Esters sentence examples

  • These esters are readily hydrolysed and yield the monoand di-alkylimalonic acids which, on heating, are readily decomposed, with evolution of carbon dioxide and the formation of monoand di-alkyl acetic acids.

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  • A number of esters are also produced.

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  • The characteristic flavour and odour of wines and spirits is dependent on the proportion of higher alcohols, aldehydes and esters which may be produced.

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  • esters with ammonia.

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  • ethylene dibromide) with silver acetate or with potassium acetate and alcohol, the esters so produced being then hydrolysed with caustic alkalis, thus: C 2 H 4 Br 2 + C2H302 Ag-*C2H4(O C2H30)2->C2H4(OH)2+2K C2H302 by the direct union of water with the alkylen oxides; by oxidation of the olefines with cold potassium permanganate solution (G.

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  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

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  • Malonic acid, as well as its esters, is characterized by the large number of condensation products it can form.

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  • Many esters of malonic acid have been prepared, the most important being the diethyl ester (malonic ester), CH 2 (000C 2 H 5) 2, which is obtained by dissolving monochloracetic acid in water, neutralizing the solution with potassium carbonate, and then adding potassium cyanide and warming the mixture until the reaction begins.

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  • It is a most important synthetic reagent; with sodium or sodium ethylate it forms sodio-malonic ester, which reacts readily with alkyl halides, forming alkyl malonic esters, which are again capable of forming sodium derivatives, that by further treatment with alkyl halides yield the di-alkyl malonic esters.

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  • CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.

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  • Of other syntheses of true benzene derivatives, mention may be made of the formation of orcinol or [3 s]-dioxytoluene from dehydracetic acid; and the formation of esters of oxytoluic acid (5-methyl3-oxy-benzoic acid), C6 H3 CH3.

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  • As a useful preliminary it is convenient to divide heterocyclic ring systems into two leading groups: (I) systems resulting from simple internal dehydration (or similar condensations) of saturated aliphatic compounds - such compounds are: the internal anhydrides or cyclic ethers of the glycols and thioglycols (ethylene oxide, &c.); the cyclic alkyleneimides resulting from the splitting off of ammonia between the amino groups of diaminoparaffins (pyrrolidine, piperazine, &c.); the cyclic esters of oxycarboxylic acids (lactones, lactides); the internal anhydrides of aminocarboxylic acids (lactams, betaines); cyclic derivatives of dicarboxylic acids (anhydrides, imides, alkylen-esters, alkylenamides, &c.).

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  • By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.

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  • Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.

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  • In general, isomers boil at about the same temperature, as is shown by the isomeric esters CH1802: Methyl octoate..

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  • Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.

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  • Referring to the esters C9H1802 previously mentioned, it is seen that the highest boilingpoints belong to methyl octoate and octyl formate, the least symmetrical, while the minimum belongs to amyl butyrate, the most symmetrical.

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  • The same difference attends the introduction of the methyl group into many classes of compounds, for example, the paraffins, olefines, acetylenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and esters, while a slightly lower value (157.1) is found in the case of the halogen compounds, nitriles, amines, acids, ethers, sulphides and nitro compounds.

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  • It yields both esters and ethers since it is an acid and also a phenol.

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  • Darzens (Comptes Rendus, 1904, 139, p. 1214) prepares esters of disubstituted glycidic acids, by condensing the corresponding ketone with monochloracetic ester, in the presence of sodium ethylate.

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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].

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  • When methyl iodide is used, nitromethane is the sole product, but the higher homologues give more or less of the isomeric nitrous esters.

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  • The nitro compounds are colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling liquids, which distil without decomposition and possess boiling points much higher than those of the isomeric nitrous esters.

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  • Busch, Ber., 1899, 32, p. 2960): N C(SH):N C 6 H 5 /N C:NC6H5 C. 2 S 7Hs " H s d-H N NH C,H 7 C7 "N N C,H7 C. Harries (Ber., 1895, 28, p. 1223) has also shown that as-phenylhydrazino-acetic esters, when heated with formamide and substituted formamides under pressure, yield dihydrotriazines: CO 2 R CO-NR'-CH H2 N(C6H5)NH2 +R'NH CHO --> CH 2 N(C 6 H 5) IV The phen-a-triazines are yellow-coloured crystalline compounds of a somewhat basic character.

