew very well that the theologians of his church almost without exception held that the handing over of the paten and chalice with the words, " Receive power of offering sacrifice," &c., were the essential matter and form of ordination to the priesthood; indeed he published the decree of Eugenius IV.

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  • A revolution was only averted through the intervention of Pope Eugenius IV., who was then in Florence.

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  • A parlamento was summoned, and the balia appointed decreed the return of Cosimo and the exile of Rinaldo degli Albizzi, Rodolfo Peruzzi, Niccolo Barbadori, and others, in spite of the feeble attempt of Eugenius to protect them.

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  • Five years later the council of Basel by a strange decision elected Amadeus pope, in spite of his not being a priest, and deposed Eugenius IV.

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  • They turned him over to the secular arm for execution, had been raging between the Bohemians and Germans, was destined to cause Eugenius IV.

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  • It reaffirmed the decree Sacrosancta, and refused to recognize the validity of a bull Eugenius issued in December 1431 dissolving it.

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  • In 1448 Eugenius's successor, Nicholas V., concluded a concordat with the emperor Frederick III.

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  • EUGENIUS II., pope, was a native of Rome, and was chosen to succeed Pascal I.

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  • Eugenius was the candidate of the nobles, and the clerical faction brought forward a competitor.

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  • But the monk Wala, the representative of the emperor Lothair, succeeded in arranging matters, and Eugenius was elected.

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  • A council which assembled at Rome during the reign of Eugenius passed several enactments for the restoration of church discipline, took measures for the foundation of schools and chapters, and decided against priests wearing a secular dress or engaging in secular occupations.

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  • Eugenius also adopted various provisions for the care of the poor and of widows and orphans.

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  • Eugenius III >>

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  • Thanks to his recognition by the powers, Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1450 Eugenius IV.

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  • Eugenius certainly owed his success merely to the political necessities of the emperor of the East, and his union was forthwith destroyed owing to its repudiation by oriental Christendom; yet at the same time his decretals of union were not devoid of importance, for in them the pope reaffirmed the scholastic doctrine regarding the sacraments as a dogma of the Church, and he spoke as the supreme head of all Christendom.

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  • Eugenius IV.'s successor, Nicholas V.

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  • EUGENIUS IV.

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  • But by far the most important feature of Eugenius's pontificate was the great struggle between pope and council.

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  • The council refused to dissolve, renewed the revolutionary resolutions by which the council of Constance had been declared superior to the pope, and cited Eugenius to appear at Basel.

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  • Eugenius at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on the 8th of January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel.

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  • Eugenius signed an agreement with the Armenians on the 22nd of November 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites in 1443; and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and Maronites.

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  • His rival, Felix V., meanwhile obtained small recognition, and the latter's ablest adviser, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, made peace with Eugenius in 1442.

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  • Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his death-bed that he ever left his monastery, nevertheless Eugenius's victory over the council of Basel and his efforts in behalf of church unity contributed greatly to break down the conciliar movement and restore the papacy to the position it had held before the Great Schism.

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  • Eugenius was dignified in demeanour, but inexperienced and vacillating in action and excitable in temper.

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  • EUGENIUS III.

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  • His friend and instructor, Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the time, remonstrated against his election on account of his "innocence and simplicity," but Bernard soon acquiesced and continued to be the mainstay of the papacy throughout Eugenius's pontificate.

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  • It was to Eugenius that Bernard addressed his famous work De consideratione.

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  • Eugenius had already, on hearing of the fall of Edessa, addressed a letter to Louis VII.

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  • As the result of negotiations between Frederick Barbarossa and the Romans, Eugenius was finally enabled to return to Rome in December 1152, but died in the following July.

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  • Eugenius retained the stoic virtues of monasticism throughout his stormy career, and was deeply reverenced for his personal character.

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  • The chief sources for the career of Eugenius III.

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  • Eugenius IV >>

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  • The situation was, however, complicated by the strife which broke out between the pope (Eugenius IV.) and the oecumenical council of Basel.

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  • was Eugenius II.

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  • He was present at the council of Reims, presided over by Pope Eugenius III., and was probably presented by Bernard of Clairvaux to Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, at whose court he settled, probably about 1150.

