There are signs of trade with Etruria as early as the 7th century B.C. The Carthaginians made it into an important grainproducing centre; and the Romans set foot in the island more than once during the First Punic War.
As to the introduction of domesticated cats into Europe, the opinion is very generally held that tame cats from Egypt were imported at a relatively early date into Etruria by Phoenician traders; and there is decisive evidence that these animals were established in Italy long before the Christian era.
Palo), an ancient town of Etruria, 29 m.
It was one of the oldest cities of Etruria, but does not appear in history till the Roman colonization of 247 B.C., and was never of great importance, except as a resort of wealthy Romans, many of whom (Pompey, the Antonine emperors) had villas there.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, i.
On his death in 1802 the duchies were incorporated with the French republic and his son Louis became "king of Etruria."
(son of Louis of Etruria and Marie Louise, daughter of Charles IV., king of Spain).
The ancient Perusia first appears in history as one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria.
The existing seven were first published in a careful but largely mistaken transcript by Buonarotti in 1724, as an appendix to Dempster's De Etruria Regali.
The Magra (Macra), in ancient times the boundary between Liguria and Etruria, may be considered as constituting on this side the limit of Northern Italy.
The district west of the Apennines, a region of great beauty and fertility, though inferior in productiveness to Northern Italy, coincides in a general way with the countries familiar to all students of ancient history as Etruria and Latium.
To the latter category it is now possible to refer with certainty only the Etruscans (for the chronology and limits of their occupation of Italian soil see ETRURIA: section Language).
Except, therefore, for a very small and apparently isolated area in the north of Latium and south of Etruria, all the tribes of Italy, though their idioms differed in certain particulars, are left undiscriminated.
The sixth region was formed by Umbria, in the more extended sense of the term, as including the Ager Gallicus, along the coast of the Adriatic from the Aesis to the Ariminus, and separated from Etruria on the west by the Tiber.
The seventh region consisted of Etruria, which preserved its ancient limits, extending from the Tiber to the Tyrrhenian Sea, and separated from Liguria on the north by the river Macra.
It was separated from Etruria and Umbria by the main chain of the Apennines; and the river Ariminus was substituted for the far-famed Rubicon as its limit on the Adriatic.
renamed the kingdom of Etruria.
proceeded with plans which he had secretl) concerted after the treaty of Tilsit for transferring the infantf of Spain who, after the death of her consort, reigned at Florence on behalf of her young son, Charles Louis, from her kingdom of Etruria to the little principality of Entre Douro e Ceeral Minho which he proposed to carve out from the north Y~ of Portugal.
Etruria reverted to the French empire, but the Spanish princess and her son did not receive the promised indemnity.
The fertility of its territory and its manufacture of black glazed pottery, which was even exported to Etruria, made it prosperous.
The north of Portugal was to go to the widow of the king of Etruria (a Spanish Infanta); her realm now passing into the hands of Napoleon.
Catulus defeated him at the Mulvian bridge and near Cosa in Etruria, and Lepidus made his escape to Sardinia, where he died soon afterwards.
Numbers of statues - among them a series of draped and richlycoloured female figures - masterpieces of painted pottery, only equalled by the Attic vases found in Magna Grecia and Etruria, and numerous bronzes, were among the treasures of art now brought to light.
The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
VOLCI, or Vulci, an ancient town of Etruria.
Volci was one of the twelve towns of Etruria.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883), i.
VOLSINII, an ancient town of Etruria, Italy.
Volsinii was reputed the richest of the twelve cities of Etruria.
As to cultivation of the plant in Europe, according to Strabo the Romans obtained the papyrus plant from Lake Trasimene and other lakes of Etruria, but this statement is unsupported by any other ancient authority.
The rock-hewn tombs of Etruria scarcely come under the category of catacombs, in the usual sense, being rather independent family burial-places, grouped together in a necropolis.
(From Dennis.) occasionally forming " a spacious square or piazza surrounded by tombs instead of houses " (Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, ii.
c. 19, § 4), was the distinguishing mark of Porsena's tomb, and which have led some adventurous archaeologists to identify this sepulchre with that of the great king of Etruria (Dennis, u.s., pp. 393 ff.).
Nepet had become Roman before 386 B.C., when Livy speaks of it and Sutrium as the keys of Etruria.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883, i.
It is possible that Montefiascone occupies the site of the Fanum Voltumnae, at which the representatives of the twelve chief cities of Etruria met in the days of their independence; while under the Empire the festival was held near Volsinii.
