Etruscan sentence example

etruscan
  • It contains an important museum of Etruscan and Roman antiquities.
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  • It is clear, however, that the Celtic and Etruscan elements together occupied the greater part of the district between the Apennines and the Alps down to its Romanization, which took place gradually in the course of the 2nd century B.C. Their linguistic neighbors were Ligurian in the south and south-west, and the Veneti on the east.
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  • The Cilnii with whom Maecenas was connected were a noble Etruscan family.
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  • The city was burnt, we are told, with the exception of the temples of Vulcan and Juno - the massive Etruscan terrace-walls, naturally, can hardly have suffered at all - and the town, with the territory for a mile round, was allowed to be occupied by whoever chose.
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  • Latin will be counted the language of the earlier plebeian stratum of the population of Rome and Latium, probably once spread over a large area of the peninsula, and akin in sijme degree to the language or languages spoken in north Italy before either the Etruscan or the Gallic invasions began.
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  • No satisfactory collection has been made of the Celtic inscriptions of Cisalpine Gaul, though many are scattered about in different museums. For our present purpose it is important to note that the archaeological stratification in deposits like those of Bologna shows that the Gallic period supervened upon the Etruscan.
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  • It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria.
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  • It was said by classical writers to be of Etruscan origin, and to have been founded, under the name Felsina, from Perusia by Aucnus or Ocnus.
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  • The frescoes from the Francois tomb, discovered in 1857, illustrating Greek and Etruscan myths, are now in the Museo Torlonia at Rome.
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  • Etruscan tombs have been found on the Isola Bisentina, in the lake; and on the west bank was the town of Visentium, Roman inscriptions belonging to which have been found.
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  • It is impossible not to be struck with the remarkable analogy between these rock-hewn chairs and those discovered in the Etruscan tombs, of the purpose of which no satisfactory explanation has been given.
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  • The valves are, consequently, essentially symmetrical, which is not the case with the Lamellibranchiata, - so much so, that certain Brachiopod shells were named Lampades, or lamp shells, by some early naturalists; but while such may bear a kind of resemblance to an antique Etruscan lamp, by far the larger number in no way resemble one.
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  • The have been identified by Helbig with small spirals of gold wire, such as are found in early Etruscan tombs lying near the head of the skeleton.
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  • See also the works on Etruscan civilization named in the art.
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  • The Opera del Duomo contains models and pieces of sculpture connected with the cathedral; the Etruscan and Egyptian museum, the gallery of tapestries, the Michelangelo museum, the museum of natural history and other collections are all important in different ways.
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  • After the expulsion of the Tarquins the chief events in Etruscan history are the vain attempt to re-establish themselves in Rome under Lars Porsena of Clusium, the defeat of Octavius Mamilius, son-in-law of Tarquinius Superbus, at Lake Regillus, and the treaty with Carthage.
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  • This last event shows that the Etruscan power was formidable, and that by means of their fleet the Etruscans held under their exclusive control the commerce of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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  • In 474 the Etruscan fleet was destroyed by Hiero I.
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  • The battle of the Vadimonian Lake (309) finally extinguished Etruscan independence, though for nearly two centuries still the prosperity df the Etruscan cities far exceeded that of Rome itself.
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  • The Etruscan used the same v-symbol inverted.
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  • The Museo Lapidario contains a fine collection of Roman and Etruscan inscriptions and sculpture, mostly collected and published by Scipione Maffei in the 18th century.
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  • Soon, however, she found her way on to the Capitol, and there a new Etruscan triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, possibly going back from Etruria to Greece, was enshrined in a magnificent new temple built by Etruscan workmen and decorated in the Etruscan manner.
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  • It is surrounded by its ancient Etruscan walls, which for the greater part of the circuit are fairly well preserved.
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  • The museum of the Accademia Etrusca, a learned body founded by Ridolfino Venuti in 1726, is situated in the Palazzo Pretorio; it contains some Etruscan objects, among which may be specially noted a magnificent bronze lamp with 16 lights, of remarkably fine workmanship, found in 1740, at the foot of the hill, two votive hands and a few other bronzes, and a little gold jewellery.
