Keating, The Agape and the Eucharist (London, 1901); F.
All those who in the middle ages denied the substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist were commonly designated Berengarians.
Here is celebrated the Eucharist (Qurbana, or the offering; cf.
in penance, of the formula " I absolve thee "; in the Eucharist, of the words " This is my body " and " This is the cup of my blood " or " This is my blood "; in confirmation, of the words " I sign thee with sign of the cross and confirm thee with chrism of salvation in name of Father and Son and Holy Spirit "; in baptism, of the words " I baptize thee in the name of Father, Son and Holy Spirit (or among the Greeks " N.
Thus baptism is not valid if wine or ice be used instead of water, nor the Eucharist if water be consecrated in place of wine, nor confirmation unless the chrism has been blessed by a bishop; also olive oil must be used.
Against Crypto-Calvinists he upheld the Lutheran view of the eucharist in his Repetitio sanae doctrinae de Vera Praesentia (1560; in German, 1561).
His Zwinglian view of the Eucharist disturbed his relations with his Catholic colleagues.
Moreover, he did not believe that Zwingli, who con ceived the eucharist to be merely symbolical in its character, " held the whole truth of God."
We learn further that Anicetus as a mark of special honour allowed Polycarp to celebrate the Eucharist in the church, and that many Marcionites and Valentinians were converted by him during his stay in Rome.
In the work About the Crown, chap. iii., he describes how the faithful " take the sacrament of the Eucharist also in their meetings held before dawn."
water with immersion in the case of baptism; bread and wine in the Eucharist; anointing and laying on of hands in confirmation; contrition in the sacrament of penance.
The distinction, be it noted, of form and matter seems more appropriate to the sacraments of baptism, Eucharist, confirmation and last unction, than to those of orders, penance and matrimony.
This contained four treatises on the Eucharist, the sacrifice of the Mass, the erection of the patriarchate of Constantinople (in Latin), and the sacrament of the Eucharist (in French).
In them was celebrated the funeral-feast on the day of burial and on its anniversary, as well as the eucharist, which was the invariable accompaniment of funerals in the primitive church (Bingham, FIG.Io.
466), and his teaching on the Eucharist in the Canons and in the Sermo de sacrificio in die pascae (ibid.
Though it was an attempt to bring into line with the reforming party both those who still inclined to the old faith and the anabaptist section, its publication provoked a good deal of controversy, especially on its statements concerning the Eucharist, and the people of Strassburg even reproached those of Basel with celebrating a Christless supper.
Its use in the Eucharist of the undivided Church has been continued since the great schism, although the Eastern Church protests against the interpolation 1 Jevons, Introd.
In 1549 he took part in a great disputation on the Eucharist.
About this time he changed his views on the Eucharist and swung clean over from transubstantiation to the advanced Zwinglian position.
The custom which most resembles the eucharist and agape was that known as charistia described by Valerius Maximus ii.
The Protestant controversy on the Eucharist (1524) revealed his disagreement with Luther on that critical point.
For example, the priests are not to be chosen by the people; penitents are not to be present at ordinations (lest they should hear the failings of candidates discussed); bishops are to be appointed by the metropolitan and his suffragan; sub-deacons may not distribute the elements of the Eucharist; clerics are forbidden to leave a diocese without the bishop's permission.
Its signification was authoritatively defined by the Council of Trent in the following words: "If any one shall say that, in the Holy Sacrament of the Eucharist there remains, together with the Body and Blood of Our Lord Jesus Christ, the substance of the Bread and Wine, and shall deny that wonderful and singular conversion of the whole substance of the Bread into (His) Body and of the Wine into (His) Blood, the species only of the Bread and Wine remaining - which conversion the Catholic Church most fittingly calls Transubstantiation - let him be anathema."
a-, without; 0,un, leaven), a name given by the Orthodox Eastern to the Western or Latin Church, because of the latter's use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist, a practice which arose in the 9th century and is also observed by Armenians and Maronites following the Jewish passover custom.
The penitentiary system, according to which the priest enforced a code of moral law in the confessional by the sanction of penance - penance which must be performed as a condition of admission to the sacrament of the Eucharist - had been from early times a great instrument in the civilization of the raw Germanic races.
Nor did an extremely offensive performance of Voltaire's - the solemn partaking of the Eucharist at Colmar after due confession - at all mollify his enemies.
Vestments are worn only at the ministration of the sacraments; incense is used invariably at the Eucharist and frequently at other services.
The "Holy Leaven" is reputed to be a part of the original bread of the first Eucharist, brought by Addai and Mari' and maintained ever since in the Church; it is used in the confection of the Eucharistic wafers, which are rather thicker than those used in the Western Church.
The tradition which St Paul received included, so to speak, the germ of the central prayer in the Eucharist (r Cor.
In medieval architecture the term is applied on the European continent to that portion of a chancel, which, enclosed with a railing or balustrade in front of the altar, is devoted to the celebration of the Holy Eucharist; this in England is generally known as the presbytery.
The former, which involved exclusion from participation in the eucharistic service and from the eucharist itself, though not from the so-called "service of the catechumens," was the usual punishment of comparatively light offences; the latter, which was the penalty for graver scandals, involved "exclusion from all church privileges," - a vague expression which has sometimes been interpreted as meaning total exclusion from the very precincts of the church building (inter hiemantes orare) and from the favour of God (Bingham, Antiquities of Christian Church, xvi.
The two principal ones necessary to salvation are baptism and the Eucharist; then come the water of aspersion and the wearing of cinders, and so forth; these advance a man in sanctity.
The Anglicans recognize baptism and the Eucharist alone, under the impression that Christ ordained these and none other.
That catechumens could not participate in the agape or love-feast (of which in this epoch the Eucharist was merely an episode) does not give to those feasts the character of a Greek mystery.
The uncircumcized proselyte was similarly excluded from the Paschal meal on which the Eucharist was largely modelled, even though it may not have been in any way a continuation of the same.
At a later period, however, the difficulty of screening the rites of baptism and Eucharist from the eyes of catechumens and from their ears the creeds and liturgies - a difficulty which had ever been formidable and which after the overthrow of paganism must have become insurmountable - seems to have provoked not only a great outpouring on the part of the Christian rhetors, like Basil, Chrysostom, the Gregories and the Cyrils, of phrases borrowed from the Greek mysteries, but perhaps an actual use of precautions.