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  • The situation changed Eugenius in 1152, under Eugenius III., when Frederick III..

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  • None the less, Eugenius III.

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  • This contingency explains the vacillating and illogical character of the papal diplomacy with regard to the Byzantine problem, and, inter slid, the opposition of Eugenius III.

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  • Under Eugenius III.

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  • On his return to Rome, Eugenius had to treat with his rebel subjects and to acknowledge the senate they had elected, but he was unable to procure the expulsion of the agitator.

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  • Under Eugenius III., a Cistercian monk who was scarcely equal to his task, the papal absolutism grew sensibly weaker, and if we may credit the testimony of the usually wellinformed German chronicler, Otto of Freising, there arose in the college of cardinals a kind of fermentation which was exceedingly disquieting for the personal power of the leader of the Church.

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  • In the case of a difference of opinion between Eugenius and the Sacred College, Otto relates that the cardinals addressed to the pope this astounding protest: " Thou must know that it is by us thou hast been raised to the supreme dignity.

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  • If we admit that the cardinals of Eugenius III.

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  • In St Bernard's treatise De consideratione, addressed to Pope Eugenius III., the papacy receives as many reprimands and attacks as it does marks of affection and friendly counsel.

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  • To warn Eugenius against pride, Bernard reminds him in biblical terms that an insensate sovereign on a throne resembles " an ape upon a housetop," and that the dignity with which he is invested does not prevent him from being a man, that is, " a being, naked,!

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  • Innocent II., Eugenius III.

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  • The Colonna pope was followed by the strict, moral and pious Gabriel Condulmaro, under the title of Eugenius IV.

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  • Far worse, however, were the conflicts which Eugenius had to support against the Council of Basel - already dissolved on the 18th of December 1431.

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  • The migration of Eugenius IV.

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  • The Italian troubles, which had entailed the exile of Eugenius IV., were still insignificant in comparison with those conjured up by the fanatics of the Council in Basel.

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  • On the, 31st of July 1437 the fathers of Basel summoned Eugenius IV.

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  • While the prestige of the schismatics waned, Eugenius IV.

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  • In consequence of the absence of the pope, the Eternal City was once more little better than a ruin; and the work of restoration was immediately begun by Eugenius.

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  • This consummation was soon followed by the death of Eugenius (Feb.

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  • All that could be done in that cause, during this stormy epoch, was done by Eugenius.

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  • On the death of Eugenius IV.

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  • was succeeded by a splendour-loving Venetian, Pietro Barbo, the nephew of Eugenius IV., who is known as Pope Paul II.

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  • Eugenius Iv.

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  • Subsequently the order had a number of independent establishments in Italy which were united into one congregation by Eugenius IV., their headquarters being at Milan.

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  • In the year 394 he served as a general of foederati (Gothic irregulars) under the emperor Theodosius in the campaign in which he crushed the usurper Eugenius.

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  • His successor was Eugenius I.

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  • was too short to enable him to do more than indicate his good intentions; he acted in general with the electors in observing a neutral attitude with regard to the dispute between the council of Basel and Pope Eugenius IV., and he put forward a scheme to improve the administration of justice.

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  • The council of Basel was still sitting, and had elected an anti-pope, Felix V., in opposition to Eugenius IV., while the Frederick electors, adhering to their neutral attitude, sought Ill, and to bring Frederick into line with them on this question, the Some years were occupied in negotiations, but the Pa,oacv.

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  • The consent of several of the electors having been purchased by concessions, Frederick signed with Pope Nicholas V., the successor of Eugenius, in February 1448 the concordat of Vienna, an arrangement which bound the German Church afresh to Rome and perpetuated the very evils from which earnest churchmen had been seeking deliverance.

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  • He distinguished himself at the council of Ferrara-Florence, and in 1 444 was made bishop of Bologna by Pope Eugenius IV., who soon afterwards named him as one of the legates charged to negotiate at the convention of Frankfort an understanding between the Holy See and the Empire with regard to the reforming decrees of the council of Basel.

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  • He was elected pope in succession to Eugenius IV.

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  • About the same time he was made by Eugenius IV.

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  • The pope who reigned from 1431 to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and he it was who in 1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a colleague of Angelico, to be archbishop of Florence.

