E.t. sentence example

e.t.
  • His other works were Traite de droit penal (1829); Cours de droit constitutionnel (1866-67), and Mélanges d'economie politique, d'histoire et de philosophie (2 vols., 1857).
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  • Baron de Reiffenberg, Le Chevalier au cygne et Godfrey de Bouillon (Brussels, 2 vols., 1846-1848), in Mon.
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  • Some see the guarantee, or at least the indication, of infallibility in the consensus of the Church (quod semper, ubique, et ab omnibus) expressed from time to time in general councils; others see it in the special grace conferred upon St Peter and his successors, the bishops of Rome, as heads of the Church; others again see it in the inspired Scriptures, God's Word.
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  • Two years later appeared his Recherches geographiques et critiques on the De Mensura Orbis Terrae of Dicuil.
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  • The chief of his other contributions to optics was the explanation of the rainbow - an explanation far from complete, since the unequal refrangibility of the rays of light was yet undiscovered - but a decided advance upon his predecessors, notably on the De radiis visas et lucis (1611) of Marc-Antonio de Dominis, archbishop of Spalato.
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  • Aime-Martin (1838) and Ouvres morales et philosophiques by AimeMartin with an introduction on life and works by Amedee Prevost (Paris, 1855); CEuvres choisies (1850) by Jules Simon.
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  • This side of his preparation was finished by a close study of Scripture, the results of which are contained in his commentaries, In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio, his Super Isaiam et Jeremiam, and his In Psalmos.
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  • At the beginning of 1680 he presented a paper to the Royal Society, De nova temporis dimetiendi ratione et accurata horologiorum .constructione, in which he attempted to deprive Huygens of the honour of applying the pendulum to the measurement of time.
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  • A isse et le Chevalier d'Aydie (Macon, 1900); and notices prefixed to the editions of 1846 and 1873.
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  • Persians and Arabs told the 1 Nativitas et victoriae Alexandri magni regis was the original title.
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  • The best modern work on the subject is by the comtesse Catherine de Flavigny, entitled Sainte Brigitte de Suede, sa vie, ses revelations et son oeuvre (Paris, 1892), which contains an exhaustive bibliogr,aphy.
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  • The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).
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  • Hos numeros Primus invenit clarissimus vir Iohannes Neperus Baro Merchistonij; eos autem ex eiusdem sententia mutavit, eorumque ortum et usum illustravit Henricus Briggius..
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  • The Roman priests are drawn from the seminaries, established by the church for the education of young men intending to join its ranks, and divided into lower and higher seminaries (grands et petits sminaires), the latter giving the same class of instruction as the tyces.
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  • The Department of Waters i and Forests (Administration des Eaux et Forts) forms a branch of the min istry of agriculture.
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  • The cole des Fonts et Chausses at Paris is maintained by the government for the training of the engineers for the construction and upkeep of roads and bridges.
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  • The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
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  • The Direction gnrale de lenregistrement, des domasnes et du timbre, comprising a central department and a director and staff of agents in each department, combines the administration of state property (not including forests) with the exaction of registration and stamp duties.
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  • Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
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  • At Paris the cole Suprieure des Mines and the cole des Fonts et Chausses are controlled by the minister of public, works, the cole des Beaux-Arts, the cole des Arts Dcoratifs and the Conservatoire National de Musique et de Dclamation by the unr,ler-secretary for fine arts.
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  • Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
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  • Boissonade chiefly devoted his attention to later Greek literature: Philostratus, Heroica (1806) and Epistolae (1842); Marinus, Vita procli (1814); Tiberius Rhetor, De Figuris (1815); Nicetas Eugenianus, Drosilla et Charicles (1819); Herodian, Partitiones (1819); Aristaenetus, Epistolae (1822); Eunapius, Vitae Sophisiarum (1822); Babrius, Fables (1844); Tzetzes, Allegoriae Iliados (1851); and a Collection of Greek Poets in 24 vols.
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  • Besides these, he published more than a hundred smaller works, many of which have been collected in the three following publications: - Opuscula oratoria (1762, 2nd ed., 1767); Opuscula philologica et critica (1764, 2nd ed., 1776); 0puscula theologica (1773).
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  • The best life of him is that by the Bohemian historian Anton Gindely, Acta et documents historiam GabrielisBethleni illustrantia (Budapest, 1890).
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  • C. Kervyn de Lettenhove, Relations politiques des Pays-Bas et de l'Angleterre sous le regne de Philippe II.
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  • His deeds are thus described in the Liber Pontificalis: " Hic regiones dividit diaconibus et fecit vii subdiacones, qui vii notariis imminerent, ut gestas martyrum integro fideliter colligerent, et multas fabricas per cymiteria fieri praecepit."
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  • In the midst of his torments he addressed the judge ironically with the words: Assum est, versa et manduca (" I am roasted enough on this side; turn me round, and eat").
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  • Gonot, Catalogue des ouvrages imprimes et manuscrits concernant l'Auvergne (1849).
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  • She made her debut at the Comedie Frangaise in 1699, in La Grange Chancel's Oreste et Pylade, and was at once received as societaire.
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  • Chassin, La Vendee et la Chouannerie (Paris, 1892 seq.); "L'Etat des services de Santerre dresse par lui-meme," in the third volume of Souvenirs et memoires (1899), published by Paul Bonnefon.
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  • In 1872 he was elected master of conferences at the Ecole Normale, and was made doctor of philosophy in recognition of his two treatises, Platonis Hippias Minor sive Socratica contra liberum arbitrium argumenta and La Liberte et le determinisme.