5th centuries in their, discourses often make a point of not citing the creed or describing the Eucharist; they stop short and ejaculate such remarks as 'oa6cv of irco-roi, norunt fideles (" the faithful know it ").
Hitherto the chasuble had been worn indifferently by all ministers at the eucharist, even by the acolytes; it had been worn also at processions and other non-liturgical functions; it was now exalted into the mass vestment par excellence, worn by the celebrant only, or by his immediate assistants (deacon and subdeacon) only on very special occasions.
831; new ed., with an epistle to Charles the Bald, 844), which was not only the first systematic and thorough treatise on the sacrament of the eucharist, but is the first clear dogmatic statement of transubstantiation, and as such opened an unending controversy.
HOUSEL, the English name, until the time of the Reformation, for the Eucharist.
A fundamental difference as to the doctrine of the eucharist, however, stood in the way of the real union.
The association in the synoptics of the earliest eucharist with the paschal sacrifice provided a model, and long after the eucharist was separated with the agape on other days of the year, we still find celebrated on the evening of Maundy Thursday the sacrifice of the [[Paschal (disambiguation)|paschal ]], immediately followed by an eucharist.
Early the next morning he received the Holy Eucharist and left before any one could recognize him, going to the neighbouring town of Manresa, where he first lived in the hospice.
The sacrament of the most Holy Eucharist shall be freely administered in the two kinds, that is bread and wine, to all the faithful in Christ who are not precluded by mortal sin - according to the word and disposition of Our Saviour.
A sacred communion of bread, water and possibly wine, compared by the Christian apologists to the Eucharist, was administered to the mystic who was entering upon one of the advanced degrees, perhaps Leo.
2) may ordain validly, and that a priest who has been degraded can still celebrate the Eucharist (Summ.
M de Remusat characterizes his view on the Eucharist as a specific application of Nominalism.
The most interesting example of this method is seen in the Tractatus de sacramento altaris where Occam accepts the doctrine of Real Presence as a matter of Faith, and sets forth a rational theory of the Eucharist (afterwards adopted by Luther) known as " Consubstantiation."
They allegorized the Eucharist and explained away the bread and wine of which Jesus said to His apostles, "Take, eat and drink," as mere words of Christ, and denied that we ought to offer bread and wine as a sacrifice.
Such allegorization meets us already in Origen, Eusebius and other early fathers, and is quite compatible with that use of a material Eucharist which Nerses II.
On every Christian, of either sex, arrived at years of discretion, the duty was imposed of confessing at least once annually and of receiving the Eucharist at least at Easter (Canon 21).
Especially he had written to Pere Mesland, one of the order, to show how the Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with his theories of matter.
He is a good enough Lutheran to quote as a " mystery " the Eucharist no less than the Trinity, while he insists that truths above are not against reason.
For, although the council of Trent recognized fully the distinction which has been mentioned above between the Eucharist and the sacrifice of the mass, and treated of them in separate sessions (the former in Session xiii., the latter in Session xxii.), it continued the medieval theory of the nature of the latter.
is agape and eucharist in one, and it is held in a private house and not in church, and the celebrants are holy women!
"fountain") a sort of eucharist, which has a special sanctifying efficacy, and is usually dispensed at festivals, but only to baptized persons of good repute who have never willingly denied the Mandaean faith.
He wears all these vestments only at the celebration of the eucharist and on other very solemn occasions; at other ministrations he wears only the epitrachelion and phainolion over his cassock.
At the present day the Lutheran Churches of Denmark and Scandinavia retain the use of alb and chasuble in the celebration of the eucharist (stole, amice, girdle and maniple were disused after the Reformation), and for bishops the cope and mitre.
The use of the word is, however, late, the vigiliae (pernoctationes, 7ravvvXiSes) having originally been the services, consisting of prayers, hymns, processions and sometimes the eucharist, celebrated on the preceding night in preparation for the feast.
The history of the agape coincides, until the end of the 2nd century, with that of the eucharist, and it is doubtful whether the following detailed account of the agape given in Tertullian's Apology (c. 39) is to be regarded as exclusive of an accompanying eucharist: "It is the banquet (triclinium) alone of the Christians that is criticised.
This was true enough, but there is truth also in the remark of Prof. Sanday ("Eucharist" in Hastings' Dictionary of the Bible) that Providence even in its revolutions is conservative.
It is clear that at an earlier date the agape preceded the eucharist.
While we have elsewhere no connected account of this, Justin's Apology contains a few paragraphs (61 seq.), which give a vivid description of the public worship of the Church and its method of celebrating the sacraments (Baptism and the Eucharist).
Under an appearance of much vain subtlety the controversy about universals involved issues of the greatest speculative and practical importance: realism represented a spiritual, nominalism an anti-spiritual, view of the world; while realism was evidently favourable, and nominalism unfavourable, to the teaching of the Church on the dogmas of the Trinity and the Eucharist.
TRANSUBSTANTIATION, the term adopted by the Roman Catholic Church to express her teaching on the subject of the conversion of the Bread and Wine into the Body and Blood of Christ in the Eucharist.
It was shortly after this that rumours began to spread of his holding heretical views regarding the sacrament of the eucharist.
That facing the entrance was the place of greatest honour, where in many instances the remains of a martyr were deposited, whose tomb, according to primitive usage, served as an altar for the celebration of the eucharist.
5.) is that, whereas all the orders have reference to the body of Christ present on the altar, the episcopate, so far forth, is not a separate order, since a simple priest no less than a bishop celebrates the Eucharist.
Heinze, 1899), in which he lays down the principle that union with Christ is effected by the three great mysteries of baptism, confirmation and the eucharist.
Vermigli published over a score of theological works, chiefly Biblical commentaries and treatises on the Eucharist.
X€Ztos, public, and gpyov, work; XEcrovpyos, a public servant), in the technical language of the Christian Church, the order for the celebration and administration of the Eucharist.
16, he speaks of " the sacraments of our religion," intending, it would appear, the love-feast and Eucharist.
34, he speaks of the sacrament of baptism and Eucharist.
