The Etruscans, who were separated from the Romans only by the Tiber, gradually lost the voiced mutes.
From the Etruscans it made its way to the Romans, though as we shall see it was also modified by them.
In his various campaigns he defeated successively the Gauls, the Volscians, the Samnites, the Etruscans and the Marsians.
With these names must clearly be judged the forms Tusci and Etrusci, although these forms must not be regarded as anything but the names given to the Etruscans by the folk among whom they settled.
It constituted the most common form of divination in ancient Babylonia, where it can be traced back to the 3rd millennium B.C. Among the Etruscans the prominence of the rite led to the liver being looked upon as the trade-mark of the priest.
It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria.
These new probabilities open up considerable possibilities in research with regard to the relations of the early Minoans and other Aegeans with Syria and Egypt and the undoubted fact of the resemblances of Minoan on the one hand to Syrian and Egyptian religions and funerary practices, and on the other hand to those of the Etruscans.
Nola (Naa) was one of the oldest cities of Campania, variously said to have been founded by the Ausones, the Chalcidians and the Etruscans.
He afterwards fought successfully against the Aequi, Volsci and Etruscans, and repelled a fresh invasion of the Gauls in 367.
Siena was probably founded by the Etruscans (a few tombs of that period have been found outside Porta Camollia), and then, falling under the Roman rule, became a colony in the reign of Augustus, or a little earlier, and was distinguished by the name of Saena Julia.
- The female dress of the Etruscans did not differ in any important respect from that of the Greeks; it consisted of the chiton and himation, which was in earlier times usually worn as a shawl, not after the fashion of the Doric7r7rXos.
Two articles of costume, however, were peculiar to the Etruscans - the high conical hat known as the tutulus, 2 and the shoes with turned-up points (Latin calcei repandi).
These have oriental analogies, and lend support to the tradition that the Etruscans came from Asia.
We are told by ancient writers that the toga praetexta, with its purple border (lreplirop4wpos n'i13evva), as worn by Roman magistrates and priests, had been derived from the Etruscans (Pliny, N.H.
Under the tebenna, or toga, which was necessary only for public appearance, the Etruscans wore a short tunic similar to the Greek chiton.
They had from early times a very complicated system of superstitious medicine, or religion, related to disease and the cure of disease, borrowed, as is thought, from the Etruscans; and, though the saying of Pliny that the Roman people got on for six hundred years without doctors was doubtless an exaggeration, and not, literally speaking, exact, it must be accepted for the broad truth which it contains.
26) seeks to justify the Christian neglect of it by the fact, for which he vouches, that among the Romans themselves incense was unknown in the time of Numa, while the Etruscans had always continued to be strangers to it.
In the early history of Rome the Etruscans play a prominent part.
This last event shows that the Etruscan power was formidable, and that by means of their fleet the Etruscans held under their exclusive control the commerce of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
By this treaty Corsica was assigned to the Etruscans while Carthage obtained Sardinia.
Hence it is suggested that the attack on Rome was merely an incident of the march of the Etruscans, driven southward by the invasion of upper Italy by the Celts, through Latium on their way to Campania.
The earliest written annals of the Greeks, Etruscans and Romans are irretrievably lost.
By far the greater portion of the region later called Tirol was inhabited, when it makes its appearance in history, by the Raetians (perhaps a Celtic race, though some still hold that they were connected with the Etruscans), who were conquered (14 B.C.) by Drusus and Tiberius, and were later organized into the Roman province of Raetia.
It was besieged by the Etruscans in 311 -10 B.C., but not taken.
In 2 9 8 he was interrex; in 296, as consul, he led the army in Samnium, and although, with his colleague, he gained a victory over the Etruscans and Samnites, he does not seem to have specially distinguished himself as a soldier (Livy x.
Finding the district already occupied, they proceeded over the river, drove out the Etruscans and Umbrians, and established themselves as far as the Apennines in the modern Romagna.
In 283 they were defeated, together with the Etruscans, at the Vadimonian lake; in 224, after the battle of Telamon in Etruria, they were forced to submit.
The Chinese, the Arabs, the Greeks, the Etruscans, the Finns and the Italians have all been claimed as originators of the compass.
By the Etruscans he was also supposed to be a kind of executioner of the powers of the nether world, who, armed with an enormous hammer, was associated with Mars in the slaughter of battle.
Etruscans) and Pelasgians, and lastly, by the Samnites.
The Libyans are accompanied by allies whose names, Sherden, Shekelesh, Ekwesh, Lukku, Teresh, suggest identifications with Sardinians, Sicels, Achaeans, Lycians and Tyrseni or Etruscans.