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  • The fragment should therefore be regarded as supplementary to the Taxatio Ecclesiastics Angliae et Walliae printed by the Record Commissioners in 1802.
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  • 1130 he assumed the style of king of Sicily, inscribing upon his sword the famous hexameter Appulus et Calaber Siculus mihi servit et Afer.
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  • Cranmer returned in September 1530, but in January 1531 he received a second commission from the king appointing him " Conciliarius Regius et ad Caesarem Orator."
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  • Encouraged by promises of help from Louis XIV., the Magyars now rose pro libertate et justitia, and chose the youthful ThOkoly as their leader.
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  • The philosopher in Abelard's Dialogus inter Judaeum Philosophum et Christianum expects to be saved ex sola lege naturali; here " law of nature " is fully equivalent to Natural Religion, and the word sola sets it in contrast with Christianity.
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  • The document itself provided for an elected committee of twenty-five barons, whose duty was to compel John, by force if necessary, to keep his promises; but this was evidently regarded as insufficient, and the matter was dealt with in a supplementary treaty (Conventio facia inter regem Angliae et barones ejusdum regni).
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  • It had been extorted from the king by force (per vim et metum), and in the words of the bull the pope said "compositionem hujusmodi reprobamus penitus et damnamus."
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  • Historia trevirensis diplomatica et pragmatics (3 vols., Augsburg, 1750); Marx, Geschichte des Erzstifts Trier (5 vols., Trier, 1858-1864); Leonardy, Geschichte des trierischen Landes and Volkes (Saarlouis, 1871); Woerl, Fiihrer durch die Stadt Trier (8th ed., Leipzig, 1898).
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  • He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."
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  • Turning now to Leibnitz's conception of the world as a process, we see first that he supplies, in his notion of the underlying reality as force which is represented as spiritual (quelque chose d'analogique au sentiment et a Tappan), both a mechanical and a teleological explanation of its order.
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  • Nothing really new is produced in the living world, but the germs which develop have existed since the beginning of things; and nothing really dies, but, when what we call death takes place, the living thing shrinks back into its germ state.3 et celle des especes.
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  • Hartseeker, et d'autres habiles hommes n'ont pas ete fort eloignes de ce sentiment."
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  • The doctrine of " Emboitement " is contained in the Considerations sur le principe de vie (1705); the preface to the Theodicee (1710); and the Principes de la nature et de la grace (§ 6) (1718).
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  • ' As Billion has well said: - " L'idee de ramener l'explication de tons les phenomenes a des principes mecaniques est assurement grande et belle,ce pas est le plus hardi qu'on peut faire en philosophic, et c'est Descartes qui l'a fait."
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  • Spinoza abounds in the same sense, and is as usual perfectly candid " Naturae leges et regulae, secundum quas omnia fiunt et ex unis formis in alias mutantur, sunt ubique et semper eadem."
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  • Ecc. et Cler., excluded bishops from accusations before secular judges and commanded such accusations to be speedily brought before the tribunal of other bishops.
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  • Much that had been done by bishops, sine strepitu forensi et figura judicii, is now done in the course of regular judicial procedure.
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  • The only Latin countries in which conflict has not arisen appear to be the principality of Andorra and the republic of San Marino (Giron y Areas, SituaciOn juridica de la Iglesia Catolica, Madrid, 1905, p. 173 et seq.).
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  • Like most great teachers he published a text-book, and his Traite de Chimie elementaire, theorique et pratique (4 vols., Paris, 1813-16), which served as a standard for a quarter of a century, perhaps did even more for the advance of chemistry than his numerous original discoveries.
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  • Jerome (the authority for the date of his death) calls him Pythagoricus et magus.
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  • The chief aims of the author are conciseness and clearness (breviter et dilucide scribere).
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  • His chief publications are: Cretan Pictographs and Prae-Phoenician Script (1896); Further Discoveries of Cretan and Aegean Script (1898); The Mycenaean Tree and Pillar Cult (1901); Scripta Minoa (1909 et seq.); and reports on the excavations at Knossos.
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  • See Dacier et Dupuy, "1 loges," in Memoires de l'Academie des Inscriptions.
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  • (1900) P. 46; Marcel Bertrand, " Deformation tetraedrique de la terre et deplacement du pole," Comptes rendus Acad.
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  • Milne-Edwards, Recherches anatomiques et paliontologiques pour servir a l'histoire des oiseaux fossiles de la France (Paris, 1867-1868), torn.
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  • Rouget, " Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur les appareils erectiles," " Appareil de l'adaptation de l'oeil " ...
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  • Sophocles, and the Lexicon Graecum suppletorium et dialecticum of Van Herwerden; whilst the new great Latin Lexicon, published by the Berlin Academy, is calculated to meet the needs of students of Latin patristic literature.
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  • In 1866 he published Une troupe de comediens, and afterwards Essai sur la restauration de nos monuments historiques devant fart et devant le budget, which deals particularly with the restoration of the cathedral of Evreux.
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  • In 1881 Leroy-Beaulieu was elected professor of contemporary history and eastern affairs at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, becoming director of this institution on the death of Albert Sorel in 1906, and in 1887 he became a member of the Academic des Sciences Morales et Politiques.
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  • Henceforward he lived a life of unbroken seclusion at Vignay, his only subsequent public appearance being by means of a memoire which he addressed to the king in 1570 under the title Le But de la guerre et de la paix, ou discours du chancelier l'Hospital pour exhorter Charles IX.
