E.t. Sentence Examples

e.t.
  • This side of his preparation was finished by a close study of Scripture, the results of which are contained in his commentaries, In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio, his Super Isaiam et Jeremiam, and his In Psalmos.

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  • A isse et le Chevalier d'Aydie (Macon, 1900); and notices prefixed to the editions of 1846 and 1873.

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  • Persians and Arabs told the 1 Nativitas et victoriae Alexandri magni regis was the original title.

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  • The best modern work on the subject is by the comtesse Catherine de Flavigny, entitled Sainte Brigitte de Suede, sa vie, ses revelations et son oeuvre (Paris, 1892), which contains an exhaustive bibliogr,aphy.

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  • The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).

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  • Hos numeros Primus invenit clarissimus vir Iohannes Neperus Baro Merchistonij; eos autem ex eiusdem sententia mutavit, eorumque ortum et usum illustravit Henricus Briggius..

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  • The Roman priests are drawn from the seminaries, established by the church for the education of young men intending to join its ranks, and divided into lower and higher seminaries (grands et petits sminaires), the latter giving the same class of instruction as the tyces.

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  • The Department of Waters i and Forests (Administration des Eaux et Forts) forms a branch of the min istry of agriculture.

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  • The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.

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  • The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.

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  • The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.

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  • Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.

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  • At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.

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  • The best life of him is that by the Bohemian historian Anton Gindely, Acta et documents historiam GabrielisBethleni illustrantia (Budapest, 1890).

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  • She made her debut at the Comedie Frangaise in 1699, in La Grange Chancel's Oreste et Pylade, and was at once received as societaire.

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  • Chassin, La Vendee et la Chouannerie (Paris, 1892 seq.); "L'Etat des services de Santerre dresse par lui-meme," in the third volume of Souvenirs et memoires (1899), published by Paul Bonnefon.

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  • In 1872 he was elected master of conferences at the Ecole Normale, and was made doctor of philosophy in recognition of his two treatises, Platonis Hippias Minor sive Socratica contra liberum arbitrium argumenta and La Liberte et le determinisme.

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  • The fragment should therefore be regarded as supplementary to the Taxatio Ecclesiastics Angliae et Walliae printed by the Record Commissioners in 1802.

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  • Cranmer returned in September 1530, but in January 1531 he received a second commission from the king appointing him " Conciliarius Regius et ad Caesarem Orator."

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  • Encouraged by promises of help from Louis XIV., the Magyars now rose pro libertate et justitia, and chose the youthful ThOkoly as their leader.

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  • The philosopher in Abelard's Dialogus inter Judaeum Philosophum et Christianum expects to be saved ex sola lege naturali; here " law of nature " is fully equivalent to Natural Religion, and the word sola sets it in contrast with Christianity.

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  • The document itself provided for an elected committee of twenty-five barons, whose duty was to compel John, by force if necessary, to keep his promises; but this was evidently regarded as insufficient, and the matter was dealt with in a supplementary treaty (Conventio facia inter regem Angliae et barones ejusdum regni).

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  • It had been extorted from the king by force (per vim et metum), and in the words of the bull the pope said "compositionem hujusmodi reprobamus penitus et damnamus."

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  • He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."

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  • Turning now to Leibnitz's conception of the world as a process, we see first that he supplies, in his notion of the underlying reality as force which is represented as spiritual (quelque chose d'analogique au sentiment et a Tappan), both a mechanical and a teleological explanation of its order.

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  • Nothing really new is produced in the living world, but the germs which develop have existed since the beginning of things; and nothing really dies, but, when what we call death takes place, the living thing shrinks back into its germ state.3 et celle des especes.

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  • The doctrine of " Emboitement " is contained in the Considerations sur le principe de vie (1705); the preface to the Theodicee (1710); and the Principes de la nature et de la grace (§ 6) (1718).

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  • Spinoza abounds in the same sense, and is as usual perfectly candid " Naturae leges et regulae, secundum quas omnia fiunt et ex unis formis in alias mutantur, sunt ubique et semper eadem."

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  • Ecc. et Cler., excluded bishops from accusations before secular judges and commanded such accusations to be speedily brought before the tribunal of other bishops.

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  • Much that had been done by bishops, sine strepitu forensi et figura judicii, is now done in the course of regular judicial procedure.

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  • The only Latin countries in which conflict has not arisen appear to be the principality of Andorra and the republic of San Marino (Giron y Areas, SituaciOn juridica de la Iglesia Catolica, Madrid, 1905, p. 173 et seq.).

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  • Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.

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  • Jerome (the authority for the date of his death) calls him Pythagoricus et magus.

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  • The chief aims of the author are conciseness and clearness (breviter et dilucide scribere).

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  • Sophocles, and the Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum of Van Herwerden; whilst the new great Latin Lexicon, published by the Berlin Academy, is calculated to meet the needs of students of Latin patristic literature.

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  • In 1866 he published Une troupe de comediens, and afterwards Essai sur la restauration de nos monuments historiques devant fart et devant le budget, which deals particularly with the restoration of the cathedral of Evreux.

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  • In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.

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  • Henceforward he lived a life of unbroken seclusion at Vignay, his only subsequent public appearance being by means of a memoire which he addressed to the king in 1570 under the title Le But de la guerre et de la paix, ou discours du chancelier l'Hospital pour exhorter Charles IX.

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  • Each August, despite the heat, representatives from the 60 (or 64) tribes of Gallia Comata met at Lyons, elected a priest, "sacerdos ad aram Augusti et Romae," and held games.

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  • Amongst his works are - Doctrine de Saint-Simon (written in conjunction with several of his followers), published in 1830, and several times republished; Economie politique et politique Saint-Simonienne (1831); Correspondance politique (1835-1840); Corresp. philos.

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  • His request was immediately granted, and thus it came about that Hansen's famous Tables de la Lune were dedicated to La Haute Amiraute de sa Majeste la Reine de la Grande Bretagne et d'Mande.

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  • He translated into Latin Aristotle's Analytica Priora et Posteriora, the Topica, and Elenchi Sophistici; and he wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, on his book lrEpi Epµnvcias, also a commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyrius.

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  • Its form is peculiar, and is an imitation of a similar work by Marcianus Capella, De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii.

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  • The second treatise is addressed to J ohn the deacon (" Ad Joannem Diaconum "), and its subject is " Utrum Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus de divinitate substantialiter praedicentur."

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  • The fifth treatise is Contra Eutychen et Nestorium.

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  • In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.

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  • Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.

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  • In the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, Basilides saw the proof of naturam sine radice et sine loco rebus supervenientem (Acta Archelai).

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  • Pierling, Russie et le Saint-Siege,1417-1758 (4 vols., 1896-1907).

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  • I was not armed by nature and education with the intrepid energy of mind and voice - ' Vincentem strepitus et natum rebus agendis.'

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  • It was during his imprisonment here that, "prive de toute espece de livres et de secours, surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les miens propres," as he himself puts it, he began his researches on projective geometry which led to his great treatise on that subject.

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  • Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).

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  • See the contemporary life by Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.

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  • The violent personalities of a pamphlet entitled Marie Joseph Chenier et le prince des critiques (1844), in reply to Jules Janin, brought him a six months' sojourn in La Pelagic, in the cell just quitted by Lamennais.

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  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.

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  • During his retirement he published various apologies for his policy in 1870, notably La France et la Prusse avant la guerre (Paris, 1872).

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  • His extant works are (a) three poems, "The Praises of Wemen" (224 lines), "On Luve" (10 lines), and "The Miseries of a Pure Scholar" (189 lines), and (b) a Latin account of the Arbuthnot family, Originis et Incrementi Arbuthnoticae Familiae Descriptio Historica (still in MS.), of which an English continuation, by the father of Dr John Arbuthnot, is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.