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  • The products of the action of nitric acid on cellulose are not nitro compounds in the sense that picric acid is, but are nitrates or nitric esters.

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  • The organic derivatives of silicon resemble the corresponding carbon compounds except in so far that the silicon atom is not capable of combining with itself to form a complex chain in the same manner as the carbon atom, the limit at present being a chain of three silicon atoms. Many of the earlier-known silicon alkyl compounds were isolated by Friedel and Crafts and by Ladenburg, the method adopted consisting in the interaction of the zinc alkyl compounds with silicon halides or esters of silicic acids.

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  • (2) The organic carbonates are the esters of carbonic acid, H 2 CO 3, and of the unknown ortho-carbonic acid, C(OH) 4.

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  • The acid esters of carbonic acid of the type HO CO.

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  • The normal esters may be prepared by the action of silver carbonate on the alkyl iodides, or by the action of alcohols on the chlorcarbonic esters.

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  • These normal esters are colourless, pleasantsmelling liquids, which are readily soluble in water.

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  • They show all the reactions of esters, being readily hydrolysed by caustic alkalis, and reacting with ammonia to produce carhamic esters and urea.

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  • They are neutral to litmus and do not combine with dilute acids or bases; strong bases, such as lime and baryta, yield saccharates, whilst, under certain conditions, acids and acid anhydrides may yield esters.

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  • Ladenburg, Ber., 1886, 19, p. 783); by heating the esters of nitric acid with alcoholic ammonia at 10o C. (0.

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  • the salts of the metals, the organic salts (or esters) being termed nitriles.

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  • OH, termed the carboxyl group, in which the hydrogen atom is replaceable by metals with the formation of salts, and by alkyl radicals with the formation of esters.

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  • Esters, however, are not ionized.

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  • On treatment with zinc and alkyl iodides or with zinc alkyls they are converted into esters of hydroxy-dialkyl acetic acids.

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  • Oxamide, (CONH 2) 2, is best prepared by the action of ammonia on the esters of oxalic acid.

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  • This fact explains the so-called "catalytic" action of acids and bases in decomposing such compounds as the esters.

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  • 3, p. 319.) Ammonia finds a wide application in organic chemistry as a synthetic reagent; it reacts with alkyl iodides to form amines, with esters to form acid amides, with halogen fatty acids to form amino-acids; while it also combines with isocyanic esters to form alkyl ureas and with the mustard oils to form alkyl thioureas.

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  • They combine with hypochlorous acid to form chlorhydrins; and are easily soluble in concentrated sulphuric acid, giving rise to sulphuric acid esters; consequently if the solution be boiled with water, the alcohol from which the olefine was in the first place derived is regenerated.

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  • It is also formed by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on the isocyanic esters, 2CONC 2 H 5 +H 2 S=COS+CO(NHC 2 H 5) 2, by the action of concentrated sulphuric acid on the isothiocyanic esters, Rncs H 2 O = Cos Rnh 2, Or Of Dilute Sulphuric Acid On The Thiocyanates.

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  • many plants, and as the esters of n-hexyl and n-octyl alcohols in the seeds of Heracleum giganteum, and in the fruit of Heracleum sphondylium, but is generally obtained, on the large scale, from the oxidation of spoiled wines, or from the destructive distillation of wood.

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  • The esters of the acid may be obtained by distilling a mixture of the sodium or potassium salts and the corresponding alcohol with hydrochloric or sulphuric acids.

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  • Acid esters yield carbinols, many of which are unstable and readily pass over into unsaturated compounds, especially when warmed with acetic anhydride: R.

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  • Acid chlorides behave in an analogous manner to esters (Grignard and Tissier, Comptes rendus, 1901, 132, p. 683).

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  • Claisen by condensing ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters and similar compounds with /3-ketonic esters and with 1.3 diketones.