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  • Each August, despite the heat, representatives from the 60 (or 64) tribes of Gallia Comata met at Lyons, elected a priest, "sacerdos ad aram Augusti et Romae," and held games.
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  • See also Desjardins, Geographie historique et administrative de la Gaule romaine (Paris, 18 77); Fustel de Coulanges, Histoire des institutions politiques de l'ancienne France (Paris, 1877); for Caesar's campaigns, article CAESAR, JULIUS, and works quoted; for coins, art.
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  • Amongst his works are - Doctrine de Saint-Simon (written in conjunction with several of his followers), published in 1830, and several times republished; Economie politique et politique Saint-Simonienne (1831); Correspondance politique (1835-1840); Corresp. philos.
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  • His request was immediately granted, and thus it came about that Hansen's famous Tables de la Lune were dedicated to La Haute Amiraute de sa Majeste la Reine de la Grande Bretagne et d'Mande.
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  • He translated into Latin Aristotle's Analytica Priora et Posteriora, the Topica, and Elenchi Sophistici; and he wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, on his book lrEpi Epµnvcias, also a commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyrius.
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  • Its form is peculiar, and is an imitation of a similar work by Marcianus Capella, De Nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii.
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  • The second treatise is addressed to J ohn the deacon (" Ad Joannem Diaconum "), and its subject is " Utrum Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus de divinitate substantialiter praedicentur."
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  • The fifth treatise is Contra Eutychen et Nestorium.
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  • In 1744 Alembert applied this principle to the theory of the equilibrium and the motion of fluids (Trcite de l'equilibre et du mouvement des fluides), and all the problems before solved by geometricians became in some measure its corollaries.
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  • During the time he was engaged on the Encyclopaedia he wrote a number of literary and philosophical works which extended his reputation and also exposed him to criticism and controversy, as in the case of his M�nges de Philosophic, d'Histoire, et de Litterature.
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  • Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
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  • Thus they had been in a position to form this world: unde nec perfectum bonum in hoc mundo, et quod est, valde est exiguum.
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  • In the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, Basilides saw the proof of naturam sine radice et sine loco rebus supervenientem (Acta Archelai).
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  • Guiraud in the Bibliotheque des ecoles francaises d'Athenes et de Rome (Paris, 1892-1898).
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  • Pierling, Russie et le Saint-Siege,1417-1758 (4 vols., 1896-1907).
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  • 617, alludes to it Proxima cognati dixere charistia cari, Et venit ad socios turba propinqua deos.
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  • Altertiimer; P. Ladeuze, "L'Eucharistie et les repas communs" in the Revue de l'orient chretien, No.
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  • Villemain finds in it " peu de vues, nulle originalite surtout, mais une grande passion litteraire, l'amour des recherches savantes et du beau langage."
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  • I was not armed by nature and education with the intrepid energy of mind and voice - ' Vincentem strepitus et natum rebus agendis.'
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  • It was during his imprisonment here that, "prive de toute espece de livres et de secours, surtout distrait par les malheurs de ma patrie et les miens propres," as he himself puts it, he began his researches on projective geometry which led to his great treatise on that subject.
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  • Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).
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  • The first volume was expanded into three volumes, La Gaule romaine (1891), L' Invasion germanique et la fin de l'empire (1891)and La Monarchie franque(1 888), followed by three other volumes, L'Alleu et le domaine rural pendant l'epoque merovingienne (1889), Les Origines du systeme feodal: le benefice et le patronat..
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  • See the contemporary life by Vitorelli, continuator of Ciaconius, Vitae et res gestae summorum pontiff.
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  • The violent personalities of a pamphlet entitled Marie Joseph Chenier et le prince des critiques (1844), in reply to Jules Janin, brought him a six months' sojourn in La Pelagic, in the cell just quitted by Lamennais.
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  • According to Juvenal the sons of such proselytes were apt to go farther and to substitute the Jewish Law for the Roman Romanas autem soliti contemnere leges; Judaicum ediscunt et servant ac metuunt ius Tradidit arcano quodcunque volumine Moyses.
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  • During his retirement he published various apologies for his policy in 1870, notably La France et la Prusse avant la guerre (Paris, 1872).
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  • (Berlin, 1856, &c.); Daremberg-Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquites grecques et romaines, ii.
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  • His extant works are (a) three poems, "The Praises of Wemen" (224 lines), "On Luve" (10 lines), and "The Miseries of a Pure Scholar" (189 lines), and (b) a Latin account of the Arbuthnot family, Originis et Incrementi Arbuthnoticae Familiae Descriptio Historica (still in MS.), of which an English continuation, by the father of Dr John Arbuthnot, is preserved in the Advocates' Library, Edinburgh.
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  • His De Maria Magdalena et triduo Christi disceptatio (1517) provoked violent controversy and was condemned by the Sorbonne (1521).
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  • Expelled from France in 1836, the day after bringing a suit against the duchess of Angouleme for the restitution of the daupnin's private property, he lived in exile till his death at Delft on the 10th of August 1845, and his tomb was inscribed "Louis XVII., roi de France et de Navarre (Charles Louis, duc de Normandie)."
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  • The great amiability and childlike simplicity of Ampere's character are well brought out in his Journal et correspondence (Paris, 1872).
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  • Chretien states that he composed the poem (which he left to be completed by Godefroi de Leigni) at the request of the countess Marie of Champagne, who provided him with matiere et san.
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  • The affair ended by his escaping to Switzerland, where Sophie joined him; they then went to Holland, where he lived by hackwork for the booksellers; meanwhile Mirabeau had been condemned to death at Pontarlier for rapt et vol, and in May 1777 he was seized by the French police, and imprisoned by a lettre de cachet in the castle of Vincennes.
