The chief industrial establishments are iron foundries, railway and motor engineering works, breweries, flour-mills, tanneries and manufactories of confectionery, artificial manure, &c. There is water communication by the Ouse with the Humber, and by the Foss Navigation to the N.E.
The latter was very attentive to Anna Pavlovna because he wanted to be appointed director of one of the educational establishments for young ladies.
With the exception of railway shops, there are no important industrial establishments.
In 1880 he was declared patron of all Roman Catholic educational establishments.
Its most important industrial establishments are the mirror manufactory of St Gobain and the chemical works at Chauny, and the workshops and foundries of Guise, the property of an association of workpeople organized on socialistic lines and producing iron goods of various kinds.
Two important educational establishments are the Indian Institute for the education of civil service students for thecolonies, to which is attached an ethnographical museum; and the Royal Polytechnic school, which almost ranks as a university, and teaches, among other sciences, that of diking.
In Jefferson county there were in 1900 more than 300 mining and manufacturing establishments, engaged, chiefly, in the production of iron, coal and coke, and a majority of these are in Birmingham and its suburban towns.
The chief industrial establishments are a large ammunition factory and an engine factory; but manufactures of cotton, silk, velvet, pottery and paper, sugar-refining and tanning are also extensively carried on.
Denver has also large foundries and machine shops, flour and grist mills, and slaughtering and meat-packing establishments.
Another subject upon which there is a difference of opinion in the Presbyterian churches is the question of Church Establishments.
The lawfulness of Church Establishments with due qualifications is perhaps generally recognized in theory, but there is a growing tendency to regard connexion with the state as inexpedient, if not actually contrary to sound Presbyterian principle.
Originally the cattle were nearly all of the long-horned Spanish breed and of little value for their meat, except to the saladero establishments.
whether run by steam, water-power or other motive forces, has played a great part in the promotion of industry; the increase in the amount of steam horse-power employed in industrial establishments is, to a certain degree, an index to the activity of the country as regards manufactures.
There are also reformatory establishments for juvenile offenders, and ddpDts de stireU for prisoners who are travelling, at places where there are no other prisons.
All these are nominated for life by the president of the republic. Besides the accounts of the state and of the communes, those of charitable institutionsi and training collegesi and a great variety of other public establishments are scrutinized by the Cour des Comptes.
Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520
Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.
the coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
In the provinces there are national schools of fine art and of music and other establishments and free subventioned schools.
In Oceania The members of these committees are un- New Caledonia and [N;S]paid, and have no concern with ways and Establishments in 00 means which are in the hands of a paid treasurer (receveur).
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.
Among the educational establishments of the place must be mentioned the classical school (Gymnasium), founded in 1560, and a school of navigation.
Educational establishments are numerous, and include Brighton College, which ranks high among English public schools.
not until 1805, however, that the collection of establishments at Woolwich became the Royal Arsenal.
Among the industrial establishments of the city are stove and range factories, flour mills, rolling mills, distilleries, breweries, shoe factories, copper refining works, nail and tack factories, glass works and agricultural implement factories.
The principal buildings are: the Roman Catholic church, which was completed in 1851; the English church, the theatre, the Kurhaus, built in 1901, and several bathing establishments and hospitals.
Silkworm-rearinr establishments of importance now exist in the Marches, Umbria, in the Abruzzi, Tuscany, Piedmont and Venetia.
Handlooms and small spinTextiles ning establishments have, in the silk industry, given place to large establishments with steam looms. The production of raw silk at least tripled itself between 1875 and 1900, and the value of the silks woven in Italy, estimated in 1890 to be 2,200,000, is now, on account of the development of the export trade calculated to be almost 4,000,000.
The last named has succeeded, by means of the large establishments at Milan in supplying not only the whole Italian market but an export trade.
ihe great works of the Vatican are especially famous (more than 17,000 distinct tints are employed in their productions), and there are many other establishments in Rome.
The decrease of the disease is a direct result of the efforts made to combat it, in the form of special hospitals or pellagrosarf, economic kitchens, rural bakeries and maize-drying establishments.
The monastic buildings required for public purposes have been made over to the communal and provincial authorities, while the same authorities have been entrusted with the administration of the ecclesiastical revenues previously set apart for charity and education, and objects of art and historical interest have been consigned to public libraries and museums. By these laws the reception of novices was forbidden in the existing conventual establishments the extinction of which had been decreed, and all new foundations were forbidden, except those engaged in instruction and the care of the sick.
According to the census of 1871 there were in the city and province of Rome 474 monastic establishments (311 for monks, 163 for nuns), occupied by 4326 monks and 3825 nuns, and possessing a gross revenue of 4,780,89i lire.
These establishments are, however, unsatisfactory, being mostly situated on small islands, where it is often difficult to find work for the coatti, who are free by day, being only confined at night.
Of these, 31,219 were in lockups, 25,145 in penal establishments, 1837 minors in government, and 4547 in private reformatories, and 307!
There is an unlimited variety of work for the labouring convicts, and some of the establishments are on a large scale.
All the petty supervising establishments are composed of convicts.
Among the educational establishments is the State University, founded by King William I.
The establishments for dispensing medicines at Cordova, Toledo and other large towns under Arab rule, were placed under severe legal restrictions.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.
Where the number of pharmacies is limited by law prescriptions may only be dispensed at these establishments.
There are an opera-house and an academy of music. The Auckland University College and the grammar school are the principal educational establishments.
In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.
of Gyongy8s is situated the old town of Hatvan (pop. 9698), which is now a busy railway junction, and possesses several industrial establishments.
The industrial establishments comprise reduction works, saw-mills and flour-mills, one of the latter being the largest in Canada.
The cattle are destined chiefly for the saladero establishments for the preparation of tasajo, or jerked beef, for the Brazilian and Cuban markets, and for the Liebig factory, where large quantities of extract of meat are prepared for the European trade.
In several university towns there are free teaching establishments for women, supported by subscription, with programmes and examinations equal to those of the universities.
Its chief industry is the mining of anthracite coal; the principal establishments are railway repair shops, which in 1905 gave employment to 48.9% of all wage-earners engaged in manufacturing.
Of the manufacturing establishments in the state in 1900, 109, or 47.8%, were situated in Reno, Carson City and Virginia City, named in the order of their importance.
It is a market for live-stock, and for dairy and farm products, and has slaughtering and packing establishments, flour mills, creameries and cheese factories, canning and preserving factories, carriage works, a flax fibre mill and grain elevators.
The mission establishments were taken over in 1826 by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, which subsequently founded new stations in several parts of the district.
It is distinguished for the number of its churches and conventual establishments, although the latter have been closed.
The first three named are private establishments.
Most of the state institutions secured Federal charters after the establishments of the national banking system (1863-1864), but the high price of government bonds and the large amount of capital required led to a reaction, which was only partially checked by the reduction of the minimum capital to $25,000 under the currency act of the 14th of March 1900.
The value of all manufactured products from establishments under the " factory system " in 1900 was $162,764,523; in 1905 it was $184,351,163.
In 1905 its establishments numbered 490.
Their product in 1900 was more than twice the product in 1890, and the product in 1905 (from establishments under the factory system only) was $50,298,290, i.e.
The staple silk industry (which dates from the 16th century) has declined, the number both of filande (establishments wherein the cocoons are unwound) and of filatoje (those wherein the silk is spun) having diminished.
In 1880 the capital invested in manufacturing industries was approximately $2,468,000; in 1890 it was $9,508,962; in 1900 it had increased to $16,045,156; and in 1905, when only establishments under the "factory system" were counted in the census, to $21,631,162.
The water-front, especially on the east side, is given up to manufacturing and shipping establishments.
There are large slaughtering establishments, and factories for the refining of sugar and for the manufacture of tobacco goods, soap and perfumery, lead pencils, iron and steel, railway cars, chemicals, rubber goods, silk goods, dressed lumber, and malt liquors.
The silk industry, formerly important, still employs about 300 women and girls in four spinning establishments.
They were included among the scientific apparatus of ships and of educational establishments.
Among the geographical establishments of Germany, that founded by Justus Perthes (1785), at Gotha, occupies the highest rank.
Its industrial establishments comprise tobacco, yarn, thread, linen and woollen cloth manufactories, bleaching and dyeing works, breweries and oil and flour mills.
In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.
22 The Spaniards were prevented from forming establishments on the African coast by the Bull of Demarcation (" Inter caetera ") of Pope Alexander VI.
Saw-mills, iron foundries, chemicals, glass and soap works, shipbuilding yards and a cocoanut-oil factory in connexion with the soap-manufacture at Port Sunlight, England,are among the chief industrial establishments.
Trade was paralysed and all manufacturing establishments were closed down.