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  • His De Maria Magdalena et triduo Christi disceptatio (1517) provoked violent controversy and was condemned by the Sorbonne (1521).

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  • Expelled from France in 1836, the day after bringing a suit against the duchess of Angouleme for the restitution of the daupnin's private property, he lived in exile till his death at Delft on the 10th of August 1845, and his tomb was inscribed "Louis XVII., roi de France et de Navarre (Charles Louis, duc de Normandie)."

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  • The great amiability and childlike simplicity of Ampere's character are well brought out in his Journal et correspondence (Paris, 1872).

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  • Chretien states that he composed the poem (which he left to be completed by Godefroi de Leigni) at the request of the countess Marie of Champagne, who provided him with matiere et san.

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  • The affair ended by his escaping to Switzerland, where Sophie joined him; they then went to Holland, where he lived by hackwork for the booksellers; meanwhile Mirabeau had been condemned to death at Pontarlier for rapt et vol, and in May 1777 he was seized by the French police, and imprisoned by a lettre de cachet in the castle of Vincennes.

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  • The familiar charge, repeated in Shakespeare, of having written Ego et meus rex, while true in fact, is false in intention, because no Latin scholar could put the words in any other order; but it reflects faithfully enough Wolsey's mental attitude.

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  • His first works were Elementa Metaphysicae (1743 et seq.) and Logica (1745).

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  • Otherwise, as Mommsen says, the Getica is a mera epitome, laxata ea et perversa, historiae Gothicae Cassiodorianae.

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  • Between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet.

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  • He published his Avis sur l'assiette et la repartition de la taille (1762-1770), and as president of the Societe d'agriculture de Limoges offered prizes for essays on the principles of taxation.

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  • Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.

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  • Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.

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  • The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.

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  • He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.

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  • But he did not allow his misfortune to put a stop to his work, and in 1708 produced a large Dictionnaire universel geographique et historique in three volumes folio.

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  • See also the Fragments inidits de critique sur Pierre et Thomas Corneille of Alfred de Vigny, published in 1905.

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  • In November 1789 Desmoulins began his career as a journalist by the issue of the first number of a weekly publication, Les Revolutions de France et de Brabant.

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  • Apostolum et Mosen adeoque Deum ipsum audes corrigere."

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  • Bonnard, Thomas Eraste et la discipline eccle'siastique (1894); Gass, in Allgemeine deutsche Biog.

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  • Reaching Geneva in October 1532, Farel (described in a contemporary monastic chronicle as "un chetif malheureux predicant, nomme maistre Guillaume") at once began to preach in a room of his lodging, and soon attracted "un grand nombre de gens qui estoient advertis de sa venue et déjà infects de son heresie."

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  • The first is entitled Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis Tabulae, &c. while the second, which is the most valuable, is merely appended to the Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani corporis, &c., and thus, the scope of each work being regarded as medical, the author's labours were wholly overlooked by the mere naturalhistorians who followed, though Coiter introduced a table, " De differentiis Auium," furnishing a key to a rough classification of such birds as were known to him, and this as nearly the first attempt of the kind deserves notice here.

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  • His Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 he brought out, with the assistance of Guenau de Montbeillard, 3 the first volume of his great Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.

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  • But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.

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  • Between 1803 and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style two volumes with the title of Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de Paradis et des rolliers, suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it is,.was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the same scale, the Histoire naturelle des promerops et des guepiers, des couroucous et des touracos, for herein are found jays, waxwings, the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola), and what not besides.

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  • The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.

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  • A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.

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  • Of a very different kind is the next we have to notice, the Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium of Illiger, published at Berlin in 1811, which must in its day have been a valuable little manual, and on many points it may now be consulted to advantage - the characters of the genera being admirably given, and good explanatory lists of the technical terms of ornithology furnished.

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  • Abich (Sur la structure et la geologic du Daghestan, 1862), the successive folds of Jurassic limestones and slates, all nearly parallel to the Caucasus, which form lofty, narrow plateaus.

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  • He died at Choisy-le-Roi (Seine et Oise) on the 26th of June 1836.

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  • His Essais en vers et en prose (1797) contains the Marseillaise, a prose tale of the sentimental kind called Adelaide et Monville, and some occasional poems.

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  • But we know, from the undoubtedly genuine Acta SS Justini et sociorum, that Justin suffered the death of a martyr under the prefect Rusticus between 163 and 167.

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  • Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.).

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  • For his work in connexion with gunpowder, the invention of which has been claimed for him on the ground of a passage in his De mirabili potestate antis et naturae, see Gunpowder.

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  • Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).

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  • Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).

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  • Against the common view that miracles can attest the truth of a divine revelation Gerhard maintained that " per miracula non possunt probari oracula "; and Hopfner returns to the qualified position of Augustine when he describes them as praeter et supra naturae ordinem."

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  • Such an absolute continuity is sometimes assumed without warrant; but Descartes already recognized that the world was no continuous process, " Tria mirabilia fecit Dominus; res ex nihilo, liberum arbitrium et hominem Deum."

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  • The fact is that until the 13th century the Franks lived consuetudinibus antiquis et jure non scripto.

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  • It is a chapter very difficult to write, for while on the one hand an ingenious and speculative historian may refer to the influence of the Crusades almost everything which was thought or done between r too and 1300, a cautious writer who seeks to find Brehier, L'Eglise et l'Orient, p. 347.

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  • Brehier's L'Eglise et l'orient au moyen age (Paris, 1907) contains not only an up-to-date account of the Crusades, but also a full and useful bibliography, which should be consulted for fuller information.

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  • After the revolution of 1830 he founded the Pantheon litteraire, in which he published a Choix d'ouvrages mystiques (1843), a Choix de monuments primitifs de l'eglise chretienne (1837), a Choix des historiens grecs (1837), a collection of Chroniques etrangeres relatives aux expeditions francaises pendant XIII' siècle (1840), and, most important of all, a Choix de chroniques et memoires sur l'histoire de France (1836-1841).

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  • Thus, in the treatise known as Physica et Mystica and falsely ascribed to Democritus (such false attributions are a constant feature of the literature of alchemy), various receipts are given for colouring and gilding metals, but the conception of transmutation does not occur.

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  • Thus the pseudo-Democritus, who was reputed the author of the Physica et Mystica, which itself concludes each of its receipts with a magical formula, was believed to have travelled in Chaldaea, and to have had as his master Ostanes l the Mede, a name mentioned several times in the Leiden papyrus, and often by early Christian writers such as Tertullian, St Cyprian and St Augustine.

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  • Our knowledge of Lanfranc's polemics is chiefly derived from the tract De cor pore et sanguine Domini which he wrote many years later (after 1079) when Berengar had been finally condemned.

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  • His great work was the Theologia moralis et dogmatica, a compendium in catechetical form of Roman Catholic doctrine and ethics which has been much used as a students' text-book.

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  • There may be noted Durand's Marguerite de Valois et la tour de Francois Ier (1848); La Ferriere's Marguerite d'Angouleme (1891); Lotheissen's Konigin Margareta von Navarra (1885); Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901), and P. Courtault's Marguerite de Navarre (1904).

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  • The visit of the French physician Jacques Spon and the Englishman, Sir George Wheler or Wheeler (1650-1723), fortunately took place before the catastrophe of the Parthenon in 1687; Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant, which contained the first scientific description of the ruins of Athens, appeared in 1678; Wheler's Journey into Greece, in 1682.