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  • If the story (first told by Vasari) is true - that this appointment was made at the suggestion of Angelico only after the archbishopric had been offered to himself, and by him declined on the ground of his inaptitude for so elevated and responsible a station - Eugenius, and not (as stated by Vasari) his successor Nicholas V., must have been the pope who sent the invitation and made the offer to Fra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in 14 4 7.

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  • The succession was disputed by Rene of Anjou and Alphonso, but the former eventually renounced his claims and Alphonso was recognized as king of Naples by Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • and Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1431 Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius III., but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation.

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  • king of Sicily, or with the rebellious Romans, without the consent of Eugenius, and generally to help and defend the papacy.

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  • Pope Eugenius III.

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  • On the 15th of July 1148 Eugenius III.

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  • Frederick, whose authoritative temper was at once offended by the independent tone of the Arnoldist party, concluded with the pope a treaty of alliance (October 16, 1152) of such a nature that the Arnoldists were at once put in a minority in the Roman government; and when the second successor of Eugenius III., the energetic and austere Adrian IV.(the Englishman, Nicholas Breakspear), placed Rome under an interdict, the senate, already rudely shaken, submitted, and Arnold was forced to fly into Campania (1155).

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  • We know from himself that he was the intimate of those who belonged to the circle of the great orator Symmachus - men who scouted Stilicho's compact with the Goths, and led the Roman senate to support the pretenders Eugenius and Attalus in the vain hope of reinstating the gods whom Julian had failed to save.

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  • In October 1150 Eugenius III.

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  • The first council of Toledo (398) bids the faithful restrict himself "to a single wife or concubine, as it shall please him"; 2 and there is a similar canon of the Roman synod held by Pope Eugenius in 826.

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  • If we may trust the evidence of Zosimus, from the end of the year 388 Theodosius resigned himself to gluttony and voluptuous living, from which he was only roused by the news that in the Western empire Arbogast had slain the young Emperor Valentinian and set up the grammarian Eugenius in his stead (May 15, 392).

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  • Theodosius made extensive levies and with a force partly composed of barbarian auxiliaries marched out against Eugenius.

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  • On the first day Theodosius' barbarians, engaging with those of the hostile army, were almost destroyed, and the victory seemed to be with Eugenius.

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  • This was the turning-point of the battle: Eugenius was slain by the soldiers; and two days later Arbogast committed suicide (September 5-9, 394) From the north-eastern parts of Italy Theodosius passed to Rome, where he had his son Honorius proclaimed emperor under the guardianship of Stilicho.

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  • At the councils held in Ferrara and Florence Bessarion supported the Roman church, and gained the favour of Pope Eugenius IV., who invested him with the rank of cardinal.

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  • In 1438, at the council of Basel, Aurispa attracted the attention of Pope Eugenius IV., who made him his secretary; he held a similar position under Nicholas V., who presented him to two lucrative abbacies.

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  • EUGENIUS, the name of four popes.

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  • Eugenius I >>

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  • It has never been recognized as such, and the pretended endorsement of it by Pope Eugenius III.

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  • ~Ethelstans greatest and best-remembered achievement was his, decisive victory in 937 at Brunanburhan unknown spot, probably by the Solway Firth or the Ribbleover a great confederacy of rebel Danes of Yorkshire, Irish Danes from Dublin, the Scottish king, Constantine, and Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.

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  • Intended for a business career, he took orders during the pontificate of his uncle, Eugenius IV., and was appointed successively archdeacon of Bologna, bishop of Cervia, bishop of Piacenza, protonotary of the Roman Church, and in 1440 cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria Nuova.

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  • The prince was also grand master of the Order of Christ, the successor of the Templars in Portugal; and most of his Atlantic and African expeditions sailed under the flag of his order, whose revenues were at the service of his explorations, in whose name he asked and obtained the official recognition of Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • Irish Less than two years before Strongbow's arrival Pope Eugenius had established an ecclesiastical constitution in Ireland depending on Rome, but the annexation was very imperfectly carried out, and the hope of fully asserting the Petrine claims was a main cause of Adrian's gift to Henry II.

