Ethylene sentence example

ethylene
  • This discovery he worked out very thoroughly in investigations of ethylene oxide and the polyethylene alcohols.
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  • To see how this law follows from Dalton's theory let us consider his diagrams for the molecules of water, ethylene and the oxides of carbon.
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  • However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.
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  • In water and in ethylene experiment shows that 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 6 parts of carbon, respectively, are in union with one part of hydrogen; also, if the diagrams are correct, these numbers must be in the ratio of the atomic weights of oxygen and carbon.
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  • For example, ethylene, C2H4 j is formed with absorption of 16200 cal., acetylene, C 2 H 2, with absorption of 59100 cal., and liquid benzene, C 6 H 6, with absorption of 9100 cal.
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  • A consequence of this empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included in the same division.
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  • Perkin, junr., in 1883, that ethylene and trimethylene bromides are capable of acting in such a way on sodium acetoacetic ester as to form triand tetramethylene rings.
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  • From these results Baeyer concluded that Claus' formula with three para-linkings cannot possibly be correct, for the Q2.5 dihydroterephthalic acid undoubtedly has two ethylene linkages, since it readily takes up two or four atoms of bromine, and is oxidized in warm aqueous solution by alkaline potassium permanganate.
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  • But, at the same time, the constants in the above relation are not identical with those in the corresponding relation empirically deduced from observations on fatty hydrocarbons; and we are therefore led to conclude that a benzene union is considerably more stable than an ethylene union.
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  • In general, therefore, it may be considered that the double linkages are not of exactly the same nature as the double linkage present in ethylene and ethylenoid compounds, but that they are analogous to the potential valencies of benzene.
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  • It is remarkable that the position of the halogen in the molecule has no effect on the heat of formation; for example, chlorpropylene and allylchloride, and also ethylene dichloride and ethylidene dichloride, have equal heats of formation.
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  • When heated with zinc dust, it yields ethylene and water.
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  • Dumas, who regarded them as hydrates of olefiant gas (ethylene); on the other they yielded chloroform, chloral and aldehyde, as well as other compounds of less general interest, and also the method of forming mirrors by depositing silver from a slightly ammoniacal solution by acet aldehyde.
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  • Methane and its homologues give origin to the " paraffin " or " fatty series " of the general formula C,H 2, ,+ 1 000H, ethylene gives origin to the acrylic acid series, C n H 27, - 1 000H, and so on.
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  • In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.
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  • Alcohol is produced by fermentation from vegetable substances containing starch or sugar, from fermentable sugars produced by the hydrolysis of cellulosic bodies, and synthetically from calcium carbide and from the ethylene contained in coal and coke-oven gases.
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  • The higher members of the series readily polymerize in the presence of dilute sulphuric acid, zinc chloride, &c. For the first member of the series see Ethylene.
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  • A Klages (Ber., 1902, 35, pp. 2633 et seq.) has shown that if one uses an excess of magnesium and of an alkyl halide with a ketone, an ethylene derivative is formed.
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  • Two acids corresponding to this empirical formula are known - namely ethylene succinic acid, H0 2 C CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H and ethylidene succinic acid CH3 CH(C02H)2.
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  • Ethylene succinic acid occurs in amber, in various resins and lignites, in fossilized wood, in many members of the natural orders of Papaveraceae and Compositae, in unripe grapes, urine and blood.
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  • Succinonitrile, C2H4(CN)2r is obtained by the action of potassium cyanide on ethylene dibromide or by the electrolysis of a solution of potassium cyanacetate.
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  • It may be distinguished from the isomeric ethylene succinic acid by the fact that its sodium salt does not give a precipitate with ferric chloride.
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  • The '1.1' dicarboxylic acid is prepared from ethylene dibromide and sodio-malonic ester.
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  • These acids are obtained by the reduction of the hydrobromides of the diand tetra-hydroterephthalic acids or by the action of ethylene dibromide on disodio-butane tetracarboxylic acid.
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  • The olefines - ethylene, &c. - are generally absorbed by a very strong sulphuric acid prepared by adding sulphur trioxide to sulphuric acid to form a mixture which solidifies when slightly cooled.