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  • It appears in history as one of the strongholds of the Etruscan power; but in Roman times it is hardly mentioned.
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  • Some authorities indeed consider, and very likely with good reason, that this was the site of the Etruscan city, and that the Piano di Civita, which lies further inland and commands but little view of the sea, was only occupied in Roman times.
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  • Civita Castellana (anc. Falerii) which also occupies the site of the Etruscan city, while the Roman site, some distance away, is now abandoned.
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  • Next come the various kinds of inhumation graves, the most important of which are rock-hewn chambers, many of which contain well-preserved paintings of various periods; some show close kinship to archaic Greek art, while others are more recent, and one, the Grotta del Tifone (so called from the typhons, or winged genii of death, represented) in which Latin as well as Etruscan inscriptions appear, belongs perhaps to the middle of the 4th century B.C. Fine sarcophagi from these tombs, some showing traces of painting, are preserved in the municipal museum, and also numerous fine Greek vases, bronzes and other objects.
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  • It first appears in Roman history at the end of the 7th century B.C. when it joined the other Etruscan towns against Tarquinius Priscus, and at the end of the 6th century B.C. it placed itself, under its king Lars Porsena, at the head of the attempt to re-establish the Tarquins in Rome.
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  • Of pre-Roman or Roman buildings in the town itself there are few remains, except for some fragments of the Etruscan town walls composed of rather small rectangular blocks of travertine, built into the medieval fortifications.
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  • A conception of the size of the whole necropolis may be gathered from the fact that nearly three thousand Etruscan inscriptions have come to light from Clusium and its district alone, while the part of Etruria north of it as far as the Arno has produced barely five hundred.
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  • Among the later tombs bilingual inscriptions are by no means rare, and both Etruscan and Latin inscriptions are often found in the same cemeteries, showing that the use of the Etruscan language only died out gradually.
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  • In the cliffs opposite the town on the south is the rock-cut church of the Madonna del Parto, developed, no doubt, out of an Etruscan tomb, of which there are many here; and close by is a rock-hewn amphitheatre of the Roman period, with axes of 55 and 44 yds., now most picturesque.
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  • The word is generally supposed to mean "lords," and identified with Etruscan larth, lar; but this is by no means certain.
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  • In canvassing for the consulship he was guided by the counsels of an Etruscan soothsayer, and was accompanied in his campaigns by a Syrian prophetess.
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  • The most important relic of its Etruscan period is the Porta dell' Arco, an archway of dark greystone, about 20 ft.
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  • Volaterrae (Etruscan Velathri) was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria.
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  • It was one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan confederation, and was taken in 294 B.C. by the Romans.
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  • His instructions were for some time handed down orally, but were subsequently committed to writing, and formed the twelve books of Tages, containing a complete system of Etruscan lore.
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  • Hultsch states this to be the old Etruscan pound.
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  • But certainly an Etruscan city was situated on the hill of Colonna, where there are remains of city walls of massive limestone, in almost horizontal courses.
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  • He belonged to an ancient and noble Etruscan family settled at Ferentinum in Etruria.
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  • It is common also in Etruscan bronzes.
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  • Strong foreign influence, first Aegean and later Etruscan, can be distinguished; but the types introduced from the south have generally undergone considerable modification and expansion.
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  • For the Etruscan dominion in the Latin plain see Etruria.
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  • A constitutional revolution, involving such far-reaching changes, is not likely to have been carried out in primitive times with so little disturbance by a simple resolution of the people, and it probably points to a rising of Romans and Sabines against the dominion of an Etruscan family (Tarquinii, Tarchna) at that time established at Rome.
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  • The subjects of its nine chapters are - (I) the Corinthian, Ionic and Doric orders; (2) the ornaments of capitals, ac.; (3) the Doric order; (4) proportions of the cella and pronaos; (5) sites of temples; (6) doorways of temples and their architraves; (7) the Etruscan or Tuscan order of temples; (8) circular temples; (9) altars.