Finally, the government sustains about two score of penal establishments, reform schools, hospitals, dispensaries and asylums, which are scattered all over the island, - every town of any considerable size having one or more of these charities.
Among the larger private establishments there existed in the same year seven breweries, one brandy distillery, two jam, two soap and candle factories, two building and furniture works, a factory for spinning thread, one iron and steel works, one paper and one ammonia and soda factory, and one mineral-oil refinery.
The grand master of ordnance is co-equal with the minister of war, and his department is classed separately in the budget; the artillery establishments, parts of the infantry and of the technical corps, and even hospitals are placed under his direct orders.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
The federal census showed for the decades1880-1890and1890-1900an increase in the number of manufacturing establishments from 3493 in 1880 to 7505 in 1890, and 11,114 in 1900.
There are, owing perhaps to the proximity of Lima, few industrial establishments in the city; among them are a large sugar refinery, some flour-mills, a brewery, a factory for making effervescent drinks, and a number of foundries and repair shops.
Besides the foregoing there are cocoa, chocolate, confectionery and baking-powder factories, coffee-roasting and ham-curing and smoking establishments, lard refineries, margarine manufactories and fish-curing, preserving and packing factories.
Its Stadt-Theater, rebuilt in 1874, has room for 1750 spectators and is particularly devoted to operatic performances; the Thalia-Theater dates from 1841, and holds 1700 to "Soo people, and the Schauspielhaus (for drama) from 1900 people, and there are some seven or eight minor establishments.
The highest educational establishments are to be found in Belgrade: the Velika Shkola (a small university with three faculties), the military academy, the theological seminary, the high school for girls, a commercial academy, and several schools for secondary education on German models.
To promote commerce there are a stock and produce exchange (Berta), a national bank, privileged to issue notes, and several other banking establishments.
Along with the land are expropriated all claims and rights appended to the land and all instruments of husbandry, live stock included, with the exception of such industrial establishments as are not working to satisfy the local rural demand only.
In 1823 he was selected along with Dufrenoy by Brochant de Villiers, the professor of geology in the Ecole des Mines, to accompany him on a scientific tour to England and Scotland, in order to inspect the mining and metallurgical establishments of the country, and to study the principles on which Greenough's geological map of England (1820) had been prepared, with a view to the construction of a similar map of France.
They became in the middle of the 18th century dependencies of the French establishments at Bourbon (Reunion), whence expeditions were made for the capture of the giant tortoises.
The crude methods of preparing jerked beef were also modified to some extent by better equipped abattoirs and establishments for preparing beef extract, preserved meats, &c. There were also mills for crushing the dried mate leaves, cigar and 1 The " bran " exported is from imported wheat and cannot be considered a national product.
The central public baths in Infirmary Street, with branch establishments in other parts of the town, including Portobello, are largely resorted to, and the proximity of the Firth of Forth induces the keener swimmers to visit Granton every morning.
Among Bristol's manufacturing establishments are machine shops, rolling mills, a planing mill, yarn, hosiery and worsted mills, and factories for making carpets, wall paper and patent leather.
Of these, two of the best known are Hilton College and Hermansberg College, many prominent Nataiians having been educated at one or the other of these establishments.
The new firm had soon three establishments, - one at Sabden, where the printing works were, one in London and one in Manchester for the sale of their goods.
For the period 1890-1905, an average of 40 to 50 industrial establishments with an invested capital of £1,250,000 to £1,750,000 were founded yearly.
Other principal branches of industry are: tobacco manufactories, belonging to the state, tobacco being a government monopoly; iron foundries, mostly in the mining region; agricultural machinery and implements, notably at Budapest; leather manufactures; paper-mills, the largest at Fiume; glass (only the more common sort) and earthenwares; chemicals; wooden products; petroleum-refineries; woollen yarns and cloth manufactories, as well as several establishments of knitting and weaving.
The various industrial establishments are located in the larger towns, but principally at Budapest, the only real industrial town of Hungary.
Also notable are the hall of the estates (1877-1881), the industrial museum, the theatre, the palace of the Roman Catholic archbishop and several educational establishments.
It is regularly built with long and straight streets, and contains the parliament buildings, government house, the Anglican cathedral, the provincial university and several other educational establishments.
The most important industry is the manufacture of cotton goods; there are also cotton compresses, iron works, flour and woollen mills, wood-working establishments, &c. The value of the city's factory products increased from $5,061,485 in 1900 to $7,079,702 in 1905, or 39.9%; of the total value in 1905, $ 2, 759, 0 8 1, or 39%, was the value of the cotton goods manufactured.
The manufactories include flour mills, packing establishments, a creamery and a paint factory.
From her establishments at Moulins and Chantelle in the Bourbonnais she continued henceforth vigorously to defend the Bourbon cause against the royal family.
Their population is also largely occupied in local manufacturing establishments; while numerous towns on either bank of the lower Thames share in the industries of the port of London.
The County Council also aids numerous separate schools of art, both general and special, such as the Royal School of Art Needlework and the School of Art Woodcarving; the City and Guilds Institute maintains similar establishments at some of its colleges, and art schools are also generally attached to the polytechnics.
Some further important establishments and institutions may be tabulated here :- Architecture.
Various privileges were conceded to those who built in stone, but no provision was made as to the material to be used in the great monastic establishments.
When we remember that more than half of the area of London was occupied by these establishments, and that about a third of the inhabitants were monks, nuns and friars, it is easy to imagine how great must have been the disorganization caused by this root and branch reform.
Its industrial establishments include factories for tobacco, cloth, matches, leather, artificial manure, besides breweries and distilleries.
Cars, however, are too valuable to be used in this way for more than a few hours, and it is usual to erect large storage bins at the mine, at concentration works and metallurgical establishments, in which the mineral may be stored, permitting cars, wagons and vessels to be quickly emptied or loaded.
Among the city's manufactories are breweries, iron and brass foundries, stove factories, knitting mills, cotton mills, clothing factories, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cigar and cigarette factories, and manufactories of adhesive pastes, court plaster, spring beds, ribbed underwear, aniline dyes, chemicals, gas meters, fire-brick, and glazed paper and cardboard.
It would appear not improbable that the former was the case, for it must be remembered that articles formed of glass were in the later days of Roman civilization in constant daily use, and that the making of glass was carried on, not as now in large establishments, but by artisans working on a small scale.
There are many other smaller establishments, and the Florentine artificer seems to possess an exceptional skill in all kinds of work in which art is combined with technical ability.
The chief industrial establishments are smelting furnaces for cobalt, meat-preserving works at Ouaco, sugar-works and distilleries at Noumea and La Foa, tobacco, oil and soap factories at Noumea.
This street contains a fine stone church built in 1895 for the use of the Anglican community, a branch of the Bank of British West Africa, telegraph offices and the establishments of the principal trading firms. In Victoriaborg, a suburb of Ussher Town, are the residences of the principal officials, and here a racecourse has been laid out.
Many of the churches, convents and other ecclesiastical establishments were built in the second half of the 18th century, some in the first half; and some parts of the original cathedral of 1617 have probably survived later alterations and additions.
A large trade is carried on at Burgdorf in the cheese of the Emmenthal, while among the industrial establishments are railway workis, and factories of cloth, white lead and tinfoil.
There are large copper-smelting establishments in the city, which exports a very large amount of copper, some gold and silver, and cattle and hay to the more northern provinces.
At the head of the industrial establishments of Trieste stand the two ship-building yards of the Austrian Lloyd and of the Stabilimento Tecnico Triestino, which are the largest of their kind in Austria.
In the city there is a branch of the Ottoman bank, a government technical school, a French Catholic mission and a school, an Armenian Protestant school for boys, an American mission school for girls, mainly Armenian, and other educational establishments.
The total number of establishments in 1850 was 864; in 1890, 3377, and in 1900, 4189.
The average number of employes in 1850 was 20,967; in 1890, 81,111; and in 1 The 1905 census of manufactures gives statistics only for establishments under the factory system, excluding the hand trades, and gives factory statistics for 1905 and for 1900.
In 1905, 1146 establishments reported power, as against 1360 in 1900-a decrease of 15.7%, but the total horsepower increased from 155,545 to 190,777, or 22.7%.
The educational establishments of Baden are numerous and flourishing, and public education is entirely in the hands of the government.
By centralizing the financial administration by the creation of the Tresor de l'Epargne, and by developing the military establishments, Francis still further strengthened the royal power.
The Mad river is made to furnish good water-power by means of a hydraulic canal which takes its water through the city, and Dayton's manufactures are extensive and varied, the establishments of the National Cash Register Company employing in 1907 about 4000 wage-earners.
Coal is mined in the vicinity; the city has a large trade with the surrounding agricultural district (whose distinctive product is beans); the Michigan Central railway has car and machine shops here; and the city has many manufacturing establishments.