This enumeration was also adopted in 1575 as against the Augustan confession of the year 1540 by Jeremiah Patriarch of Constantinople, and again in a council held in the same city in 1639 to anathematize Cyril Lucar, who with the Anglicans recognized two only, baptism and the Eucharist.
On Easter Sunday the queen ventured to display her personal preference for the Protestant conception of the eucharist by forbidding the celebrant in her chapel to elevate the host.
The unmistakable rejection on the part of the English Church of the conception of the eucharist as a sacrifice had alone many widereaching implications.
His position in regard to the Eucharist is naturally more mature than that of the first reformers.
This doxology is also used in the Protestant Episcopal and Methodist Episcopal churches of America, as indeed in most Protestant churches at the eucharist.
As in Ignatius and other early writers, the eucharist, a real meal (x.
This appears to show that a prophet, if present, would naturally preside over the eucharist.
The eucharist is to be celebrated every Lord's Day, and preceded by confession of sins, "that your sacrifice may be pure.
Thus Berengar of Tours (999-1088) upheld the symbolic character of the Eucharist and the superiority of the Bible over tradition.
(g) Manifestation of Jesus as the heaven-descended living Bread and its contradiction in Galilee, vi.: multiplication of the loaves; walking on the waters; and His discourse on the holy Eucharist.
John omits, at the last supper, its central point, the great historic act of the holy eucharist, carefully given by the Synoptists and St Paul, having provided a highly doctrinal equivalent in the discourse on the living bread, here spoken by Jesus in Capernaum over a year before the passion (vi.
46) and how blood and water flow from His spear-pierced side: thus the Lamb " taketh away the sins of the world " by shedding His blood which " cleanseth us from every sin "; and " He cometh by water and blood," historically at His baptism and crucifixion, and mystically to each faithful soul in baptism and the eucharist.
49), and the declaration concerning the eucharist, " the spirit it is that quickeneth " (John vi.
150) describes the congregation as responding "amen" to the benediction after the celebration of the Eucharist.
His only printed works are a fragment on the Eucharist (inserted by Jean Mabillon in his edition of the works of St Bernard), and the Morelia Abbreviata and De Origine Animae (in E.
A strong advocate of Lutheran doctrine, and author of the Syngramma Suevicum (October 21, 1525), which set forth Luther's doctrine of the Eucharist, he was free from the persecuting tendencies of the age.
Out of this grew up in the 3rd or 4th century what is known as the arcani disciplina, or secret discipline of the Church, involving the concealment from the uninitiated and unholy of the more sacred parts of the Christian cult, such as baptism and the eucharist, with their various accompaniments, including the Creed and the Lord's Prayer.
The same interest led to the division of the services into two general parts, which became known ultimately as the missa, eatechumenorum and the miss y fidelium, - that is, the more public service of prayer, praise and preaching open to all, including the catechumens or candidates for Church membership, and the private service for the administration of the eucharist, open only to full members of the Church in good and regular standing.
17, I; and his newly discovered Demonstration of the Apostolic Teaching, chap. 3), and the eucharist as the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, feeding upon which one is endowed with immortality (cf.
Ignatius had denied the validity of a eucharist administered independently of the bishop, and the principle finally established itself that the sacraments, with an exception in cases of emergency in favour of baptism, could be performed only by men regularly ordained and so endowed with the requisite divine grace for their due administration (cf.
Only he is saved who on the one hand is forgiven at baptism and so released from the power of Satan, and then goes on to live in obedience to the divine law; and on the other hand receives in baptism the germ of a new spiritual nature and is progressively transformed by feeding upon the body and blood of the divine Christ in the eucharist.
The further development of the notion of Christian priesthood was connected with the view that the Eucharist is a propitiatory sacrifice which only a consecrated priest can perform.
In addition to the works referred to in the foregoing sketch, we may mention The Eucharist in the First Three Centuries (Mainz, 1826); a Church History (1836, Eng.
ABSTEMII (a Latin word, from abs, away from, temetum, intoxicating liquor, from which is derived the English "abstemious" or temperate), a name formerly given to such persons as could not partake of the cup of the Eucharist on account of their natural aversion to wine.
On the basis of the above-mentioned agreements, as well as of minor discussions as to purgatory and the Eucharist, the decree of union was drawn up in Latin and in Greek, and signed on the 5th of July by the pope and the Greek emperor, and all the members of the synod save Eugenikos and one Greek bishop who had fled; and on the following day it was solemnly published in the cathedral of Florence.
The decree explains the filioque in a manner acceptable to the Greeks, but does not require them to insert the term in their symbol; it demands that celebrants follow the custom of their own church as to the employment of leavened or unleavened bread in the Eucharist.
This assigns prayers and rubrics for the celebration of the Eucharist: - " t.
But let no one eat or drink of your Thanksgiving (Eucharist), but they who have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this the Lord hath said, Give not that which is holy unto the dogs.'
r, we learn that the Eucharist was on Sunday: - " Now when ye are assembled together on the Lord's day of the Lord, break bread and give thanks, having first confessed your transgressions, so that your sacrifice may be pure."
i), and pointedly omits Christ's institution of the Eucharist, substituting for it the washing of his disciples' feet.
This word " liturgy " soon came to connote the Eucharist.
Pliny accordingly forbade them in Bithynia, and the renegade Christians to whom he owed his information gave them up. These suppers included an Eucharist: for it was because the faithful ate in the latter of the flesh and blood of the Son of God that the charge of devouring children was made against them.
120, in his letter to the Ephesians, defines the one bread broken in the Eucharist as a " drug of immortality, and antidote that we should not die, but live for ever in Jesus Christ."
In Justin's first apology (c. 140) we have two detailed accounts of the Eucharist, of which the first, in ch.
p. 50o), sketching the rite and calling the elements antitypes: " The oblation of the Eucharist is not fleshly, but spiritual and so pure.
2), that this " magician " used in the Eucharist cups apparently mixt with wine, but really containing water, and during long invocations made them appear " purple and red, as if the universal Grace xapes dropped some of her blood into the cup through his invocation, and by way of inspiring worshippers with a passion to taste the cup and drink deep of the influence termed Charis."
The apostle spreads a linen cloth on a bench, lays on it bread of blessing (eNv yia), and says: " Jesus Christ, Son of God, who hast made us worthy to commune in the Eucharist of thy holy body and precious blood, Lo, we venture on the thanksgiving (Eucharistia) and invocation of thy blessed name, come now and communicate with us.
come and communicate with us in this Eucharist which we perform in thy name and in the love (agape) in which we are met at thy calling.
