How to use Esther in a sentence
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
Daniel, Esther, i Esdras, Josephus), the historical narratives are of the scantiest and vaguest until the time of Artaxerxes, when the account of a return (Ezra iv.
Susanna, where the point lies in the name Daniel " God is judge "), Esther, Judith, Tobit (and the Ahiqar cycle of stories), the story of Zerubbabel (i Esd.
The corrections of s e are important, as they are based (according to a note by that scribe, at the end of Esther) on an early copy which had been corrected by, Pamphilus, the disciple of Origen, friend of Eusebius and founder of a library at Caesarea.
Megillath Esther, dating, to judge from its indebtedness to Josippon (the pseudo-Josephus), after 10th century.Advertisement
According to his own statement in De vetere testamento, written about loco, he had at that period translated the Pentateuch, Joshua, Judges, Kings, Job, Esther, Judith and the Maccabees.
Genesis is but slightly abridged, but Job, Kings, Judges, Esther and Judith as well as the Maccabees are mere homilies epitomized from the corresponding Old Testament books.
In the Septuagint and Vulgate it immediately precedes Esther, and along with Tobit comes after Nehemiah; in the English Apocrypha it is placed between Tobit and the apocryphal additions to Esther.
It is preceded by a fast on the 13th day of Adar, known as the Fast of Esther, based upon Esther iv.
The Megillah or Roll of Esther is read both at home and in the synagogue, and wherever, during the reading, the name of Haman is mentioned, it is accompanied with tramping the feet.Advertisement
From the 17th century onward Purim plays were performed mostly by the children, who improvised a dramatic version of the story of Esther.
It is a curious coincidence, to say the least, that Dieulafoy found among the ruins of the Memnonium at Susa (the ancient Shushan, given as the scene of the events narrated in the Book of Esther) a quadrangular prism bearing different numbers on its four faces.
The death of the god, he suggests, is represented by the Fast of Esther on the 13th of Adar, the day before Purim, while the rejoicing on Purim itself, and the licence accompanying it, recall the union of the god and goddess of vegetation, of which he sees traces in the relations of Mordecai and Esther.
There may possibly be "survivals" of the influence of some such celebrations both on the Book of Esther and on the ceremonies of Purim, but there is absolutely no evidence that the Jews took over the interpretation of these festivals with their celebration.
However, it is practically certain, both from the etymology of the word Purim and from the resemblance of the festivals, that the feast, as represented in the Book of Esther, was borrowed from the Persians, who themselves appeared to have adapted it from the Babylonians.Advertisement
This is confirmed by the fact that the Book of Esther contains several Persian words and shows throughout a familiarity with Persian conditions.
The date at which the feast of Purim was first adopted by the Jews from their Persian neighbours would be definitely determined if we knew the date of the Book of Esther.
In Frankfort the women were allowed to open their lattice windows in the synagogue in honour of the deliverance brought about by Esther.
Execration of Haman, as the typical persecutor of the Jews, took various forms. In Germany wooden mallets were used in the synagogue to beat the benches when Haman's name was read out from the scroll of Esther, and during the festivities these mallets were sometimes used on the heads of the bystanders.
The first Spanish drama written by Jews was entitled "Esther," by Solomon Usque and Lazaro Gratiano, published in 1567; and there is another entitled "Comedia famosa de Aman y Mordechay," produced anonymously in Leiden in 1699.Advertisement
B, Ecclesiasticus comes between Wisdom and Esther, no distinction being drawn between canonical and uncanonical.
His abundant energy found still further expression in a poem entitled Esther, Queen of Persia (1714), and in the compilation of a grammar of ten languages entitled The Complete Linguist (2 vols., London, 1719-1721).
The fact that it stands in the third division of the Hebrew Canon, the Writings or Hagiographa, along with such late works as Job, Psalms, Chronicles, Daniel, Ecclesiastes and Esther, must be allowed weight; the presumption is that the arrangers of the Canonical books regarded it as being in general later than the Prophetical books.
In support of the former view it is alleged, among other things, that Darius was the first Persian king of whom it could be said, as in Esther i.