An ample supply of natural gas is utilized by its manufacturing establishments; and among its manufactures are axes, lumber, foundry and machine shop products, furniture, boilers, woollen goods, glass and chemical fire-engines.
It has an evangelical and four Roman Catholic churches, among the latter the handsome parish church dating from the 15th century, and various educational establishments.
In 1913 there were 5,140 industrial establishments in Lithuania with 33,000 workmen and a yearly productive value of 62 million Russian (gold) rubles.
During the war the larger industrial establishments were destroyed.
On the 9th of July was issued the famous religious edict, which forbade Evangelical ministers to teach anything not contained in the letter of their official books, proclaimed the necessity of protecting the Christian religion against the "enlighteners" (Aufkltirer), and placed educational establishments under the supervision of the orthodox clergy.
Iowa City has a considerable variety of small manufacturing establishments.
There are several foundries, engineering establishments and saw mills.
Other educational establishments are Queen's University, replacing the old Queen's College (1849) under the Irish Universities Act 1908; the Presbyterian and the Methodist Colleges, occupying neighbouring sites close to the extensive botanical gardens, the Royal Academical Institution, and the Municipal Technical Institute.
Sir P. Julyan was appointed royal commis sioner on the civil establishments, and Sir P. Keenan on education; their work revived the reform movement in 1881.
Along the east side of the peninsula runs the Praya Grande, or Great Quay, the chief promenade in Macao, on which stand the governor's palace, the administrative offices, the consulates and the leading commercial establishments.
It contains a fine Gothic Protestant church (St Mary's) dating from the 13th century and has several educational establishments, notably a school of seamanship. Its industries comprise iron-founding, ship-building, brewing, and the manufacture of cigars, leather and tinned fish.
Under his patronage Alcuin organized the school of the palace, where the royal children were taught in the company of others, and founded a school at Tours which became the model for many other establishments.
Constance is the centre of a brisk transit trade, while it has various factories and other industrial establishments.
The educational establishments include two gymnasia, an episcopal clerical seminary, a seminary for boys and a school of church music. Among the chief manufactures are iron and steel wares, pottery, parquet flooring, tobacco, and lead pencils.
The highest average quantity of rough milled rice per establishment in the United States in 1905 was for Texas, where seventeen establishments produced an average of 18,598,259 ib, valued, together with that of other rice products, at $4,638,867.
In 1905 the gross value of the manufactured product (of establishments on the factory system) was $160,572,313, as against $132,870,865 in 1900, an increase of 20.8%; whereas, even including the products of smaller establishments not technically factories, the value of the product in 1850 was only $3,551,783, and in 1880 was only $71,045,926.
Among other industrial establishments are a large porcelain and earthenware factory, extensive fireclay works, glassworks and a chinapainting establishment; there are also numerous flax-spinneries and linen-factories in the neighbourhood.
There are extensive printing establishments.
On the islands New Pomerania and Mioko only two trading firms had their establishments; and on New Lauenburg the Wesleyans had a mission station.
There are two bathing establishments, one of which preserves remains of Roman baths, and a large military thermal hospital.
Among its industrial establishments are sugarrefineries, iron-foundries, breweries, machine-shops and brick works.
In the same period the mediation of the Board settled disputes affecting 5560 establishments; and in the latter half of this period labour disputes involving hostilities and of the magnitude contemplatedby the statute governing the Board of Conciliation and Arbitration had almost disappeared.
The most important industrial establishments are cigar manufactories, manufactories of chemicals and earthenware, and brass foundries, and there is also an active trade in the agricultural produce of the surrounding country.
Among the educational establishments are a gymnasium, and Realschule, the Sophienstift (a large school for girls of the better class, founded by the grand-duchess Sophia), the grand-ducal school of art, geographical institutes, a technical school, commercial school, music school, teachers' seminaries, and deaf and dumb and blind asylums. An English church was opened in 1899.
In the middle ages it had six churches and four monastic establishments, the oldest a Benedictine nunnery (1170).
C - Under the head of administration would be classed the chief director of the arsenal, officials military and civil, non-commissioned officers and military artificers, civilian foremen, workmen and labourers, with the clerks and writers necessary for the office work of the establishments.
The town, which has been remarkable for its educational establishments since the 10th century, has a gymnasium, lyceum, seminarium and other schools.
It has iron and brass foundries, machine factories and textile establishments.
The principal educational establishments, besides that of the mosque of the Olive Tree, are the Sadiki College, founded in 1875, for free instruction in Arabic and European subjects, the Lycee Carnot in the Avenue de Paris, formerly the College of St Charles (founded by Cardinal Lavigerie), open to Christians and Moslems alike, and the normal school, founded in 1884 by the reigning bey, for the training of teachers in the French language and European ideas.
One of the printing establishments has the reputation of being the oldest in the Netherlands, and publishes the oldest Dutch paper, De Opragte Haarlemmer Courant.
The educational establishments include a Roman Catholic and a Lutheran gymnasium, a Roman Catholic school and college and two technical institutions, the Georgstift for daughters of state servants and a conservatoire of music. Hildesheim is the seat of considerable industry.
On this occasion, the act providing for the census was interpreted to authorize the collection of details regarding accommodation in places of public worship and the attendance thereat, as well as corresponding information about educational establishments.
The principal bath establishments are the Victoria Baths (1871) and the Royal Baths (1897).
Up to 1909 only sovereigns and half-sovereigns were struck at these establishments, but in Iwo arrangements were made for a Commonwealth silver coinage.
Woollen, cloth, cotton and flax mills, steam flour and saw mills, distilleries and breweries, machinery works, paper mills, furniture, tobacco, soap, candle and hardware works are among the chief industrial establishments.
The establishments in 1910 consisted of thirteen regiments and fifty separate companies of infantry, two squadrons and two troops of cavalry, four light batteries, one regiment of engineers, a signal corps of two companies and a naval militia, commanded by a captain and consisting of two battalions and two separate divisions.
The government maintains a sanatorium at Lake Rotorua, and there are private bathing establishments in other places, notably near Lake Taupo.
Twenty years later the number of establishments was 4186; the number of hands 56,000; and the output twenty-three millions and a half.
As one result of the Franco-Prussian War, France in 1872 withdrew her garrisons, handing over the care of the establishments to a merchant named Verdier, to whom an annual subsidy of £800 was paid.
Schiedam is famous as the seat of a great gin manufacture, which, carried on in more than three hundred distilleries, gives employment besides to malt-factories, cooperages and cork-cutting establishments, and supplies grain refuse enough to feed about 30,000 pigs, as well as sufficient yeast to form an important article of export.
Its educational establishments include a gymnasium, a commercial and a weaving school.
Among educational establishments not hitherto mentioned are the Royal College, the principal government institution, the government technical college and St Joseph's Roman Catholic college.
The other districts are managed by an apostolic vicar at Dresden, under the direction of the minister of public worship. Two nunneries in Lusatia are the only conventual establishments in Saxony, and no others may be founded.
It has a theatre, a municipal library, a gymnasium, and other educational establishments.
During the 16th and the 17th centuries its German educational establishments enjoyed a wide reputation.
In proportion to the raised standard of popular education, further aided by the number of popular educational establishments which were springing up, and the university extension movement formed on the English plan, the proportion of illiteracy rapidly decreased.
The higher educational establishments, which in the middle of the 19th century had had a predominantly German character, underwent in Galicia a conversion into Polish national institutions, in Bohemia and Moravia a separation into German and Czech ones.
Between 1890 and 1900 the number of establishments increased from 499 to 1639, the capital invested from $3,207,796 to $7,578,895, and the value of products from $5,682,748 to $12,231,239.
Under the factory system there were 624 establishments in 1900 and 686 in 1905; the capital invested in 1900 was $6,051,288 and in 1905 $7,585,142; and the value of the products was $9,529,946 in 1900 and $13,085,333 in 1905.
Among Milwaukee's largest industrial establishments are: the Pabst and the Schlitz breweries, on the west side of the city.
The expenditure for 1906 amounted to $5,072,406, of which $836,097 was spent on administrative establishments, $301,252 on the upkeep of existing public works; $415,175 on the construction of works and buildings, and of new roads, streets, bridges, &c. The imports in 1906 were valued at $94,54 6, 112; the exports at $90,709,225.
The city is the commercial and financial centre of the state (Butte being the mining centre), and is one of the richest cities in the United States in proportion to its population, It has large railway car-shops, extensive smelters and quartz crushers (at East Helena), and various manufacturing establishments; the value of the factory product in 1905 was $1,309,746, an increase of 68.7% over that of 1900.
A variety of industries is connected with the Government establishments at Chatham and Sheerness.
The male schools, therefore, stand somewhat apart, though they mark a stage in the evolution of nursing as the earliest regular training establishments.