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  • But both Celt and Northman acknowledged the polity of Eugenius, and it was chiefly in the matters of tithe, Peter's pence, canonical degrees and the observance of festivals that Rome had still victories to gain.

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  • In 392, after the assassination of Valentinian and the usurpation of Eugenius, Ambrose fled from Milan; but when Theodosius was eventually victorious, he supplicated the emperor for the pardon of those who had supported Eugenius.

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  • His reforming zeal led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of Eugenius III., who created him cardinal bishop of Albano.

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  • FELIX V., the name taken by Amadeus (1383-1451), duke of Savoy, when he was elected pope in opposition to Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1439, when Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • In the stormy conflict between the rival popes which followed, the German king, Frederick IV., after some hesitation sided with Eugenius, and having steadily lost ground Felix renounced his claim to the pontificate in 1449 in favour of Nicholas V., who had been elected on the death of Eugenius.

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  • These two inquisitors, who pursued their duties under three popes (Martin V., Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1147 Pope Eugenius III.

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  • Malatesta decided on building this remarkable church as a thankoffering for his safety during a dangerous campaign undertaken for Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • He began his military career in 1432 in the service of Eugenius IV.; but, when this pope doubted his good faith and transferred the command to another, he sided with the Venetians against him, though at a later date he again served under him.

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  • He died in 926, and his brother and successor Guthfrith was soon afterwards expelled by "Ethelstan and fled to Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.

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  • Eugenius IV.

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  • repudiated the Basel decrees, and the negotiations terminated in what was called the "concordat of the princes," which was accepted by Eugenius IV.

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  • On the farther side of the eastern ravine stands a smaller but very well proportioned structure, the church of St Eugenius, the patron saint of Trebizond, now the Yeni Djuma djami, or New Friday mosque.

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  • In 392 Valentinian was secretly put to death at Vienne (in Gaul), and Arbogast, naming as his successor Eugenius, a rhetorician, descended into Italy to meet the expedition which Theodosius was heading against him.

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  • Eugenius was captured and executed, but Arbogast escaped to the mountains, where however he slew himself three days afterwards (8th of September 394).

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  • And what Martin managed to regain Eugenius lost.

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  • He related his adventures to Poggio Bracciolini, secretary to Pope Eugenius IV.; and the narrative contains much interesting information.

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  • VITALIANUS, bishop of Rome from 657 to 672, succeeded Eugenius I.

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  • The cypress doors of the ancient St Peter's at Rome, when removed by Eugenius IV., were about i ioo years old, but nevertheless in a state of perfect preservation.

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  • Pope Eugenius (1442) issued a fiercely intolerant missive; the Franciscan John of Capistrano moved the masses to activity by his eloquent denunciations; even Casimir IV.

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  • 997 Owain (Eugenius) 1018 See Chronicles of the Picts and Scots, edited by W.

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  • This attitude he showed clearly when he attended the council of Basel as legate of Eugenius IV.

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  • Having become a haunt of pirates, and exceedingly injurious to Italian commerce, it was made the object of a crusade proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III.

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  • Early in 1145 news had come from Antioch to Eugenius III.

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  • The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V., caused that pontiff's successor, Eugenius IV., to think that the synod of Basel was doomed to certain failure.

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  • It would be wrong, however, to believe that Eugenius IV.

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  • Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.

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  • Eugenius IV., however much he may have wished to keep on good terms with the fathers of Basel, was neither able nor willing to accept or observe all their decrees.

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  • Hence arose a double negotiation between him and Eugenius IV.

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  • The chief object of the latter was to fix the meeting-place at a place remote from the influence of the pope, and they persisted in suggesting Basel or Avignon or Savoy, which neither Eugenius nor the Greeks would on any account accept.

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  • On the 24th of January 1438 it suspended Eugenius IV., and went on in spite of the intervention of most of the powers to pronounce his deposition (25th June 1439), finally giving rise to a new schism by electing on the 4th of November Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy, as pope, who took the name of Felix V.

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  • of France confined himself to securing to his kingdom by the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, which became law on the 13th of July 1438, the benefit of a great number of the reforms decreed a t Basel; England and Italy remained faithful to Eugenius IV.

