How to use Essays in a sentence
In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays was greater.
He occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled This Country of Ours (1897), treating of the organization and administration of the government of the United States, and a collection of essays by him was published posthumously, in 1901, under the title Views of an Ex-President.
On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June 1836, when the concluding note was written.
He had ceased to write for the Westminster in 1828; but during the years 1832 and 1833 he contributed many essays to Tait's Magazine, the Jurist, and the Monthly Repository.
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.Advertisement
In 1844 appeared his Essays on Some Unsettled Questions in Political Economy.
These essays were worked out and written many years before, and show Mill in his first stage as a political economist.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
Though Mill appears here purely as the disciple of Ricardo, striving after more precise statement, and reaching forward to further consequences, we can well understand in reading these essays how about the time when he first sketched them he began to be conscious of power as an original and independent thinker.
In his Representative Government (1860) he systematized opinions already put forward in many casual articles and essays.Advertisement
The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.
In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."
His writings, consisting of short poems, philosophical essays, grammatical notes and letters, were published after his death by his pupil Jacob Faber.
But their attempts, in comparison with his, are like a schoolboy's essays beside the finished work of a master.
Many of the notes and essays written by him at Auxonne bear witness to his indomitable resolve to master all the details of his profession and the chief facts relating to peoples who had struggled successfully to achieve their liberation.Advertisement
The judges at Lyons placed it fifteenth in order of merit among the sixteen essays sent in.
Nitzsch, printed at Leipzig in 1811 - a miscellaneous set of detached essays on some Nitzsch.
He is also the author of the Brazen Serpent (1831), the Doctrine of Election (1839), several "Introductory Essays" to editions of Christian Authors, and a posthumous work entitled Spiritual Order and Other Papers (1871).
If there were, it is not a miracle; if there were not, it is " (Essays, p. 224).
Henceforth his name was known in all European countries; the English translation by Mrs Austin was the occasion of one of Macaulay's most brilliant essays.Advertisement
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
Some of his addresses on social matters have been published under the heading "Essays on the Social Gospel" (1907).
A reprint of Primitive Marriage, with "Kinship in Ancient Greece" and some other essays not previously published, appeared in 1876, under the title of Studies in Ancient History.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.Advertisement
Entering the Royal Marines in 1854, he rose to be captain in 1867, retiring in 1869; and thenceforth he devoted himself to the study of naval and military problems, on which he had already published some excellent essays.
In 1869 he was one of the consecrating prelates when Temple became bishop of Exeter, and endeavoured to remove the prejudice against his appointment by showing that Temple was not responsible for the views of other writers in the famous Essays and Reviews (1860).
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
Similar essays at map-making are reported in connexion with Australians, Maoris and Polynesians.
The history of the modern forward movement may be studied in Essays and Addresses by John Wilhelm Rowntree, and in Present Day Papers edited by him.
See eulogy by his friend Dr David Hosack (Essays, i., New York, 1824), with biographical details taken from a letter of Rush to President John Adams; also references in the works of Thacker, Gross and Bowditch on the history of medicine in America.
Many of his essays were collected in a series of six volumes entitled Bausteine (Berlin, 1879-1884).
Besides the works already noticed, Ficino composed a treatise on the Christian religion, which was first given to the world in 1476, a translation into Italian of Dante's De monarchia, a life of Plato, and numerous essays on ethical and semi-philosophical subjects.
Perles' most important essays were on folk-lore and custom.
Perles' essays are rich in suggestiveness, and have been the starting-point of much fruitful research.
It was now recognized that he was to be an author, and he contributed many essays, tales and fantasies to various journals and magazines.
In this year was published Virginibus puerisque, the earliest collection of Stevenson's essays.
Here he was very quiet, and steadily active with his pen, writing both the greater part of the Master of Ballantrae and many of his finest later essays.
His attitude about this time to life and experience is reflected in Pulvis et umbra, one of the noblest of all his essays.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
Channing (1790-1856) until 1821, contributing essays and criticisms which attracted wide attention.