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  • Metz ou sur toute autre frontiere serait declarer la guerre a la nation et abdiquer le trone.
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  • Un roi qui est la seule sauvegarde de son peuple ne fuit point devant son peuple; it le prend pour juge de sa conduite et de ses principes."
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  • "11 est certain, d'ailleurs, qu'il faut une grande revolution pour sauver le royaume, que la nation a des droits, qu'elle est en chemin de les recouvrer tous, et qu'il faut non seulement les retablir, mais les consolider."
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  • For details of his life consult Peuchet, Mirabeau: Memoires sur sa vie litteraire et privee (1824); and the Memoires biographiques, litteraires et politiques de Mirabeau, ecrits par lui-meme, par son pere, son oncle et son fits adoptif, which was issued by his adopted son, Lucas de Montigny (8 vols., Paris, 1834-1835).
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  • The familiar charge, repeated in Shakespeare, of having written Ego et meus rex, while true in fact, is false in intention, because no Latin scholar could put the words in any other order; but it reflects faithfully enough Wolsey's mental attitude.
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  • His first works were Elementa Metaphysicae (1743 et seq.) and Logica (1745).
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  • Otherwise, as Mommsen says, the Getica is a mera epitome, laxata ea et perversa, historiae Gothicae Cassiodorianae.
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  • La volonte ouvre la porte aux carrieres brillantes et heureuses; le travail les franchit, et une fois arrive au terme du voyage, le succes vient couronner l'oeuvre."
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  • In 1695 he published his principal work, Le Detail de la France, la cause de la diminution de ses biens, et la facilite du remede...
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  • Between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet.
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  • He published his Avis sur l'assiette et la repartition de la taille (1762-1770), and as president of the Societe d'agriculture de Limoges offered prizes for essays on the principles of taxation.
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  • Among other works written during Turgot's intendancy were the Memoire sur les mines et carrieres, and the Memoire sur la marque des fers, in which he protested against state regulation and interference and advocated free competition.
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  • Turgot's best known work, Reflexions sur la formation et la distribution des richesses, was written early in the period of his intendancy for the benefit of two young Chinese students.
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  • The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
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  • He at once retired to la Roche-Gtiyon, the château of the duchesse d'Enville, returning shortly to Paris, where he spent the rest of his life in scientific and literary studies, being made vice-president of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres in 1777.
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  • But he did not allow his misfortune to put a stop to his work, and in 1708 produced a large Dictionnaire universel geographique et historique in three volumes folio.
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  • See also the Fragments inidits de critique sur Pierre et Thomas Corneille of Alfred de Vigny, published in 1905.
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  • (1887, 1888); P. Pelseneer, " Protobranches aeriens et Pulmones branchiferes," Arch.
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  • Nasica, Memoires sur l'enfance et la jeunesse de Napoleon I.
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  • In November 1789 Desmoulins began his career as a journalist by the issue of the first number of a weekly publication, Les Revolutions de France et de Brabant.
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  • Apostolum et Mosen adeoque Deum ipsum audes corrigere."
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  • Bonnard, Thomas Eraste et la discipline eccle'siastique (1894); Gass, in Allgemeine deutsche Biog.
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  • Reaching Geneva in October 1532, Farel (described in a contemporary monastic chronicle as "un chetif malheureux predicant, nomme maistre Guillaume") at once began to preach in a room of his lodging, and soon attracted "un grand nombre de gens qui estoient advertis de sa venue et déjà infects de son heresie."
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  • The first is entitled Externarum et internarum principalium humani corporis Tabulae, &c. while the second, which is the most valuable, is merely appended to the Lectiones Gabrielis Fallopii de partibus similaribus humani corporis, &c., and thus, the scope of each work being regarded as medical, the author's labours were wholly overlooked by the mere naturalhistorians who followed, though Coiter introduced a table, " De differentiis Auium," furnishing a key to a rough classification of such birds as were known to him, and this as nearly the first attempt of the kind deserves notice here.
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  • His Histoire naturelle, generale et particuliere, was begun in 1749, and in 1770 he brought out, with the assistance of Guenau de Montbeillard, 3 the first volume of his great Histoire naturelle des oiseaux.
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  • But in 1681 Gerard Blasius had brought out at Amsterdam an Anatome Animalium, containing the results of all the dissections of animals that he could find; and the second part of this book, treating of Volatilia, makes a respectable show of more than one hundred and twenty closely-printed quarto pages, though nearly two-thirds is devoted to a treatise De Ovo et Pullo, containing among other things a reprint of Harvey's researches, and the scientific rank of the whole book may be inferred from bats being still classed with birds.
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  • 2 Daudin's unfinished Traite elementaire et complet d'ornithologie appeared at Paris in 1800, and therefore is the last of these general works published in the 18th century.
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  • Between 1803 and 1806 Le Vaillant also published in just the same style two volumes with the title of Histoire naturelle des oiseaux de Paradis et des rolliers, suivie de celle des toucans et des barbus, an assemblage of forms, which, miscellaneous as it is,.was surpassed in incongruity by a fourth work on the same scale, the Histoire naturelle des promerops et des guepiers, des couroucous et des touracos, for herein are found jays, waxwings, the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola), and what not besides.
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  • The first volume contains the " Colibris, Oiseaux-mouches, Jacamars et Promerops," the second the " Grimpereaux " and " Oiseaux de Paradis " - associations which set all the laws of systematic method at defiance.