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  • Finally, in 1447 Frederick III., king of the Romans, after negotiations with Eugenius, commanded the burgomaster of Basel not to allow the presence of the council any longer in the imperial city.

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  • He was finally apprehended by order of Pope Eugenius IV., condemned and burnt for heresy.

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  • The reign of Julian and the usurpation of Eugenius renewed the hopes of its devotees, but the victory of Theodosius (394) may be considered the end of its existence.

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  • In 1431 a fresh war with Florence broke out, caused by the latter's attempt upon Lucca, and continued in consequence of the Florentines' alliance with Venice and Pope Eugenius IV., and that of the Sienese with the duke of Milan and Sigismund, king of the Romans.

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  • although it was disadvantageous to the Sienese and temptations to break it were frequently urged upon them, they faithfully adhered to its terms. During this period of comparative tranquillity Siena was honoured by the visit of Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • He knew very well that the theologians of his church almost without exception held that the handing over of the paten and chalice with the words, " Receive power of offering sacrifice," &c., were the essential matter and form of ordination to the priesthood; indeed he published the decree of Eugenius IV.

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  • van Moerbeek, which was long thought to be a fragment of Ptolemy's Optics, because it bore the title Ptolemaei de speculis in the MS. But the attribution to Ptolemy was shown to be wrong as soon as it was made clear (especially by Martin) that another translation by an Admiral Eugenius Siculus (12th century) of an optical work from the Arabic was Ptolemy's Optics.

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  • A revolution was only averted through the intervention of Pope Eugenius IV., who was then in Florence.

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  • A parlamento was summoned, and the balia appointed decreed the return of Cosimo and the exile of Rinaldo degli Albizzi, Rodolfo Peruzzi, Niccolo Barbadori, and others, in spite of the feeble attempt of Eugenius to protect them.

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  • Five years later the council of Basel by a strange decision elected Amadeus pope, in spite of his not being a priest, and deposed Eugenius IV.

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  • On the death of Eugenius (1447) Thomas of Sarzana was elected as Nicholas V., and in 1449 Amadeus abdicated and returned to his hermitage at Ripaille, where he died two years later (see Felix V.).

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  • In 1440 Aleman obtained the support of the emperor Sigismund and of the duke of Milan to his views, and proclaiming the deposition of Pope Eugenius IV., placed the tiara upon the head of Amadeus VIII., duke of Savoy (henceforward known as antipope Felix V.).

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  • Eugenius retorted by excommunicating the antipope and depriving Aleman of all his ecclesiastical dignities.

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  • They turned him over to the secular arm for execution, had been raging between the Bohemians and Germans, was destined to cause Eugenius IV.

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  • It reaffirmed the decree Sacrosancta, and refused to recognize the validity of a bull Eugenius issued in December 1431 dissolving it.

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  • France, however, withdrew its support from the council, and in 1438, under purely national auspices, by the famous Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges, adjusted the relations of the Gallican Church to the papacy; and Eugenius soon found himself in a position to repudiate the council and summoned a new one to assemble in 1438 at Ferrara under his control to take up the important question of the pending union with the Greek Church.

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  • In 1448 Eugenius's successor, Nicholas V., concluded a concordat with the emperor Frederick III.

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  • EUGENIUS II., pope, was a native of Rome, and was chosen to succeed Pascal I.

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  • Eugenius was the candidate of the nobles, and the clerical faction brought forward a competitor.

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  • But the monk Wala, the representative of the emperor Lothair, succeeded in arranging matters, and Eugenius was elected.

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  • A council which assembled at Rome during the reign of Eugenius passed several enactments for the restoration of church discipline, took measures for the foundation of schools and chapters, and decided against priests wearing a secular dress or engaging in secular occupations.

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  • Eugenius also adopted various provisions for the care of the poor and of widows and orphans.

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  • Eugenius III >>

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  • Thanks to his recognition by the powers, Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1450 Eugenius IV.

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  • Eugenius certainly owed his success merely to the political necessities of the emperor of the East, and his union was forthwith destroyed owing to its repudiation by oriental Christendom; yet at the same time his decretals of union were not devoid of importance, for in them the pope reaffirmed the scholastic doctrine regarding the sacraments as a dogma of the Church, and he spoke as the supreme head of all Christendom.