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  • The pyramids of Egypt, the mausolea of the Lydian kings, the circular, chambered sepulchres of Mycenae, and the Etruscan tombs at Caere and Vold, are lineally descended from the chambered barrows of prehistoric times, modified in construction according to the advancement of architectural art at the period of their erection.
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  • Great quantities of jewellery were found in the tombs, the gold work said to resemble the Etruscan.
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  • These have not, however, given the key to the Lydian language, nor do they support the theory that Etruscan was derived from Lydian.
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  • A few mirrors and some Greek vases were found in Etruria at Vignanello in 1913, and from an Etruscan tomb at Todi in 1915 there were obtained some bronzes and more than 70 redfigure vases.
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  • Etruscan antiquities are receiving closer study, but its first results will probably tend more to controversy than to agreement.
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  • It is still equally hard to distinguish Greek work from Etruscan art inspired by Greek models.
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  • In and below the grounds of the Villa Aria, close to it, are the remains of an Etruscan town of the 5th century B.C., protected on the west by the mountains, on the east and south by the river, which by a change of course has destroyed about half of it.
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  • Though Faesulae was an Etruscan city, we have no record of it in history until 215 B.C., when the Gauls passed near it in their march on Rome.
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  • The type is very closely related to the oldest European (Etruscan) forms, and, in a less degree, to the " South Semitic " (old Minaean and Sabaean); and since it at once begins (c. 700) to develop along separate paths (Canaanite and Aramaean), it may be inferred that the common ancestor was not of long derivation.
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  • The British Museum possesses an interesting Etruscan or Archaic Italian example of this primitive device.
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  • In 1828 he published Die Etrusker, a treatise on Etruscan antiquities.
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  • The men of Falerii, however, regularly took the side of the Etruscans in wars with Rome, and it is clear that the civilization of the old Falerii, destroyed for its rebellion in 241 B.C., was Etruscan and not Roman in character.
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  • Of Etruscan origin also is the Umbrian alphabet, represented first and foremost in the bronze tablets from Gubbio (the ancient Iguvium).
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  • The Etruscan alphabet, like the Latin, was of Chalcidian origin.
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  • That it took over the whole Chalcidian alphabet is rendered probable by the survival in Umbrian and Oscan, its daughter alphabets, of forms which are not found in Etruscan itself.
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  • If it ever existed in Etruscan, it had been lost before the Oscans and Umbrians borrowed their alphabets.
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  • This form was adopted for d because had already been borrowed from Etruscan as the symbol for r, although 9 is also found on Etruscan inscriptions.
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  • For the Greek digamma Etruscan used both 3 and q, but the former only was borrowed by the other languages.
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  • Etruscan, like Latin, used (from right to left) to represent the sound of Latin F, but, unlike Latin, adopted 8 not as the single symbol.
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  • Q is found on Etruscan inscriptions, but not in the alphabet series preserved; neither Umbrian nor Oscan has this form.
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  • T appears in Etruscan as y, 7 t, and X; of these Umbrian borrows the first two, while Oscan has a form T like Latin.
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  • It has been argued that the runes of the Teutonic peoples have been derived from a form of the Etruscan alphabet, inscriptions in which are spread over a great part of northern Italy, but of which the most characteristic are found in the neighbourhood of Lugano, and in Tirol near Innsbruck, Botzen and Trent.
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  • The place, almost the only Etruscan town built directly on the sea, was situated on a lofty hill now crowned by a conspicuous medieval castle and a poor modern village (Populonia).
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  • It is mentioned in the earliest history of Rome as a constant enemy, being the nearest Etruscan city to Rome.
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  • Others are cut in the rock and are Etruscan.
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  • In 1773 he was appointed keeper of the galleries of Florence, and thereafter studied Italian painting and Etruscan antiquities and language.
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  • In his memoir on the so-called Etruscan vases (Dei vasi antichi dipinti volgarmente chiamati Etruschi, 1806) Lanzi rightly perceived their Greek origin and characters.
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  • What was true of the antiquities would be true also, he argued, of the Etruscan language, and the object of the Saggio di lingua Etrusca was to prove that this language must be related to that of the neighbouring peoples - Romans, Umbrians, Oscans and Greeks.