To this it may be added that the interval of four years between the divorce of Vashti and the marriage of Esther is well accounted for by the intervention of an important series of events fully occupying the monarch's thoughts, such as the invasion of Greece.Advertisement
It was for them that Racine wrote his Esther and his Athalie, and it was because he managed the affairs of St Cyr well that Michel Chamillart became controller-general of the finances.
Graetz attained considerable repute as a biblical critic. He was the author of many bold conjectures as to the date of Ruth, Ecclesiastes, Esther and other biblical books.
In 1757, on the death of President Burr, who five years before had married Edwards's daughter Esther, he reluctantly accepted the presidency of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), where he was installed on the 16th of February 1758.
It was at Moor Park, near Farnham, the residence to which Temple had retired to cultivate apricots after the rapid decline of his influence during the critical period of Charles II.'s reign (1679-1681), that Swift's acquaintance with Esther Johnson, the "Stella" of the famous Journal, was begun.
Swift was twenty-two and Esther eight years old at the time, and a curious friendship sprang up between them.
Esther, daughter of a merchant named Edward Johnson, a dependant, and legatee to a small amount, of Sir William Temple's (born in March 1680), whose acquaintance he had made at Moor Park in 1689, and whom he has immortalized as "Stella," came over with her companion Rebecca Dingley, a poor relative of the Temple family, and was soon permanently domiciled in his neighbourhood.
In this brochure he predicts solemnly that on the 29th of March 1 The name "Stella" is simply a translation of Esther.
We have already mentioned his invitation of Esther Johnson and Mrs Dingley to Ireland.
The criticism of Esther began in the 18th century.
In 1891 came a new explanation of Esther from Zimmern.
Esther is a modification of Ishtar, the name of the Babylonian goddess of fertility and of the planet Venus, whose myth must have been partially known to the Israelites even in pre-exilic times,' and after the fall of the state must have acquired a still stronger hold on Jewish exiles.
Esther, moreover, ought to be parallel to Judith; fancy likening the representative of Israel to the goddess Ishtar !
As the legend stands, Mordecai and Esther seem to be in each other's way.
Linguistic facts and certain points in the contents seem to him to show that our Esther is a work of the age of the Seleucidae; more precisely he thinks of the time of the revolt of Molon under Antiochus III.
Of course there was a Book of Esther before this, and even in its redacted form our Esther reflects the period of three Persian kings, viz.
Biblica, articles " Esther " and " Purim " (a composite article).
These "additions " were written originally in Greek and subsequently interpolated in the Greek translation of the Book of Esther.
Among objects of interest are the alleged tombs of Esther and Mordecai in an insignificant domed building in the centre of the town.
All the summer of 1704 he continued to decline, tenderly nursed by Lady Masham and her step-daughter Esther.
Plainly she is the Esther of Jewish story.
The story of Esther and that of the original Nights have in fact one main feature in common.
But both stories agree that thereafter a new wife was brought to him every night, and on the morrow passed into the second house of the women (Esther), or was slain (Nights).
At length Esther or Shahrazad wins his heart and becomes queen.
The issue in the Jewish story is that Esther saves her people; in the Nights the gainers are "the daughters of the Moslems," but the old story had, of course, some other word than "Moslems."
Esther's fosterfather becomes vizier, and Shahrazad's father is also vizier.
The last account comes nearest to Esther ii.
Now it may be taken as admitted that the book of Esther was written in Persia, or by one who had lived in Persia, and not earlier than the 3rd century B.C. If now there is real weight in the points of contact between this story and the Arabian Nights - and the points of difference cannot be held to outweigh the resemblances between two legends, each of which is necessarily so far removed from the hypothetical common source - the inference is important for both stories.
Nathaniel Stenton aged 74 (late bandmaster) dearly loved husband of Esther Stenton Interred Jarrow cemetery on Thursday at 3.30.
It isn't long, however, before Esther begins carving new and increasingly brutal wounds into her body.
There is also a second Targum on Esther.
It was most probably written during the Greek period towards the end of the 3rd century B.C. The book of Esther, which describes, with many legendary traits, how the beautiful Jewess succeeded in rescuing her people from the destruction which Haman had prepared for them, will not be earlier than the closing years of the 4th century B.C., and is thought by many scholars to be even later.