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  • The French Ecole d'Athenes, founded in 1846, is under the scientific direction of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres.

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  • Athenes et ses environs (Paris, 1896); Meyer's Turkei and Griechenlander (5th ed., 1901).

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  • The earlier text, of which five short fragments have come down to us, is known as the Pactus Alamannorum, and from the persistent recurrence of the expression "et sic convenit" was most probably drawn up by an official commission.

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  • Lavy, L'Ouvre de Millerand (1902); his speeches between 1899 and 1907 were published in 1907 as Travail et travailleurs.

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  • It is from John Mair's Historia Majoris Britanniae tam Angliae quam Scotiae, which appeared in 1521 "Circa haec tempora [Ricardi Primi], ut auguror, Robertus Hudus Anglus et Parvus Joannes latrones famatissimi in nemoribus latuerunt, solum opulentorum virorum bona deripientes.

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  • The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).

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  • Marca's biography was written in Latin by two of his intimate friends, Etienne Baluze, his secretary (Epistola ad Samuelem Sorbierium, de vita, gestis et scriptis Petri de Marca, Paris, 1663), and his cousin, Paul de Faget (at the beginning of a collection of Marca's theological pamphlets, first published by Paul de Faget in 1668).

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  • He wrote a Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du comte de Lanjuinais, which was prefixed to an edition of his father's Ouvres (4 vols., 1832).

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  • In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820.

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  • Torbern Olof Bergman used an elaborate system in his Opuscula physica et chemica (1783); the 1 Dalton's atomic theory is treated in more detail in the article Atom.

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  • In France, the most important journals are the Annales de chimie et de physique, founded in 1789 with the title Annales de chimie, and the Comptes rendus, published weekly by the Academie francaise since 1835.

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  • Adhemar's life was mainly spent in writing and transcribing chronicles, and his principal work is a history entitled Chronicon Aquitanicum et Francicum or Historia Francorum.

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  • He was continually employed on diplomatic errands until 1455, when, owing apparently to ill-health, he received apartments in the palace of the counts of Hainaut at Salle-le-Comte, Valenciennes, with a con siderable pension, on condition that the recipient should put in writing "choses nouvelles et morales," and a chronicle of notable events.

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  • Pope Zachary, when in 741 he condemned the views of Virgilius, the learned bishop of Salzburg, an Irishman who had been denounced as a heretic by St Boniface, declares it to be perversa et iniqua doctrina.

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  • Briggs, The Messiah of the Apostles, p. 284 seq.; Sabatier, Les Origines litteraires et la composition de l'Apocalypse de St Jean (1887); Spitta, Die Offenbarung des Johannes untersucht (1889).

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  • His Son, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891), was born in Paris on the 24th of March 1820, and was in turn his pupil, assistant and successor at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle; he was also appointed professor at the short-lived Agronomic Institute at Versailles in 1849, and in 1853 received the chair of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.

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  • He published in 1867-1868 a treatise in two volumes on La Lumiere, ses causes et ses effets.

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  • Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), son of the lastnamed, who succeeded to his chair at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle in 1892, was born in Paris on the 15th of December 1852, studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he was appointed a professor in 1895, and in 1875 entered the department des posts et chaussees, of which in 1894 he became chef.

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  • Finding Italy uncongenial to his ideas, he went to France and, in 1839, produced in Paris his Vico et l'Italie, followed by La Nouvelle Religion de Campanella and La Theorie de l'erreur.

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  • After fresh trouble with the clergy, he returned to Paris and published a defence of his theories in a work entitled Ides sur la politique de Platon et d'Aristole.

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  • The works of this period are Les Philosophes Salaries, Machiavel juge des revolutions de notre temps (1849), La Federazione repubblicana (1851), La Filosofia della rivoluzione (1851), L' Italia dopo it colpo di Stato (1852), Histoire des revolutions, ou Guelfes et Gibelins (1858; Italian trans., 1871-1873).

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  • Amongst other works may be mentioned Histoire de la raison d'etat, La China et l'Europa, Corso d'istoria degli scrittori politici italiani.

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  • Its systematic effort is, in his own words, " pro libertate, quam et fovere et tueri Romanis legibus et praecipue nostro numini peculiare est."

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  • Of the many prophetic and polemical works that were attributed to Joachim in the 13th and following centuries, only those enumerated in his will can be regarded as absolutely authentic. These are the Concordia novi et veteris Testamenti (first printed at Venice in 1519), the Expositio in Apocalypsin (Venice, 1527), the Psalterium decem chordarum (Venice, 1527), together with some "libelli" against the Jews or the adversaries of the Christian faith.

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  • In nonflowering plants the works usually followed are for ferns, Hooker and Baker's Synopsis filicum; for mosses, Muller's Synopsis muscorum frondosorum, Jaeger & Sauerbeck's Genera et species muscorum, and Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien; for algae, de Toni's Sylloge algarum; for hepaticae, Gottsche, Lindenberg and Nees ab Esenbeck's Synopsis hepaticarum, supplemented by Stephani's Species hepaticarum; for fungi, Saccardo's Sylloge fungorum, and for mycetozoa Lister's monograph of the group. For the members of large genera, e.g.

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  • Hantzsch (Ann., 1896, 2 9 2, pp. 34 0 et seq.) hyponitrous acid and nitramide are to be regarded as stereoisomers, being the anti-and synforms of the same compound.

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  • Peter Fullo introduced these words into the Trishagion, and after much controversy the council of Constantinople (553), while disallowing this, gave its sanction to the similar statement- unum crucifixum esse ex sancta et consubstantiali Trinitate.

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  • Opuscules et fragments inedits de Leibnitz.

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  • Capus, A travers la Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1896) contains a detailed and fully illustrated account of the combined provinces, their resources and population.

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  • SpalaIkovitch (Spalajkovic), in La Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1897), give a critical account of the AustroHungarian administration.

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  • All the operations connected with the successive invasion schemes are recorded, with exhaustive quotations of documentary evidence, in Projets et tentatives de debarquement aux Iles Britanniques, by Captain Desbriere (Paris, 1901).

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  • Crivellari, Quae praecipue hausit Vergilius ex Naevio et Ennio (1889).

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  • He was not depressed by this misfortune, especially as he was at the time closely engaged in the preparation of the Historical and Critical Dictionary (Dictionnaire historique et critique) .

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  • His attitude about this time to life and experience is reflected in Pulvis et umbra, one of the noblest of all his essays.

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  • On the Tabula Peutingeriana appear the "Chamavi qui et Pranci," which should doubtless read " qui et Franci "; these Chamavi apparently dwelt between the Yssel and the Ems. Later, we find them a little farther south, on the banks of the Rhine, in the district called Hamalant, and it is their customs which were brought together in the 9th century in the document known as the Lex Francorum Chamavorum.

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  • The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that the term " et Franci " is not a later emendation.

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  • He was the author of De septuaginta interpretibus (1661), De poematum Cantu et viribus rhythmi (1673), and Variarum observationum liber (1685).

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  • Articles on Omars life and works are found in Reinauds Geographie dAboulfeda, pref., p. 101; Notices et extraits, ix.

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  • The Opuscula et Carmina Latina were published separately in 1837; with a collection of his smaller pieces, Kleine Schriften (1837-1838), including a complete list of his works (56 pages).

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  • The first course was published in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses; and here also appeared instalments of his commentary on St John's Gospel, his critically important Notes sur la Genese, and a Chronique biblique unmatched in its mastery of its numberless subjects and its fearless yet delicate penetration.

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  • Autour consists of seven letters, on the origin and aim of L'Evangile et l'Eglise; on the biblical question; the criticism of the Gospels; the Divinity of Christ; the Church's foundation and authority; the origin and authority of dogma, and on the institution of the sacraments.