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  • Some, however, assign an Etruscan origin to the ceremony, the Sibylline books themselves being looked upon as old Italian "black books."
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  • The introduction of many of the insignia both of war and of civil office is assigned to his reign, and he was the first to celebrate a Roman triumph, after the Etruscan fashion, in a robe of purple and gold, and borne on a chariot drawn by four horses.
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  • His Corinthian descent, invented by the Greeks to establish a close connexion with Rome, is impossible for chronological reasons; further, according to the genuine Roman tradition, the Tarquinii were of Etruscan, not Greek, origin.
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  • The Umbrians, who were part of the Alpine Celts, had been pressing down into Italy from the Bronze Age, though checked completely by the rise of the Etruscan power in the ioth century B.C. The invention of iron weapons made the Celts henceforth irresistible.
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  • The next great wave of Celts recorded was that which swept down on north Italy shortly before 400 B.C. These invaders broke up in a few years the Etruscan power, and even occupied Rome herself after the disaster on the Allia (390 B.C.).
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  • During a short period (1845-1850) an imitation of Etruscan ware was also produced with figures of rich red colour over a body of black.
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  • The god advised her to marry the first man she met in the street, who proved to be a wealthy Etruscan named Tarutius.
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  • The picture gallery, the cabinet of engravings, the natural history museum, the Chinese museum, and the cabinet of art, which includes a collection of Egyptian, Etruscan, Roman and German antiquities, are now included in the new museum, completed in 1878, which stands on a terrace to the south of the castle.
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  • The municipal museum (which is to be transferred to this palace) and the Palazzo Bruschi, contain fine collections of Etruscan antiquities from the tombs of Tarquinii.
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  • Of Etruscan sarcophagi there are numerous examples in terracotta; occasionally they are miniature representations of temples, and sometimes in the form of a couch on which rest figures of the deceased; one of these in the British Museum dates from 500 B.C. The earliest Roman sarcophagus is that of Scipio in the Vatican (3rd century B.C.), carved in peperino stone.
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  • Mantua had still a strong Etruscan element in its population during the Roman period.
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  • There is also the Casuccini collections of Etruscan sarcophagi, sepulchral urns and pottery.
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  • It is now generally agreed that the science of augury is of Italian, not Etruscan, origin.
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  • Otherwise, reference was made for an interpretation to the pontifices in olden times,afterwards frequently to the Sibylline books,or the Etruscan haruspices, when the incident was not already provided for by a rule, as, for example, that it was unlucky for a person leaving his house to meet a raven, that the sudden death of a person from epilepsy at a public meeting was a sign to break up the assembly.
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  • Anything abnormal found there was brought under the notice of the augurs, but usually the Etruscan haruspices were employed for this.
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  • The town hall, with a medieval tower and a 15th-century portico, contains some Etruscan sarcophagi from sites in the neighbourhood, and a few good paintings.
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  • But the site is not unreasonably considered to be ancient, and the name to be derived from Vetus urbs; tombs, too, have been found in the neighbourhood, and it is not an unlikely assumption that here, as elsewhere, the medieval town occupies the Etruscan site.
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  • This is preserved for us in some 36 short inscriptions, dating from the 3rd and 2nd centuries B.C., and is written in a peculiar alphabet derived from the Etruscan, and written from right to left, but showing some traces of the influence of the Latin alphabet.
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  • In addition to the remains found in the graves (see Falerii), which belong mainly to the period of Etruscan domination and give ample evidence of material prosperity and refinement, the earlier strata have yielded more primitive remains from the Italic epoch.
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  • A large number of inscriptions consisting mainly of proper names may be regarded as Etruscan rather than Faliscan, and they have been disregarded in the account of the dialect just given.
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  • It is probable that he was of Etruscan origin (see Wissowa, Religion and Kultus der Romer, 1902, p. 233).
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  • As the Romans learnt the use of the flute from the Etruscans, the fact of Minerva being the patron goddess of flute-players is in favour of her Etruscan origin, although it may merely be a reminiscence of the Greek story which attributed the invention of the flute to Athena.
