Ethyl Sentence Examples
Another fact of considerable technical importance is, that the various races of yeast show considerable differences in the amount and proportion of fermentation products other than ethyl alcohol and carbonic acid which they produce.
Many organic compounds of boron are known; thus, from the action of the trichloride on ethyl alcohol or on methyl alcohol, ethyl borate B(OC2H5)3 and methyl borate B(OCH 3) 3 are obtained.
The acid is considered to possess the structure 0 2 S(SH) (OH), since sodium thiosulphate reacts with ethyl bromide to give sodium ethyl thiosulphate, which on treatment with barium chloride gives presumably barium ethyl thiosulphate.
Held synthesized the acid from ethyl chlor-acetoacetate (from chlorine and acetoacetic ester) by heating with potassium cyanide and saponifying the resulting nitrile.
However, in 1833, Berzelius reverted to his earlier opinion that oxygenated radicals were incompatible with his electrochemical theory; he regarded benzoyl as an oxide of the radical C 14 H 1Q, which he named " picramyl " (from 7rucp6s, bitter, and &uvyalk, almond), the peroxide being anhydrous benzoic acid; and he dismissed the views of Gay Lussac and Dumas that ethylene was the radical of ether, alcohol and ethyl chloride, setting up in their place the idea that ether was a suboxide of ethyl, (C2H5)20, which was analogous to K 2 0, while alcohol was an oxide of a radical C 2 H 6; thus annihilating any relation between these two compounds.Advertisement
This view was modified by Liebig, who regarded ether as ethyl oxide, and alcohol as the hydrate of ethyl oxide; here, however, he was in error, for he attributed to alcohol a molecular weight double its true value.
Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."
Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
From similar investigations of valerianic acid he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c., combined with the double carbon equivalent C2.
We may notice that ethyl oxalosuccinonitrile is the first case of a fluorescent aliphatic compound.Advertisement
This compound gives a blue potassiumand lithium-ultramarine when treated with the corresponding chloride, and an ethyl-ultramarine when treated with ethyl icdide.
With sodium ethylate in ethyl acetate solution it forms the sodium derivative of benzoyl acetone, from which benzoyl acetone, C6H5.CO.CH2.CO.CH3, can be obtained by acidification with acetic acid.
The reaction is a general one for all aldehydes with zinc methyl and zinc ethyl, but not with the higher zinc alkyls.
Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and ozone oxidizes it to ethyl peroxide.
For this purpose it is best applied as a fine spray, but ethyl chloride is generally found more efficient and produces less subsequent discomfort.Advertisement
From the alloy containing 25% of silicon, the excess of magnesium is removed by a mixture of ethyl iodide and ether and a residue consisting of slate-blue octahedral crystals of magnesium silicide is left.
Triethyl silicol, (C2H5),Si OH, is a true alcohol, obtained by condensing zinc ethyl with silicic ester, the resulting substance of composition, (C2H5)3 SiOC2H51 with acetyl chloride yielding a chloro-compound (C2H5)3SiC1, which with aqueous ammonia yields the alcohol.
It is easily broken down by many substances (aluminium chloride, zinc chloride, &c.) into ethyl chloride and carbon dioxide.
Rhamnose or isodulcite, a component of certain glucosides, fucose, found combined in seaweeds and chinovose, present as its ethyl ester, chinovite, in varieties of quina-bark, are methyl pentoses.
Examples are water and methyl or ethyl alcohol.Advertisement
Substituted oxamides are produced by the action of primary amines on ethyl oxalate.
Sphondylium contain it mixed with ethyl alcool.
Pure ethyl alcohol is a colourless, mobile liquid of an agreeable odour.
Commercial alcohol or "spirits of wine" contains about 90% of pure ethyl alcohol, the remainder being water.
Traces of ethyl alcohol in solutions are detected and estimated by oxidation to acetaldehyde, or by conversion into iodoform by warming with iodine and potassium hydroxide.Advertisement
An alternative method consists in converting it into ethyl benzoate by shaking with benzoyl chloride and caustic soda.
It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization.
Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in ethyl alcohol with the production of alcoholates of the formula C2 H5 OK(Na).
The phosphorous haloids give the corresponding ethyl haloid.
Oxidation of ethyl alcohol gives acetaldehyde and acetic acid.
In contact with nascent hydrogen it builds up ethylene; ethylene acted upon by sulphuric acid yields ethyl sulphuric acid; this can again be decomposed in the presence of water, to yield alcohol, and it has also been proposed to manufacture sugar from this body.
The amount of methyl alcohol present in wood spirit is determined by converting it into methyl iodide by acting with phosphorus iodide; and the acetone by converting it into iodoform by boiling with an alkaline solution of iodine in potassium iodide; ethyl alcohol is detected by giving acetylene on heating with concentrated sulphuric acid, methyl alcohol, !under the same circumstances, giving methyl ether.