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  • On the 23rd of December the pope ordered the publication of a decree of the Congregation of the Index, incorporating a decree of the Inquisition, condemning Loisy's Religion d'Israel, L'Evangile et l'Eglise,Etudes evangeliques, Autour d'un petit livre and Le Quatrieme Evangile.

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  • Here he continued his important reviews, notably in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses, and published Morceaux d'exegese (1906), six further sections of his synoptic commentary.

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  • Simples Reflexions sur le decret Lamentabili et sur l'encyclique Pascendi, 12m0, 277 pages, was published from Ceffonds a few days after the commentary.

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  • A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.

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  • Under the title of Musees et collections archeologiques de l'Algerie et de la Tunisie, the Ministry of Public Instruction publishes from time to time illustrated descriptions of all these archaeological treasures.

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  • Some doubt exists concerning Geoffrey's share in the compilation of the Vita et mors Edwardi II., usually attributed to Sir Thomas de la More, or Moor, and printed by Camden in his Anglica scripta.

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  • Recent scholarship, however, asserts that More was no writer, and that the Vita et mors is an extract from Geoffrey's Chronicon, and was attributed to More, who was the author's patron.

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  • In the main this conclusion substantiates the verdict of Stubbs, who has published the Vita et mors in his Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I.

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  • The story of the famous kiss bestowed by Margaret of Scotland on la precieuse bouche de laquelle sont issus et sortis taut de bons mots et vertueuses paroles is mythical, for Margaret did not come to France till 1436, after the poet's death; but the story, first told by Guillaume Bouchet in his Annales d'Aquitaine (1524), is interesting, if only as a proof of the high degree of estimation in which the ugliest man of his day was held.

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  • See Henryk Lisicki, Le Marquis Wielopolski, sa vie et son temps (Vienna, 1880); Wlodzimieriz Spasowicz, The Life and Policy of the Marquis Wielopolski (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1882).

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  • His De magnete magneticisque corporibus et de magno magnete tellure physiologia nova (1600), contains many references to the expositions of earlier writers from Plato down to those of the author's own age.

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  • His numerous papers were published in the Annales de chimie et de physique (1829-1858); and most of them also appeared at the time in the Italian scientific journals.

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  • See Guarnacci, Vitae et res gestae Pontiff.

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  • The first volume of its memoirs,' published in the following year, contained a paper by Lagrange entitled Recherches sur la nature et la propagation du son, in which the power of his analysis and his address in its application were equally conspicuous.

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  • Grignard (Comptes Rendus, 1900 et seq.) showed that aldehydes combine with magnesium alkyl iodides (in absolute ether solution) to form addition products, which are decomposed by water with the formation of secondary alcohols, thus from acetaldehyde and magnesium methyl iodide, isopropyl alcohol is obtained.

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  • In the 5th century the "sacred bounties" corresponded to the aerarium of the early Empire, while the res privatae represented the fisc. The officers connected with the palace and the emperor's person included the count of the wardrobe (comes sacrae vestis), the count of the residence (comes domorum), and, most important of all, the comes domesticorum et sacri stabuli (graecized as Kowis Tou o-Ta,3Xov).

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  • According to the same author, there were Mithraic, as well as Christian, virgines et continentes.

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  • See Franz Cumont, Textes et monuments figures relatifs aux mysteres de Mithra (Brussels, 1896, 1899), which has superseded all publications on the subject; Albrecht Dieterich, Eine Mithrasliturgie (Leipzig, 1903).

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  • His Recherches historiques et geographiques sur l'Inde appeared in 1786, and formed part of Thieffenthaler's Geography of India.

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  • He also wrote numerous articles, and, after his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres (1740), a number of Memoires which appeared in the Recueil of this society.

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  • He published first a collection of Dissertations sur l'histoire civile et ecclesiastique de Paris (3 vols., 1739-1743), then an Histoire de la ville et de tout le diocese de Paris (15 vols., 1745-1760), which is a mine of information, mostly taken from the original sources.

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  • Finally, Fernand Bournon completed the work by a volume of Rectifications et additions (1890), worthy to appear side by side with the original work.

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  • The author interprets Boetius's meaning to be " Quod eadem res individuum et species et genus est, et non esse universalia individuis quasi quoddam diversum."

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  • His treatise De rationali et ratione uti is more interesting as a display of the logical acquirements of the age than as possessing any direct philosophical bearing.

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  • Thus " Socratitus " is merely an accident of the substance "humanitas," or, as it is put by the author of the treatise De generibus et speciebus, 1 " Man is a species, a thing essentially one (res una essentialiter), which receives certain forms which make it Socrates.

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  • Abelard's remarkable compilation Sic et Non was not calculated to allay their suspicions.

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  • Finally, by abstraction from the individual things of sense, the mind is able to contemplate the universal apart from its accompaniments (animal sine homine, asino, et aliis speciebus); these subjective existences are the universalia post rem of the Nominalists and Conceptualists.

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  • Jellachich, who as a soldier was devoted to the interests of the imperial house, realized that the best way to break the revolutionary power of the Magyars and Germans would be to encourage the Slav national ideas, which were equally hostile to both; to set up against the Dualism in favour at Pest and Vienna the federal system advocated by the Sla y s, and so to restore the traditional Habsburg principle of Divide et impera.

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  • C. Maclaurin, Legendre and d'Alembert had furnished partial solutions of the problem, confining their 1 Annales de chimie et de physique (1816), torn.

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  • Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.

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  • Finally, in a celebrated memoir, Theorie des attractions des spheroides et de la figure des planetes, published in 1785 among the Paris Memoirs for the year 1782, although written after the treatise of 1784, Laplace treated exhaustively the general problem of the attraction of any spheroid upon a particle situated outside or upon its surface.

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  • Laplace's first separate work, Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (1784), was published at the expense of President Bochard de Saron.

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  • He co-operated with Franklin and others in the periodical work entitled Affaires de l'Anglcterre et de l'Amerique (1776, sqq.), which was devoted to the support of American independence.

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  • The name l'arte magiore, the greater art, is designed to distinguish it from l'arte minore, the lesser art, a term which he applied to the modern arithmetic. His second variant, la regula de la cosa, the rule of the thing or unknown quantity, appears to have been in common use in Italy, and the word cosa was preserved for several centuries in the forms toss or algebra, cossic or algebraic, cossist or algebraist, &c. Other Italian writers termed it the Regula rei et census, the rule of the thing and the product, or the root and the square.

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  • This was Lucas Paciolus (Lucas de Burgo), a Minorite friar, who, having previously written works on algebra, arithmetic and geometry, published, in 1494, his principal work, entitled Summa de Arithmetica, Geometria, Proportioni et Proportionalita.

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  • Of other writers who published works about the end of the 16th century, we may mention Jacques Peletier, or Jacobus Peletarius (De occulta parte Numerorum, quam Algebram vocant, 1558); Petrus Ramus (Arithmeticae Libri duo et totidem Algebrae, 1560), and Christoph Clavius, who wrote on algebra in 1580, though it was not published until 1608.

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  • Vivipara, ovipara, a y es, pisces, serpentes et Scorpio - and contains descriptions and illustrations of a large number of animal forms with reference to the lands inhabited by them.

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  • His services to his country are aptly epitomized in the epitaph on his ancient monument at Ringsted church which describes him as "Sclavorum dominator, patriae liberator et pacis conservator."