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  • Only minutes from the city there are ancient Roman and Etruscan remains including an amphitheater that is still in use.
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  • Greek, Roman and Etruscan jewelers were to provide inspiration for many later goldsmiths.
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  • Animals include beech martens, wildcats, genets, badgers, wild boar and common, pygmy and Etruscan shrews.
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  • It solemnly deliberated over an opinion, which Etruscan soothsayers of acknowledged wisdom had furnished respecting certain signs and wonders at its special request.
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  • The hillsides surrounding my little hideaway are spotted with ancient Etruscan tombs.
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  • Jules Verne likened the appearance to an Etruscan vase.
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  • The so-called Arco di Augusto is a town gate with a Decorated superstructure, perhaps of the Etruscan period, bearing the inscription Augusta Perusia; above this again is a Renaissance loggia.
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  • The site, surrounded by ravines and accessible only on the W., is naturally strong and characteristic of an Etruscan town; on this side there is a considerable fragment of the ancient Etruscan wall, built of rectangular blocks of tufa (whether the rest of the site was protected by walls is uncertain), and a ruined castle, erected by Antonio da Sangallo the elder in 1499, for Pope Alexander VI., and restored by Pope .Paul III.
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  • In Etruscan and Roman times the Maremma was a populous and fertile coast plain, with considerable towns situated on the hills - Populonia, Russellae, Cosa, &c., and was drained by a complete system of subterranean canals which were brought to light by the excavations made in connexion with the railways passing through the district.
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  • Hence, although a priori it would be reasonable to conjecture that objects with Etruscan characteristics came from Etruria, the evidence, positive and negative, points decisively to an Etruscan factory in or near Praeneste itself" (Conway, ibid.).
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  • The castle round which the town grew up was founded I According to the theory now generally adopted, the Etruscan Volsinii occupied the site of Orvieto, which was hence called Urbs vetus in late classical and medieval times, while the Roman Volsinii was transferred to Bolaena (see VoLsINtu).
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  • Some runes symbols are likely to have been acquired from other alphabets, such as the Greek, Etruscan, and the Early Roman.
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  • Influences can be seen from the ancient Etruscan culture to the Renaissance period of the Middle Ages.
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  • This area is the oldest of Rome's four corners and was an early Etruscan settlement even during Rome's formation.
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  • It is well known that the Romans borrowed their methods of hepatoscopy from the Etruscans, and, apart from the direct evidence for this in Latin writings, we have, in the case of the bronze model of a liver found near Piacenza in 1877, and of Etruscan origin, the unmistakable proof that among the Etruscans the examination of the liver was the basis of animal divination.
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  • As for the Greeks, it is still an open question whether they perfected their method of hepatoscopy under Etruscan influence or through the Babylonians.
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  • When more is known of the earliest Etruscan inscriptions it may become possible to date the Iguvine Tables by their alphabetic peculiarities as compared with their mother-alphabet, the Etruscan.
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  • The Palazzo Faina has another interesting Etruscan collection.
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  • He joined the Illyrians in an attempt to plunder the temple of Delphi, pillaged the temple of Caere on the Etruscan coast, and founded several military colonies on the Adriatic. In the Peloponnesian War he espoused the side of the Spartans, and assisted them with mercenaries.
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  • Etruscan tombs have been found in the neighbourhood, but it is not certain that the present town stands on an ancient site.
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  • A cup found in an Etruscan tomb bears the inscription "Lavernai Pocolom," and in a fragment of Septimius Serenus Laverna is expressly mentioned in connexion with the di inferi.
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  • Etruscan shoes were prized both in Greece and in Rome.
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  • A profusion of precious stones, and absence of skill or refinement in workmanship, distinguish Roman from Greek or Etruscan jewelry; but in the character of the designs there is no real difference.
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  • It contains a rich collection of Egyptian, Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities; of coins and medals, and of industrial art.
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  • Close by are two Gothic buildings, the bishop's palace (1264) and the Palazzo dei Papi (begun in 1296), the latter with a huge hall now containing the Museo Civico, with various medieval works of art, and also objects from the Etruscan necropolis of the ancient Volsinii (q.v.).
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