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  • The ethoxymethylene aceto-acetic esters are prepared by condensing aceto-acetic ester with ortho-formic ester in the presence of acetic anhydride (German patents 77354, 79087, 79863).

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  • The hydroxyl group is more reactive than in the phenols, the naphthols being converted into naphthylamines by the action of ammonia, and forming ethers and esters much more readily.

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  • The esters of the aliphatic amino acids may be diazotized in a manner similar to the primary aromatic amines, a fact discovered by T.

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  • It unites with aldehydes to form esters of ketonic acids, and with aniline yields anilido-acetic acid.

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  • The constitution of the diazo fatty esters is inferred from the fact that the two nitrogen atoms, when split off, are replaced by two monovalent elements or groups, thus leading to the formula N >CH CO 2 C 2 H 5, for diazoacetic ester.

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  • ESTERS, in organic chemistry, compounds formed by the condensation of an alcohol and an acid, with elimination of water; they may also be considered as derivatives of alcohols, in which the hydroxylic hydrogen has been replaced by an acid radical, or as acids in which the hydrogen of the carboxyl group has been replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. In the case of the polybasic acids, all the hydrogen atoms can be replaced in this way, and the compounds formed are known as "neutral esters."

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  • If, however, some of the hydrogen of the acid remain undisplaced, then "acid esters" result.

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  • These acid esters retain some of the characteristic properties of the acids, forming, for example, salts, with basic oxides.

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  • The esters of the aliphatic and aromatic acids are colourless neutral liquids, which are generally insoluble in water, but readily dissolve in alcohol and ether.

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  • The fats and waxes are the esters of the higher fatty acids and alcohols.

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  • The esters of the higher fatty acids, when distilled under atmospheric pressure, are decomposed, and yield an olefine and a fatty acid.

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  • Esters of the mineral acids are also known and may be prepared by the ordinary methods as given above.

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  • The neutral esters are as a rule insoluble in water and distil unchanged; on the other hand, the acid esters are generally soluble in water, are non-volatile, and form salts with bases.

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  • With 0-ketonic esters, HO(CH 3)C: CH.

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  • CH 2 CO 2 H, and optically active methylethylacetic acid, (CH 3) (C 2 H 5)CH CO 2 H, which occur free or as esters in the vegetable and animal kingdoms, chiefly in the roots of Angelica archangelica and Valeriana officinalis.

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  • When heated with alcohol in sealed tubes, it yields carbamic esters; with alcohol and carbon bisulphide at Ioo° C., carbon dioxide is liberated and ammonium sulphocyanide is formed.

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  • They are readily hydrolysed by water, and combine with bases to form alkyl ureas, and with alcohols to form carbamic esters.

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  • Alkyl ureas are formed by the action of primary or secondary amines on isocyanic acid or its esters: [[Conh+Nh2r= R Nhc0nh]] 2 i [[Conr+Nhr 2 =Nr 2 Co Nhr]]; by the action of carbonyl chloride on amines: COC12+2NHR2=C0(NR2)2+2HC1; and in the hydrolysis of many ureides.

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  • Its esters are formed by passing the vapours of cyanic acid into alcohols (W.

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  • Triphenylmethyl also combines with ethers and esters, but the compounds so formed are unsaturated.

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  • At the same time various subsidiary products such as glycerin, succinic acid, small quantities of higher alcohols, volatile acids and compound esters are produced.

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  • It is to these subsidiary matters that the flavour and bouquet in wine are particularly due, at any rate in the first stages of maturation, although some of the substances originally present in the grape, such as ready-formed esters, essential oils, fat and so on, also play a role in this regard.

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  • The bouquet of young wines is due principally to the compound esters which exist in the juice or are formed by the primary fermentation.

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  • It was at one time thought that the quality of the bouquet was dependent upon the absolute quantity of these compound esters present, but the author and others have plainly shown that this is not the case.

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  • Among the characteristic esters present in wine is the well-known " oenanthic ether," which consists principally of ethylic pelargonate.

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  • The conversion of the mixture obtained by extracting coca-leaves into cocaine is effected by saponifying the esters into ecgonine and the respective acids, and then benzoylating and methylating the ecgonine.