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  • Ethane, when heated to this degree, splits up into ethylene and hydrogen, whilst ethylene decomposes to methane and acetylene, and the acetylene at once polymerizes to benzene, styrolene, retene, &c. A portion also condenses, and at the same time loses some hydrogen, becoming naphthalene; and the compounds so formed by interactions amongst themselves build up the remainder of the hydrocarbons present in the coal tar, whilst the organic substances containing oxygen in the coal break down, and cause the formation of the phenols in the tar.
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  • There is very little doubt that the general course of the decompositions follows these iines; but any such simple explanation of the actions taking place is rendered impossible by the fact that, instead of the breaking-down of the hydrocarbons being completed in the coal, and only secondary reactions taking place in the retort, in practice the hydrocarbons to a great extent leave the coal as the vapours of condensible hydrocarbons, and the breaking down of these to such simple gaseous compounds as ethylene is proceeding in the retort at the same time as the breaking up of the ethylene already formed into acetylene and methane, and the polymerization of the former into higher compounds.
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  • Starting with a solid hydrocarbon of definite composition, it would be theoretically possible to decompose it entirely into carbon, hydrogen, ethylene and methane, and, by rapidly removing these from the heating zone before any secondary actions took place, to prevent formation of tar.
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  • The idea held up to about 1890 was that the illuminating value depended upon the amount of ethylene present.
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  • But here again another mistaken idea arose, owing to a faulty method of estimating the benzene, and there is no doubt that methane is one of the most important of the hydrocarbons present, when the gas is burnt in such a way as to evolve from it the proper illuminating power, whilst the benzene vapour, small as the quantity is, comes next in importance and the ethylene last.
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  • The train consists mainly of white tanks carrying liquid chlorine, with a couple of gray ethylene dibromide tanks at the rear.
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  • The manufacturing facilities at the site will be modified to suit DuPont's specialty ethylene copolymers.
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  • The ethylene cracker is expandable to 1·5 million tons, which would make it the world's largest.
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  • The process by-passes the ethylene cracker and avoids the intermediate product ethylene dichloride.
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  • Their effects include stem elongation, ethylene synthesis & root growth inhibition.
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  • The gas ethene (ethylene) is a key to the ripening process.
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  • This includes the use of products containing ethanol to produce ethylene.
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  • The existing capacity for Unipol polyethylene will be expanded to use the additional ethylene will be expanded to use the additional ethylene.
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  • This is oxidized in air with a catalyst to form ethylene oxide, which is then hydrated to produce ethylene glycol.
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  • It is also currently building an 800,000 tons ethylene plant.
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  • It is formed as a reaction to the stress hormone ethylene and the plant hormone ABA (abscisic acid ).
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  • Dandelion plants release ethylene which can affect the growth of neighboring plants.
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  • Consider using animal-friendly products that use propylene glycol rather than those containing ethylene glycol.
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  • Included in the expansion is a second 800,000 tons steam cracker, a 535,000 tons polyethylene plant and a 410,000 tons ethylene glycol plant.
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  • The two materials investigated were a carbon black filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and a filled ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA ).
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  • There is an answer, natural zeolite absorbs ethylene gas and can therefore be used to prolong the life of your vegetables.
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  • When heated with hydriodic acid (specific gravity 1.96) it forms amino-acetic acid, and with tin and hydrochloric acid it yields ethylene diamine.
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  • In the first group we may mention the homologous series of hydrocarbons derived from ethylene, given by the general formula C 7, H 2, ,,, and the two compounds methylene-oxide and honey-sugar C6H1206.
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  • This, however, is manifestly incorrect, as, if it were true, 4% of ethylene mixed with 96% of a combustible diluent such as hydrogen should give 16to 17-candle gas, whereas a mixture of 10% of ethylene and 90% of hydrogen is devoid of luminosity.
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  • The two materials investigated were a carbon black filled high density polyethylene (HDPE) and a filled ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA).
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  • Instead, rubber RV roofs are manufactured from Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM), a special type of long lasting rubber made specifically for use in roofing.
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