They live in a home attached to the institution, under a matron, and in the most modern establishments each nurse has a separate bedroom, with common dining and recreation rooms. Private nursing staffs are attached to several of the hospitals; they are recruited from the staff nurses and probationers on completion of their course, and supply nurses to private patients.
Under the factory system there were 337 establishments in 1900 and 507 in 1905: the capital invested in 1900 was $3,511,968 and in 1905 $5,703,837; and the value of products was $6,259,840 in 1900 and $10,217,914 (or 63.2% more) in 1905.
The manufacture of felt hats (product, 1905, $4,586,040, Newark ranking third in this industry among the cities of the United States), carriages, chairs and jewelry (an industry established about 1830; product, 1905, $9,258,095), developed rapidly early in the 19th century, and there are extensive manufactories of malt liquors (product, 1905, $10,917,003), and of clothing (product, 1905, $3,937,138), foundries and machine shops (product, 1905, $6,254,153), and large establishments for smelting and refining lead and copper, the product of the lead smelters and refining establishments being in 1905 the most valuable in the city.
There are some remains of the ecclesiastic establishments at Bonamargy, where the earls of Antrim are buried, Kells, Glenarm, Glynn, Muckamore and White Abbey.
Of recent years its prosperity has diminished greatly, so that the watchmaking and jewelry trades in 1902 numbered respectively but 38 and 32 of the 394 establishments in Geneva which were subject to the factory laws.
Lately, huge establishments have been constructed for the utilization of the power contained in the Rhone.
Even a certain number of the monastic establishments came in this way into the possession of the feudal landowners, who nominated abbots and abbesses as they appointed the incumbents of their churches.
These had already been installed at Poltusk, and were permitted, after the diet rose, to found establishments in the dioceses of Posen, Ermeland and Vilna, which henceforth became centres of a vigorous and victorious propaganda.
Many of these find their way to the great shipping-ports, where there have grown up establishments that trade in wild animals.
These figures are from the U.S. census, and are of course for Cincinnati proper: some of the largest industrial establishments, however, are just outside the city limits - among these are manufactories of soap (the Ivory Soap Works), machine tools, electrical machinery and appliances, structural and architectural iron work, and office furnishings.
The city is the seat of a Roman Catholic bishopric. Both coal and iron ore abound in the vicinity, and the city has numerous manufacturing establishments.
The value of its factory products in 1905 was $ 1 7, 1 4 6, 33 8 (1 4.3% more than in 1900), the more important being those of steel works and rolling mills ($4,528,907), blast furnaces, steam railway repair shops, cigar and cigarette factories ($1,258,498), foundries and machine shops ($953,617), boot and shoe factories ($922,568), flouring and grist mills, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments and silk mills.
In 1905 Haverhill's manufacturing establishments produced goods valued at $24,446,594, 8 3.9% of this output being represented by boots and shoes or their accessories.
There are a number of manufacturing establishments; in 1905 the total factory product of the city was valued at $4,101,168, boots and shoes accounting for more than one-half of the total.
Between 1850 and 1900, while the population increased 103.8%, the average number of wage-earners employed in manufacturing establishments increased 258.5%, constituting 5.2% of the total population in 1850 and 9.1% in 1900.
From these establishments the ranks of native officials are recruited.
(The lycees at Algiers, Oran and Constantine are open to Mahommedans, but few take advantage of them.) Besides the government schools there are establishments conducted by clerics and laymen.
There are also establishments for dyeing, tanning, lime-burning, iron-making, brewing and the preparation of liqueurs.
New Caledonia is a French colony under a governor; the more easterly French islands are grouped together under the title of the French Establishments in Oceania, and are administered by a governor, privy council, administrative council, &c., Papeete in Tahiti being the capital.
The bluffs approach the Missouri more closely at this point than elsewhere in the state, so that little more than manufacturing establishments and business blocks are built on the bottom lands, and the residences are spread over the slope and summit of the bluffs.
During the first half of the 19th century the industry became of considerable local importance in all parts of the state, but since the Civil War the heavy tax imposed has caused its concentration in large establishments.
The weaving establishments (mainly broadcloth) of Leiden at the close of the 15th century were very important, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards Leiden cloth, Leiden baize and Leiden camlet were familiar terms. These industries afterwards declined, and in the beginning of the 19th century the baize manufacture was altogether given up. Linen and woollen manufactures are now the most important industries, while there is a considerable transit trade in butter and cheese.
Irrigation, careful husbandry and railroad communications have much developed the resources of their country, in themselves excellent; and there are many manufacturing towns and industrial establishments.
It is situated on the Parramatta River, an arm of Port Jackson, and was one of the earliest inland settlements (1788), the seat of many of the public establishments connected with the working of the convict system.
Under this view he considered the political institutions relating to commerce, to finances, to ecclesiastical and military establishments.
He was the first also to advance that argument in favour of religious establishments which meets upon its own ground the doctrine of Adam Smith, that religion like other things should be left to the operation of the natural law of supply and demand.
This plan, however, miscarried, for space grew so valuable that large warehouses and business establishments have been erected in these lanes.
He then closed the Collegio Romano, on the plea of its insolvency, seized the houses at Frascati and Tivoli, and broke up the establishments in Bologna and the Legations.
The industrial establishments of the town include dye-works, distilleries, tanneries, glass-works and important flour-mills.
Other important manufactories are flour mills, of which there were over 500 in 1904; iron and steel works, of which there are 7 large establishments, including the immense plant at Monterey; 90 smelters for the reduction of precious metals; tanneries, potteries, and factories for the manufacture of hats, paper, linen, hammocks, harness and saddles, matches, explosives, aerated waters, soap, furniture, chocolate and sweetmeats.
There are also a large number of distilleries, breweries, and establishments for the manufacture of it pulque," " mescal," and imitation or counterfeited liquors.
Subsequent legislation removed clerical influence from public instruction, made marriage a civil ceremony and closed all conventual establishments.
The Black river furnishes water-power which is utilized by manufacturing establishments of diversified character.
Other establishments are the Airedale College of students for the Independent ministry, and the United Independent College (1888).
Besides these public establishments for the custody of lunatics, there are in the vicinity of Dublin various private asylums. The principal institution for blind men (and also those afflicted by gout) is Simpson's hospital (1780), founded by a merchant of Dublin; while blind women are maintained at the Molyneux asylum (1815).
Other educational establishments are a school of art, a national conservatory of music, a commercial college, four trades' schools with more than 600 pupils and a national library.
The extensive workshops of the Southern railway are at Graz, and since the opening of the railway to the rich coal-fields of Koflach the number of industrial establishments has greatly increased.
It has flour and grist mills (the products of which ranked first in value among the city's manufactures in 1905), wholesale slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, cooperage works, railway repair shops, cotton compresses, lumber yards, salt works, and manufactories of cotton-seed oil and cake, boots and shoes and cotton and agricultural machinery.
In 1905 was taken the first of a new series of special decennial censuses of manufactures, in which only true factoriesthat is, establishments producing standardized products intended for the general marketwere included, and mere neighborhood (local) establishments of the hand trades were excluded.
Thus of 512,254 establishments included in the reports of 1900, six-tenths, employing II ~2% of the total number of wage-earners and producing 123% of the total value of all manufactures, must be omitted as neighborhood establishments in order to make the following comparison of the results of the two enumerations of 1900 and 1905.
The extent to which manufactures are controlled by large factories is shown by the fact that although in 1905 only II~2% of the total number reported products valued at $100,000 or over, these establishments controlled 81.5% of the capital, employed 7 ~6% of the wage earners, and produced 793% of the value of the products, of all establishments reported.
Only six establishments in a thousand employed as many as 500 workers, and only two in a thousand employed as many as 1000 workers.
Cotton mills are most numerous in the last class of establishments.
Since the English board of trade estimated the exports of British manufactured goods at from 17 to 20% of the industrial output of the United Kingdom in 1902, this would indicate a manufactured product hardly two-thirds as great as that of the true factory establishments of the United States in 1900.
The Hospice de Notre-Dame de Douleurs is the chief of the many establishments provided for the accommodation of pilgrims.
To the east of the church stands a group of buildings comprising two miniature conventual establishments, each complete in itself.
general arrangement and distribution of the various buildings, which went to make up one of these vast establishments, may be gathered from that of St Bernard's own abbey of Clairvaux, which is here given.
The large fish-ponds, an indispensable adjunct to any ecclesiastical foundation, on the formation of which the monks lavished extreme care and pains, and which often remain as almost the only visible traces of these vast establishments, were placed outside the abbey walls.
There are many interesting churches and eleven conventual establishments in the city.
Its bathing establishments are largely frequented and attract a considerable number of summer visitors.