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  • They are characterized by their additive reactions: combining with water to form acids, with alcohols to form esters, and with primary amines to form amides.

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  • The solution, known as baryta-water, finds an extensive application in practical chemistry, being used in gas-analysis for the determination of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere; and also being used in organic chemistry as a hydrolysing agent for the decomposition of complex ureides and substituted aceto-acetic esters, while E.

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  • Esters >>

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  • Ruhemann prepared y-substituted dioxypyridines by condensing alkyl-dicarboxy-glutaconic esters with ammonia.

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  • Pyrocatechin readily condenses to form heterocyclic compounds; cyclic esters are formed by phosphorus trichloride and oxychloride, carbonyl chloride, sulphuryl chloride, &c.; whilst ortho-phenylenediamine, o-aminophenol, and o-aminothiophenol give phenazine, phenoxazine and thiodiphenylamine.

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  • The formation of esters and ethers are generally facilitated by the presence of this acid.

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  • Senderens, loc. cit.); by the reduction of cyclic esters with CH 2 CH2 / NCH2- -CHI sodium and alcohol (L.

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  • Wislicenus, Ann., 18 93, 275, p. 309): [CH 2 CH 2 CO 2] 2 Ca---[CH 2 CH 2] 2 CO; by the action of sodium on the esters of acids of the adipic and pimelic acid series (W.

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  • CH2 CHz?CU; CO CH 3 CO CH2 from sodio-malonic ester and 0-unsaturated ketones or ketonic esters: /CH, CO (R02C)2CH2+ Ph CH :CH /CH:>; CH(C02R) C07 from aceto-acetic ester and esters of a$-unsaturated acids, followed by elimination of the carboxyl group: CH2 CR', CH 3 CO CH 2.

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  • CH 2 CH 2 ' and from the condensation of ethyl oxalate with esters of other dibasic acids in presence of sodium ethylate (W.

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  • The esters of the acids may also be obtained by condensing sodio-malonic ester with a-halogen derivatives of unsaturated acids: CH H?

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  • C02R CH 3 CH: CBr CO 2 R+NaCH (CO 2 R) 2 --->CH 3 C. I C(C02R)2 by the action of diazomethane or diazoacetic ester on the esters of unsaturated acids, the pyrazoline carboxylic esters so formed losing nitrogen when heated and yielding acids of the cyclo- propane series (E.

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  • Wislicenus, Ann., 18 93, 2 75, p. 312), is also obtained by the action of sodium on the esters of pimelic acid; by the distillation of calcium succinate; and by hydrolysis of the cyclopentanone carboxylic acid, obtained by condensing adipic and oxalic esters in the presence of sodium ethylate.

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  • Alcohols may be readily prepared from the corresponding alkyl haloid by the action of moist silver oxide (which behaves as silver hydroxide); by the saponification of their esters; or b the reduction of of h dric alcohols by P Y Y with hydriodic acid, and the subsequent conversion of the resulting alkyl iodide into the alcohol by moist silver oxide.

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  • Primary alcohols are obtained by decomposing their sulphuric acid esters (from sulphuric acid and the olefines) with boiling water; by the action of nitrous acid on primary amines; or by the reduction of aldehydes, acid chlorides or acid anhydrides.

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  • Secondary alcohols result from the reduction of ketones; and from the reaction of zinc alkyls on aldehydes or formic acid esters.

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  • With strong acids water is split off and esters are formed.

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  • The haloid esters of the paraffin alcohols formed by heating the alcohols with the halogen acids are the monohaloid derivatives of the paraffins, and are more conveniently prepared by the action of the phosphorous haloid on the alcohol.

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  • C 2 H 5 SO 2 C1 (chlorides of sulphonic acids), by heating the salts of esters of sulphuric acid with potassium hydrosulphide, and by heating the alcohols with phosphorus pentasulphide.