For the next ten years he lived in various health resorts, in considerable suffering (he declares that the year contained for him 200 days of pure pain), but dashing off, at high pressure, the brilliant essays on which his fame rests.
There is much keen analysis and original investigation in his two essays Der jiidische Stamm (1869) and Der jiidische Stamm in nicht jiidischen Spriich-wortern (1881-1882).
Besides this he wrote a number of biographical and historical essays, as well as numerous articles and papers on contemporary politics, of which some are valuable contributions to political thought.
The most important of the essays have been collected under the title Historische and politische Aufscitze (4 vols., Leipzig, 1896); a selection from his more controversial writings was made under the title Zehn Jahre deutscher Kampfe; in 1896 a new volume appeared, called Deutsche Kampfe, neue Folge.
Three volumes of his Czech articles and essays were published as Radhost (3 vols., Prague, 1871-1873).
It consisted of two essays, the first of which was designed to prove that oracles were not given by the supernatural agency of demons, and the second that they did not cease with the birth of Christ.
Here he was still supposed to study law, but devoted himself in part to literary essays, in part to storing up his immense treasure of gossiping history.
This Berlin visit is more or less familiar to English readers from the two great essays of Macaulay and Carlyle as well as from the Frederick 'of the ' latter.
In English the essays of Carlyle and Viscount Morley (1872) are both in their way invaluable, and to a great extent correct one another.
The mounted division, and also a division from Helles, were quietly concentrated there, and on the 21st a determined attempt was made to capture some of the high ground which had baffled the essays of the invaders on the 9th and loth.
Opposition to France was the inspiring principle of the Historisches Journal founded by him in 1799-1800, which once more held up English institutions as the model, and became in Germany the mouthpiece of British policy towards the revolutionary aggressions of the French republic. In 1801 he ceased the publication of the Journal, because he disliked the regularity of journalism, and issued instead, under the title Beitrdge zur Geschichte, &c., a series of essays on contemporary politics.
In the same year he edited Aids to Faith, a volume written in opposition to Essays and Reviews, the progressive sentiments of which had stirred up a great storm in the Church of England.
In 1850 he published a tragedy, Galileo Galilei, and two volumes of his Lectures on the Atomic Theory and Essays Scientific and Literary appeared in 1858, with a preface by his kinsman Dr John Brown, the author of Horae Subsecivae.
Among his principal works upon these subjects may be noted the four volumes of Letteratura della nuova Italia (1860-1910); his essays upon Goethe, Ariosto, Shakespeare, Corneille, and the Poetry of Dante; his two volumes Storia della storiografia italiana del secolo XIX.
Maurice, which he afterwards published, along with a fuller examination of the doctrine of the essays.
Hales is best known for his Statical Essays.
His essays, collected under the title Zeiten, Volker and Menschen (Berlin, 1874-1885), show clear discernment, a finely balanced cosmopolitan judgment and grace of style.
He also edited a collection of essays dealing with Italy, under the title Italia (4 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1877).
And when in 1890 he began to gather together the miscellaneous essays and papers written during a period of sixty years, he expressed the hope that, though " they could lay no claim to logical consistency," they might yet show " beneath the varying complexion of their thought some intelligible moral continuity," " leading in the end to a view of life more coherent and less defective than was presented at the beginning."
For his essays are fine examples of permanent literature appearing in an ephemeral medium, and represent work which has solid worth for later thought as well as for the speculation of their own time.
It is the Tsure-zure-gusa (Materials/or Dispelling Ennui), by KenkO-bOshi, described by Mr Aston as one of the most delightful oases in Japanese literature; a collection of short sketches, anecdotes and essays on all imaginable subjects, something in the manner of Seldens Table Talk.
Brief mention must also be made of two other kinds of books belonging to this epoch; namely, the Shingakusho (ethical essays) and the .Jilsuroku-mono (true records).
But a few years ago they used to compile laborious essays, in which the inspiration was drawn from Occidental text-books, and the alien character of the source was hidden under a veneer of Chinese aphorisms., To-day they write terse, succinct, closely-reasoned articles, seldom diffuse, often witty; and generally free from extravagance of thought or diction.