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  • Eugenius IV.'s successor, Nicholas V.

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  • But by far the most important feature of Eugenius's pontificate was the great struggle between pope and council.

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  • The council refused to dissolve, renewed the revolutionary resolutions by which the council of Constance had been declared superior to the pope, and cited Eugenius to appear at Basel.

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  • Eugenius at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on the 8th of January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel.

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  • Eugenius signed an agreement with the Armenians on the 22nd of November 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites in 1443; and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and Maronites.

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  • His rival, Felix V., meanwhile obtained small recognition, and the latter's ablest adviser, Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, made peace with Eugenius in 1442.

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  • Although his pontificate had been so stormy and unhappy that he is said to have regretted on his death-bed that he ever left his monastery, nevertheless Eugenius's victory over the council of Basel and his efforts in behalf of church unity contributed greatly to break down the conciliar movement and restore the papacy to the position it had held before the Great Schism.

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  • Eugenius was dignified in demeanour, but inexperienced and vacillating in action and excitable in temper.

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  • EUGENIUS III.

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  • His friend and instructor, Bernard of Clairvaux, the most influential ecclesiastic of the time, remonstrated against his election on account of his "innocence and simplicity," but Bernard soon acquiesced and continued to be the mainstay of the papacy throughout Eugenius's pontificate.

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  • It was to Eugenius that Bernard addressed his famous work De consideratione.

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  • Eugenius had already, on hearing of the fall of Edessa, addressed a letter to Louis VII.

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  • As the result of negotiations between Frederick Barbarossa and the Romans, Eugenius was finally enabled to return to Rome in December 1152, but died in the following July.

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  • Eugenius retained the stoic virtues of monasticism throughout his stormy career, and was deeply reverenced for his personal character.

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  • The chief sources for the career of Eugenius III.

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  • Eugenius IV >>

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  • The situation was, however, complicated by the strife which broke out between the pope (Eugenius IV.) and the oecumenical council of Basel.

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  • was Eugenius II.

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  • He was present at the council of Reims, presided over by Pope Eugenius III., and was probably presented by Bernard of Clairvaux to Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, at whose court he settled, probably about 1150.

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  • The situation changed Eugenius in 1152, under Eugenius III., when Frederick III..

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  • None the less, Eugenius III.

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  • This contingency explains the vacillating and illogical character of the papal diplomacy with regard to the Byzantine problem, and, inter slid, the opposition of Eugenius III.

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  • Under Eugenius III.

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  • On his return to Rome, Eugenius had to treat with his rebel subjects and to acknowledge the senate they had elected, but he was unable to procure the expulsion of the agitator.

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  • Under Eugenius III., a Cistercian monk who was scarcely equal to his task, the papal absolutism grew sensibly weaker, and if we may credit the testimony of the usually wellinformed German chronicler, Otto of Freising, there arose in the college of cardinals a kind of fermentation which was exceedingly disquieting for the personal power of the leader of the Church.

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  • In the case of a difference of opinion between Eugenius and the Sacred College, Otto relates that the cardinals addressed to the pope this astounding protest: " Thou must know that it is by us thou hast been raised to the supreme dignity.

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  • If we admit that the cardinals of Eugenius III.

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  • In St Bernard's treatise De consideratione, addressed to Pope Eugenius III., the papacy receives as many reprimands and attacks as it does marks of affection and friendly counsel.

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  • To warn Eugenius against pride, Bernard reminds him in biblical terms that an insensate sovereign on a throne resembles " an ape upon a housetop," and that the dignity with which he is invested does not prevent him from being a man, that is, " a being, naked,!

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  • Innocent II., Eugenius III.

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  • The Colonna pope was followed by the strict, moral and pious Gabriel Condulmaro, under the title of Eugenius IV.

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  • Far worse, however, were the conflicts which Eugenius had to support against the Council of Basel - already dissolved on the 18th of December 1431.

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  • The migration of Eugenius IV.

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  • The Italian troubles, which had entailed the exile of Eugenius IV., were still insignificant in comparison with those conjured up by the fanatics of the Council in Basel.

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  • On the, 31st of July 1437 the fathers of Basel summoned Eugenius IV.