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  • esters formed by the union of three molecules of fatty acids with one molecule of the trihydric alcohol glycerin, whereas the waxes consist of esters formed by the union of one molecule of fatty acid with one molecule of a monohydric alcohol, such as cetyl alcohol, cholesterol, &c. Only in the case of the wax coccerin two molecules of fatty acids are combined with one molecule of a dihydric (bivalent) alcohol.

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  • Waxes The waxes consist chiefly of the fatty acid esters of the higher monohydric alcohols, with which are frequently associated free alcohols as also free fatty acids.

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  • These acids can be further refined to make fatty alcohols, metallic soaps, fatty amines, fatty acid esters and fatty amides.

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  • Dry hydrogen chloride gas is used in some cases, but these tend to involve aromatic esters (ones containing a benzene ring ).

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  • Mutagenicity of glycerol chlorohydrins and of their esters with higher fatty acids present in protein hydrolysates.

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  • creatine ethyl esters.

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  • Lipid compound A substance containing esters or fatty acids, which are important structural materials in living organisms.

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  • The mutagenicity of halogenated alkanols and their phosphoric acid esters for Salmonella typhimurium.

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  • Individual phthalate esters were determined in two samples of each of these composite food groups.

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  • fatty acid methyl esters were produced and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

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  • Fumaric acid esters (II) differ from Fumaric acid by chemical groups called ' esters ' .

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  • This is now possible with the breakthrough scientific discovery of creatine ethyl esters.

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  • The activity has been ascribed to the presence of ingenol esters (Upadhyay et al.

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  • Enhanced MAPK6 activity has been described in fibroblasts and upon treatment with serum or phorbol esters.

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  • The ACNFP was also concerned that products containing phytosterol esters are not appropriate nutritionally for young children and breast feeding women.

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  • esters of fatty acids.

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  • esters with higher fatty acids present in protein hydrolysates.

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  • ethyl esters.

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  • halogenated alkanols and their phosphoric acid esters for Salmonella typhimurium.

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  • hexyl esters than with ALA or ALA-butyl ester.

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  • hydrolysis of esters is covered in the catalysis section of this site.

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  • ala pentyl and hexyl esters showed characteristics suggesting greater efficacy in topical PDT than ALA or ALA-butyl ester.

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  • phosphoric acid esters for Salmonella typhimurium.

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  • phthalate esters were determined in two samples of each of these composite food groups.

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  • phytosterol esters are not appropriate nutritionally for young children and breast feeding women.

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  • sucrose esters, also eliminates the need for lecithin, and partly replaces gelatine.

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  • H HN CEH?Chch C(Ch3)N.Cs The ketonic esters under like treatment yield oxypyrimidines, whilst if cyanacetic ester be employed then amino-oxypyrimidines are obtained.

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  • The acid esters of phenol are best obtained by the action of acid chlorides or anhydrides on phenol or its sodium or potassium salt, or by digesting phenol with an acid in the presence of phosphorus oxychloride (F.

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  • Thus from ethyl alcohol there can be prepared compounds, termed esters, or ethereal salts, exactly comparable in structure with corresponding salts of, say, potassium; by the action of the phosphorus haloids, the hydroxyl group is replaced by a halogen atom with the formation of derivatives of the type R Cl(Br,I); nitric acid forms nitrates, R O NO 2; nitrous acid, nitrites, R O NO; sulphuric acid gives normal sulphates R 2 SO 4, or acid sulphates, R SO 4 H.

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  • CH :CH (OH), formed by acting on formic ester with acetone in the presence of sodium ethylate, readily yields [1.3.51-triacetylbenzene, C 6 H 3 (CO CH 3) 3; oxymethylene acetic ester or formyl acetic ester or ß-oxyacrylic ester, (HO)CH :CH CO 2 C 2 H 51 formed by condensing acetic ester with formic ester, and also its dimolecular condensation product, coumalic acid, readily yields esters of [1.3.

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  • Thus in the normal fatty alcohols, acids, esters, nitriles and ketones, the increment per CH 2 is 19°-21°; in the aldehydes it is 26°-27°.

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  • These esters on hydrolysis yield the free acids, which readily decompose, with loss of carbon dioxide and formation of an aldehyde, R /Crri /Crri Oc< +�Cl � CH � [[Cooc H - O I ?Ch Cooc H 0c Ch�Cooh - Co +Chrr I Cho]].