It is possible that the essays in perspective found in the pictures of Hokusai, Hiroshige, and some of the popular artists of the I 9th century, were suggested by Kokans drawings and writings.
Setting aside rude prehistoric essays in stone and metal, which have special interest for the antiquary, we have examples of sculpture in wood and metal, magnificent in conception and technique, dating from the earliest periods of what we may term historical Japan; that is, from near the beginning of the great Buddhist propaganda under the emperor Kimmei (540571) and the princely hierarch, ShOtoku Taishi (573621).
Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays.
In 1759 Sumarakov founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptcheld, or " Industrious Bee," giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays.
He did not confine himself to news, but wrote something very like finished essays on questions of policy, trade and domestic concerns; he also introduced a "Scandal Club," in which minor questions of manners and morals were treated in a way which undoubtedly suggested the Tatlers and Spectators which followed.
In 1864 the Convocation of the province of Canterbury, having taken the opinion of two of the most eminent lawyers of the day (Sir Hugh Cairns and Sir John Rolt), passed judgment upon the volume entitled Essays and Reviews.
He settled in Leipzig as a journalist; but the democratic views expressed in some essays and the volumes of poems Glocke and Kanone (1481) and Irdische Phantasien (1842) led to his expulsion from Saxony in 1846.
His political works, in which the expression is often splendidly eloquent, spirited and dignified, are for the most part exceedingly rhetorical in style, while his philosophical essays were undertaken with the chief object of displaying his eloquence, and no characteristic renders writings less readable for posterity.
The charm of Villehardouin can escape no reader; but few readers will fail to derive some additional pleasure from the two essays which SainteBeuve devoted to him, reprinted in the ninth volume of the Causeries du lundi.
Weizsacker's short essays are extremely valuable, and have elucidated several important points previously overlooked.
He published Garibaldi and the Making of Italy (1911); Life of John Bright (1913); Clio, a Muse, and other Essays (1913); Scenes from Italy's War (1919).
Two articles in the Westminster Review, one on the Italian question, which procured him the special thanks of Cavour, the other on Essays and Reviews, which had the probably undesigned effect of stimulating the attack on the book, attracted especial notice.
Of his separate publications, the most important are his lives of Cromwell (1888), William the Silent, (1897), Ruskin (1902), and Chatham (1905); his Meaning of History (1862; enlarged 1894) and Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages (1900); and his essays on Early Victorian Literature (1896) and The Choice of Books (1886) are remarkable alike for generous admiration and good sense.
In 1852 a selection of Literary Essays and Characters from the Literature of Europe was published.
He also wrote Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1856), in which he applied to history the doctrine of organic evolution; Discourses and Essays (1856); A Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1857), a translation of Guericke; A History of Christian Doctrine (2 vols., 1863); Theological Essays (1877); Literary Essays (1878); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1879); The Doctrine of Endless Punishment (1885); and he edited Coleridge's Complete Works (7 vols., New York, 1894).
He published essays on the way to destroy mendicancy and to improve the condition of the labourers, and also on the establishment of a fund for rural relief and the organization of rural education.
It was two years after he had taken up his work at Rugby that the volume entitled Essays and Reviews gave rise to an extraordinary storm.
The publication in 1889 of Lux Mundi, a series of essays attempting to harmonize Anglican Catholic doctrine with modern thought, was a severe blow to him, for it showed that even at the Pusey House, established as the citadel of Puseyism at Oxford, the principles of Pusey were being departed from.
Besides the works mentioned, Liddon published several volumes of Sermons, a volume of Lent lectures entitled Some Elements of Religion (1870), and a collection of Essays and Addresses on such themes as Buddhism, Dante, &c.
As a result of his favourable review of Bunsen's "Biblical Researches" contributed to Essays and Reviews (1860) he was prosecuted for heterodoxy.
In 1712 he wrote two essays, which are still in manuscript, one on substance and accident, and the other called Clavis Philosophica.