The fashion of shoes worn by Roman senators was said to have been derived from Etruria.
In 1809 Florence was made capital of the kingdom of Etruria, but after the fall of Napoleon in 1814 Ferdinand was reinstated.
The authentic history of Etruria is very meagre, and consists mainly in the story of its relations with Carthage, Greece and Rome.
At some period unknown, prior to the 6th century, the Etrurians became a conquering people and extended their power not only northwards over, probably, Mantua, Felsina, Melpum and perhaps Hadria and Ravenna (Etruria Circumpadana), but also southwards into Latium and Campania.
The chronology of this expansion is entirely unknown, nor can we recover with certainty the names of the cities which constituted the two leagues of twelve founded in the conquered districts on the analogy of the original league in Etruria proper (below).
This theory is corroborated by the fact that during the reigns of the Tarquin kings Rome appears as the mistress of a district including part of Etruria, several cities in Latium, and the whole of Campania, whereas our earliest picture of republican Rome is that of a small state in the midst of enemies.
Henceforward Etruria is finally merged in the Roman state.
Being situated on the coast road (Via Aemilia) it was important as a frontier fortress against Liguria, to which, and not to Etruria, it really belonged, perhaps, up to the time of Sulla, the actual boundary lying between it and Vada Volaterrana (mod.
PORSENA (or [[Porsenna), Lars]], king of Clusium in Etruria.
(a) Tradition always assigned to the last three kings of Rome a connexion with the mysterious people of Etruria, and their influence at this period though not very definite was certainly extensive.
To them, possibly Etruria.
Soon, however, she found her way on to the Capitol, and there a new Etruscan triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, possibly going back from Etruria to Greece, was enshrined in a magnificent new temple built by Etruscan workmen and decorated in the Etruscan manner.
See further, Greek Religion; Mithras; Etruria, Religion; and articles on the deities, festivals and colleges.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883), ii.
Corneto Tarquinia, q.v.), an ancient city of Etruria, Italy, situated on a hill overlooking' the S.W.
The case would be parallel to others in Etruria, e.g.
It was the chief of the twelve cities of Etruria, and appears in the earliest history of Rome as the home of two of its kings, Tarquinius Priscus and Tarquinius Superbus.
Chiusi, q.v.), an ancient town of Italy, one of the twelve cities of Etruria, situated on an isolated hill at the S.
It was according to Roman tradition one of the oldest cities of Etruria and indeed of all Italy, and, if Camars (the original name of the town, according to Livy) is rightly connected with the Camertes Umbri, its foundation would go back to pre-Etruscan times.
A conception of the size of the whole necropolis may be gathered from the fact that nearly three thousand Etruscan inscriptions have come to light from Clusium and its district alone, while the part of Etruria north of it as far as the Arno has produced barely five hundred.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria(London,1883),ii.290 seq.; L.
The position of Sutri was important, commanding as it did the road into Etruria, the later Via Cassia; and it is spoken of by Livy as one of the keys of Etruria, Nepet being the other.
Herodotus, who omits wholly the histories of Phoenicia, Carthage and Etruria, three of the most important among the states existing in his day, cannot have intended to compose a "universal history," the very idea of which belongs to a later age.
Fosso della Valchetta), a small stream in Etruria which falls into the Tiber about 6 m.
His worship, introduced from the Greek colonies in Etruria and in the south of Italy, seems to have been established in Rome from the earliest times, as two old Patrician genies were associated with his cult and the Fabii claimed him as their ancestor.
Later he gave his adherence to Napoleon, and became ambassador in Etruria and Spain; he died in 1823.
The principal public buildings in the old town of Stoke are the town hall, with assembly rooms, law library and art gallery, the market hall, the Minton memorial building, containing a school of art and science; the free library and museum, and the North Staffordshire infirmary, founded in 1815 at Etruria, and removed to its present site in 1868.
At that time Napoleon was pressing Lucien for important reasons of state to marry the widow of the king of Etruria, and on hearing of his brother's action he ordered him to leave French territory.
Volaterrae (Etruscan Velathri) was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria.
It is included by Pliny among the municipal towns of Etruria.
Its position at the entrance to the valley of the Magra (anc. Macra), the boundary between Etruria and Liguria in Roman times, gave it military importance in the middle ages.
RUSELLAE, an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, about 10 m.
In 283 they were defeated, together with the Etruscans, at the Vadimonian lake; in 224, after the battle of Telamon in Etruria, they were forced to submit.