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  • A Century of Birds from the Himalaya Mountains was followed by The Temminck subsequently reproduced, with many additions, the text of this volume in his Histoire naturelle des pigeons et des gallinacees, published at Amsterdam in 1813-1815, in 3 vols.
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  • Of a very different kind is the next we have to notice, the Prodromus systematis mammalium et avium of Illiger, published at Berlin in 1811, which must in its day have been a valuable little manual, and on many points it may now be consulted to advantage - the characters of the genera being admirably given, and good explanatory lists of the technical terms of ornithology furnished.
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  • No name given, but said to include " les ibis et les spatules."
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  • Abich (Sur la structure et la geologic du Daghestan, 1862), the successive folds of Jurassic limestones and slates, all nearly parallel to the Caucasus, which form lofty, narrow plateaus.
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  • Three of Pithou's brothers acquired distinction as jurists: Jean (1524-1602), author of Traite de police et du gouvernement des republiques, and, in collaboration with his twin brother Nicolas (1524-1598), of Institution du mariage chretien; and Franccois (1543-1621), author of Glossarium ad libros capitularium (1588), Traite de ?excommunication et de l'interdit, &c. (1587).
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  • He died at Choisy-le-Roi (Seine et Oise) on the 26th of June 1836.
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  • His Essais en vers et en prose (1797) contains the Marseillaise, a prose tale of the sentimental kind called Adelaide et Monville, and some occasional poems.
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  • But we know, from the undoubtedly genuine Acta SS Justini et sociorum, that Justin suffered the death of a martyr under the prefect Rusticus between 163 and 167.
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  • Wilson, Ohio (New York, 1902), and a great mass of material on this subject is contained in the publications of the Geological Survey of Ohio (1837 et seq.).
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  • For his work in connexion with gunpowder, the invention of which has been claimed for him on the ground of a passage in his De mirabili potestate antis et naturae, see Gunpowder.
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  • Spon brought back many valuable treasures, coins, inscriptions and manuscripts, and in later years published various important works on archaeology, notably his Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant (1678), and a Histoire de la republique de Geneve (1680).
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  • His chief works are: De conjunctione animae et corporis humani; Exercitationes centum de cognitione Dei nostri; Logica vetus et nova; Initiatio philosophi, seu Dubitatio Cartesiana; a commentary on Descartes' Meditations; and Ars etymologica Teutonum.
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  • Oberlin published several manuals on archaeology and ancient geography, and made frequent excursions into different provinces of France to investigate antiquarian remains and study provincial dialects, the result appearing in Essai sur le patois Lorrain (1775); Dissertations sur les Minnesingers (1782-1789); and Observations concernant le patois et les mceurs des gens de la campagne (1791).
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  • 1713 et seq.) and has been followed to some extent in Italy (Civil Code, Arts.
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  • Against the common view that miracles can attest the truth of a divine revelation Gerhard maintained that " per miracula non possunt probari oracula "; and Hopfner returns to the qualified position of Augustine when he describes them as praeter et supra naturae ordinem."
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  • Such an absolute continuity is sometimes assumed without warrant; but Descartes already recognized that the world was no continuous process, " Tria mirabilia fecit Dominus; res ex nihilo, liberum arbitrium et hominem Deum."
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  • " Les miracles discernent la doctrine, et la doctrine discerne les miracles " (Pascal's Pense'es des miracles).
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  • The fact is that until the 13th century the Franks lived consuetudinibus antiquis et jure non scripto.
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  • It is a chapter very difficult to write, for while on the one hand an ingenious and speculative historian may refer to the influence of the Crusades almost everything which was thought or done between r too and 1300, a cautious writer who seeks to find Brehier, L'Eglise et l'Orient, p. 347.
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  • Brehier's L'Eglise et l'orient au moyen age (Paris, 1907) contains not only an up-to-date account of the Crusades, but also a full and useful bibliography, which should be consulted for fuller information.
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  • Jacottet," Moeuro, coutumes et superstitions des Ba-Souts,"in Bull.
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  • After the revolution of 1830 he founded the Pantheon litteraire, in which he published a Choix d'ouvrages mystiques (1843), a Choix de monuments primitifs de l'eglise chretienne (1837), a Choix des historiens grecs (1837), a collection of Chroniques etrangeres relatives aux expeditions francaises pendant XIII' siècle (1840), and, most important of all, a Choix de chroniques et memoires sur l'histoire de France (1836-1841).
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  • Thus, in the treatise known as Physica et Mystica and falsely ascribed to Democritus (such false attributions are a constant feature of the literature of alchemy), various receipts are given for colouring and gilding metals, but the conception of transmutation does not occur.
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  • Thus the pseudo-Democritus, who was reputed the author of the Physica et Mystica, which itself concludes each of its receipts with a magical formula, was believed to have travelled in Chaldaea, and to have had as his master Ostanes l the Mede, a name mentioned several times in the Leiden papyrus, and often by early Christian writers such as Tertullian, St Cyprian and St Augustine.
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  • Berthelot, Les Origines de l'alchimie (1885); Collection des anciens alchimistes grecs (text and translation, 3 vols., 1887-1888); Introduction a l'etude de la chimie des anciens et du moyen age (1889); La Chimie au moyen age (text and translation of Syriac and Arabic treatises on alchemy, 3 vols., 1893).
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  • Our knowledge of Lanfranc's polemics is chiefly derived from the tract De cor pore et sanguine Domini which he wrote many years later (after 1079) when Berengar had been finally condemned.
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  • His great work was the Theologia moralis et dogmatica, a compendium in catechetical form of Roman Catholic doctrine and ethics which has been much used as a students' text-book.