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  • ethylacetate and other esters, acetone and a number of like substances (see Cordite).

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  • It may be obtained by distilling benzyl sulphide !or disulphide, by the action of sodium on benzaldehyde or benzal chloride, by distilling fumaric and cinnamic phenyl esters: C6H50.OC CH:CH CO.OC6H5 - >C02+C6H5.CH:CH CO.006H5 - >2C02 -{-C 6 H 5 CH: CH C 6 H 5 (Ber., 18, p.1945), and fromchlorasymmetrical diphenylethane derivatives which undergo a rearrangement when heated (Ber., 7.

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  • Organic acids yield metallic salts with bases, and ethereal salts or esters, R.

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  • glyceryl esters of organic acids, into glycerin and a soap (see Chemical Action).

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  • Mai, Ber., 1889, 22, p. 2135); from the higher alcohols by converting them into esters which are then distilled (F.

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  • They may be prepared by heating the alkyl iodides with potassium cyanide; by heating sulphuric acid esters with potassium cyanide; by distilling the acid-amides with phosphorus pentoxide; and by distilling amines (containing more than five atoms of carbon) with bromine and potash (A.

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  • They may also be prepared by the decomposition of ketone chlorides with water; by the oxidation of the tertiary hydroxyacids; by the hydrolysis of the ketonic acids or their esters with dilute alkalis or baryta water (see Aceto-Acetic Ester); by the hydrolysis of alkyl derivatives of acetone dicarboxylic acid, HO 2 C CH 2 CO CHR CO 2 H; and by the action of the Grignard reagent on nitriles (E.

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  • Esters may be prepared by heating the silver salt of an acid with an alkyl iodide; by heating the alcohols or alcoholates with an acid chloride; by distilling the anhydrous sodium salt of an acid with a mixture of the alcohol and concentrated sulphuric acid; or by heating for some hours on the water bath, a mixture of an acid and an alcohol, with a small quantity of hydrochloric or sulphuric acids (E.

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  • When heated with alcohol in sealed tubes, it yields carbamic esters; with alcohol and carbon bisulphide at Ioo° C., carbon dioxide is liberated and ammonium sulphocyanide is formed.

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  • - Nh2c0 Nh C02r]]; by the action of chlorcarbonic esters on urea (H.

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  • The esters of the acid condense readily with aromatic aldehydes and ketones to form y-disubstituted itaconic acids and y-alkylen pyrotartaric acids (H.

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  • Cryoscopic measurements on the sodium salt points to the double formula, but the organic esters appear to be derived from H2P03 (see A.

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  • They represent a large number of classes of substances of which the most important are: (1) Hydrocarbons, such as pinene in oil of turpentine, camphene in citronella oil, limonene in lemon and orange-peel oils, caryophyllene in clove oil and cumene in oil of thyme; (2) ketones, such as camphor from the camphor tree, and irone which occurs in orris root; (3) phenols, such as eugenol in clove oil, thymol in thyme oil, saffrol in sassafras oil, anethol in anise oil; (4) aldehydes, such as citral and citronellal, the most important constituents of lemon oil and lemon-grass oil, benzaldehyde in the oil of bitter almonds, cinnamic aldehyde in cassia oil, vanillin in gum benzoin and heliotropin in the spiraea oil, &c.; (5) alcohols and their esters, such as geraniol (rhodinol) in rose oil and geranium oil, linalool, occurring in bergamot and lavender oils, and as the acetic ester in rose oil, terpineol in cardamom oil, menthol in peppermint oil, eucalyptol in eucalyptus oil and borneol in rosemary oil and Borneo camphor; (6) acids and their anhydrides, such as cinnamic acid in Peru balsam and coumarin in woodruff; and (7) nitrogenous compounds, such as mustard oil, indol in jasmine oil and anthranilic methyl-ester in neroli and jasmine oils.

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  • The new blend, based on a mix of sucrose esters, also eliminates the need for lecithin, and partly replaces gelatine.

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