The connexion that has been suggested between the names of Mordecai and Esther and those of the Assyrian deities Marduk and Ishtar would be a further strong confirmation of the proposed etymology and derivation of the feast (see Esther).
Swift may have learned that Esther means "star" from the Elementa linguae persicae of John Greaves or from some Persian scholar; but he is more likely to have seen the etymology in the form given from Jewish sources in Buxtorf's Lexicon, where the interpretation takes the more suggestive form "Stella Veneris."
The Book of Esther, in the Bible, relates how a Jewish maiden, Esther, cousin and foster-daughter of Mordecai, was made his queen by the Persian king Ahasuerus (Xerxes) after he had divorced Vashti; next, how Esther and Mordecai frustrated Haman's endeavour to extirpate the Jews; how Haman, the grand-vizier, fell, and Mordecai succeeded him; how Esther obtained the king's permission for the Jews to destroy all who might attack them on the day which Haman had appointed by lot for their destruction; and lastly, how the feast of Purim (Lots ?) was instituted to commemorate their deliverance.
There is something impressive, awful, in the simplicity and terrible directness of the book of Esther.
Could there be anything more dramatic than the scene in which Esther stands before her wicked lord?
Although the job of cleaning out her father's basement seemed insurmountable, Esther was determined to give it a try.
She is the oldest daughter of Joe, a bus driver, and Esther Ripa, a homemaker.
The Esther Williams collection at Retro Dress has fantastic retro plus size bikini swimsuits up to size 26.
The various suits in their Esther Williams Collection are beautifully designed, come in a number of exciting colors and patterns and are available up to size 26.
Burkitt, Esther et al. "Children's Colour Choices for Completing Drawings of Affectively Characterised Topics."
The very popular Esther Williams suits, named for the famous swimming star, are available at Retro Dress and other such sites.
It is so flattering, one wishes the stylist had recalled another Williams - Esther - and piled Serena's hair on her head, adding a white flower.
Olympic swimmer turned actress Esther Williams put a glamorous spin on swim caps in her many movie musicals, inciting a fashion trend in swimwear that raged on through the 40's, 50's, and 60's.
This was the era of Olympic swimmer-turned-actress Esther Williams and the Hollywood water ballet.
They flatter the bust area, and when worn with boy shorts or hipster bikini bottoms, create a look reminiscent of the type of swimsuits worn by classic icons such as Marilyn Monroe and Esther Williams.
For example, if you want something classic and retro, you might try Esther Williams' site.
The activity centered around Esther Cox, age 19, who lived on Princess Street in Amherst.
After nearly being raped by a local shoemaker named Bob MacNeal, Esther started experiencing violent poltergeist activity including moving objects and loud noises.
While attending to the girl, the doctor reported watching the words "Esther Cox you are mine to kill" etch itself into the wall plaster by unseen hands.
But even he reckoned the books of Daniel and Esther as canonical, and these were dangerous food for men who did not realize the full power of Rome.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
Archdeacon Hare married in 1844 Esther, a sister of his friend Frederick Maurice.
For the later period he uses the Greek Esther, with its additions, I Maccabees, Polybius, Strabo and Nicolaus of Damascus.
Thrice married, he had a large family, his seven sons becoming Congregational clergymen, and his daughters, Harriet Beecher Stowe (q.v.) and Catherine Esther Beecher, attaining literary distinction.
His daughter, Catherine Esther Beecher (1800-1878), was born at East Hampton, Long Island, on the 6th of September 1800.
The different order of the books in the English Bible is due to the fact that when the Hebrew Bible was translated into Greek between the 3rd and 1st centuries B.C., the Hebrew tripartite division was disregarded, and the books (including those now known as the " Apocrypha ") were grouped mostly by subjects, the historical books being placed first (Genesis - Esther), the poetical books next (Job - Song of Songs), and the prophetical books last (Isaiah - Malachi).
The terms used, however, do not show that the Hagiographa was already completed, as we now have it; it would be entirely consistent with them, if, for instance, particular books, as Esther, or Daniel, or Ecclesiastes, were only added to the collection subsequently.
Lagarde's projected edition of the Lucianic recension was unfortunately never completed; the existing volume contains Genesis - 2 Esdras, Esther.