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  • With the disappearance of the Scythae as an ethnic and political entity, the name of Scythia gives place in its original seat to that of Sarmatia, and is artificially applied by geographers, on the one hand, to the Dobrudzha, the lesser Scythia of Strabo, where it remained in official use until Byzantine times; on the other, to the unknown regions of northern Asia, the Eastern Scythia of Strabo, the "Scythia intra et extra Imaum" of Ptolemy; but throughout classical literature Scythia generally meant all regions to the north and north-east of the Black Sea, and a Scythian (Scythes) any barbarian coming from those parts.

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  • Mens et Pond.

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  • Geier (1668, 1681 et saepius) may still be consulted with advantage, but for most purposes Rosenmtiller's Scholia in Psalms (2nd ed., 1831-1822) supersedes the necessity of frequent reference to the predecessors of that industrious compiler.

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  • The lowness of the coast causes a series of large lagoons, the chief of which are those of Bages et Sigean, Gruissan, Lapalme and Leucate.

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  • John Fleischer (sometimes incorrectly named Fletcher), of Breslau, propounded the same view in a pamphlet, De iridibus doctrina Aristotelis et Vitellonis (1574) the same explanation was given by Franciscus Maurolycus in his Photismi de lumine et umbra (1575) The most valuable of all the earlier contributions to the scientific explanation of rainbows is undoubtedly a treatise by Marco Antonio de Dominis (1566-1624), archbishop of Spalatro.

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  • The other, John bar Aphtonya, was the founder of the famous monastery of Kenneshre, opposite ' See Feldmann, Syrische Wechsellieder von Narses (Leipzig, 1896); Mingana, Narsai, homiliae et carmina (2 vols., Mosul, 1905); and other editions of which a list is given by Duval, p. 344 seq.

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  • His opera of Thetis et Pelee, 1689, though highly praised by Voltaire, cannot be said to rise much above the others; and it may be regarded as significant that of all his dramatic works not one has kept the stage.

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  • To the following year (1688) belongs his Digression sur les anciens et les modernes, in which he took the modern side in the controversy then raging; his Doutes sur le systeme physique des causes occasionnelles (against Malebranche) appeared shortly afterwards.

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  • Apparently they were at first arranged in a series of anniversaries separate from that of the martyrs, as seems to be shown by the existence at Rome of the Depositio episcoporum side by side with the Depositio martyrum; the two lists seem to have been combined, as in the calendar of Carthage, which includes the dies nataliciorum martyrum et depositiones episcoporum.

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  • Cybulski, Tabulae quibus antiquitates Graecae et Romanae illustrantur, Nos.

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  • The demonstrations of the unity and the attributes of God, with which the treatise De Melisso, Xenophane et Gorgia (now no longer ascribed to Aristotle or Theophrastus) accredits Xenophanes, are plainly framed on the model of Eleatic proofs of the unity and the attributes of the Ent, and must therefore be set aside.

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  • Whilst it can hardly be allowed that Xenophanes, so far from denying, actually affirms a plurality of gods, it must be conceded to Freudenthal that Xenophanes's polemic was directed against the anthropomorphic tendencies and the mythological details of the contemporary polytheism rather than against the polytheistic principle, and that, apart from the treatise De Melisso Xenophane et Gorgia, now generally discredited, there is no direct evidence to prove him a consistent monotheist.

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  • In 1547 appeared Martin's French translation of Vitruvius, the illustrations of which were due, the translator tells us in his "Dedication to the King," to Goujon, "nagueres architecte de Monseigneur le Connetable, et maintenant un des votres."

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  • Gaullieur in the same review in 1857, and all the available material is utilized in a monograph on her and her work by P. Godet, Madame de Charriere et ses amis (2 vols., Geneva, 1906).

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  • After some difficulties he had his first book, the Meditations, poetiques et religieuses, published (1820).

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  • The Harmonies poetiques et religieuses appeared in 1829, when he had left Florence.

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  • In a series of letters, De sedibus et causis morborum per anatomen indagatis, published when he was in his eightieth year, he describes the appearances met with at the post mortem examination as well as the symptoms during life in a number of cases of various diseases.

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  • Having been appointed assistant lecturer and afterwards full lecturer at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, it was to the town of St Omer that he devoted his first lectures and his first important work, Histoire de la vile de Saint-Omer et de ses institutions jusqu'au XI V e siecle (1877).

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  • The preliminary work on the Carolingian diplomas involved such lengthy and costly researches that the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres took over the expenses after Giry's death.

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  • He prepared a new edition of the monk Theophilus's celebrated treatise, Diversarum artium schedula, and for several years devoted his Saturday mornings to laboratory research with the chemist Aline Girard at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers, the results of which were utilized by Marcellin Berthelot in the first volume (1894) of his Chimie au moyen dge.

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  • In collaboration with his pupil Andre Reville, he wrote the chapters on "L'Emancipation des villes, les communes et les bourgeoisies" and "Le Commerce et l'industrie au moyen age" for the Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud.

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  • She wrote Institutions dehysique (1740), Dissertation sur la nature et la propagation du feu (1 744), Doutes sur les religions reculees (1792), and in 1756 published a translation of Newton's Principia.

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  • He engaged in a foolish and undignified struggle with Crebillon (not fils), a rival set up against him by Madame de Pompadour, but a dramatist who, in part of one play, Rhadamiste et Zenobie, has struck a note of tragedy in the grand Cornelian strain, which Voltaire could never hope to echo.

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  • Her pet name was "Belle et Bonne," and nobody had more to do with the happiness of the last years of the "patriarch" than she had.

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  • His Irenicum vere christianum is directed against David Pareus (1548-1622), professor primarius at Heidelberg, who in Irenicum sive de unione et synodo Evangelicorum (1614) had pleaded for a reconciliation of Lutheranism and Calvinism; his Calvinista aulopoliticus (1610) was written against the "damnable Calvinism" which was becoming prevalent in Holstein and Brandenburg.

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  • In 1738 Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) published his Hydrodynamica seu de viribus et motibus fluidorum commentarii.

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  • Colin Maclaurin (1698-1746) and John Bernoulli (1667-1748), who were of this opinion, resolved the problem by more direct methods, the one in his Fluxions, published in 1742, and the other in his Hydraulica nunc primum detecta, et demonstrata directe ex fundamentis pure mechanicis, which forms the fourth volume of his works.

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  • After 1282 the signoria was composed of the 3 (afterwards 6) priori of the gilds, who ended by ousting the buoni uomini, while a defensor artificum et artium takes the place of the capitano; thus the republic became an essentially trading community, governed by the popolani grassi or rich merchants.

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  • In 1781 he was stationed permanently at Paris, but on the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789 he resigned his appointment as intendant des eaux et fontaines, and retired to a small estate which he possessed at Blois.

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  • In 1779 he published an important investigation of the laws of friction (Theorie des machines simples, en ayant regard au frottement de leurs parties et a la roideur des cordages), which was followed twenty years later by a memoir on fluid resistance.

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  • In 1785 appeared his Recherches theoriques et experimentales sur la force de torsion et sur l'elasticite des fils de metal, &c. This memoir contained a description of different forms of his torsion balance, an instrument used by him with great success for the experimental investigation of the distribution of electricity on surfaces and of the laws of electrical and magnetic action, of the mathematical theory of which he may also be regarded as the founder.

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  • Charavay, L'Assemblee electorale de Paris en 1790 et 1791 (Paris, 1890); and Agenor Bardoux, La Duchesse de Duras (Paris, 1898), the beginning of which deals with Kersaint, whose daughter married Amedee de Duras.

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  • During a part at least of these long journeys the companion of Odoric was Friar James, an Irishman, as appears from a record in the public books of Udine, showing that shortly after Odoric's death a present of two marks was made to this Irish friar, Socio beati Fratris Odorici, amore Dei et Odorici.