As a historical writer he excelled chiefly in brilliant and thoughtful essays on the leading political personalities of his time, such as Paul Nagy, Bertalan, Szemere and others.
He also published An Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church (1850, 2 vols.); History of the so-called Jansenist Church of Holland (1858); Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863); and many other works.
He was first known as a mathematician by his essays in the Ladies' Diary for 1744.
Next came (1884) a collection of articles and papers, most of which had appeared in magazines, under the title of Practical Essays.
This was followed in 1786 by the French translation of Larcher, a valuable work, accompanied by copious notes and essays.
He settled in Philadelphia as a lawyer, and in February 1780 he published in Philadelphia a series of essays on finance, in which he criticized the issue of legal-tenders, denounced laws passed for the benefit of the debtor class, and urged the people to tax themselves for the common good.
By the end of the century, however, owing to a great extent to the publication of the essays of Malthus, the pendulum had swung far in the opposite direction, it was thought desirable to possess the means of judging from time to time the relations between an increasing population and the means of subsistence.
Sybel had been much influenced by Burke, on whom he had published two essays.
Some of Sybel's numerous historical and political essays have been collected in Kleine historische Schriften (3 vols., 1863, 1869, 1881; new ed., 1897); Vortrage and Aufscitze (Berlin, 1874); and Vortrage and Abhandlungen, published after his death with a biographical introduction by C. Varrentrapp (Munich, 1897).
He also wrote essays and prepared maps on the geology of Seine et Marne and Seine et Oise for the Geological Survey of France (1844).
To be recorded also is a volume of essays and literary criticisms, How to Tell a Story (1897).
The answer to dogmatic atheism, that it implies infinite knowledge, has been well stated in John Foster's Essays, and restated by Chalmers in his Natural Theology, and its force is recognized in Holyoake's careful qualification of the sense in which secularism accepts atheism, " always explaining the term atheist to mean `not seeing God' visually or inferentially, never suffering it to be taken for anti-theism, that is, hating God, denying God - as hating implies personal knowledge as the ground of dislike, and denying implies infinite knowledge as the ground of disproof."
A series of popular essays on the subject were published over his own signature in The Tribune in 1869, and subsequently republished in book form, with a title-page describing protection to home industry as a system of national co-operation for the elevation of labour.
Mason, who, in The Christian's Magazine, of which he was editor, had attacked the Episcopacy in general and in particular Hobart's Collection of Essays on the Subject of Episcopacy (1 806).
Clowes; The Rough Riders (1899); Oliver Cromwell (1901); the following works on hunting and natural history, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman (1886), Ranch Life and Hunting Trail (1888), The Wilderness Hunter (1893), Big Game Hunting in the Rockies and on the Plains (1899; a republication of Hinting Trips of a Ranchman and The Wilderness Hunter), The Deer Family (1902), with other authors, and African Game Trails (1910); and the essays, American Ideals (2 vols., 1897) and The Strenuous Life (1900); and State Papers and Addresses (1905) and African and European Addresses (1910).
It is certainly very noticeable that the earlier essays, those of the first two books, differ from the later in one most striking point, in that of length.
Speaking generally, the essays of the third book average fully four times the length of those of the other two.
They contain, as at present published, no fewer than ninety-three essays, besides an exceedingly long apology for the already mentioned Raymund Sabunde, in which some have seen the kernel of Montaigne's philosophy.
Sometimes, though not very often, the sections are in no proper sense essays, but merely commonplace book entries of singular facts or quotations, with hardly any comment.
The nominal title, even when most strictly observed, is rarely more than a starting-point; and, though the brevity of these first essays for the most part prevents the author from journeying very far, he contrives to get to the utmost range of his tether.
Whatever may be the biographical value of this work, which has rarely been reprinted with the Essays themselves, and the MS. of which disappeared early, it is almost entirely destitute of literary interest.
His second term of office terminated in 1585; and in 1588 after a visit of some length to Paris, the third book of the Essays was published, together with the former ones considerably revised.