This vast work, in which Italian literature from the time of the Etruscans to the end of the 17th century is traced in detail, occupied eleven years, 1771-1782, and the thirteen quarto volumes embodying it appeared successively at Modena during that period.
35), a large number of the Cenomani crossed into Italy, drove the Etruscans southwards, and occupied their territory.
Weege (in Jahrbuch, 1916) on the two most important series of paintings at Corneto argues that these were executed in the archaic style of North Ionia by a Greek artist who had lived among the Etruscans long enough to understand their national life and spirit.
The men of Falerii, however, regularly took the side of the Etruscans in wars with Rome, and it is clear that the civilization of the old Falerii, destroyed for its rebellion in 241 B.C., was Etruscan and not Roman in character.
It is certain from the symbols which they develop or drop that the people of Campania and Samnium borrowed their alphabet from the Etruscans, who held dominion in Campania from the 8th to the 5th century B.C. Previous to the Punic wars Campania had reached a higher stage of civilization than Rome.
(a) Unorganized (religions of the Japanese, Dravidians, Finns, Esths, the ancient Arabs, the ancient Pelasgi, the Old-Italian peoples, the Etruscans (?), the Old-Slays).
The earliest belonged to the Villanova period (8th and 9th centuries, B.C.), probably before the coming of the Etruscans.
Ancient writers tell us that its original Pelasgian name was Agylla, and that the Etruscans took it and called it Caere (when this occurred is not known), I A limestone well adapted for building.
In the First Punic War, Caere furnished Rome with corn and provisions, but otherwise, up till the end of the Republic, we only hear of prodigies being observed at Caere and reported at Rome, the Etruscans being especially expert in augural lore.
But while the scarab met with little favour in Greece, where, as just stated, the scaraboid was preferred, among the Etruscans its adoption was complete, and with them it became the commonest form of the seal-matrix, dating from the latter part of the 6th century B.C., engraved chiefly with subjects derived from Greek art.
Her temple at Rome, dedicated by Appius Claudius Caecus (296 B.C.) during a battle with the Samnites and Etruscans (Ovid, Fasti vi.
Pliny refers them to the Etruscans.
The Etruscans were said to have learned it from a being named Tages, grandson of Jupiter, who had suddenly sprung from the ground near Tarquinii.
The art was practised in Rome chiefly by Etruscans, occasionally by native-born Romans who had studied in the priestly schools of Etruria.
As the Romans learnt the use of the flute from the Etruscans, the fact of Minerva being the patron goddess of flute-players is in favour of her Etruscan origin, although it may merely be a reminiscence of the Greek story which attributed the invention of the flute to Athena.
The Etruscans did not appear to practice astrology but they were known for their liver divination.
The conclusion suggested is that these -COtribes occupied the centre and west coast of Italy at the time of the Etruscan invasion (see Etruria: Language); whereas the -NOtribes only reached this part of Italy, or at least only became dominant there, long after the Etruscans had settled in the Peninsula.
In any case, since the Eastern origin of the Etruscans is now generally admitted, we may temporarily, at least, accept the conclusion that hepatoscopy as a method of divination owes its survival in advanced forms of culture to the elaborate system devised in the course of centuries by the Babylonian priests, and to the influence, direct and indirect, exerted by this system in the ancient world.
He appeared also as a Hellenic champion in the defence of Cumae against the Etruscans, and he attempted after the victory to found a Syracusan colony on the island of Aenaria, now Ischia.
The conclusion, therefore, to which the evidence appears to lead us is that in, say, the 7th century, B.C., the Safines spoke a language not differing in any important particulars from that of the Samnites, generally known as Oscan; and that when this warlike tribe combined with the people of the Latian plain to found or fortify or enlarge the city of Rome, and at the end of the 6th century to drive out from it the Etruscans, who had in that century become its masters, they imposed upon the new community many of their own usages, especially within the sphere of politics, but in the end adopted the language of Latium henceforth known as lingua Latina, just as the Normans adopted the language of the conquered English.
The recent discovery by Keil and Premerstein (Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie,'iii., 1908) of Lydian inscriptions containing the symbol 8 suggests that the old derivation of the Etruscans from Lydia may be true and that they brought this symbol with them (see article on F).
It is first mentioned in the account of the war of 310 or 309 B.C. between the Etruscans and the Romans.
b, 53-60, and we may infer that the'town of Iguvium was independent but in fear of the Etruscans at the time when the curse was first composed.
This conclusion is not yet universally accepted, but it seems difficult on the evidence to avoid the conclusion that Prof. Hrozny is right, and if so the curious resemblances of some of the externals of Roman and Hittite religion, and the legendary and other connexions between the Etruscans and Asia Minor, are seen in a new light.
In that year it was surrendered to the Etruscans and recovered by the Romans, who beheaded the authors of its surrender.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.