At the general census of 1901 the number of flouring and grist mill establishments, each employing five persons and over, was returned at 400, the number of employes being 4251 and the value of products $31,835,873.
A special census of manufactures in 1906 shows that these figures had grown in 1905 to 832 establishments, 5619 employes and $56,703,269 value of the products.
Establishments for evaporating fruit are now found in most of the larger apple-growing districts, and canning factories and jam factories have been established in many parts of Canada, and are conducted with advantage and profit.
The educational establishments include a gymnasium, founded in 1604 by Duke John Casimir (d.
The city has numerous important educational establishments.
Its principal industrial establishments are mechanical works (both in the city and at Lundby), saw-mills, dealing with the timber which is brought down the Gota, flour-mills, margarine factories, breweries and distilleries, tobacco works, cotton mills, dyeing and bleaching works (at Levanten in the vicinity), furniture factories, paper and leather works, and shipbuilding yards.
E., are several hydropathic establishments.
In 1900 and in 1905 Alabama ranked second among 1 The special census of manufactures taken in 1905 was confined to manufacturing establishments conducted under the so-called "factory system."
During the five years, therefore, the capital invested in establishments under the factory system increased 75.2%, and the value of products 5 1ï¿½ 4%.
2% over the product ($2,190,771) of 1890; in 1905 there were 46 establishments, representing a capital of $24,758,049 (an increase of 112.7% over that of 1900), and having a product (for the year) of $16,760,332, an increase of 105.6% over that for 1900.
The establishments include slaughtering and meat-packing houses, whose product is by far the most valuable in the city, bleacheries, finishing factories, glassworks, machine shops, tube works, jewelry factories, and a desk factory.
The population of Georgia in 1880 was 1,542,180; in 1890 it was 1,837,353, an increase of 19.1%; in 1900 it was 1 The manufacturing statistics for 1900 which follow are not those given in the Twelfth Census, but are taken from the Census of Manufactures, 1905, the 1900 figures here given being only for " establishments on a factory basis," and thus being comparable with those of 1905.
There was formerly an archiepiscopal palace in the town, built by Archbishop Hampton about 1620; and the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Augustinians, the Carmelites and the knights of St John have monastic establishments.
The industrial establishments comprise cotton, flax and flour mills, sawmills, tanneries, salt and soap works, breweries, chemical manure and engineering works.
The city is the seat of the state hospital for tuberculosis, has a fine court-house, a public library, and various manufacturing establishments.
Other industrial establishments of importance include petroleum refineries, ship-yards, brick, stone and lime works, saddlery and harness factories, lithographing establishments, patent medicine works, chemical works, and copper smelters and refineries.
All continental conditioning establishments now formulate their tests for counts on the agreement arrived at by the International Congress of 1900.
The supply of waste silk is drawn from the following sources: (I) The silkworm, when commencing to spin, emits a dull, lustreless and uneven thread with which it suspends itself to the twigs and leaves of the tree upon which it has been feeding, or to the straws provided for it by attendants in the worm-rearing establishments: this first thread is unreelable, and, moreover, is often mixed with straw, leaves and twigs.
The library contains upwards of 250,000 volumes and 600 MSS., and among the other auxiliary establishments are an anatomical hall and museum and botanical gardens.
Next to sugar, fertilizers were the most important manufactured product, their value being $1,150,625; the products of the establishments for the polishing and cleaning of rice were valued at $664,300.
There is little evidence for partitions inside, and in wealthy establishments the place of rooms seems to have been supplied by separate buildings within the same enclosure.
Later with his small savings he opened a saloon, and as his business prospered became proprietor of several such establishments, in which he maintained good order.
Since the days of Gibbon (resident here for three periods, 1753-1758,1763-1764and 1783-1793), whose praises of the town have been often repeated, Lausanne has become a favourite place of residence for foreigners (including many English), who are especially attracted by the excellent establishments for secondary and higher education.
It is the seat of many benevolent, scientific and literary societies and establishments.
The same law prescribes conditions under which children between fourteen and eighteen years of age may be employed in the manufacture of white-lead, red-lead, paints, phosphorus, poisonous acids, tobacco or cigars, in mercantile establishments, stores, hotels, offices or in other places requiring protection to their health or safety; and it forbids the employment of boys under sixteen years of age or of girls under eighteen years of age in such factories or establishments more than ten hours a day (unless it be to prepare for a short day) or for more than fifty-eight hours to be chosen for the same term of service each voter shall vote for one only, and when three are to be chosen he shall vote for no more than two; candidates highest in vote shall be declared elected."
Even at Rome, however, the expression "papal court" (corte roinana) has acquired by usage a sense different from that of the word curia; as in the case of royal courts it denotes the whole body of dignitaries and officials who surround and attend on the pope; the pope, however, has two establishments: the civil establishment, in which he is surrounded by what is termed his "family" (familia); and the religious establishment, the members of which form his "chapel" (capella).
The Visitation is the personal inspection of institutions, churches, religious establishments and their personnel, to correct abuses The Visit- p and enforce the observation of rules.
This plan, which was first adopted by St Bruno and his twelve companions at the original institution at Chartreux, near Grenoble, was maintained in all the Carthusian establishments throughout Europe, even after the ascetic severity of the order had been to some extent relaxed, and the primitive simplicity of their buildings had been exchanged for the magnificence of decoration which characterizes such foundations as the Certosas of Pavia and Florence.
Taken as a whole, the remains of the establishments of the friars afford little warrant for the bitter invective of the Benedictine of St Alban's, Matthew Paris: - "The friars who have been founded hardly 40 years have built residences as the palaces of kings.
Every large monastery had depending upon it one or more smaller establishments known as cells.
The plan given by Viollet-le-Duc of the Priory of St Jean des Bons Hommes, a Cluniac cell, situated between the town of Avallon and the village of Savigny, shows that these diminutive establishments comprised every essential feature of a monastery, - chapel, cloister, chapter-room, refectory, dormitory, all grouped according to the recognized arrangement.
The outlying farming establishments belonging to the monastic foundations were known as villae or granges.
Subsequently the order had a number of independent establishments in Italy which were united into one congregation by Eugenius IV., their headquarters being at Milan.
in 1400 - an academy of fine arts, a normal school, a theological seminary, an upper industrial school, an institution for the education of deafmutes, a school of navigation and many minor establishments.
In typography Milan is renowned principally for its musical editions and for its heliotype and zincotype establishments.
Coldstorage chambers form a part of the equipment of most of the leading establishments where flowers are grown for market.
In commercial establishments where utility is of more importance than ornament, the glass houses and hot water apparatus are not of so elaborate a type as indicated in the foregoing remarks, and in many cases excellent produce is grown in structures more or less dilapidated.
The general character of the place, with its numerous hotels, pensions, bathing establishments, villas and places of entertainment, is largely determined by the requirements of visitors, who in 1907 numbered 180,000.
Among its auxiliary establishments are a good natural history museum, an observatory, a laboratory, and a library which contains a copy of Erasmus' New Testament with marginal annotations by Luther.
The objection raised against these establishments is that the prisoners do not represent the real vagabondage of the country, but a class of more or less voluntary inmates.
Educational establishments include an Elizabethan grammar school, a training college for schoolmistresses (British and Foreign School Society), and a technical school.
It is a prosperous commercial town, being situated at the meeting point of several routes, while it possesses several industrial establishments, chiefly concerned with different branches of the iron trade.
The government in 1904 voted nearly 7,000,000 francs in aid of the religious establishments of, and the benevolent institutions kept up by, the Roman Church.
All the public establishments, the Bank, the military schools, were Dutch.
The mineral wealth of the country was largely developed, the iron manufactures of Liege made rapid advance, the woollen manufactures of Verviers received a similar impulse, and many large establishments were formed at Ghent and other places, where cotton goods were produced which rivalled those of England and surpassed those of France.
Besides numerous board schools, the educational establishments include the John Neilson Endowed Institute (1852) on Oakshaw Hill, the grammar school (founded, 1576; rebuilt, 1864), and the academy for secondary education, and the technical college, in George Street.
The increase in the herds has caused the owners of saladero establishments in Argentina and Uruguay to try the working of factories in Paraguay for the preparation of tasajo (jerked beef) and the manufacture of extract of meat.
The industrial establishments include a few ironfoundries, wool-spinning mills, carriage and machine factories, dyeworks, tanneries, brick-fields, soap-works, breweries, distilleries, numerous limekilns and tar-boiling works, tobacco and cigar factories, and numerous mills of various kinds.
Three different establishments of this character have been discovered, of which the first, excavated in 1824, the baths near the forum, built about 80 B.C., was for a long time the only one known.