In the Fathers of the first three or four centuries can be traced the same tendency to spiritualize the Eucharist as we encountered in the fourth gospel, and in the Didache.
7 he asserts the Eucharist to be Christ's " flesh which suffered for our sins," elsewhere speaks of the blood as being " joy eternal and lasting," as " hope," as " love incorruptible," and of the flesh as " faith " or as " the gospel."
In these centuries baptism was the rite for the remission of sin, not the Eucharist; it is the prophet in the Didache who presides at the Lord's Supper, not the Levitically conceived priest; nor as yet has the Table become an Altar.
In Cyprian of Carthage (c. 250) we first find the Eucharist regarded as a sacrifice of Christ's body and blood offered by the priest for the sins of the living and dead.
Position of the Faithful at the Eucharist.
- Tertullian, Eusebius, Chrysostom and others represent the faithful as standing at the Eucharist.
In the Latin and in the Monophysite churches of Armenia and Egypt unleavened bread is used in the Eucharist on the somewhat uncertain ground that the Last Supper was the Paschal meal.
In the primitive age no one asked how Christ was present in the Eucharist, or how the elements became his body and blood.
The Eucharist formed part of an agape or love feast until the end of the 2nd century, and in parts of Christendom continued to be so much later.
But when the Agape on one side and paganism on the other receded into a dim past, owing to the enhanced sacrosanctity of the Eucharist and because of the severe edicts of the emperor Theodosius and his successors, the psychological background fell away, and the Eucharist was left isolated and hanging in the air.
As in the 3rd century the Roman church decided in respect of baptism that the sacrament carries the church and not the church the sacrament, so in the dispute over the Eucharist it ended, in spite of more spiritual views essayed by Peter Lombard, by insisting on the more materialistic view at the fourth Lateran Council in 1215, whose decree runs thus: - " The body and blood of Jesus Christ are truly contained in the sacrament of the altar under the species of bread and wine, the bread and wine respectively being transubstantiated into body and blood by divine power, so that in order to the perfecting of the mystery of unity we may ourselves receive from his (body) what he himself receives from ours."
This is seen by a comparison of other confessions with the Profession of Catholic Faith in accordance with the council of Trent, in the bull of Pius IV., which runs thus: " I profess that in the Mass is offered to God a true, proper and propitiatory sacrifice, for the living and the dead, and that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist there is truly really and in substance the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that there does take place a conversion of the entire substance of the bread into the body, and of the entire substance of the wine into the blood, which conversion the Catholic Church doth call Transubstantiation.
- The symbolical books of the Lutheran Church, following the teaching of Luther himself, declare the doctrine of the real presence of Christ's body and blood in the eucharist, together with the bread and wine (consubstantiation), as well as the ubiquity of his body, as the orthodox doctrine of the church.
At an early period he asserted that the Eucharist was nothing more than food for the soul, and had been instituted by Christ only as an act of commemoration and as a visible sign of his body and blood (Christenliche Ynleitung, 1523, quoted by Hagenbach, Hist.
But that Zwingli did not reject the higher religious significance of the Eucharist, and was far from degrading the bread and wine into " nuda et inania symbola," as he was accused of doing, we see from his Fidei ratio ad Carolum Imperatorem (ib.
It is doubtful if the attempts of reformers to spiritualize the Eucharist bring us, except so far as they pruned ritual extravagances, nearer to its original significance; perhaps the Roman, Greek and Oriental churches have better preserved it.
This significance remains to be discussed; the cognate question of how far the development of the Eucharist was influenced by the pagan mysteries is discussed in the article Sacrament.
Both in its inner nature then and outward effects the Eucharist was the Christian counterpart of these two other forms of communion of which one, the heathen, was excluded from the first, and the other, the Jewish, soon to disappear.
A youth who has murdered his mistress takes the bread of the Eucharist in his mouth, and his two hands are at once withered up. The apostle immediately invites him to confess the crime he must have committed, " for, he says, the Eucharist of the Lord hath convicted thee."
It has been necessary to consider at such length St Paul's account of the Eucharist, both because it antedates nearly by half a century that of the gospels, and because it explains the significance which the rite had no less for the Gnostics than for the great church.
The Eucharist of the synoptists is rather a covenant or tie of communion between Jesus and the twelve, such as will cause his life to survive in them after he has been parted from them in the flesh.
To the modern mind it is absurd that an image or symbol should be taken for that which is imaged or symbolized, and that is why the early history of the Eucharist has been so little understood by ecclesiastical writers.
C. C.) Reservation Of The Eucharist The practice of reserving the sacred elements for the purpose of subsequent reception prevailed in the church from very early times.
The Eucharist being the seal of Christian fellowship, it was a natural custom to send portions of the consecrated elements by the hands of the deacons to those who were not present (Justin Martyr, Apol.
But some irregular forms of reservation still continued; the prohibition as regards the lay people was not extended, at any rate with any strictness, to the clergy and monks; the Eucharist was still carried on journeys; occasionally it was buried with the dead; and in a few cases the pen was even dipped in the chalice in subscribing important writings.
Meanwhile, both in East and West, the general practice has continued unbroken of reserving the Eucharist, in order that the " mass of the presanctified " might take place on certain "aliturgic" days, that the faithful might be able to communicate when there was no celebration, and above all that it might be at hand to meet the needs of the sick and dying.
A portion of the consecrated Bread from one Eucharist, known as the " Fermentum," was long made use of in the next, or sent by the bishop to the various churches of his city, no doubt with the object of emphasizing, the solidarity and the continuity of " the one Eucharist "; and amongst other customs which prevailed for some centuries, from the 8th onward, were those of giving it to the newly ordained in order that they might communicate themselves, and of burying it in or under the altar-slab of a newly consecrated church.
At a later date, apparently early in the 14th century, began the practice of carrying the Eucharist in procession in a monstrance; and at a still later period, apparently after the middle of the r6th century, the practice of Benediction with the reserved sacrament, and that of the " forty hours' exposition," were introduced in the churches of the Roman communion.