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  • There may be noted Durand's Marguerite de Valois et la tour de Francois Ier (1848); La Ferriere's Marguerite d'Angouleme (1891); Lotheissen's Konigin Margareta von Navarra (1885); Miss Edith Sichel's Women and Men of the French Renaissance (1901), and P. Courtault's Marguerite de Navarre (1904).
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  • The visit of the French physician Jacques Spon and the Englishman, Sir George Wheler or Wheeler (1650-1723), fortunately took place before the catastrophe of the Parthenon in 1687; Spon's Voyage d'Italie, de Dalmatie, de Grece et du Levant, which contained the first scientific description of the ruins of Athens, appeared in 1678; Wheler's Journey into Greece, in 1682.
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  • The French Ecole d'Athenes, founded in 1846, is under the scientific direction of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belleslettres.
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  • Athenes et ses environs (Paris, 1896); Meyer's Turkei and Griechenlander (5th ed., 1901).
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  • (I) Leges Wisigothorum, (2) Lex Burgundionum, (3) Pactus Alamannorum and Lex Alamannorum, (4) Lex Bajuvariorum, (5) Lex Saxonum, (6) Lex Frisionum, (7) Lex Angliorum et Werinorum, hoc est, Thuringorum, and (8) Leges Langobardorum.
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  • The earlier text, of which five short fragments have come down to us, is known as the Pactus Alamannorum, and from the persistent recurrence of the expression "et sic convenit" was most probably drawn up by an official commission.
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  • Lavy, L'Ouvre de Millerand (1902); his speeches between 1899 and 1907 were published in 1907 as Travail et travailleurs.
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  • It is from John Mair's Historia Majoris Britanniae tam Angliae quam Scotiae, which appeared in 1521 "Circa haec tempora [Ricardi Primi], ut auguror, Robertus Hudus Anglus et Parvus Joannes latrones famatissimi in nemoribus latuerunt, solum opulentorum virorum bona deripientes.
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  • Viri rapinam improbo, sed latronum omnium humanissimus et princeps erat."
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  • The following year, the question of the intervention of kings in the election of bishops having been raised in a pamphlet by Charles Hersent (Optatus Gallus de cavendo schismate, 1640), Marca defended what were then called the liberties of the Gallican Church, in his celebrated treatise De concordia sacerdotii et imperii, seu de libertatibus ecclesiae gallicanae (1641).
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  • Marca's biography was written in Latin by two of his intimate friends, Etienne Baluze, his secretary (Epistola ad Samuelem Sorbierium, de vita, gestis et scriptis Petri de Marca, Paris, 1663), and his cousin, Paul de Faget (at the beginning of a collection of Marca's theological pamphlets, first published by Paul de Faget in 1668).
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  • Mallett, Histoire de l'ecole de Megare et des ecoles d'Elis et d'Eretrie (1845).
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  • He wrote a Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du comte de Lanjuinais, which was prefixed to an edition of his father's Ouvres (4 vols., 1832).
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  • See Jal, Abraham Duquesne, et la marine de son temps (1873).
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  • In this capacity he did very useful work, and after the Restoration continued in this post at the request of the duc de Richelieu, his work being recognized by his election as a member of the Academie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres in 1820.
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  • Torbern Olof Bergman used an elaborate system in his Opuscula physica et chemica (1783); the 1 Dalton's atomic theory is treated in more detail in the article Atom.
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  • In France, the most important journals are the Annales de chimie et de physique, founded in 1789 with the title Annales de chimie, and the Comptes rendus, published weekly by the Academie francaise since 1835.
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  • Adhemar's life was mainly spent in writing and transcribing chronicles, and his principal work is a history entitled Chronicon Aquitanicum et Francicum or Historia Francorum.
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  • Castaigne, Dissertation sur le lieu de naissance et sur la famille du chroniqueur Ademar, moine de l'abbaye de St Cybard d'Angouleme (Angouleme, 1850).
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  • Then, from July to October, he was in Paris superintending the publication of his first work: Cadastre perpetuel, dedie a l'assemblee nationale, l'an 1789 et le premier de la liberte francaise, which was written in 1787 and issued in 1790.
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  • He was continually employed on diplomatic errands until 1455, when, owing apparently to ill-health, he received apartments in the palace of the counts of Hainaut at Salle-le-Comte, Valenciennes, with a con siderable pension, on condition that the recipient should put in writing "choses nouvelles et morales," and a chronicle of notable events.
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  • Pope Zachary, when in 741 he condemned the views of Virgilius, the learned bishop of Salzburg, an Irishman who had been denounced as a heretic by St Boniface, declares it to be perversa et iniqua doctrina.
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  • Briggs, The Messiah of the Apostles, p. 284 seq.; Sabatier, Les Origines litteraires et la composition de l'Apocalypse de St Jean (1887); Spitta, Die Offenbarung des Johannes untersucht (1889).
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  • His Son, Alexandre Edmond Becquerel (1820-1891), was born in Paris on the 24th of March 1820, and was in turn his pupil, assistant and successor at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle; he was also appointed professor at the short-lived Agronomic Institute at Versailles in 1849, and in 1853 received the chair of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers.
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  • He published in 1867-1868 a treatise in two volumes on La Lumiere, ses causes et ses effets.
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  • Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908), son of the lastnamed, who succeeded to his chair at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle in 1892, was born in Paris on the 15th of December 1852, studied at the Ecole Polytechnique, where he was appointed a professor in 1895, and in 1875 entered the department des posts et chaussees, of which in 1894 he became chef.