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  • Linguet, however, continued his career of free lance, now attacking and now supporting the government, in the Annales politiques, civiles et litteraires, published from 1777 to 1792, first at London, then at Brussels and finally at Paris.

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  • He was a member of the Institute from its foundation, and in 1816, at the reorganization, became a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.

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  • Among his works of a more popular nature are La Poesie du moyen dge (1885 and 1895); Penseurs et poetes (1897); Poemes et legendes du moyen dge (1900); Francois Villon (Igor), an admirable monograph contributed to the "Grands Ecrivains Frangais" series; Legendes du moyen age (1903).

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  • He wrote Breviuscula Introductio ad Logicam, a treatise on logic and the psychology of the intellectual powers; Synopsis Theologiae Naturalis; and an edition of Pufendorf, De Officio Hominis et Civis, with notes and supplements of high value.

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  • Of these the Etudes sur la condition de la classe agricole et l'Nat de l'agriculture en Normandie au moyen dge (1851), condensing an enormous mass of facts drawn from the local archives, was reprinted in 1905 without change, and remains authoritative.

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  • He was elected member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres in 1859, and became a member of the staff of the Recueil des historiens de la France, collaborating in vols.

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  • Of singular interest also is his De exordiis et incrementis rerum ecclesiasticarum, written between 840 and 842 and dedicated to Regenbert the librarian.

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  • The conversion of Tunis into a seaport (1893) destroyed the importance of this line, which was then sold to the French Bone-Guelma Company (Bone-Guelma et Prolongements), which owns the majority of the railways in Tunisia.

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  • Chronica Maiorum et Vicecomitum, which begins at the year 1188 and is continued to 1274.

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  • In 1892 he was a member of the Bureau Internationale des Poids et Mesures and in 1897 of the International Committee of Weights and Measures.

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  • About the same time Francesco Maurolico, or Maurolycus, the eminent mathematician of Messina, in his Theore y nata de Lumine et Umbra, written in 1521, fully investigated the optical problems connected with vision and the passage of rays of light through small apertures with and without lenses, and made great advances in this direction over his predecessors.

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  • His pupil, Rainer Gemma-Frisius, used it for the observation of the solar eclipse of January 1544 at Louvain, and fully described the methods he adopted for making measurements and drawings of the eclipsed sun, in his De Radio Astronomico et Geometrico (1545).

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  • In the Diversarum Speculationum Mathematicarum et Physicarum (1585), by the Venetian Giovanni Battista Benedetti, there is a letter in which he discusses the simple camera obscura and mentions the improvement some one had made in it by the use of a double convex lens in the aperture; he also says that the images could be made erect by reflection from any plane mirror.

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  • See Fernao Lopes, Chronica del Rey Dom Pedro (1735); Camoens, Os Lusiadas; Antonio Ferreira's Ines de Castro, - the first regular tragedy of the Renaissance after the Sofonisba of Trissino; Luis Velez de Guevara, Reinar despues de morir, an admirable play; and Ferdinand Denis, Chroniques chevaleresques de l'Espagne et du Portugal.

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  • The fourth book, De Vera Sapientia et Religione, insists upon the inseparable union of true wisdom and true religion, and maintains that this union is made real in the person of Christ.

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  • Taylor's Methodus Incrementorum Directa et Inversa (London, 1715) added a new branch to the higher mathematics, now designated the " calculus of finite differences."

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  • Bongars wrote an abridgment of Justin's abridgment of the history of Trogus Pompeius under the title Justinus, Trogi Pompeii Historiarum Pltilippicarum epitoma de manuscriptis codicibus emendatior et prologis auctior (Paris, 1581).

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  • About this time he read Bucer's commentaries on the Gospels and the Psalms and also Zwingli's De vera et falsa religione; and his Biblical studies began to affect his views.

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  • But in 1813 Baden joined the coalition, and since then that nation created of odds and ends (de brit et de broc) and always handsomely treated by us, had not ceased to take a leading part in the struggles against our country.

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  • In 1734 he also published Prodromus philosophiae ratiocinantis de infinito et causa finali creationis, which treats of the relation of the finite to the infinite, and of the soul to the body, seeking to establish a nexus in each case as a means of overcoming the difficulty of their relation.

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  • Here he translated Theagene et Chariclee from Heliodorus (1547 fol.), for which he was rewarded by Francis I.

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  • He translated seven books of Diodorus (1554), the Daphnis et Chloe of Longus (1559) and the Opera Moralia of Plutarch (1572).

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  • Malta had a Malta Penny Magazine in 1839-1841, and the Revue historique et litteraire was founded in Mauritius in 1887.

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  • Since 1909, however, the various sections have left to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres the entire direction of the Journal, while still paying the annual subsidy.

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  • Louis Auguste de Bourbon, sovereign prince of Dombes, having transferred his parliament to Trevoux, set up a printing press, and was persuaded by two Jesuits, Michel le Tellier and Philippe Lalleman, to establish the Me-moires pour servir d l'histoire des sciences et des arts (1701-1767), more familiarly known as the Journal des Trevoux, long the best-informed and best-written journal in France.

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  • It was continued in a more popular style as Journal des sciences et des beaux-arts (1768-1775) by the abbe Aubert and by the brothers Castilhon (1776-1778), and as Journal de litterature, des sciences, et des arts (1779-1782) by the abbe Grosier.

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  • Another continuator of Bayle was Jean Leclerc, one of the most learned and acute critics of the 18th century, who carried on three reviews - the Bibliotheque universelle et historique (1686-1693), the Bibliotheque choisie (1703-1713), and the Bibliotheque ancienne et moderne (1714-1727).

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  • The movement of ideas at the close of the century may best be traced in the Annales politiques, civiles, et litteraires (1777-1792) of Linguet.

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  • The Revue historique (1876) appears bi-monthly; there is also the Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine.

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  • The Revue politique et litteraire, successor to the Revue des tours litteraires (1863) and known as the Revue bleue, also appears weekly.

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  • The Nova litteraria maris Balthici et Septentrionis (1698-1708) was more especially devoted to north Germany and the universities of Kiel, Rostock and Dorpat.

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  • These two have been amalgamated and appear as the Bibliotheque universelle et revue suisse.

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  • Theologie et philosophie (1868-1872), an account of foreign literature on those subjects, was continued as Revue de theologie et de philosophie (1873) at Lausanne.

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  • In the same city was also first established L'Esprit des journaux (1772-1818), styled by Sainte-Beuve " cette considerable et excellente collection," but " journal voleur et compilateur."

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  • The Journal historique et litteraire (1788-1790) was founded at Luxemburg by the Jesuit De Feller; having been suppressed there, it was transferred to Liege, and subsequently to Maestricht.

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  • The Revue catholique, the organ of the professors of the university of Louvain, began in 1846 a controversy with the Journal historique et litteraire of Kersten (1834) upon the origin of human knowledge, which lasted for many years and excited great attention.

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  • He was the author of notes on Cluvier's Italia antiqua (1624); an edition of portions of Porphyrius (1630), with a dissertation on his life and writings, described as a model of its kind; notes on Eusebius Against Hierocles (1628), on the Sayings of the later Pythagoreans (1638), and the De diis et mundo of the neo-Platonist Sallustius (1638); Notae et castigationes in Stephani Byzantini ethnica (first published in 1684); and Codex regularum, Collection of the Early Rules of the Monastic Orders (1661).

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  • Doebner ((Leipzig, 1886); Lettres et memoires, edited by Countess Bentinct London, 1880); duke of Portland, Hist.