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  • On the 25th of June 1439 the synod - which had already pronounced sentence of heresy on Eugenius IV., by reason of his obstinate disobedience to the assembly of the Church - formally deposed him; and, on the 5th of November, a rival pontiff was elected in the person of the ambitious Amadeus of Savoy, who now took the Felix V.

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  • While the prestige of the schismatics waned, Eugenius IV.

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  • In consequence of the absence of the pope, the Eternal City was once more little better than a ruin; and the work of restoration was immediately begun by Eugenius.

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  • This consummation was soon followed by the death of Eugenius (Feb.

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  • All that could be done in that cause, during this stormy epoch, was done by Eugenius.

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  • On the death of Eugenius IV.

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  • was succeeded by a splendour-loving Venetian, Pietro Barbo, the nephew of Eugenius IV., who is known as Pope Paul II.

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  • Subsequently the order had a number of independent establishments in Italy which were united into one congregation by Eugenius IV., their headquarters being at Milan.

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  • In the year 394 he served as a general of foederati (Gothic irregulars) under the emperor Theodosius in the campaign in which he crushed the usurper Eugenius.

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  • and Gregory XI., and the Beguines were not formally reinstated until the pontificate of Eugenius IV.

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  • His successor was Eugenius I.

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  • was too short to enable him to do more than indicate his good intentions; he acted in general with the electors in observing a neutral attitude with regard to the dispute between the council of Basel and Pope Eugenius IV., and he put forward a scheme to improve the administration of justice.

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  • The council of Basel was still sitting, and had elected an anti-pope, Felix V., in opposition to Eugenius IV., while the Frederick electors, adhering to their neutral attitude, sought Ill, and to bring Frederick into line with them on this question, the Some years were occupied in negotiations, but the Pa,oacv.

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  • The consent of several of the electors having been purchased by concessions, Frederick signed with Pope Nicholas V., the successor of Eugenius, in February 1448 the concordat of Vienna, an arrangement which bound the German Church afresh to Rome and perpetuated the very evils from which earnest churchmen had been seeking deliverance.

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  • He distinguished himself at the council of Ferrara-Florence, and in 1 444 was made bishop of Bologna by Pope Eugenius IV., who soon afterwards named him as one of the legates charged to negotiate at the convention of Frankfort an understanding between the Holy See and the Empire with regard to the reforming decrees of the council of Basel.

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  • He was elected pope in succession to Eugenius IV.

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  • About the same time he was made by Eugenius IV.

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  • The pope who reigned from 1431 to 1447 was Eugenius IV., and he it was who in 1445 appointed another Dominican friar, a colleague of Angelico, to be archbishop of Florence.

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  • If the story (first told by Vasari) is true - that this appointment was made at the suggestion of Angelico only after the archbishopric had been offered to himself, and by him declined on the ground of his inaptitude for so elevated and responsible a station - Eugenius, and not (as stated by Vasari) his successor Nicholas V., must have been the pope who sent the invitation and made the offer to Fra Giovanni, for Nicholas only succeeded in 14 4 7.

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  • The succession was disputed by Rene of Anjou and Alphonso, but the former eventually renounced his claims and Alphonso was recognized as king of Naples by Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • and Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1431 Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • On his accession Frederick had communicated the news of his election to Pope Eugenius III., but neglected to ask for the papal confirmation.

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  • king of Sicily, or with the rebellious Romans, without the consent of Eugenius, and generally to help and defend the papacy.

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  • Pope Eugenius III.

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  • On the 15th of July 1148 Eugenius III.

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  • Frederick, whose authoritative temper was at once offended by the independent tone of the Arnoldist party, concluded with the pope a treaty of alliance (October 16, 1152) of such a nature that the Arnoldists were at once put in a minority in the Roman government; and when the second successor of Eugenius III., the energetic and austere Adrian IV.(the Englishman, Nicholas Breakspear), placed Rome under an interdict, the senate, already rudely shaken, submitted, and Arnold was forced to fly into Campania (1155).

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  • We know from himself that he was the intimate of those who belonged to the circle of the great orator Symmachus - men who scouted Stilicho's compact with the Goths, and led the Roman senate to support the pretenders Eugenius and Attalus in the vain hope of reinstating the gods whom Julian had failed to save.