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  • Finding Italy uncongenial to his ideas, he went to France and, in 1839, produced in Paris his Vico et l'Italie, followed by La Nouvelle Religion de Campanella and La Theorie de l'erreur.
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  • After fresh trouble with the clergy, he returned to Paris and published a defence of his theories in a work entitled Ides sur la politique de Platon et d'Aristole.
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  • The works of this period are Les Philosophes Salaries, Machiavel juge des revolutions de notre temps (1849), La Federazione repubblicana (1851), La Filosofia della rivoluzione (1851), L' Italia dopo it colpo di Stato (1852), Histoire des revolutions, ou Guelfes et Gibelins (1858; Italian trans., 1871-1873).
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  • Amongst other works may be mentioned Histoire de la raison d'etat, La China et l'Europa, Corso d'istoria degli scrittori politici italiani.
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  • Its systematic effort is, in his own words, " pro libertate, quam et fovere et tueri Romanis legibus et praecipue nostro numini peculiare est."
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  • Of the many prophetic and polemical works that were attributed to Joachim in the 13th and following centuries, only those enumerated in his will can be regarded as absolutely authentic. These are the Concordia novi et veteris Testamenti (first printed at Venice in 1519), the Expositio in Apocalypsin (Venice, 1527), the Psalterium decem chordarum (Venice, 1527), together with some "libelli" against the Jews or the adversaries of the Christian faith.
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  • In nonflowering plants the works usually followed are for ferns, Hooker and Baker's Synopsis filicum; for mosses, Muller's Synopsis muscorum frondosorum, Jaeger & Sauerbeck's Genera et species muscorum, and Engler & Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien; for algae, de Toni's Sylloge algarum; for hepaticae, Gottsche, Lindenberg and Nees ab Esenbeck's Synopsis hepaticarum, supplemented by Stephani's Species hepaticarum; for fungi, Saccardo's Sylloge fungorum, and for mycetozoa Lister's monograph of the group. For the members of large genera, e.g.
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  • The Histoire de la Louisiane, et de la cession de colonie par la France aux EtatsUnis (Paris, 1829; in English, Philadelphia, 1830) by Barbe-Marbois has great importance in diplomatic history.
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  • Hantzsch (Ann., 1896, 2 9 2, pp. 34 0 et seq.) hyponitrous acid and nitramide are to be regarded as stereoisomers, being the anti-and synforms of the same compound.
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  • Peter Fullo introduced these words into the Trishagion, and after much controversy the council of Constantinople (553), while disallowing this, gave its sanction to the similar statement- unum crucifixum esse ex sancta et consubstantiali Trinitate.
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  • Opuscules et fragments inedits de Leibnitz.
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  • Extraits des manuscrits de la bibliotheque royale de Hanovre, by Louis Couturat (Paris, 1903), especially pp. 35 6 -399, "Generales inquisitiones de analysi notionum et veritatum" (written in 1686); also cf.
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  • Capus, A travers la Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1896) contains a detailed and fully illustrated account of the combined provinces, their resources and population.
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  • SpalaIkovitch (Spalajkovic), in La Bosnie et l'Herzegovine (Paris, 1897), give a critical account of the AustroHungarian administration.
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  • Berard, La Turquie et l'Hellenisme (Paris, 1897); idem, Le Sultan, l'Islam et les Puissances (Paris, 1907); idem, La Revolution turque (1909).
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  • All the operations connected with the successive invasion schemes are recorded, with exhaustive quotations of documentary evidence, in Projets et tentatives de debarquement aux Iles Britanniques, by Captain Desbriere (Paris, 1901).
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  • Crivellari, Quae praecipue hausit Vergilius ex Naevio et Ennio (1889).
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  • Labenazie, Histoire de la ville d'Agen et pays d'Agenois, ed.
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  • He was not depressed by this misfortune, especially as he was at the time closely engaged in the preparation of the Historical and Critical Dictionary (Dictionnaire historique et critique) .
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  • Aulard, Recueil des actes du comite de Salut Public avec la correspondance olicielle des representants en mission, et le registre du conseil executif provisoire (Paris, 1889 et seq.); 1'vI.
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  • His attitude about this time to life and experience is reflected in Pulvis et umbra, one of the noblest of all his essays.
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  • On the Tabula Peutingeriana appear the "Chamavi qui et Pranci," which should doubtless read " qui et Franci "; these Chamavi apparently dwelt between the Yssel and the Ems. Later, we find them a little farther south, on the banks of the Rhine, in the district called Hamalant, and it is their customs which were brought together in the 9th century in the document known as the Lex Francorum Chamavorum.
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  • The earliest mention in history of the name Franks is the entry on the Tabula Peutingeriana, at least if we assume that the term " et Franci " is not a later emendation.
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  • 4to, Lucca, 1759, 1761); Del modo di regolare i fiumi e i torrenti (Lucca, 1762); Cosmographia physica et mathematica (Milan, 1 774, 1 775, 2 vols.
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  • He was the author of De septuaginta interpretibus (1661), De poematum Cantu et viribus rhythmi (1673), and Variarum observationum liber (1685).
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  • Juste, Le Soulevement de la Hollande en 1813 et la fondation du ro y aume des Pays-Bas (Brussels, 1870); and P. Blok, Geschiedenis der Nederlandsche Volk, vols.
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  • Reinach, Textes d'auteurs grecs et romains relatifs au Judalsme (1895).
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  • Daux, Recherches sur l'origine et l'emplacement des emporia pheniciens dans le Zeugis et le Byzacium (Paris, 1869); Ch.
