euclidean

Reference should be made to the article Geometry: Euclidean, for a detailed summary of the Euclidean treatment, and the elementary properties of the circle.

20At the same time, it delights the pure theorist by the simplicity of the logic with which the fundamental theorems may be established, and by the elegance of its mathematical operations, insomuch that hydrostatics may be considered as the Euclidean pure geometry of mechanical science.

10A much less wise class than the 7r-computers of modern times are the pseudo-circle-squarers, or circle-squarers technically so called, that is to say, persons who, having obtained by illegitimate means a Euclidean construction for the quadrature or a finitely expressible value for 7r, insist on using faulty reasoning and defective mathematics to establish their assertions.

10For the subjects under this heading see the articles CONIC SECTIONS; CIRCLE; CURVE; GEOMETRICAL CONTINUITY; GEOMETRY, Axioms of; GEOMETRY, Euclidean; GEOMETRY, Projective; GEOMETRY, Analytical; GEOMETRY, Line; KNOTS, MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF; MENSURATION; MODELS; PROJECTION; Surface; Trigonometry.

00The problem of finding a square equal in area to a given circle, like all problems, may be increased in difficulty by the imposition of restrictions; consequently under the designation there may be embraced quite a variety of geometrical problems. It has to be noted, however, that, when the " squaring " of the circle is especially spoken of, it is almost always tacitly assumed that the restrictions are those of the Euclidean geometry.

00Since the area of a circle equals that of the rectilineal triangle whose base has the same length as the circumference and whose altitude equals the radius (Archimedes, KIKXou A ir, prop.i), it follows that, if a straight line could be drawn equal in length to the circumference, the required square could be found by an ordinary Euclidean construction; also, it is evident that, conversely, if a square equal in area to the circle could be obtained it would be possible to draw a straight line equal to the circumference.

00Montucla, successful attempt to show that quadrature of the circle by a Euclidean construction was impossible.'

00In 1873 Charles Hermite proved that the base of the Napierian logarithms cannot be a root of a rational algebraical equation of any degree.3 To prove the same proposition regarding 7r is to prove that a Euclidean construction for circle-quadrature is impossible.

00A discussion of these concepts and the various definitions of angles in Euclidean geometry is to be found in W.

00Spinoza's philosophy is expounded ordine geometrico and with Euclidean cogency from a relatively small number of definitions, axioms and postulates.

00(1) Generation of the concept through imaginaries and development into a method applicable to Euclidean geometry.

000) 2 = i suitable for non-Euclidean space, and w 2 = o suitable for Euclidean space; we confine ourselves to the second, and will call the indicated bi-quaternion p+wq an octonion.

00To fix a weighted point and a weighted plane in Euclidean space we require 8 scalars, and not the 12 scalars of a tri-quaternion.

00What is the reason for defining adjacency in Euclidean terms?

00axioms of Euclidean geometry, were considered to be self evident.

00What about physical space - is Euclidean geometry really true for all space?

00The Euclidean paradigm of mathematics as an objective, absolute, incorrigible and rigidly hierarchical body of knowledge is increasingly under question.

00However, because the surfaces of constant Euclidean time, all intersected at the horizon, one had to introduce an inner boundary there.

00On the other hand there, R is the completion of Q under the Euclidean metric.

00That is, one introduces a time coordinate, tau, which I take to be Euclidean, and shift and lapse functions.

00However, solutions like black holes, have a Euclidean geometry with non trivial topology.

00Euclid (Elements, book 1) defines a plane angle as the inclination to each other, in a plane, of two lines which meet each other, and do not lie straight with respect to each other (see Geometry, Euclidean).

00Euclidean distance, and their proposed Fuzzy Feature Contrast similarity measure are compared.

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