It has been suggested that the form which the essays assumed was in a way accidental, and this of itself precludes the idea of a definite model, even if such a model could be found.
He was a contemporary of Ronsard, and his first essays were published when the innovations of the Pleiade had fully established themselves.
By the time at least when he began to meditate his essays in the retirement of his country house it was tolerably certain that no golden age was about to return.
The general tenor of the essays is in complete contrast with this sceptical attitude, at least in its more decided form, and it is worth notice that the motto "Que scai je?"
There is discernible in his essays no attempt to map out a complete plan, and then to fill up its outlines.
In Paris, too, at this time he made a whimsical but pleasant friendship. Marie de Jars de Gournay (1565-1645), one of the most learned ladies of the 16th and 17th centuries, had conceived such a veneration for the author of the Essays that, though a very young girl and connected with many noble families, she travelled to the capital on purpose to make his acquaintance.
It has been thought from these two facts, and from an expression in one of the later essays, that the marriage of his daughter Leonore to Gaston de La Tour had not turned out to his satisfaction.
It would seem that he returned from Paris to his old life of study and meditation and working up his Essays.
His articles on music in the Encyclopedic deal very superficially with the subject; and his Dictionnaire de musique (Geneva, 1767), though admirably written, is not trustworthy, either as a record of facts or as a collection of critical essays.
Besides these works, Zunz published a new translation of the Bible, and wrote many essays which were afterwards collected as Gesammelte Schriften.
Nowhere perhaps does his style appear to more advantage than in his four series of essays entitled Short Studies on Great Subjects(1867-1882), for it is seen there unfettered by the obligations of narrative.
His collected articles and essays on places of historical interest are perhaps the most pleasing of his writings, but they deal exclusively with historical associations and architectural features.
The quantity of work which he turned out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain 'his ' Norman Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William Rufus (1882), and his Essays (1872-1879), and the crowd of his smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected contributions to periodicals.
In his Statical Essays (1727) he gave an account of numerous experiments and observations which he had made on the nutrition of plants and the movement of sap in them.
His publications include The Two fold Alternative (3rd ed., 5900), The Inner Mission of the Church (new ed., 1900), and two volumes of collected essays.
This work, with other essays, brought him into conflict with the authorities of the church, in consequence of which he gave up theology as his professional study and chose that of philosophy.
His first work, Essays on the Formation and Publication of Opinions, published anonymously in 1821 (2nd ed., 1826; 3rd ed., 1837), attracted more attention than any of his other writings.
A sequel to it appeared in 1829, Essays on the Pursuit of Truth (2nd ed., 1844).
Meanwhile Maine had published in 1885 his one work of speculative politics, a volume of essays on Popular Government, designed to show that democracy is not in itself more stable than any other form of government, and that there is no necessary connexion between democracy and progress.
Xavier Liske, born in 1838, professor of universal history at Lemberg, has published many historical essays of considerable value, and separate works by him have appeared in the German, Polish, Swedish, Danish and Spanish languages.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
A few of her voluminous writings, which include poems, plays, novels, short stories, essays, collections of aphorisms, &c., may be singled out for special mention.
Egger, L'Histoire d'helle'nisme en France (1869); Mark Pattison, Essays, i., and Life of Casaubon; in Germany, C. Bursian, Gesch.
A certain discontent with the current traditions of classical training found expression in the Essays on a Liberal Education (1867).
England has made many weighty contributions both to Introduction and Canon, especially Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion (collected in 1889); editions of Books of the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers; Westcott, editions; Hort, especially Romans and Ephesians (posthumous, 1895); Swete, editions; Knowling and others.
They were collected and published in French as Memoires de chymie (Paris, 1785-1788); in English as Chemical Essays, by Thomas Beddoes (London, 1786); in Latin as Opuscula, translated by Schafer, edited by Hebenstreit (Leipzig, 1788-1789); and in German as Sdmmtliche Werke, edited by Hermbstadt (Berlin, 1793).
A version of Abd-Allatif, Relation arabe sur l'Egypte, and essays on the history of the law of property in Egypt since the Arab conquest (1805-1818).