In England, during the religious changes of the 16th century, such of these customs as had already taken root were abolished; and with them the practice of reserving the Eucharist in the churches appears to have died out too.
The general feeling on the subject is expressed by the language of the 28th Article, first drafted in 1553, to the effect that " the sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up or worshipped," and by the fact that a form was provided for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist for the sick in their own homes.
The whole argument of some of the controversial writings of the time, such as Bishop Cooper on Private Mass, depends upon that fact; and when Cardinal du Perron alleged against the English Church the lack of the reserved Eucharist, Bishop Andrewes replied, not that the fact was otherwise, but that reservation was unnecessary in view of the English form for the Communion of the Sick: " So that reservation needeth not; the intent is had without it" (Answers to Cardinal Perron, &'c., p. 19, Library of AngloCatholic Theology).
The view has been held that in the Eucharist the elements are only consecrated as regards the particular purpose of reception in the service itself, and that consequently what remains unconsumed may be put to common uses.
(5) The Elizabethan Act of Uniformity contained a provision that at the universities the public services, with the exception of the Eucharist, might be in a language other than English; and in 1560 there appeared a Latin version of the Prayer-Book, issued under royal letters patent, in which there was a rubric prefixed to the Order for the Communion of the Sick, based on that in the first Prayer-Book of Edward VI.
(see above), and providing that the Eucharist should be reserved for the sick person if there had been a celebration on the same day.
In the rubric in question words are altered here and there in a way which shows that its reappearance can hardly be a mere printer's error; but in any case its importance is very slight, for the Act of Uniformity specially provides that the English service alone is to be used for the Eucharist.
(9) On the other hand, the words of the oath taken by the clergy under the 36th of the Canons of 1604 are to the effect that they will use the form prescribed in the Prayer-Book and none other, except so far as shall be otherwise ordered by lawful authority; and the Prayer-Book does not even mention the reservation of the Eucharist, whilst the Articles mention it only in the way of depreciation.
But however that may be, the practice of reservation of the Eucharist, either in the open church or in private, has become not uncommon in recent days.
C. Eeles, Reservation of the Holy Eucharist in the Scottish Church (Aberdeen, 1899); Bishop J.
The duties of the acolyte, as given in the Roman Pontifical, are identical with those mentioned in the Statuta Ecclesiae Antigua of Arles: "It is the duty of acolytes to carry the candlesticks, to light the lamps of the church, to administer wine and water for the Eucharist."
Tenison's reputation as an enemy of Romanism led the duke of Monmouth to send for him before his execution in 1685, when Bishops Ken and Turner refused to administer the Eucharist; but, although Tenison spoke to him in "a softer and less peremptory manner" than the two bishops, he was, like them, not satisfied with the sufficiency of Monmouth's penitence.
That he intended it to find outward expression in a visible society appears from the careful way in which he trained the apostles to become leaders hereafter, crowning that work by the institution of the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist.
Thus in the Eucharist the offering of the church is made one with the offering of the Great High Priest.5 All this represents an ideal.
In all parts the Christians assembled on the anniversary of the martyrs' death at their graves, to celebrate the Agape and the Eucharist at this spot.
In Carthage the archdeacon and later the bishop Caecilianus severely blamed a certain Lucilla for carrying about with her a relic which she used to kiss before receiving the Eucharist (Optatus, De schism.
They declared Christ to be the Son of God only through grace like other prophets, and that the bread and wine of the eucharist were not transformed into flesh and blood; that the last judgment would be executed by God and not by Jesus; that the images and the cross were idols and the worship of saints and relics idolatry.
The Eucharist was, therefore, long associated with the matal or animal victim, and only in the 8 th century do we hear of an interval of time being left between the fleshly and the spiritual sacrifices, as the two rites were then called.
The Basilian service of the Eucharist was used in the 5th century, but superseded later on by a Byzantine rite which will be found translated in F.
The Eucharist was no doubt the one important sacrifice in the minds of the clergy who had attended the schools of Constantinople and Alexandria; yet the heart of the people remained in their ancient blood-offerings, and as late as the r2th century they were prone to deny that the mass could expiate the sins of the dead unless accompanied by the sacrifice of an animal.
The paschal lamb is now eaten on Sunday, but until the 11th century, and even later, it was eaten with the Eucharist at a Lord's Supper celebrated on the evening of Maundy Thursday after the rite of pedilavium or washing of feet.
It then was the duty of the latter to supplicate for his forgiveness, and administer to him the Eucharist.
Chalcedon was repudiated afresh, union with the Jacobites instituted, use of water and leaven in the Eucharist condemned, the five days' preliminary fast before Lent restored, Saturday as well as Sunday made a day of feasting and synaxis, any but the orthodox excluded from the Maundy Thursday Communion, the first communion of the new catechumens; union of the Baptismal and Christmas feasts was restored, and the faithful forbidden to fast on Fridays from Easter until Pentecost.
his Latin treatise on the Eucharist, which remained in the Royal Library unprinted, till in 1885 it was published (with translation and introduction) by Archdeacon G.
He was prosecuted in the church courts for heresy, the accusation being founded on his primary charge, delivered and published in 1857, in which he set forth his views on the Eucharist.
Their engagements usually lasted through life, but sometimes only for a specified period or during the continuance of specified circumstances, and they were always ratified by oath, occasionally reduced to writing in the shape of a solemn bond and often sanctified by their reception of the Eucharist together.
A structure called the cool orchid house is set apart for the accommodation of the many lovely mountain species from South America and India, such as odontoglossums, masdevallias, &c., and in this the more uniform the temperature can be kept the better, that in summer varying between Cyanophyllum (Miconia) Cycas Dieffenbachia Dipladenia* Dracaena Eranthemum Eucharist Euphorbia Ficus Franciscea Gardenia Gesnera Gloriosa* Gloxinia f Heliconia f Hoffmannia I pomaea * Ixora Jacobinia Jasminum* Luculia Maranta Medinilla Meyenia Musa Nelumbium f Nepenthes Nymphaea f Oxera * Pancratium f Pandanus Passiflora* Pavetta Petraea * Pleroma* Poinsettia Rondeletia Sanchezia Schubertia* Scutellaria Stephanotis Tabernaemontana Terminalia Thunbergia Torenia Thyrsacanthus Tydaea Vinca Abutilon Acacia Agapanthus Agathaea Agave Alonsoa Aloysia Amaryllis Ardisia Asparagus Aspidistra Asystasia (Mackaya) Azalea Bauera Begonia Blandfordia Bomarea * Boronia Bougainvillea * Bouvardia Brugmansia Calceolaria Camellia Campanula Canna Celosia Cestrum * Chorizema* Chrysanthemum Cineraria 60° and 65°, and in winter from 45° to 60°.