Oxidation gives formaldehyde, formic acid and carbonic acid; chlorine and bromine react, but less readily than with ethyl alcohol.
It fumes in air; with water it gives ZrOI 2.8H 2 0; and with alcohol ethyl iodide and zirconium hydroxide are formed.
It can be prepared by the reduction of phenyl propiolic acid with zinc and acetic acid, by heating benzal malonic acid, by the condensation of ethyl acetate with benzaldehyde in the presence of sodium ethylate or by the so-called "Perkin reaction"; the latter being the method commonly employed.
Aeuer (Ber., 1904, 37, p. 2 53 6; Ann., 1904, 337, p. 362), who converted pure ethyl iodide into hydriodic acid and subsequently into silver iodide, which they then analysed, obtained the value 126.026 (H =1); a discussion of this and other values gave as a mean 126.97 (0=16).
It is detected by heating with ordinary alcohol and sulphuric acid, which gives rise to acetic ester or ethyl acetate, recognized by its" fragrant odour; or by heating with arsenious oxide, which forms the pungent and poisonous cacodyl oxide.
Thus in the ethyl series we find an absorption at 740, and a characteristic band, one edge of which is at 892 and the other at 920.
If we find a body containing the 740 absorption and a band with the most refrangible edge commencing at 892, or with the least refrangible edge terminating at 920, we may be pretty sure that we have an ethyl radical present.
The only trace we can find at present is in ethyl bromide, in which the radical band about 90o is curtailed in one wing.
Heated with anhydrous sodium acetate and acetic anhydride it gives cinnamic acid; with ethyl bromide and sodium it forms triphenyl-carbinol (C 6 H 5) 3 C OH; with dimethylaniline and anhydrous zinc chloride it forms leuco-malachite green C6H5CH[C6H4N(CH3)2]2; and with dimethylaniline and concentrated hydrochloric acid it gives dimethylaminobenzhydrol, C 6 H 5 CH(OH)C 6 H 4 N(CH 3) 2.
That orthoboric acid is a tribasic acid is shown by the formation of ethyl orthoborate on esterification, the vapour density of which corresponds to the molecular formula B(0C2H5)3; the molecular formula of the acid must consequently be B(OH) 3 or H 3 B0 3.
In the preparation of chloroform by the action of bleaching powder on ethyl alcohol it is probable that the alcohol is ..rst oxidized to acetaldehyde, which is subsequently chlorinated and then decomposed.
When heated with water it forms ethyl hydroxy-acetate; with alcohol it yields ethyl ethoxyacetate.
With the Grignard reagent, they form addition compounds which on the addition of water yield tertiary alcohols, except in the case of ethyl formate, where a secondary alcohol is obtained.
Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua) and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.
Besides ethyl or ordinary alcohol, and amyl alcohol, which are present in them all, there have been found in fusel oil several other bodies of the C i, H 27, + 1.
Pure ethyl alcohol intoxication, indeed, is rarely seen, being modified in the case of spirits by the higher alcohols contained in fusel oil.
Benzamide, C 6 H 5 CONH 2, is prepared by the action of benzoyl chloride on ammonia or ammonium carbonate, or from ethyl benzoate and ammonia.
Methyl ethyl ether, CH 3.0.
For diethyl ether see Ether, and for methyl phenyl ether (anisole) and ethyl phenyl ether (phenetole) see Carbolic Acid.
More volatile anaesthetics such as anestile or anaesthyl and coryl are produced by mixing with methyl chloride; a mixture of ethyl and methyl chlorides with ethyl bromide is known as somnoform.
It is also produced by the electrolysis of a concentrated solution of potassium ethyl malonate.
Geuther, who showed that the chief product of the action of sodium on ethyl acetate was a sodium compound of composition C6H903Na, which on treatment with acids gave a colourless, somewhat oily liquid of composition C6H1003.
The substance is best prepared by drying ethyl acetate over calcium chloride and treating it with sodium wire, which is best introduced in one operation; the liquid boils and is then heated on a water bath for some hours, until the sodium all dissolves.
Wanklyn have shown that pure ethyl acetate free from alcohol will not react with sodium to produce aceto-acetic ester.
The ketenes are usually obtained by the action of zinc on ethereal or ethyl acetate solutions of halogen substituted acid chlorides or bromides.
Now we can see the reason for their administration, because the nitrous ether, consisting chiefly of ethyl nitrite, dilates the superficial vessels and thus allows greater escape of heat from the surface; while acetate of ammonia, by acting as a diaphoretic and stimulating the secretion of sweat, increases the loss of heat by evaporation.
Corresponding antimony compounds containing the ethyl group. are known, as is also a tri-phenyl stibine, Sb(C6H5)3, which is prepared from antimony trichloride, sodium and monochlorbenzene.