Shortly afterwards the French arms suffered severe reverses in Italy, and Ferdinand was restored to his territories; but in 1801, by the peace of Luneville, Tuscany was converted into the kingdom of Etruria, and he was again compelled to return to Vienna.
MUSONIUS RUFUS, a Roman philosopher of the 1st century A.D., was born in Etruria about A.D.
TAGES (Teiges), a minor Etruscan deity, grandson of Jupiter, and founder of the art of divination in Etruria.
In Etruria it probably appears in tombs as 12.45 (25); perhaps in Roman Britain; and in medieval England as 12.47 (25).
Hence we see that it probably passed from the East through Greece to Etruria, and thence became the standard foot of Rome; there, though divided by the Italian duodecimal system into 12 unciae, it always maintained its original 16 digits, which are found marked on some of the foot-measures.
VETULONIUM, or Vetulonia (Etruscan Veltuna), an ancient town of Etruria, .Italy, the site of which is probably occupied by the modern village of Vetulonia, which up to 1887 bore the name of Colonna.
The place is little mentioned in ancient literature, though Silius Italicus tells us that it was hence that the Romans took their magisterial insignia (fasces, curule chair, purple toga and brazen trumpets), and it was undoubtedly one of the twelve cities of Etruria.
He belonged to an ancient and noble Etruscan family settled at Ferentinum in Etruria.
As he states himself: " Westward I have journeyed to the parts of Etruria opposite Sardinia; towards the south from the Euxine to the borders of Ethiopia; and perhaps not one of those who have written geographies has visited more places than I have between those limits."
Finally, in the spirit of Plato's Phaedo and the dialogue Eudemus, the Protrepticus holds that the soul is bound to the sentient members of the body as prisoners in Etruria are bound face to face with corpses; whereas the later view of the De Anima is that the soul is the vital principle of the body and the body the necessary organ of the soul.
Antoninus died of fever at Lorium in Etruria, about 12 m.
The -tisuffix is comparatively frequent in the Volscian district and very frequent in the Umbrian; it is also fairly well represented in Latium and Etruria.
They were introduced into Rome from lower Italy by way of Etruria, and held in secret, attended by women only, on three days in the year in the grove of Simila (Stimula, Semele; Ovid, Fasti, vi.
The foundation of Clusium in Etruria was attributed to him.
Objects in metal and ivory discovered in the earliest graves prove that as early as the 8th or 7th century B.C. Praeneste had reached a considerable degree of civilization and stood in commercial relations not only with Etruria but with the East.
Arezzo), an ancient city of Etruria, in the upper valley of the Arno, situated on the Via Cassia, 50 m.
by Etruria, on the S.W.
Remains of similar drainage channels exist in many parts of the Campagna Romana and of southern Etruria at points where the natural drainage was not sufficient, and especially in cultivated or inhabited hills (though it was not necessary here, as in the neighbourhood of Velletri, to create a drainage system, as streams and rivers were already present as natural collectors) and streams very frequently pass through them at the present day.
The earliest cemeteries and hut foundations of the Alban Hills belong to the Iron age, and cemeteries and objects of a similar character have been found in Rome itself and in southern Etruria, especially the characteristic hut-urns.
For the Etruscan dominion in the Latin plain see Etruria.
In 3 87, after the departure of the Gauls, southern Etruria was conquered, and four new tribes were formed: Arnensis (probably derived from Aro, mod.
Its resistance was punished by the destruction of its walls and the banishment of its town councillors to Etruria, while their lands were handed over to Roman colonists.
The vases were of the last red figure style, and were mostly imported from Greece or Magna Graecia, while the bronze objects came from Etruria, and the brooches (fibulae) from Gaul.
Some help actually came from Etruria.
(1) The first Brennus crossed the Apennines in 391 B.C., ravaged Etruria, and annihilated a Roman army of about 40,000 men on the Allia some 12 m.
A few mirrors and some Greek vases were found in Etruria at Vignanello in 1913, and from an Etruscan tomb at Todi in 1915 there were obtained some bronzes and more than 70 redfigure vases.
That the archaic art of Etruria was wholly Greek it is hard to believe.
In Gaul, on the other hand, the Iron Age dates back some Soo years B.C.; while in Etruria the metal was known some six centuries earlier.
Fiesole, q.v.), an ancient city of Etruria, on the height 3 m.
Lago di Martignano), a small lake in southern Etruria, 15 m.