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  • What is universally admitted is that Chenier was a very great artist, who like Ronsard opened up sources of poetry in France which had long seemed dried up. In England it is easier to feel his attraction than that of some far greater reputations in French poetry, for, rhetorical though he nearly always is, he yet reveals something of that quality which to the Northern mind has always been of the very essence of poetry, that quality which made SainteBeuve say of him that he was the first great poet "personnel et reveur" in France since La Fontaine.

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  • It was nevertheless proscribed in the next year at the instance of the Montagnard deputy Albitte, for an anti-anarchical hemistich (Des lois et non du sang!); Fenelon (1793) was suspended after a few representations; and in 1794 his Timoleon, set to Etienne Mehul's music, was also proscribed.

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  • In 1806 and 1807 he delivered a course of lectures at the Athenee on the language and literature of France from the earliest years; and in 1808 at the emperor's request, he prepared his Tableau historique de l'etat et du progres de la littrature francaise depuis 1789 jusqu'd 1808, a book containing some good criticism, though marred by the violent prejudices of its author.

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  • Rapin was also the author of a Dissertation sur les Whigs et les Torys (1717).

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  • Claudius Marcellus in 222 over the Gauls in a play called Clastidium, he gave the first specimen of the fabula praetexta in his Alimonium Romuli et Remi, based on the most national of all Roman traditions.

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  • Laennec, to whom we are indebted for the practice of auscultation, freely admits that the idea was suggested to him by study of Hippocrates, who, treating of the presence of morbid fluids in the thorax, gives very particular directions, by 1 " Hippocrates Cous, primus quidem ex omnibus memoria dignus, ab studio sapientiae disciplinam hanc separavit, vir et arte et facundia insignis " (Celsus, De medicina).

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  • Botzon (1867); see also his De Sophrone et Xenarcho mimographis (1856).

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  • Here in 1550 he published two disputations, the one De lege et evangelio and the other De justifications, which aroused a controversy still unclosed at his death on the 17th of October 1552.

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  • Of his other works the most interesting is the treatise De rege et regis institutione (Toledo, 1598).

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  • We seem to be confronted with actual clairvoyance, or vue et distance.

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  • There is a chapter on crystal-gazing in Les Nevroses et les idees fixes of Dr Janet (1898).

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  • The sober lists of names with which it opens; the account of the embassy, so business-like in its estimates of costs and terms, and suddenly breaking into a fervent description of how the six deputies, "prostrating themselves on the earth and weeping warm tears, begged the doge and people of Venice to have pity on Jerusalem"; the story immediately following, how the young count Thibault of Champagne, raising himself from a sickbed in his joy at the successful return of his ambassadors, "leva sus et chevaucha, et laz!

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  • At the time of his death, on the 13th of March 1854, he had advanced as far as 1816 with his memoirs, which were completed from his correspondence by his family as Memoires et correspondance du comte de Villele (Paris, 5 vols., 1887-90).

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  • His first Salon picture, "Hamlet et le Roi," was hung in 1869, and he became at once one of the recognized modern masters in France.

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  • In addition to a number of subject-pictures, such as "Trop Tard" (1870), "Samson et Delilah" (1871), and others taken from Moroccan studies, he was an eminent painter of portraits of some of the most prominent men and women of the day, one of his last being that of Queen Victoria (1900).

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  • That he was such he denied more than once (Lemire, Le Cardinal Manning et son action sociale, Paris, 1893, p. 210), nor was he ever a Socialist in principle; but he favoured some of the methods of Socialism, because they alone seemed to him practically to meet the case of that pressing poverty which appealed to his heart.

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  • Delisle at once pointed out (Notices et extraits des manuscrits, 1898), this MS. supplies a fixed date from which palaeographers can work in dating MSS.

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  • In 1745 Diderot adapted or reproduced the Inquiry concerning Virtue in what was afterwards known as his Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu.

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  • Here as elsewhere he had but one rule to guide him in matters of doctrine and discipline - the practice of Rome and the West; for it is singular to see how Jerome, who is daringly original in points of scholarly criticism, was a ruthless partisan in all other matters; and, having discovered what was the Western practice, he set tongue and pen to work with his usual bitterness (Altercatio luciferiani et orthodoxi).

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  • He also wrote at Bethlehem De viris illustribus sive de scriptoribus ecclesiasticas, a church history in biographies, ending with the life of the author; De nominibus Hebraicis, compiled from Philo and Origen; and De situ et nominibus locorum Hebraicorum.'

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  • Annales Veteris et Novi Testaments, by Archbishop Ussher, whose dates have by some means gained a place in the authorized version of the Bible.

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  • In 1820 was published his treatise on the gospel of St John, entitled Probabilia de Evangelii et Epistolarum Joannis Apostoli indole et origine, which attracted much attention.

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  • He afterwards became a royal privy councillor, and remained so till his death, which took place suddenly at Paris in February 1603, but in what manner we do not know; Anderson, the editor of his scientific writings, speaks only of a "praeceps et immaturum autoris fatum."

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  • Melber, Ueber die Quellen and Werth der Strategemensammlung Polycins (1885); Knott, De fide et fontibus Polyaeni (1883), who largely reduces the number of the authorities consulted by Polyaenus.

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  • Communicantes et memoriam, &c.

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  • The only work he published was his Reflexions sur la puissance motrice du feu et sur les machines propres a developper cette puissance (Paris, 1824).

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  • Cappel was also the author of Annotationes et Commentarii in Vetus Testamentum, Chronologia Sacra, and other biblical works, as well as of several other treatises on Hebrew, among which are the Arcanum Punctuationis revelatum (1624) and the Diatriba de veris et antiquis Ebraeorum literis (1645).

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  • Basin or Carl et Elegast (preserved in Dutch and Icelandic), the Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem and Le Couronnement Looys also belong to the heroic period.

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  • The legend probably originated in a desire to authenticate the relics in the abbey of Saint Denis, supposed to have been brought to Aix by Charlemagne, and is preserved in a 12th-century romance, Le Voyage de Charlemagne a Jerusalem et a Constantinople.'

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  • Bavarian For clerical accounts of Charles's voyage to the Holy Land see the Chronicon (c. 968) of Benedict, a monk of St Andre, and Descriptio qualiter Karolus Magnus clavum et coronam Domini.

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  • Richard, L'Oceanographie (Paris, 1907); List of Oceanic Depths and Serial Temperature Observations, received at the Admiralty in the year 1888 (et seq.) from H.M.

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  • Makaroff, The Yermak in the Ice (in Russian) (St Petersburg, 1901); The Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition (on the " Voringen "), 1876-1878 (Christiania, 1880-1900); Expeditions scientifiques du " Travailleur " et du " Talisman," 1880-1883 (Paris, 1891 et seq.); Die Ergebnisse der Plankton-Expedition, 1889 (Kiel, 1892 et seq.); Resultats des campagnes scientifiques accomplies sur son yacht par Albert I e ' Prince Souverain de Monaco (Monaco, from 1889); The Danish " Ingolf " Expedition, 1806 (Copenhagen, 1900); Prof. Luksch, Expeditionen S.M.

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  • With the exception of a satiric comedy, Il Candelajo, all the works of this period are devoted to this logic - De Umbris Idearum, Ars Memoriae, De cornpendiosa architecture et complemento artis Lullii, and Cantus Circaeus.

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  • Several works, chiefly logical, appeared during his stay at Wittenberg (De Lampade combinatoria Lulliana, 1587, and De Progressu et Lampade venatoria logicorum, 1587).