It appears, however, that these two establishments were found inadequate to supply the wants of the inhabitants, and a third edifice of the same character, the socalled central baths, at the corner of the Strada Stabiana and the Strada di Nola, but on a still more extensive scale, intended for men only, while the other two had separate accommodation for both sexes, was in course of construction when the town was overwhelmed.
The industrial establishments comprise cotton-mills, print-works, paper-mills, foundries, and brick and lime works.
Its industrial establishments include oil-works, dye-works and breweries, and manufactories of hosiery, railings and other iron-work, and of oil-cake.
There are in many large cities of north Germany extensive establishments for this purpose, but the industry is not limited to the large cities.
The income of the forty establishments was, in 903, 1/28,500,000 (including 1,700,000 imperial subsidy).
Peace and War Strengths.German military policy is revised every five years; thus a law of April 1905 fixes the strength and establishments to be attained on March 31, 1910, the necessary augmentations, &c., being carried out gradually in the intervening years.
The entrance to a subterranean passage between the two establishments is still visible under the communion-table of the church.
From 1824 to 1826 Mill contributed to the Westminster Review, started as the organ of his party, a number of articles in which he attacked the Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews and ecclesiastical establishments.
The disturbed state of European politics and the great increase in the military establishments of other countries made it desirable for Austria also to strengthen her military resources.
In 1905 there were 40 establishments for the manufacture of pottery and terracotta, employing 4571 labourers; and their total product was valued at $5,882,701 - or 9.2% of the value of the pottery product of the United States, and 18% of the value of all the city's factory products, in this year.
South and west of this highland, along the Kansas river, is a low, level tract occupied chiefly by railway yards, stock yards, wholesale houses and manufacturing establishments; north and east of the highland is a flat section, the Missouri River bottoms, occupied largely by manufactories, railway yards, grain elevators and homes of employes.
In practice the system works perfectly smoothly, the gold flowing in and out of the country through the agency of private banking establishments in proportion to the requirements of the circulation.
The necessity for a reorganization of the Azhar system itself being also recognized by the high Moslem dignitaries in Egypt, a law was passed in 1907 creating a superior board of control under the presidency of the Sheikh el-Azhar to supervise the proceedings of the university and other similar establishments.
From time to time feudal conditions prevailed: the great landowners and local princes had establishments of their own on the model of the royal court, and were with difficulty kept in order by the monarch.
The principal industrial establishments include flour-mills (Limerick supplying most of the west of Ireland with flour), factories for bacon-curing and for condensed milk and creameries.
As a manufacturing centre Allegheny was outranked in 1905 by only two cities in the state - Philadelphia and Pittsburg; among the more important of its large variety of manufactures are the products of slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, iron and steel rolling mills, the products of foundries and machineshops, pickles, preserves and sauces, the products of railwayconstruction and repair shops, locomotives, structural iron and plumbers' supplies.
Then come establishments for making tobacco, gloves, chocolate, artificial manure, cement, varnish, chemicals and pottery.
The first is a watering-place (pop. 2074), with pleasant sands and a chalybeate spa; the second (pop. 3086) has iron foundries, engineering works and fish-curing establishments.
The service was reorganized in 1662, and in 1711 the postal establishments of the United Kingdom, hitherto conducted independently in each country, were consolidated into one.
Singapore has also establishments for tinning pineapples, and a large biscuit factory.
Of this $1,416,392 was expended on personal emoluments, and $1,116,548 on other charges connected with the administrative establishments; $1,763,488 was spent on military services, exclusive of expenses connected with the volunteer force; $183,075 on the upkeep and maintenance of existing public works; and $569,884 on new public works.
According to Herodotus, Cyrus devoted the revenue of four great towns to meet the expenses of his hunting establishments.
Packs of foxhounds vary, from large establishments in the "Shires," the meets of which are attended by hundreds of horsemen, some of whom keep large stables of hunters in constant work - for though a man at Melton, for instance, may see a great deal of sport with half-a-dozen well-seasoned animals, the number is not sufficient if he is anxious to be at all times well mounted - to small kennels in the north of England, where the field follow on foot.
In all but the largest establishments the kennel huntsman is generally called the "feeder."
Budapest is actually one of the greatest milling centres in the world, possessing a number of magnificent establishments, fitted with machinery invented and manufactured in the city.
The principal baths are the Bruckbad and the Kaiserbad, both dating from the Turkish period; the St Lucasbad; and the Raitzenbad, rebuilt in 1860, one of the most magnificent establishments of its kind, which was connected through a gallery with the royal palace in the time of Matthias Corvin.
The average increases of invested capital and products for each decade from1850-1900were, respectively, 189.26% and 152.9%; in 1900 the capital invested ($776,829,598, of which $732,829,771 was in establishments under the "factory system"), and the product ($ 1, 2 59,73 0, 168, of which $1,120,868,308 was from establishments under the "factory system"), showed unusually small percentages of increase over those for 1890 (54.7% and 38.6% respectively); and in 1905 the capital and product of establishments under the "factory system" were respectively $975,844,799 and $1,410,342,129, showing increases of 33.2% and 25.8% over the corresponding figures for 1900.
The educational establishments of the town include a gymnasium, a realgymnasium, a realschule, technical schools for building and handicrafts, a high-class commercial school, a school of agriculture, and an academy of music. The most notable industry of Erfurt is the culture of flowers and of vegetables, which is very extensively carried on.
Among its educational establishments are a classical school and a school of navigation.
The numerous educational establishments include a gymnasium, an episcopal seminary for boys and a normal school.
If the inmates of the countless monastic establishments be excluded, comparatively few from northern or western Europe will remain: the German "Templar" colonies being perhaps the most important.
Wine is manufactured by several of the German and Jewish colonies, and by some of the monastic establishments.
Till 1791 the French had had factories and business establishments at Acre;' el-Jazzar ordered them in that year summarily to leave the town.
The latter half of the 19th century is mainly occupied with the record of a very remarkable process of colonization and settlement - French and Russian monastic and other establishments, some of them semi-religious and semi-political; German colonies; fanatical American communities; Jewish agricultural settlements - all, so to speak, " nibbling " at the country, and each so intent upon gaining a step on its rivals as to be forgetful of the gathering storm.
The zeal and self-sacrificing devotion which some of these establishments, and their inmates, display, and their noble labours on behalf of the country, its people and its history throw into yet more painful relief the actions and attitudes of some of their fellow-Christians.
Among educational establishments is Dover College, occupying the site and remaining buildings of St Martin's priory, with additional modern buildings.
In Burma the favourite relish of nga-pi is prepared from fish; and at Goalanda, at the junction of the Brahmaputra with the Ganges, and along the Madras coast many establishments exist for salting fish in bond.
There are collieries near the town, the workings extending beneath the sea; there are also iron mines and works, engineering works, shipbuilding yards, breweries, tanneries, stone quarries, brick and earthenware works, and other industrial establishments in and near the town.
Bekescsaba possesses several large milling establishments, while the weaving of hemp and the production of hemp-linen is largely pursued as a home industry.
A religious seminary, or medressa, is maintained in connexion with the Sidi-el-Kattani; and the French support a college and various minor educational establishments for both Arabic and European culture.
The westerly winds, however, sometimes bring across the bay the offensive smells of the great abattoirs and meat-curing establishments (saladeros) at the foot of the Cerro.
On the establishment of Roman Catholic orphanages some years later the pretensions of the priests so irritated the people that on the occurrence of an epidemic in the schools in the year 1870 they attacked the French and Russian establishments and murdered twenty-one of the foreign inmates, besides numbers of their native followers.
Although the hulks at home had been condemned, convict establishments in which these floating prisons still formed the principal part were organized at Bermuda and Gibraltar.
The really penal establishments are 77 in number, the great ergastolo of San Stefano being one.
Accordingly, the production of goods has been largely curtailed for the open market and prison labour is restricted nowadays to supplying articles required for current use by public departments - such as the navy, army, post office and, of course, all prison establishments.
Brooklyn's largest manufacturing industry is the refining of sugar, about one-half of the sugar consumed in the United States being refined here; in 1900 the product of the sugar and molasses refining establishments was valued at $77,942,997.
z The 1905 census of manufactures deals only with establishments under the factory system; its figures for 1905 and the figures for 1900 reduced to the same limits are as follows: - total value of products, 1905, $367,218,494; 1900, $ 2 57,3 8 5,5 21, an increase of 4 2.7%; leading industries, with value of product in millions of dollars - canning and preserving, first in 1905 with 23.8 millions, third in 1900 with 13.4 millions; slaughtering and meat-packing, second in 1905 with 21.79 millions, first in 1900 with 15.71 millions; flour and grist mill products, third in 1905 with 20.2 millions, fourth in 1900 with 13.04 millions; lumber and timber, fourth in 1905 with 18.27 millions, second in 1900 with 13.71 millions; printing and publishing, fifth in 1905 with 17.4 millions, sixth in 1900 with 9.6 millions; foundry and machine shop products, sixth in 1905 with 15.7 millions, fifth in 1900 with 12.04 millions; planing mill products, seventh in 1905 with 13.9 millions, twelfth in 1900 with 4.8 millions; bread and other bakery products, eighth in 1905 with 10.6 millions, eleventh in 1900 with 4.87 millions.