Before his decease Smith directed that all his manuscripts except a few selected essays should be destroyed, and they were accordingly committed to the flames.
Huxley's researches, and especially his share in the development of the philosophy of palaeontology, will be found in his essays, The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley (4 vols., London, 1898-1902).
Among American contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, 'the development of Cope's theories is to be found in the volumes of his collected essays, The Origin of the Fittest (New York, 1887), and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 1896).
Three volumes of his essays have been published (1902-1908); these were collected as Gesammelte Schriften from his periodical Jeschurun.
It need mean no more (Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion, 172 seq.) than narratives of (or concerning) the Lord; on the other hand, the phrase is capable of a much more definite meaning, and there are many scholars who hold that it refers to a document which contained a collection of the sayings of Jesus.
Although much of his literary work consisted of political journalism, he yet found time to write a large number of essays, poems and tales.
He was anxious to see the rise of a "Greater France," on the model of "Greater Britain," and it was with this idea that he undertook to present to the public a series of essays, written by famous explorers or political men, under the title of La France coloniale, histoire, geographic, commerce (1886; 6th ed., 1893).
For many years Archdeacon Denison represented the extreme High Tory party not only in politics but in the Church, regarding all "progressive" movements in education or theology as abomination, and vehemently repudiating the "higher criticism" from the days of Essays and Reviews (1860) to those of Lux Mundi (1890).
The attention devoted by him to chronological subjects is evidenced by the publication about this period of several essays in which he sought to prove that the birth of Christ took place five years earlier than the commonly accepted date.
The Metaphysics is clearly a compilation formed from essays or discourses; and it illustrates another characteristic of Aristotle's gradual method of composition.
His controversial writings are vigorous if prolix and his theological essays have little merit.
At the end of the year 1864 Ruskin delivered at Manchester a new series of lectures - not on art, but on reading, education, woman's work and social morals - the expansion of his earlier treatises on economic sophisms. This afterwards was included with a Dublin lecture of 1868 under the fantastic title of Sesame and Lilies (perhaps the most popular of his social essays), of which 44,000 copies were issued down to 1900.
He made this, in 1871, the first volume of his collected lectures and essays, the more popular and didactic form of his new Utopia of human life.
Another agency, called the " American Association for International Conciliation," seeks by the publication of essays on the different aspects of international friendship to promote the same cause.
His collected contributions to literary periodicals appeared in 1890 under the title Essays and Studies Educational and Literary.
Maine de Biran's first essays in philosophy were written avowedly from the point of view of Locke and Condillac, but even in them he was brought to signalize the essential fact on which his later speculation turns.
Howison, published The Limits of Evolution, and other Essays illustrating the Metaphysical Theory of Personal Idealism (1901).
Mr Balfour's other publications, not yet mentioned, include Essays and Addresses (1893) and The Foundations of Belief, being Notes introductory to the Study of Theology (1895).
Some of these were essays, such as his Baptized Property, an attack on serfdom; others were periodical publications, the Polyarnaya Zvyezda (or Polar Star), the Kolokol (or Bell), and the Golosa iz Rossii (or Voices from Russia).
His works (collected edition, Venice, 1729) include a History of Venice (1551) from 1487 to 1513, dialogues, poems, and what we would now call essays.
Berlin (Jena, 1902); revised in Essays on Evolution, 271-292; id.
His first separate publication was Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793), which contained the germs of several of his later discoveries; but in spite of the originality of its matter, the book met with only a limited sale.
In 1800 he became a secretary of the society, and in the following year he presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled "Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam or vapour of water and other liquids in different temperatures, both in Torricellian vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the expansion of gases by heat."
He thus enunciated the law of the expansion of gases, stated some months later by Gay-Lussac. In the two or three years following the reading of these essays, he published several papers on similar topics, that on the "Absorption of gases by water and other liquids" (1803), containing his "Law of partial pressures."
Dr Muir was also the author of a volume of Metrical Translations from the Sanskrit, an anonymous work on Inspiration, several works in Sanskrit, and many essays in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and elsewhere.