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  • In 1591 he was at Frankfort, and published three important metaphysical works, De Triplici Minimo et Mensura; De Monade, Numero, et Figura; De Immenso et Innumerabilibus.

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  • Catherine's policy provoked a crowd of pamphlets, the most celebrated being the Discours inerveilleux de la vie, actions et deportemens de la seine Catherine de Medicis, in which Henri Estienne undoubtedly collaborated.

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  • This writer states that when at the papal court in 1145 he met with the bishop of Gabala (Jibal in Syria), who related how "not many years before one John, king and priest (rex et sacerdos), who dwelt in the extreme Orient beyond Persia and Armenia, and was, with his people, a Christian but a Nestorian, had made war against the brother kings of the Persians and Medes, who were called Samiards (or Sanjards), and captured Ecbatana their capital.

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  • The pope addresses it, carissimo in Christo filio Johanni, illustro et magnifico indorum regi (Hovedon's copy here inserts sacerdoti sanctissimo).

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  • He recites how he had heard of the monarch's Christian profession, diligence in good works and piety, by manifold narrators and common report, but also more particularly from his (the pope's) physician and confidant (medicus et familiaris noster), Master Philip, who had received information from honourable persons of the monarch's kingdom, with whom he had intercourse in those (Eastern) parts.

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  • Feuillet des Conches Louis X VI., Marie Antoinette et Madame Elisabeth, lettres et documents inedits (6 vols., Paris, 1864-1873), while most of the works on Marie Antoinette published before the appearance of Arneth's publications (1865, &c.) are based partly on these forgeries.

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  • The earliest collected edition of his works, Historia et monumenta Joannis Hus et Hieronymi Pragensis, was published at Nuremberg in 1558 and was reprinted with a considerable quantity of new matter at Frankfort in 1715.

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  • His curious encyclopaedic work, entitled Satyricon, or De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii et de septem Artibus liberalibus libri novem, is an elaborate allegory in nine books, written in a mixture of prose and verse, after the manner of the Menippean satires of Varro.

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  • Pallain, Talleyrand et Louis XVIII.

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  • This situation opened up to him materials of which he made use in his first and most popular historical work, Histoire de la Vendee et des Chouans, 3 vols., 1806.

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  • Lastly, the work of Celestin Port, Dictionnaire historique, geographique et biographique de Maine-etLoire (3 vols., Paris and Angers, 1874-1878), and its small volume of Preliminaires (including a summary of the history of Anjou), contain, in addition to the biographies of the chief counts of Anjou, a mass of information concerning everything connected with Angevin history.

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  • In 1762, in reply to the attacks on his order, he published an A pologie generale de l'institut et de la doctrine des Jesuites, which won him much fame and some exalted patronage; notably that of the ex-king Stanislaus of Poland and of his grandson the dauphin.

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  • His other writings are to be found chiefly in the Memoires concernant l'histoire, les sciences et les arts de Chinois (15 vols., Paris, 1776-1791).

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  • The Council will rely chiefly upon Scripture s in reformandis dogmatibus et instaurandis in ecclesia moribus; the Roman reply to the two sets of articuli of Augsburg, and the Roman counterpart to the (later) Protestant assertion that the Bible 7 is the " only rule of faith and practice."

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  • It still means " doctrine " when the collected decreta of Trent bear on their title-page (1564) reference to an Index dogmatum et reformationis; but here " dogma " is already verging towards the narrower and more precise sense - truth defined by church authority.

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  • His Memoires du peuple francaise (1865-1873) and La France et les Frangais a travers les siecles (1882) at least have the merit of being among the first books written on the social history of France.

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  • In 1888 he was elected member of the Academie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres, and was afterwards appointed director of the French school of archaeology at Rome.

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  • Cremieux published a Recueil of his political cases (1869), and the Actes de la delegation de Tours et de Bordeaux (2 vols., 1871).

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  • In these years he had published De la correlation des figures de geometrie (1801), Geometrie de position (1803), and Principes fondamentaux del' equilibre et du mouvement (1803), all of which were translated into German.

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  • It is uncertain what official had the charge of the corn supply at Puteoli under the Republic, but in the time of Antoninus Pius we find an Aug(usti) dis(pensator) a frumento Puteolis et Ostis dependent no doubt on a procurator annonae of the two ports.

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  • See the careful study by C. Dubois, Pouzzoles antique (Paris, 1907) (Bibliotheque des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome, fasc. 98).

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  • He published two books on English history - Essai sur les causes qui, en 1649, amenerent en Angleterre l'etablissement de la republique (Paris, 1799), and Tableau politique des regnes de Charles II et Jacques II, derniers rois de la maison de Stuart (The Hague, 1818) - which contained much indirect criticism of the Directory and the Restoration governments.

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  • He also wrote essays and prepared maps on the geology of Seine et Marne and Seine et Oise for the Geological Survey of France (1844).

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  • He rendered great service to the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, of which he had been elected a member in 1857.

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  • A detailed bibliography of his works has been placed by Auguste Longnon at the beginning of the volume Les Croyances et legendes du moyen age.

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  • From 1794 to 1800 Say edited a periodical entitled La Decade philosophique, litteraire, et politique, in which he expounded the doctrines of Adam Smith.

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  • The results of his observations during his journey through England and Scotland appeared in a tract De l'Angleterre et des Anglais; and his conversations with distinguished men in those countries contributed to greater correctness in the exposition of principles in the third edition of the Traite, which appeared in 1817.

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  • A chair of industrial economy was founded for him in 1819 at the Conservatoire des Arts et Metiers.

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  • A volume of Melanges et correspondance was published posthumously by Charles Comte, author of the Traite de legislation, who was his son-in-law.

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  • To the above must be added an edition of Storch's Cours d'economie politique, which Say published in 1823 without Storch's authorization, with notes embodying a "critique amere et virulente," a proceeding which Storch justly resented.

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  • Joannis Apostoli indole et origine (1820), the first systematic assault on the traditional attribution, remains unrefuted in its main contention.

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  • In the 18th century the abbe Banier, in his Mythologie et la fable pliquees par l'histoire, was frankly Euhemeristic; other leading Euhemerists were Clavier, Sainte-Croix, Raoul Rochette, Em.

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  • Malvezin (Michel de Montaigne, son origine et sa famille, 1875) proved the existence of a family of Eyquems or Ayquems before the marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine to Henry II.

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  • The most recent books of importance are P. Bonnefon's Montaigne, l'homme et l'ceuzre (1893) and P. Stapfer's Montaigne (1895) in the Grands ecrivains, the latter a book of remarkable excellence.

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  • Some posthumous fragments of another opera, Daphnis et Chloe, were printed in 1780; and in 1781 appeared Les Consolations des miseres de ma vie, a collection of about one hundred songs and other fugitive pieces of very unequal merit.

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  • See also the latter's Rousseau et ses amis (1865).

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  • From 1834 he was perpetual secretary of the Brussels Academy, and published a vast number of articles in its Bulletin, as also in his journal, Correspondance mathematique et physique (11 vols., 1825-39).

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  • In 1835 he published his principal work, Sur l'homme et le developpement de ses facultes, ou essai de physique sociale (2nd ed., 1869), containing a resume of his statistical researches on the development of the physical and intellectual qualities of man, and on the "average man" both physically and intellectually considered.

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  • His principal works were, Conspectus systematis ornithologiae, mastozologiae, erpetologiae et amphibologiae, Ichthyologiae (Leiden, 1850), Tableau des oiseaux-mouches (Paris, 1854), Ornithologie fossile (Paris, 1858).

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  • In 1698 he collected and published Actes et negociations de la paix de Ryswic, in four volumes 12mo.

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