The proprietary drug " stypticin " is cotarnine hydrochloride, and " styptol " cotarnine phthalate; " antispasmin " is a sodium narceine combined with sodium salicylate, and " narcyl " narceine ethyl hydrochloride.
Crum Brown and Fraser of Edinburgh showed that, whilst thebaine acts like strychnine, methyl and ethyl thebaine act like curara, paralysing the terminals of motor nerves.
With methyl and ethyl alcohols it forms secondary amines (Vidal, Comptes rendus, 1891, 112, p. 950; 1892, 115, p. 123).
When sodio-malonic ester is condensed with trimethylene bromide the chief product is ethyl pentane tetracarboxylate, tetramethylene dicarboxylic ester being also formed, and from this the free acid may be obtained on hydrolysis.
Ethane, C 2 H 6, in a similar manner, can only give rise to one alcohol, namely ethyl alcohol, CH 3 CH 2 OH, which is also primary.
By reacting with a zinc alkyl (methyl or ethyl) on an acid chloride, an addition compound is first formed, which decomposes with water to give a ketone.
It is interesting to note that, whereas zinc methyl and ethyl give tertiary alcohols, zinc propyl only gives secondary alcohols.
Thus amyl acetate is used as an imitation of the jargonelle-pear flavour; amyl valerate replaces apple flavour, and a mixture of ethyl and propyl butyrates yields the so-called pine-apple flavour.
Ethyl alcohol is taken as a type of the action of methyl alcohol, amyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, ether, acetic ether, paraldehyde, sulphonal, chloroform, methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, chloral hydrate, butylchloral hydrate, and almost any number of derivatives from these.
The first method invented was a chemical solvent method using either methylene chloride or ethyl acetate.
Toxic activity partitioned quantitatively into ethyl acetate but about 11% of the activity was not adsorbed by solid phase C18 cartridges.
Solutions of about 10% ethyl or methyl alcohol added slowly to several drops of culture seem to work best.
The Environment Agency issued two new reports covering volatile organic compounds and new Soil Guidance Values covering contamination from toluene and ethyl benzene.
The majority of samples 114 (56 per cent) contained ethyl carbamate in the range 11-30 microgram/l.
A small number of samples from the present survey were found to have elevated levels of ethyl carbamate.
We'll start with a very, very simple ester like ethyl ethanoate - not something complicated like a fat or oil!
This is now possible with the breakthrough scientific discovery of creatine ethyl esters.
The " lead " used in 4 star are organic compounds of lead - tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.
Catalyst (hardener) used for polyester resins is an organic peroxide (methyl ethyl ketone peroxide) and is particularly dangerous.
Then we made a stab at industrial-scale production of ethyl mercaptan.
Thimerosal is 50 per cent composed of ethyl mercury and is used as a preservative.
Martinez M, Vazquez E. MRI evidence that docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester improves myelination in generalized peroxisomal disorders.
The " lead " used in 4 star are organic compounds of lead - tetra ethyl lead and tetra ethyl lead and tetra methyl lead.
Boron triethyl B(C 2 H 5) 3 is obtained in the same manner, by using zinc ethyl.
From the condensation of two molecules of ethyl borate with one molecule of zinc ethyl the compound B2 C2H5.
Equally well we may derive it from methane by replacing a hydrogen atom by the monovalent group CH 2 CH 31 named ethyl; hence propane may be considered as " ethylmethane."
Further, since methane may be regarded as formed b y the conjunction of a methyl group with a hydrogen atom, it may be named " methyl hydride "; similarly ethane is " ethyl hydride," propane, " propyl hydride," and so on.
The importance of such groups as methyl, ethyl, &c. in attempting a nomenclature of organic compounds cannot be overestimated; these compound radicals, fre q uently termed alkyl radicals, serve a similar purpose to the organic chemist as the elements to the inorganic chemist.
The presence of the heptamethylene ring in these compounds is shown by the production of suberone by the exhaustive methylation, &c., of hydroecgoni dine ethyl ester (see POLYMETHYLENES and TROPINE).
The Ethyl alcohol added to most over-the-counter fragrances is caustic and may cause a multitude of fragrance allergies or discomfort.
Some shops will use a cryogesic spray, such as ethyl chloride, to alleviate the discomfort.
An Atmos clock consists of a hermetically sealed capsule that contains ethyl chloride, which is a combination of gas and liquid that expands and contracts according to the temperature, forcing air through the mechanisms inside.
In 1935, JL took over the Atmos project and developed the first ethyl chloride model in 1936.
Thimerosal contains 46.9 percent ethyl mercury.
A quality product is alcohol free, meaning that it contains no ethyl alcohol to dry your skin.
Its ethyl ester reacts with hydrazine to form hippuryl hydrazine, C,H 5 CO NH CH 2 CO NH NH 2, which was used by Curtius for the preparation of azoimide.