Prior to the 4th century there is no evidence of non-celebration of the eucharist on Good Friday; but after that date the prohibition of communion 1 See Johnson's Collection of Ecclesiastical Laws (vol.
It was followed in 1600 by Discours chrestiens, a book of sermons, similar in tone, half of which treat of the Eucharist.
calix, calicis, cup), a drinking-vessel of the cup or goblet form, now only used of the cup used in the celebration of the Eucharist.
He was able, however, to receive the Eucharist, and soon afterwards died in convulsions on the 19th of August.
AQUARII, a name given to the Christians who substituted water for wine in the Eucharist.
At the death of the Jacobite patriarch Cyriacus in 817, the church was agitated by a dispute about the use of the phrase "heavenly bread" in connexion with the Eucharist.
In accordance with a vote of the diocesan conference, the bishop arranged the "Round Table Conference" between representative members of various parties, held at Fulham in October 1900, on "the doctrine of the Holy Eucharist and its expression in ritual," and a report of its proceedings was published with a preface by him.
The Cathar Eucharist was equally primitive, and is thus described by a contemporary writer in a 13th-century MS. of the Milan Library: "The Benediction of bread is thus performed by the Cathars.
Of Christianity he can have been able to learn very little, even in Medina; as may be seen from the absurd travesty of the institution of the Eucharist in v.
Penalties are set on the refusal to celebrate Easter in accordance with the Nicene decree, as well as on leaving a church before the service of the Eucharist is completed.
He defended the action of Carlstadt, when he dispensed the Eucharist in an "evangelical fashion."
Into his services he introduced many peculiar alterations: he drew up a "Primitive Liturgy," in which he substituted for the Nicene and Athanasian creeds two creeds taken from the Apostolical Constitutions; for his "Primitive Eucharist" he made use of unleavened bread and mixed wine; he distributed at the price of one shilling medals of admission to his oratory, with the device of a sun rising to the meridian, with the motto Ad summa, and the words Inveniam viam aut faciam below.
The various orders for the celebration of Mass are dealt with under Liturgy; a detailed account of the Roman order is given under Missal; and the general development of the eucharistic service, including the Mass, is described in the article Eucharist.
The origin of the word missa, as applied to the Eucharist, is obscure.
The complete service (missa ad integrum), the bishop goes on to say, cannot be had at home by reading and prayer, but only in the house of God, where, besides the Eucharist, "the divine word is preached and the blessing is given to the people."
Whatever its origin, the word Mass had by the time of the Reformation been long applied only to the Eucharist; and, though in itself a perfectly colourless term, and used as such during the earlier stages of the 16th century controversies concerning the Eucharist, it soon became identified with that sacrificial aspect of the sacrament of the altar which it was the chief object of the Reformers to overthrow.
In England, so late as the first Prayer-book of Edward VI., it remained one of the official designations of the Eucharist, which is there described as "The Supper of the Lorde and holy Communion, commonly called the Masse."
that of the "Service of the Romish Church at the celebration of the Eucharist."
The first of the works known to have been written by Erigena during this period was a treatise on the eucharist, which has not come down to us (by some it has been identified with a treatise by Ratramnus, De corpore et sanguine Domini).
In it he seems to have advanced the doctrine that the eucharist was merely symbolical or commemorative, an opinion for which Berengarius was at a later date censured and condemned.
In the Church service it came early to centre in the sacrament of the Eucharist.
They used leavened bread in the Eucharist mixed with salt and oil, and like other Monophysites add to the Trisagion the words "Who wast crucified for our sake."
According to Peter the Venerable, Henry's teaching is summed up as follows: rejection of the doctrinal and disciplinary authority of the church; recognition of the Gospel freely interpreted as the sole rule of faith; condemnation of the baptism of infants, of the eucharist, of the sacrifice of the mass, of the communion of saints, and of prayers for the dead; and refusal to recognize any form of worship or liturgy.
431), describes the altar at the eucharist as " crowned with crowded lights," 2 and even mentions the " eternal lamp."3 For their use at baptisms we have, among much other evidence, that of Zeno of Verona for the West, 4 and that of Gregory of Nazianzus for the East.
He recognized that he was a "mediator between German and Anglo-American theology and Christianity"; his theology was broad rather than definite, though he sharply dissented from Nevin's mystical doctrine of the union in the eucharist of the believer with Christ's glorified body as well as His glorified soul.
The Easterns also resented the Roman enforcement of clerical celibacy, the limitation of the right of confirmation to the bishop and the use of unleavened bread in the Eucharist.
In the Eucharist the true body and blood of Christ are substantially present, and the elements are changed into the substance of Christ, whose body and blood are corporeally partaken of by communicants.
The Eucharist is also an expiatory sacrifice.
To all priests in common belongs, besides the preaching of the word, the administration of the SIX Sacraments - Baptism, Confirmation, Penance, Eucharist, Matrimony, Unction Of The Sick.
The celebration of the Eucharist is an elaborate symbolical representation of the Passion.
His other writings include: Church Courts and Church Discipline (1843); Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist (1853); Doctrine of the Incarnation in Relation to Mankind and the Church (1848 and later editions); The Five Empires, a Sketch of Ancient History (1840); A Sketch of the History of Erastianismn (1851); An Enquiry into the Principles of Church Authority (1854); and a romance, Rutilius and Lucius (1842).
Perhaps the most remarkable incident in the life of Theodosius from a personal point of view is the incident of his submission to the reprimands of Ambrose, who dared to rebuke him and refuse to admit him to the Eucharist till he had done public penance for punishing a riot in Thessalonica by a wholesale massacre of the populace.
He is best known by his treatise on the Eucharist (De corpore et sanguine Domini liber), in which he controverted the doctrine of transubstantiation as taught in a similar work by his contemporary Radbertus Paschasius.