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  • See FRANCE: Law and Institutions; Henri See, Les Classes rurales et le regime domanial en France au Moyen Age (Paris, 1901); and Auger, Code des tailles (Paris, 1788).
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  • Articles on Omars life and works are found in Reinauds Geographie dAboulfeda, pref., p. 101; Notices et extraits, ix.
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  • The Opuscula et Carmina Latina were published separately in 1837; with a collection of his smaller pieces, Kleine Schriften (1837-1838), including a complete list of his works (56 pages).
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  • His publications included: Relation des epidemies de cholera qui ont regne a l'Heggiaz, d Suez, Egypte (1832); De to peste observee en Egypte (1840); A perru general sur l'Egypte (1840); Coup d'ceil sur la peste et les quarantaines (1851); De l'ophthalmie (1864).
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  • Ravaisson's chief philosophical works are: "Les Fragments philosophiques de Hamilton" (in the Revue des Deux Mondes, November, 1840); Rapport sur le stoicisme (1851); La Philosophie en France au dix-neuvieme siecle (1868; 3rd ed., 1889); Morale et metaphysique (1893).
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  • 25th, 1893), and then by Loisy himself, in his paper "La Question biblique et l'inspiration des Ecritures" (L'Enseignement bibligzee,Nov.
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  • The first course was published in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses; and here also appeared instalments of his commentary on St John's Gospel, his critically important Notes sur la Genese, and a Chronique biblique unmatched in its mastery of its numberless subjects and its fearless yet delicate penetration.
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  • Autour consists of seven letters, on the origin and aim of L'Evangile et l'Eglise; on the biblical question; the criticism of the Gospels; the Divinity of Christ; the Church's foundation and authority; the origin and authority of dogma, and on the institution of the sacraments.
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  • On the 23rd of December the pope ordered the publication of a decree of the Congregation of the Index, incorporating a decree of the Inquisition, condemning Loisy's Religion d'Israel, L'Evangile et l'Eglise,Etudes evangeliques, Autour d'un petit livre and Le Quatrieme Evangile.
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  • Here he continued his important reviews, notably in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses, and published Morceaux d'exegese (1906), six further sections of his synoptic commentary.
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  • Simples Reflexions sur le decret Lamentabili et sur l'encyclique Pascendi, 12m0, 277 pages, was published from Ceffonds a few days after the commentary.
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  • A volume entitled Opera posthuma (Leiden, 1703) contained his "Dioptrica," in which the ratio between the respective focal lengths of object-glass and eye-glass is given as the measure of magnifying power, together with the shorter essays De vitris figurandis, De corona et parheliis, &c. An early tract De ratiociniis tin ludo aleae, printed in 16J7 with Schooten's Exercitationes mathematicae, is notable as one of the first formal treatises on the theory of probabilities; nor should his investigations of the properties of the cissoid, logarithmic and catenary curves be left unnoticed.
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  • Among the principal of these are: - Memoires de la Societe archeologique de Constantine, Bulletin de la Societe geographique et archeologique d'Oran, Revue africaine of Algiers, to which we should add the Revue archeologique of Paris, the Archives des missions scientifiques and the Bulletin archeologique du Comite des travaux historiques and the Melanges of the French School at Rome.
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  • Under the title of Musees et collections archeologiques de l'Algerie et de la Tunisie, the Ministry of Public Instruction publishes from time to time illustrated descriptions of all these archaeological treasures.
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  • Mercier, Histoire de l'Afrique septentrionale (1888); Charles Tissot, Geographic comparee de la province romaine d'Afrique (1884-1888), with atlas; Vivien de SaintMartin, LeNord de l'Afrique dans l'antiquite grecque et romaine (1883); Gaston Boissier, L'Afrique romaine (1895); Cl.
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  • Daux, Les Emporia pheniciens dans le Zeugis et le Byzacium (1869); Ludwig Muller, Numismatique de l'ancienne Afrique (1860-1862; Supplement, 1874); Ch.
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  • Drapeyron, Essai sur l'origine, le diveloppement et les resultats de la lutte entre la Neustrie et lAustrasie (Paris, 1867); Auguste Longnon, Atlas historique, 1st and 2nd parts.
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  • Some doubt exists concerning Geoffrey's share in the compilation of the Vita et mors Edwardi II., usually attributed to Sir Thomas de la More, or Moor, and printed by Camden in his Anglica scripta.
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  • Recent scholarship, however, asserts that More was no writer, and that the Vita et mors is an extract from Geoffrey's Chronicon, and was attributed to More, who was the author's patron.
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  • In the main this conclusion substantiates the verdict of Stubbs, who has published the Vita et mors in his Chronicles of the reigns of Edward I.
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  • The story of the famous kiss bestowed by Margaret of Scotland on la precieuse bouche de laquelle sont issus et sortis taut de bons mots et vertueuses paroles is mythical, for Margaret did not come to France till 1436, after the poet's death; but the story, first told by Guillaume Bouchet in his Annales d'Aquitaine (1524), is interesting, if only as a proof of the high degree of estimation in which the ugliest man of his day was held.
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  • See Henryk Lisicki, Le Marquis Wielopolski, sa vie et son temps (Vienna, 1880); Wlodzimieriz Spasowicz, The Life and Policy of the Marquis Wielopolski (Rus.) (St Petersburg, 1882).
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  • His De magnete magneticisque corporibus et de magno magnete tellure physiologia nova (1600), contains many references to the expositions of earlier writers from Plato down to those of the author's own age.
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