Lessing's third residence in Berlin was made memorable by the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759-1765), a series of critical essays - written in the form of letters to a wounded officer - on the principal books that had appeared since the beginning of the Seven Years' War.
The latter is one of his best essays on criticism, defining with perfect lucidity what is meant by "action" in works of the imagination, and distinguishing the action of the fable from that of the epic and the drama.
Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
In connexion with his position as chief statistical adviser to the government, he was constantly employed in drawing up reports, giving evidence before commissions of inquiry, and acting as a government auditor, besides publishing a number of important essays on financial subjects.
His principal publications were Essays on Finance (1879 and 1884), The Progress of the Working Classes (1884), The Growth of Capital (1890), The Case against Bimetallism (1892), and Economic Inquiries and Studies (1904).
In 1741 he published the first volume of his Essays, which had a considerable and immediate success.
These essays Butler, to whom he had sent a copy of his Treatise, but with whom he had failed to make personal acquaintance, warmly commended.
Hume had the greatest respect for the author of the Analogy, ranks him with Locke and Berkeley as an originator of the experimental method in moral science, and in his specially theological essays, such as that on Particular Providence and a Future State, has Butler's views specifically in mind.
After a brief sojourn at Ninewells, doubtless occupied in preparing for publication his Philosophical Essays (afterwards entitled An Inquiry concerning Human Understanding), Hume was again associated with General St Clair as secretary in the embassy to Vienna and Turin (1748).
During his absence from England, early in the year 1748, the Philosophical Essays were published; but the first reception of the work was little more favourable than that accorded to the Treatise.
The Essays are undoubtedly written with more maturity and skill than the Treatise; they contain in more detail application of the principles to concrete problems, such as miracles, providence, immortality; but the entire omission of the discussion forming part ii.
The last two essays are contributions of no great importance to aesthetics, a department of philosophy in which Hume was not strong.
His economic essays were published in the volumes entitled Political Discourses (1752) and Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (1753); the most important are those on Commerce, on Money, on Interest and on the Balance of Trade, but, notwithstanding the disconnected form of the essays in general, the other less important essays combine to make a complete economic system.
Sir James Stephen's interesting paper on Baxter, contributed originally to the Edinburgh Review, is reprinted in the second volume of his Essays.
Usually, and so far correctly, it is coupled with the Essays of Montaigne, to which the author is under very extensive obligations.
On his seventieth birthday, 1896 (during which year he started on an expedition to Malaysia), he was presented with a volume of essays composed by the most distinguished ethnologists in celebration of the event and dedicated to him.
He was a large contributor to periodical literature; many of his essays are included in Prose Idylls and other works in the above list.
Hs is famous chiefly as the author of a volume entitled Resolves,Divine, Moral and Political, containing one hundred short and pithy essays.
The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden " notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of the Essays, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time after Bacon's death in 1626.1 So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629 that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry.
About a year after the representation of Irene, he began to publish a series of short essays on morals, manners and literature.
A large party pronounced the style perfect, so absolutely perfect that in some essays it would be impossible for the writer himself to alter a single word for the better.
In the spring of 1758 Johnson put forth the first of a series of essays, entitled the Idler.
During two years these essays continued to appear weekly.
Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (1888-1889); James Martineau, Essays, Reviews and Addresses (London,1891), iii.
Austria, meanwhile, had been making the first tentative essays in constitutional concession, which culminated, in May 1861, in the establishment at Vienna of a Reichsrat for the whole empire, including Hungary.
A volume of essays was also collected from his papers and published in 1873, as left for publication by his daughter Mrs Shelley.
The latter includes three essays on "The Primitive Chaos and Creation of the World," "The General Deluge, its Causes and Effects," and "The Dissolution of the World and Future Conflagrations."
A series of political essays, written by him for the Salem Gazette, was copied by a prominent Philadelphia journal, the editor of which attributed them to the Hon.