This is now being used by the Chicago & North Western Railroad Company on its locomotives, and it is also used in Omaha (Nebraska) by manufacturing establishments.
In the period1900-1905the value of factory products increased from $3,268,555 to $3,523,260; the amount of capital invested, from $2,047,883 to $2,695,889, and the number of establishments from 139 to 169; the average number of employees decreased from 2060 to 1834.
In the same period (1900-1905), the value of the products of urban 1 establishments decreased from $1,332,288 to $1,244,223, and the amount of capital invested increased from $871,531 to $988,615; but the value of the products of rural establishments increased from $1,936,267 to $2,279,037, and the capital invested from $1,176,352 to $1,707,274.
Other industries include manufactures of leather, boots and shoes, furniture, bricks and pottery, cigars and cigarettes, beer, wine and spirits, candles and soap. The largest and most numerous commercial firms are German, but there are also French, British, and even Chinese establishments, although the immigration of Chinese is prohibited by law.
It was liberally endowed with land by the princes of the Carolingian house and others, and soon became one of the most famous and wealthy establishments of its kind.
Among the borough's industrial establishments, the manufactories of iron and steel are the most important, but it also manufactures brass, zinc, and silk and knit goods.
It contains a university (founded in 1872), with four faculties - theology, philosophy, law and medicine - frequented by about 1900 students in 1905; and amongst its other educational establishments are a seminary for Unitarian priests, an agricultural college, two training schools for teachers, a commercial academy, and several secondary schools for boys and girls.
The industry comprises establishments for the manufacture of woollen and linen cloth, paper, sugar, candles, soap, earthenwares, as well as breweries and distilleries.
The manufacture of arms and artillery is carried on to a great extent, and the imperial and private docks and shipbuilding establishments, notably the Schichau yard, turn out ships of the largest size.
By the "Aland Convention," concluded between Great Britain, France and Russia on the 30th of March 1856, it was stipulated that "the Aland Islands shall not be fortified, and that no military or naval establishments shall be maintained or created on them."
Virginia's manufacturing establishments increased very rapidly in number and in the value of their products during the last two decades of the 19th century.
The number of all establishments increased from 5710 in 1880 to 8248 in 190o; the capital invested from $26,968,990 to $103,670,988, the average number of wage-earners from 40,184 to 72,702, the total wages from $7,425,261 to $22,445,720, and the value of products from $51,770, 992 to $132,172,910.
The other charitable institutions are 992 in number, and include every form of public and private charity; no diocese is without one or more such establishments.
Connected with it are a library of over 200,000 volumes, geological, anatomical and mineralogical institutions, a hospital, several clinical establishments, laboratories and a botanical garden.
The city's industrial establishments include smelting works and a large number of reduction works, among which are some of the largest and most important in the republic. It was here that Bartolome de Medina discovered the "patio" process of reducing silver ores with quicksilver in 1 557, and his old hacienda de beneficio is still to be seen.
There are several manufacturing establishments, among which are one of the largest manufactories of paper-bags in the United States and a large tannery.
The Federal census of 1900 credited the manufacturing establishments of the state with a capital of $62,825,472 and a product of $102,830,137 (increase 1890-1900, 142.1%); of which output the gold, silver, lead and copper smelted amounted to $44,625,305.
Roman Catholics are in the majority among church adherents, and Methodists and Presbyterians most 1 The special census of manufactures of 1905 was concerned only with the manufacturing establishments of the state conducted under the so-called factory system.
The capital invested in such establishments was $107,663,500, and the product was valued at $100,143,999.
In 1905 there were 199 establishments under the factory system (an increase of 1 4.4% over the number in 1900); the amount of capital invested was $4,638,248, and the value of " factory " products was $5,705,880 (an increase of 40.5% over the value of the " factory " products in 1900).
In his powerful defence of establishments against the voluntaries in both Scotland and England, in which his ablest assistants were those who afterwards became, along with him, the leaders of the Free Church, he pleaded that an established church to be effective must divide the country territorially into a large number of small parishes, so that every corner of the land and every person, of whatever class, shall actually enjoy the benefits of the parochial machinery.
He early showed a remarkable aptitude for learning, but had a pronounced aversion for pure rhetoric. His studies at the Ecole des Chartes (where he took first place both on entering and leaving) and at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes did much to develop his critical faculty, and the historical method taught and practised at these establishments brought home to him the dignity of history, which thenceforth became his ruling passion.
There are a Nonconformist grammar school, a diocesan training college for mistresses, and other educational establishments.
These kinds, however, are now only regarded as botanical curiosities, and are rarely grown in private or commercial establishments.
The first of these conditions entirely, the second largely, and even indirectly the third and fourth depend upon the recruiting, establishments and terms of service of the regular army.
The army estimates for1910-1911show a total sum of £27,760,000 required for the home and colonial establishments, made up as follows (after deducting appropriations in aid): - 1 Does not include unattached list of officers, 853, or 736 R.A.M.C. officers not available until mobilization.
It owes its origin almost entirely to the cotton printing and bleaching works of the vicinity, for which there is an abundant supply of excellent water, and contains one of the largest of the Turkey-red dyeing establishments in the Vale of Leven.
He subsequently organized the expedition which rescued all the Irish military political prisoners from the 'Western Australia convict establishments (1876), and he aided and abetted the American propaganda in favour of Irish nationalism.
It contains hotels, a ball-room, a bank, a library and other establishments, and the surrounding open grounds are laid out in terraces and gardens.
Among the manufacturing establishments are foundries and machine shops, including the large shops of the Chicago & Alton railway, slaughtering and meat-packing establishments, flour and grist mills, printing and publishing establishments, a caramel factory and lumber factories.
There are one or more agricultural societies in each lan, and there are various state educational establishments in agriculture, such as the agricultural high schools at Ultuna near Upsala, and at Alnarp near Lund in Skane, an important agricultural centre, with dairy schools and other branch establishments.
A few other establishments including both mechanical workshops and ore-extraction works may be mentioned: Domnarfvet, on the Dal River, near Falun; Sandviken, near Gefle; and Bofors in Orebro Lan.
The development of the coal deposits in the provinces of Concepcion and Arauco has made possible other industries besides those of smelting mineral ores, and numerous small manufacturing establishments have resulted, especially in Santiago, Valparaiso, Copiapo and other places where no permanent water power exists.
The breweries are generally worked by Germans and are situated chiefly in the south, though there are large establishments in Santiago and Valparaiso.
In favourable localities and with judicious management these establishments yield very considerable profit (see Feather).
Besides the usual bathing establishments there are several medical institutions for the treatment of disease.
Michael Sturdza also attempted the secularization of monastic establishments, which was carried out by Prince Cuza in 1864, and the utilization of their endowments for national purposes.
Many priests are appointed guardians of shrines and tombs of members of the Prophets family (imains and imamzadeiis) and are responsible for the proper administration of the property and funds with which the establishments are endowed.
Nadir Shah (1736-1747) abolished these offices altogether, and seized most of the endowments of the ecclesiastical establishments in order to pay his troops, and, the lands appropriated by him not having been restored, the clergy have never regained the power they once possessed.
The religious missions ministering to their spiritual welfare are: (1) The board of foreign missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, which has six establishments in Persia: Urmia since 1835, Teheran since 1872, Tabriz since 1873, Hamadan since 1880, Resht since r902 and Kazvin since 1903.
The establishments of Tabriz and Urmia form the Western Persia Mission, those of Teheran, Hamadan, Resht and Kazvin the Eastern Persia Mission.
These schools are private establishments, and are under no supervision whatever.
The average number of pupils was about 250, and until the beginning of 1899 these two schools were the only establishments under the supervision.
A year later the new schools, until then private establishments, were placed under the minister of public instruction.
The book trade has of late years revived, and there are several printing establishments.
Other industrial establishments include corn-mills, iron-foundries, distilleries, and brush and bag factories.
Such importance as the town possesses is now rather commercial than religious, - it being a depot for the timber trade of the Bavarian forest, a station for the Danube steamboat company, and the seat of several mills, breweries, potteries and other industrial establishments.
Alost is famous to-day for its hop gardens and linen-bleaching establishments.
The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela.
The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army.
These establishments have been principally devoted to the hatching of the eggs of plaice.
But again the maximum output of fry from any one of these establishments has not exceeded 40 millions in any single year.
The new Chinatown gained considerably in sanitation and in the housing of its commercial establishments.