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  • In October 1150 Eugenius III.

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  • The first council of Toledo (398) bids the faithful restrict himself "to a single wife or concubine, as it shall please him"; 2 and there is a similar canon of the Roman synod held by Pope Eugenius in 826.

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  • If we may trust the evidence of Zosimus, from the end of the year 388 Theodosius resigned himself to gluttony and voluptuous living, from which he was only roused by the news that in the Western empire Arbogast had slain the young Emperor Valentinian and set up the grammarian Eugenius in his stead (May 15, 392).

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  • Theodosius made extensive levies and with a force partly composed of barbarian auxiliaries marched out against Eugenius.

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  • On the first day Theodosius' barbarians, engaging with those of the hostile army, were almost destroyed, and the victory seemed to be with Eugenius.

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  • This was the turning-point of the battle: Eugenius was slain by the soldiers; and two days later Arbogast committed suicide (September 5-9, 394) From the north-eastern parts of Italy Theodosius passed to Rome, where he had his son Honorius proclaimed emperor under the guardianship of Stilicho.

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  • At the councils held in Ferrara and Florence Bessarion supported the Roman church, and gained the favour of Pope Eugenius IV., who invested him with the rank of cardinal.

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  • In 1438, at the council of Basel, Aurispa attracted the attention of Pope Eugenius IV., who made him his secretary; he held a similar position under Nicholas V., who presented him to two lucrative abbacies.

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  • EUGENIUS, the name of four popes.

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  • Eugenius I >>

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  • It has never been recognized as such, and the pretended endorsement of it by Pope Eugenius III.

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  • ~Ethelstans greatest and best-remembered achievement was his, decisive victory in 937 at Brunanburhan unknown spot, probably by the Solway Firth or the Ribbleover a great confederacy of rebel Danes of Yorkshire, Irish Danes from Dublin, the Scottish king, Constantine, and Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.

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  • Intended for a business career, he took orders during the pontificate of his uncle, Eugenius IV., and was appointed successively archdeacon of Bologna, bishop of Cervia, bishop of Piacenza, protonotary of the Roman Church, and in 1440 cardinal-deacon of Sta Maria Nuova.

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  • The prince was also grand master of the Order of Christ, the successor of the Templars in Portugal; and most of his Atlantic and African expeditions sailed under the flag of his order, whose revenues were at the service of his explorations, in whose name he asked and obtained the official recognition of Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • Irish Less than two years before Strongbow's arrival Pope Eugenius had established an ecclesiastical constitution in Ireland depending on Rome, but the annexation was very imperfectly carried out, and the hope of fully asserting the Petrine claims was a main cause of Adrian's gift to Henry II.

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  • But both Celt and Northman acknowledged the polity of Eugenius, and it was chiefly in the matters of tithe, Peter's pence, canonical degrees and the observance of festivals that Rome had still victories to gain.

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  • In 392, after the assassination of Valentinian and the usurpation of Eugenius, Ambrose fled from Milan; but when Theodosius was eventually victorious, he supplicated the emperor for the pardon of those who had supported Eugenius.

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  • His reforming zeal led to the lodging of complaints against him at Rome; but these merely attracted to him the favourable attention of Eugenius III., who created him cardinal bishop of Albano.

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  • FELIX V., the name taken by Amadeus (1383-1451), duke of Savoy, when he was elected pope in opposition to Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1439, when Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • In the stormy conflict between the rival popes which followed, the German king, Frederick IV., after some hesitation sided with Eugenius, and having steadily lost ground Felix renounced his claim to the pontificate in 1449 in favour of Nicholas V., who had been elected on the death of Eugenius.

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  • These two inquisitors, who pursued their duties under three popes (Martin V., Eugenius IV.

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  • In 1147 Pope Eugenius III.

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  • Malatesta decided on building this remarkable church as a thankoffering for his safety during a dangerous campaign undertaken for Pope Eugenius IV.

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  • He began his military career in 1432 in the service of Eugenius IV.; but, when this pope doubted his good faith and transferred the command to another, he sided with the Venetians against him, though at a later date he again served under him.

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