FASCES, in Roman antiquities, bundles of elm or birch rods from which the head of an axe projected, fastened together by a red strap. Nothing is known of their origin, the tradition that represents them as borrowed by one of the kings from Etruria resting on insufficient grounds.
In 1769 they opened splendid new works, near Hanley, that with their classic leanings they christened" Etruria."
Bentley died in 1780 and Wedgwood remained sole owner of the Etruria works until 1790, when he took some of his sons and a nephew, named Byerley, into partner - ship. He died on the 3rd of January 1795, rich in honours and in friends, for besides being a great potter he was a man of high moral worth, and was associated with many noted men of his time, amongst whom should be mentioned Sir Joseph Banks, Joseph Priestley and Erasmus Darwin.
His descendants have carried on the business at Etruria to this day, and have lately established at the works a Wedgwood museum of great interest.
The history of Italy supplies a few examples, of which the chief is perhaps the league of the cities of Latium (q.v.; see also Etruria) .
FESCENNIA, an ancient city of Etruria, which is probably to be placed immediately to the N.
Dennis (Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, London, 1883, i.
POPULONIUM (Etruscan Pupluna), an ancient seaport town of Etruria, Italy, at the north end of the peninsular of Monte Massoncello, at the south end of which is situated the town of Piombino.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883, ii.
Its pottery, which resembled the Corinthian ware, was exported with the latter as far as Etruria.
On the outbreak of the Catilinarian conspiracy, Antonius was obliged to lead an army into Etruria, but handed over the command on the day of battle to Marcus Petreius, on the ground of ill-health.
On the approach of Octavian, he retired to Perusia in Etruria, where he was besieged by three armies, and compelled to surrender (winter of 41).
VEII, an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, situated about io m.
The most famous is the Grotta Campana found in 1843, which contains paintings on the walls with representations of animals, among the earliest in Etruria.
Caere vetus, see below), an ancient city of Etruria about 5 m.
It was one of the twelve cities of Etruria, and its trade, through its port Pyrgos, was of considerable importance.
of Etruria in exchange for his Italian kingdom; Algarve and Alemtejo were to form a separate principality for Godoy; the remaining provinces were to be garrisoned by French troops until a general peace should be concluded.
He is represented as the son of a Greek refugee, who removed from Tarquinii in Etruria to Rome, by the advice of his wife, the prophetess Tanaquil.
Rutilius even exaggerates the desolation of the once important city of Cosa in Etruria,.
Catiline now resolved upon open war; preparations were set on foot throughout Italy, especially in Etruria, where the standard of revolt was raised by the centurion C. Manlius (or Mallius), one of Sulla's veterans.
On the next day Cicero attacked Catiline so vigorously in the senate (in his first Catilinarian oration) that he fled to his army in Etruria.
As an institution (supposed by some to have been borrowed from Etruria) they went back to the regal period and continued to exist till imperial times.
It must have become a municipium by the lex Julia of 90 B.e., and it was here that Julius Caesar in 56 B.C. held his famous conference with Pompey and Crassus, Luca then being still in Liguria, not in Etruria.
It was occupied by the Neapolitans in 1814; from 1816 to 1847 it was governed as a duchy by Maria Luisa, queen of Etruria, and her son Charles Louis; and it afterwards formed one of the divisions of Tuscany.
In 391 they invaded Etruria and besieged Clusium.
A Roman colony was established at Sena, called Sena Gallica to distinguish it from Sena Julia (Siena) in Etruria.
In order to ensure a supply of corn sufficient to enable it to be sold at a very low price, it was procured in large quantities from Umbria, Etruria and Sicily.
The earlier Roman writers speak of the region between the northern boundaries of Etruria and Umbria and the Alps as Gallia Cisalpina.
In like manner, as the Romans themselves believed, the art was not indigenous in Rome, but derived from Etruria.'
The art was practised in Rome chiefly by Etruscans, occasionally by native-born Romans who had studied in the priestly schools of Etruria.
From the regal period to the end of the republic, haruspices were summoned from Etruria to deal with prodigies not mentioned in the pontifical and Sibylline books, and the Roman priests carried out their instructions as to the offering necessary to appease the anger of the deity concerned.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (2 vols., London, 1883).
- Etruria (q.v.) was finally annexed to Rome in 351 B.C., and constituted the seventh of the eleven regions into which Italy was, for administrative purposes, divided by Augustus.