Among its industrial establishments are rolling mills, tube and pipe works, furnaces, steel mills, a brass foundry, and manufactories of electrical railway supplies, boxes, asbestos coverings, enamel work and ice.
It has a variety of manufacturing establishments, among which are cotton and woollen mills, rolling mills, steel mills, foundries, boiler shops, tube works, and works for making surgical instruments and artificial stone.
The town is the seat of other important Catholic establishments, including an Ursuline convent; a Presentation convent; St Patrick's Catholic College (1829) for ecclesiastical students, where was held in 1850 the synod of Thurles; and an establishment of Christian Brothers, who devote themselves to the instruction of boys on the Lancasterian method.
Whaling retains a remnant of its old importance, and there are also mackerel and shore fisheries, oil-works, cold storage establishments for preserving fish for food and bait, and canning works for herring.
There are numerous residences belonging to patrons of the turf, together with stables, and racing and training establishments.
Locomotives, boilers and machinery of all kinds are made in other great establishments.
Manufactures.-The manufactures of Idaho in 1900 were relatively unimportant, the value of all products of establishments under the " factory system " being $3,001,442; in 1905 the value of such manufactured products had increased 192.2%, to $8,768,743.
The manufacturing establishments were limited to the supply of local demands.
In1903-1904the cultivation of sugar beets and the manufacture of beet sugar were undertaken, and manufacturing establishments for that purpose were installed at Idaho Falls and Blackfoot (Bingham county), at Sugar, or Sugar City (Fremont county), a place built up about the sugar refineries, and at Nampa, Canyon county.
At the head of the educational establishments stand the two universities at Prague, one German and the other Czech.
But like the special census of manufactures in other states, it is confined to establishments under the factory system, and hence its figures are considerably less than they would have been had it been taken on the same basis as that of the 1900 census, which included hand trades and other custom work; for example, on the basis of the 1904 census the value of the manufactured products in 1900 was only $319,691,856, and as that of 1904 was $429,120,060, the real increase was 34.2% instead of 20.19%.
There are ore sampling works and brick-making establishments.
Large tanneries and leather works, and factories for cloth, paper and machinery, are among the other industrial establishments.
It is commonly employed in medieval seals, and especially those of bishops and monastic establishments.
It became the head of the Genoese establishments in Gazaria, the see of a bishop, and the chief port on the northern shore of the Black Sea, far surpassing the Venetian Tana.
Of the other industrial establishments the most important is the national small-arms factory, which was' established in 1815 in Chateauneuf, and employs from 1500 to 5500 men.
It is frequented as a tourist centre, and several hydropathic establishments and mountain resorts lie in the vicinity.
The more important industrial establishments, such as iron foundries, machine works, tobacco and cloth factories, are mainly confined to the large towns, such as Altona, Kiel and Flensburg.
The industrial establishments of the city include flour, planing and saw mills, the machine shops (of the St Louis division) of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy railway, ice factories, pearl button factories and a shoe factory.
In 1850 7.7% of the population were employed as wage-earners in manufacturing establishments; in 1900, 12.8%.
Such figures of the census of 1900 as are comparable with those of the special census of 1905, when only the establishments under the factory system were enumerated, show that between 1900 and 1905 the number of factories increased 9.3%; the capital, 49.8%; and the value of the products,' 40% (from $353,005,684 to $774,369,025).
This industry declined for a time, partly on account of the pollution of the streams by sewage and the refuse of manufacturing establishments, but laws have been enacted for its protection and development.
Penal establishments were formed at Newcastle in New South Wales, at Hobart and Launceston in Tasmania, and an unsuccessful attempt was made to colonize Port Phillip. The most noteworthy incident in the first decade of the 19th century was the forcible deportation by the officers of the New South Wales Corps, a regiment raised in England for service in the colony, of the governor, Captain Bligh, R.N., the naval officer identified with the mutiny of the " Bounty."
Cotton mills are the basis of the city's prosperity, and it has also a large wholesale trade, iron-working establishments, and various manufactures.
The clear water of the upland becks and the plentiful supply of water-power led to the founding of small paper-mills in remote valleys before the days of steam, and some of these primitive establishments still exist.
It has a palace, with a chapel and a library, three churches, one of them containing the burial vaults of the princes, several educational establishments, and various small industries such as the manufacture of hosiery, toys, sweetmeats and lamps.
The educational establishments include a gymnasium (founded in 1524, one of the most famous in Germany), two training schools for teachers, conservatoires of music and several scientific institutions.
The crematorium was long regarded as a model for such establishments.
Educational establishments include an academy of jurisprudence, a military academy, a Roman Catholic and a Protestant seminary, a training school for female teachers, and several secondary and technical schools.
discussion, urban establishments (i.e.
This unusual predominance of rural over urban manufacturing is further shown by the fact that in 1900, 64.3% of the establishments reporting, and 69.3% of the value of their products were from factories classified as rural, and in 1905 the proportion of rural factories was 58.8%, and the value of their products 72.9% of the total.
There are some 1400 monks in about 120 monastic establishments (many of these being mere farms in charge of one or two monks).
It has a grand-ducal palace, a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a sanatorium for nervous disorders, and several educational establishments.
Baron de Parana, on the other hand, says, "I have many relatives and friends who have large establishments for the rearing of mules, where they obtain from 400 to l000 mules in a year.
In all these establishments, after two or three crossings of the mare and ass, the breeders cause the mare to be put to a horse; yet a pure-bred foal has never been produced resembling either an ass or a mule."
Idrisi, in the 12th century, speaks of its possessing a variety of educational establishments, and carrying on an active trade.
The principal industrial establishments are shingle (especially cedar) and saw-mills, salmon canneries and factories for the manufacture of tin cans, and machinery used in the canning of salmon.
In 1620 one of the Company's factors dates from Patna; in 1624-1636 the Company established itself, by the favour of the emperor, on the ruins of the ancient Portuguese settlement of Pippli, in the north of Orissa; in 1640-1642 an English surgeon, Gabriel Boughton, obtained establishments at Balasore, also in Orissa, and at Hugli, some miles above Calcutta.
It possesses a large kursaal, several bathing establishments, a hospital for poor patients and several parks.
The head of the Orthodox Church, the metropolitan Gennadius, had for some years past, as head of the philanthropic establishments founded by the princess Brancovan, desired to obtain the entire management of these wealthy foundations, and had made violent attacks on the two administrators, Prince George Bibescu and Prince Stirbei, both members of the Brancovan family.
Of the total output in 1900, three-fourths were made up by the output of St Louis ($233,629,733; of which $193,732,788 was from establishments under the "factory system"), Kansas City ($36,527,392; $23,588,653 being "factory product"), St Joseph ($31,690,736, including the product of some establishments outside the city limits; $11,361,939 being "factory product" within the city limits), and Springfield ($4,126,871; $3,433, 80 0 being "factory product"); for the same four cities in 1905 the proportion of the state's total product ($439,54 8, 957) manufactured under the "factory system" is smaller, and less than three-fourths was made up by the following seven cities: St Louis ($267,307,038), Kansas City ($35,573,049), St Joseph ($ 11, 573,7 2 0), Springfield ($5,293,315), Hannibal($ 4,44 2, 0 99), Jefferson City ($3,926,632), and Joplin ($3,006,203).
Among the educational establishments are a law academy, a seminary for priests, a modern school, a Roman Catholic and a Calvinistic gymnasium, a commercial academy, a training school for teachers and a secondary school for girls.
A lycee for girls, a communal college and training colleges are among its educational establishments.
There are large mule-breeding establishments on the veld.
Amongst its educational establishments it includes an agricultural academy.
Along its coast there were several isolated establishments presided over by Spaniards, who were deprived of a convenient market for the produce of the soil by the monopolies imposed by the mother country.
The natives still left were skilled in preserving flesh at their little establishments called boucans.
Among the institutions of the town may be mentioned the Queen Alexandra Hospital (1902), and several hydropathic establishments and convalescent homes.
The chief educational establishments are the Huddersfield College (1838), a higher-grade school, the technical school and several grammar-schools, of which Longwood school was founded in 1731.
That Baltimore has grown rapidly as a manufacturing city since 1880 is seen from the fact that in that year there were but 3683 manufacturing establishments, with a total annual product valued at $78,417,304, as compared with 6359 establishments (of which 2274 were under the factory system) in 1900 producing commodities valued at $161,249,240 ($135,107,626 under the factory system); in 1905 there were 2163 establishments under the factory system with a total annual product valued at $151,546,580, an increase of 12.2% in the five years.
The output in 1905 ($5,981,541) of the city's establishments for the canning and preserving of fruits and vegetables was 7.7% of that of the whole United States; in 1900 it had been 15% of the country's total.