Archbishop Sandys' views on the Eucharist horrified him; but on the other hand he maintained friendly relations with Bishop Pilkington and Thomas Lever, and the Puritans had some hope of his support.
Mythologie, pp. 370-3 72.) As to the antiquity of processions as part of the ritual of the Christian Church, there is no absolute proof of their existence before the 4th century, but as we know that in the catacombs stations were held at the tombs of the martyrs on the anniversary of their death, for the celebration of the eucharist, it is quite probable that the faithful proceeded to the appointed spot in some kind of procession, though there is no satisfactory evidence that this was the case.
Not only was his function regarded as consisting in the defence and extension of true religion; he was himself arrayed in ecclesiastical vestments at his coronation; he was ordained a subdeacon; and assisting the pope in the celebration of the Eucharist, he communicated in both kinds as a clerk.
When he had joined a Baptist society at Bedford, and was for the first time admitted to partake of the eucharist, it was with difficulty that he could refrain from imprecating destruction on his brethren while the cup was passing from hand to hand.
However, the Wicket Gate became a type of baptism, and the House Beautiful of the eucharist.
9), and the eucharist (ii.
The deacons have functions in the Eucharist and about the altar which point to an early date; they have also much administrative work of an important kind, and especial provisions are made for the care of the sick and the dead, and the burial of those who perish by shipwreck.
And that method on which a great scholar 1 insisted when studying the old Persian religion is doubly to be insisted on in the study of the history of baptism and the cognate institution, the eucharist, namely, to avoid equally " the narrowness of mind which clings to matters of fact without rising to their cause and connecting them with the series of associated phenomena, and the wild and uncontrolled spirit of comparison, which, by comparing everything, confounds everything."
He was extravagant in denunciation, and developed a Zwinglian view of the Eucharist.
Hofmann maintained (against the "magic" of the Lutherans) that the function of the Eucharist, like that of preaching, is an appeal for spiritual union with Christ.
Three groups of sins, classified as (I) idolatry, which included apostasy, (2) adultery or fornication, and (3) murder, were held to exclude the guilty person from sharing in the eucharist until death, that is to say, if he had committed the sin after baptism.
Those under discipline were allowed to receive the eucharist when in articulo mortis.
As early as the time of Tertullian it was also usual for communicants to prepare themselves by fasting for receiving the eucharist.
But if the medieval Church and modern Catholics regard the Eucharist as the principal sacrament, Protestants can hardly keep from assigning the supreme place, in the medieval system, to the sacrament of penance.
While this became conspicuous in connexion with his doctrine of consubstantiation in the Eucharist, it appears 1 that he had a genuine speculative interest in the matter.
at the Eucharist, ubiquitous.
Deacons may conduct any of the ordinary services in the church, but are not permitted to pronounce the absolution or consecrate the elements for the Eucharist.
On returning to Rome, he was cordially received by the newly elected pontiff Nicolas IV., who gave him communion on Palm Sunday, 1288, allowed him to celebrate his own Eucharist in the capital of Latin Christendom, commissioned him to visit the Christians of the East, and entrusted to him the tiara which he presented to Mar Yaballaha.
They declared that they would yield in the matter of ceremonies so far as to employ unleavened bread in the eucharist, to use fonts in baptism, and to allow festival days, provided the people might pursue their ordinary avocations after public service.
Calvin was also involved in a protracted and somewhat vexing dispute with the Lutherans respecting the Lord's Supper, which ended in the separation of the evangelical party into the two great sections of Lutherans and Reformed, - the former holding that in the eucharist the body and blood of Christ are objectively and consubstaritially present, and so are actually partaken of by the communicants, and the latter that there is only a virtual presence of the body and blood of Christ, and consequently only a spiritual participation thereof through faith.
A test act requiring members of the assembly to conform to the Church of England and to take the sacrament of the Eucharist according to the rites and usages of that Church (1704) was defeated only through the intervention of the Whig House of Lords in England.
A sermon which he preached before the university in 1843, The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent, so startled the authorities by the re-statement of doctrines which, though well known to ecclesiastical antiquaries, had faded from the common view, that by the exercise of an authority which, however legitimate, was almost obsolete, he was suspended for two years from the function of preaching.
The sermon on The Presence of Christ Holy Eucharist, in 18J3, first formulated the doctrine round which almost all the subsequent theology of his followers revolved, and which revolutionized the practices of Anglican worship. Of his larger works the most important are his two books on the Eucharist - The Doctrine of the Real Presence (1855) and The Real Presence ...
Nevin characterized his critics as pseudo-Protestants, urged (with Dr Charles Hodge, and against the Presbyterian General Assembly) the validity of Roman Catholic baptism, and defended the doctrine of the "spiritual real presence" of Christ in the Lord's Supper, notably in The Mystical Presence: a Vindication of the Reformed or Calvanistic Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist (1846); to this the reply from the point of view of rationalistic puritanism was made by Charles Hodge in the Princeton Review of 1848.
the Eucharist) he used only water (see Tertullian, De Jejun.
Many scholars hold (and this certainly seems the most natural interpretation) that consecrated bread was taken from the Eucharist and given to the catechumens.
The Eucharist, then, is a remembrance of God's deliverance of His people from the greater bondage of sin.
celebration of the Eucharist.
centrality of the Eucharist, above all other acts it is most clearly intended to mediate reality to us.
liturgy of the Eucharist begins with making the altar ready.
presided at the Eucharist, and Damian came and preached.
sacrament of the Eucharist.
Eucharist in a mission context The church will be Eucharistic because this is a dominical sacrament.
The altar is to be a table to carry forward the meal symbolism of the eucharist.
theology of the Eucharist.
both in and out of church, the few notices remaining which suggest a special tunic for ministers at the Eucharist merely implying that it was not fitting to use for so sacred a function a garment soiled by everyday wear.
With the Easter vigil the eucharist was specially associated, and baptism with that of Pentecost (see Whitsunday).
The Bezpopovtsi, known also as Pomoranye, because they are 1 The most important alterations were the repetition twice, instead of three times, of the " Alleluiah " at the Eucharist, and the making the sign of the cross with two fingers instead of three.
In the time of Cyprian, though not before, we begin to find the idea that the body and blood of Christ were not merely partaken of by the worshippers but also offered in sacrifice, and that the Eucharist was not so much a thank-offering for creation and redemption as a repetition or a showing forth anew of the self-sacrifice of Christ.