Joachim Murat (afterwards king of Naples) set up a provisional government, and by the peace of Luneville Tuscany was made a part of the Spanish dominions and erected into the kingdom of Etruria under Louis, duke of Parma (1801).
A lituus found in a Roman warrior's tomb at Cervetri (Etruria) in 1827 is preserved in the Vatican.
94), Tyrsenus, the son of Attis, led to Etruria.
Saturnia), an ancient town of Etruria Italy, about 23 m.
On the completion of his arts course, he nominally studied divinity at Edinburgh until 1787; in1788-1789he spent rather more than a year as private tutor in a Virginian family, and from 1790 till the close of 1792 he held a similar appointment at Etruria in Staffordshire, with the family of Josiah Wedgwood, employing his spare time in experimental research and in preparing a translation of Buffon's Natural History of Birds, which was published in nine 8vo vols.
The same formative element appears in the adjective Mons Massicus, and the names Glanica and Marica belonging to the Auruncan district, with Graviscae in south Etruria, and a few other names in central Italy (see " I due strati nella popolazione Indo-Europea dell' Italia Antica," in the Atti del Congresso Internazionale di Scienze Storiche, Rome, 1903, p. 17).
The conclusion suggested is that these -COtribes occupied the centre and west coast of Italy at the time of the Etruscan invasion (see Etruria: Language); whereas the -NOtribes only reached this part of Italy, or at least only became dominant there, long after the Etruscans had settled in the Peninsula.
The existing seven were first published in a careful but largely mistaken transcript by Buonarotti in 1724, as an appendix to Dempster's De Etruria Regali.'
LATIN LANGUAGE, OSCA LINGUA, IGUVIUM, V0LScI, ETRURIA: section Language, and below).
In central Italy the influence of the First Consul was paramount; for in 1801 he transformed the grand duchy of Tuscany into the kingdom of Etruria for the duke of Parma; and, seeing that that promotion added lustre to the fortunes of the duchess of Parma (a Spanish infanta), Spain consented lamely enough to the cession of Louisiana to France.
ETRURIA, an ancient district of Italy, the extent of which varied considerably, and, especially in the earliest periods, is very difficult to define (see section Language).
of Syracuse; Etruria Circumpadana was occupied by the Gauls, the Campanian cities by the Samnites, who took Capua (see Campania) in 423, and in 396, after a ten years' siege, Veii fell to the Romans.
In this temple the deities were represented by images, and on its dedication day, September 13th, at the novel festival of the epulum Jovis, the images were adorned and set out as partakers of the feast, a proceeding wholly foreign to the native Roman religion (see further Etruria, § Religion).
The shouts of the ploughman (Tarchon) brought to the spot all the people of Etruria, whom the boy proceeded to instruct in the art of divination.
"The caskets are unique in Italy, but a large number of mirrors of precisely similar style have been discovered in Etruria and are published in full by the German Archaeological School at Rome: Etruskische Spiegeln, vol.
Hence, although a priori it would be reasonable to conjecture that objects with Etruscan characteristics came from Etruria, the evidence, positive and negative, points decisively to an Etruscan factory in or near Praeneste itself" (Conway, ibid.).
But leaving the questions suggested by these names (see Etruria, &c.), 2 as well as those which relate to the origin of Pompeii (q.v.), it is sufficient here to say that the first historical record about Herculaneum has been handed down by Livy (viii.
His father, whom he calls Lachanius, had held high offices in Italy and at the imperial court, had been governor of Tuscia (Etruria and Umbria), then imperial treasurer (comes sacrarum largitionum), imperial recorder (quaestor), and governor of the capital itself (praefectus urbi).
In the Augustan division of Italy Luca was assigned to the 7th region (Etruria); it is little mentioned in the imperial period except as a meeting-point of roads - to Florentia (see Clodia, Via), Luna and Pisae.
VIA CASSIA, an ancient high-road of Italy, leading from Rome through Etruria to Florentia (Florence); at the 11th mile the Via Clodia (see Clodia, Via) diverged north-north-west, while the Via Cassia ran to the east of the Lacus Sabatinus and then through the place now called Sette Vene, where a road, probably the Via Annia, branched off to Falerii, through Sutrium (where the Via Ciminia, running along the east edge of the Lacus Ciminius, diverged from it, to rejoin it at Aquae Passeris, north of the modern Viterbo 1), Forum Cassii, Volsinii, Clusium and Arretium, its line being closely followed by the modern highroad from Rome to Florence.
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