Clement wished the name to be reserved for the eucharist, because the love-feasts of the church had degenerated, as Tertullian too discovered, as soon as he turned Motanist.
He did not conceal this conviction from his scholars and friends, and through them the report spread widely that he denied the common doctrine respecting the eucharist.
8), " Let that be esteemed a valid Eucharist which is celebrated in the presence of the bishop or of some one commissioned by him," is really inconsistent with any firmly established principle that celebration by a layman was in itself absolutely null (see also Eucharist).
We may attribute the origin of the episcopate to the need felt of a single official to preside at the Eucharist, to represent the church before the heathen state and in the face of rising heresy, and to carry on correspondence with sister churches.
Some of them were taken from the confession of Augsburg, but the sections on Baptism, the Eucharist and penance, show that the English theologians desired to lay more emphasis on the character of sacraments as channels of grace.
It may simply be said that the general tendency was on the one hand toward the elaboration and growing magnificence of the services, especially after the Church had become a state institution and had taken the place of the older pagan cults, and on the other hand toward the increasing solemnity and mystery of certain parts, particularly the eucharist, the sacred character of which was such as to make it sacrilegious to admit to it the unholy, that is, outsiders or Christians under discipline (cf.
Meanwhile, as the general service tended to grow more elaborate, the missa fidelium tended to take on the character of the current Greek mysteries (see Eucharist; Hatch, Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages upon the Christian Church, 1890; Anrich, Das auf das Christentum, 1894; Wobbermin, Religionsgeschichtliche .Studien zur Frage der Beeinflussung des Urchristentums durch das antike Mysterienwesen, 1896).
His views on the Eucharist upheld the metaphorical against the literal interpretation of the word "body," but he asserted that believers partook of the sacrament more for the sake of others than for their own, though later he emphasized it as a means of grace for the Christian life.
In the Church of England, though it was prescribed alternatively with the cope in the First Prayer-Book of Edward VI., it was ultimately discarded, with the other " Mass vestments," the cope being substituted for it at the celebration of the Holy Communion in cathedral and collegiate churches; its use has, however, during the last fifty years been widely revived in connexion with the reactionary movement in the direction of the pre-Reformation doctrine of the eucharist.
Here seems to belong in the order of development the Cathar Eucharist (see Cathars).
He also rejects as invalid any Eucharist not held " under the bishop or one to whom he shall have committed it."
31, 4, points to the sacrament in proof that the human body may become incorruptible: " As .-read from the earth on receiving unto itself the invocation of God is no longer common bread, but is an Eucharist, composed of two elements, an earthly and a heavenly, so our bodies by partaking of the Eucharist cease to be corruptible, and possess the hope of eternal resurrection."
Participation in the Eucharist gave actual life, and it was due to their irregular attendance at it that many members of the Corinthian church " were weak and sickly and not a few slept " (i.e.
A structure called the cool orchid house is set apart for the accommodation of the many lovely mountain species from South America and India, such as odontoglossums, masdevallias, &c., and in this the more uniform the temperature can be kept the better, that in summer varying between Cyanophyllum (Miconia) Cycas Dieffenbachia Dipladenia* Dracaena Eranthemum Eucharist Euphorbia Ficus Franciscea Gardenia Gesnera Gloriosa* Gloxinia f Heliconia f Hoffmannia I pomaea * Ixora Jacobinia Jasminum* Luculia Maranta Medinilla Meyenia Musa Nelumbium f Nepenthes Nymphaea f Oxera * Pancratium f Pandanus Passiflora* Pavetta Petraea * Pleroma* Poinsettia Rondeletia Sanchezia Schubertia* Scutellaria Stephanotis Tabernaemontana Terminalia Thunbergia Torenia Thyrsacanthus Tydaea Vinca Abutilon Acacia Agapanthus Agathaea Agave Alonsoa Aloysia Amaryllis Ardisia Asparagus Aspidistra Asystasia (Mackaya) Azalea Bauera Begonia Blandfordia Bomarea * Boronia Bougainvillea * Bouvardia Brugmansia Calceolaria Camellia Campanula Canna Celosia Cestrum * Chorizema* Chrysanthemum Cineraria 60Ã‚° and 65Ã‚°, and in winter from 45Ã‚° to 60Ã‚°.
At any rate the letter in this form, along with a" second epistle to James "(on the Eucharist, church furniture, &c.), dating from the early 6th century, had separate currency long before the 9th century, when they were incorporated in the Decretals by the forger who raised the Clementine epistles to five (see Lightfoot, Clement, i.
It is pointed out that the word missa long continued to be applied to any church service, and more particularly to the lections (see Du Cange for numerous examples), and it is held that such services received their name of missal from the solemn form of dismissal with which it was customary to conclude them; thus, in the 4th century Pilgrimage of Etheria (Silvia) the word missa is used indiscriminately of the Eucharist, other services, and the ceremony of dismissal.
hostia, a victim or sacrifice), the sacrifice of Christ's body and blood in the Eucharist, more particularly the consecrated wafer used in the service of the mass in the Roman Church (see.
For the processions that formed part of the ritual of the eucharist, those of the introit, the gospel and the oblation, the earliest records date from the 6th century and even later (see Duchesne, Origines, 2nd ed., pp. 77, 1 54, 181; 78, 194), but they evidently were established at a much earlier date.
For, as not a single pilgrim passes through the Wicket Gate in infancy, and as Faithful hurries past the House Beautiful without stopping, the lesson which the fable in its altered shape teaches, is that none but adults ought to be baptized, and that the eucharist may safely be neglected.
They may express faith in the Eucharist through manner, gesture, or reverential silence rather than verbally.
This double movement of the life of charity finds its ultimate expression in the sacrament of the Eucharist.
Read again Cranmer on the theology of the Eucharist.
The Catholic Church considers baptism as one of the seven sacraments, which also includes the Holy Eucharist, Reconciliation, Confirmation, Holy Orders, Matrimony, and Anointing of the Sick.
The Catholic Church recognizes some of its followers may not be able to fully participate in mass, especially in the sacred rite of the Eucharist.
In the East as the West the vestment is specially associated with the ritual of the Eucharist.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.