In 1892 he published another volume of verse, including The Countess Kathleen (a romantic drama), which gave the book its title, and in 1893 The Celtic Twilight, a volume of essays and sketches in prose.
In 1903 he collected and published a volume of literary and critical essays, to which he gave the title, Ideas of Good and Evil.
Several of his essays first appeared in the Encyclopredia Britannica, and his article on the Koran, with some others, was republished in a volume called Oriental Sketches.
In earlier years he was a regular contributor to The Times, and he wrote numerous essays in the principal reviews on political and economic subjects.
His Homer and the Epic appeared in 1893; a new prose translation of The Homeric Hymns in 1899, with essays literary and mythological, in which parallels to the Greek myths are given from the traditions of savage races; and his Homer and his Age in 1906.
In 1845 he was appointed select preacher, and published in 1847 a volume of Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic Age, which not only laid the foundation of his fame as a preacher, but also marked his future position as a theologian.
From 1860 to 1864 academical and clerical circles were agitated by the storm which followed the publication of Essays and Reviews, a volume to which two of his most valued friends, Benjamin Jowett and Frederick Temple, had been contributors.
Stanley's part in this controversy may be studied in the second and third of his Essays on Church and State (1870).
The result of his action was to alienate the leaders of the High Church party, who had endeavoured to procure the formal condemnation of the views advanced in Essays and Reviews.
One of his last essays dealt with the war of 1866 and the influence of the breech-loading rifle, and he died at Passy on the 24th of March 1869 only a year before the Franco-German War.
The influence of these studies is to be seen in the essays Ober den Grund unseres Vergnugens an tragischen Gegenstanden and Ober tragische Kunst (1792), as well as in his correspondence with his friend Kerner.
An immediate outcome of the new friendship was Schiller's admirable essays, published in the Horen (1795-1796) and collected in 1800 under the title Ober naive and sentimentalische Dichtung.
The first of these was a collection of essays on the principal truths of natural religion (Abhandlungen von den vornehmsten Wahrheiten der natiirlichen Religion, 1755, 7th ed., 1798); the second (Betrachtungen fiber die Triebe der Thiere, 1760, 4th ed., 1798) dealt with one particular branch of the same subject.
All these are discussed in his Essays on Questions of the Day (revised edition, 1894).
In 1889 he edited the Fabian Essays, to which he contributed "The Economic Basis of Socialism" and "The Transition to Social Democracy."
In 1895 to 1898 he was dramatic critic to the Saturday Review, his articles being collected in 1907 as Dramatic Opinions and Essays.
His Antiquarische Aufsatze (1778-1779) is a valuable collection of essays connected with the history of ancient art.
Yet as evidence that he was not merely receptive we have essays already breathing that admiration of the classical world which he never lost.
But the best evidence of Hegel's attention to contemporary politics is two unpublished essays - one of them written in 1798, " On the Internal Condition of Wurttemberg in Recent Times, particularly on the Defects in the Magistracy," the other a criticism on the constitution of Germany, written, probably, not long after the peace of Luneville (1801).
Both essays are critical rather than constructive.
His chief work on art is the Saggi sopra le belle anti (" Essays on the Fine Arts").
A selection of his essays was published in Short Studies in Ecclesiastical History and Biography (1884), and Short Studies, Ethical and Religious (1885).
A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries.
He expressed a qualified sympathy with some of the writers of Essays and Reviews, and then joined in the censure of it by the bishops (1861).
The world at large knew better; but even Temple warned him, in the case of Essays and Reviews, " You will not keep friends if you compel them to feel that in every crisis of life they must be on their guard against trusting you."
Besides editing several series of books, including "The Great Educators" and "The Teachers' Professional Library," he published The Meaning of Education (1898), a collection of essays; and two series of addresses, True and False Democracy (1907), and The American as he is (1908) .
In 1817 he commenced his studies at Leiden University, proving a brilliant scholar, and twice obtaining a gold medal for his prize essays.
The first edition of his Historische Schetsen (" Historical Essays") was issued in 1860, the second in 1872.
Of Van Hogendorp's Essays and Speeches, indeed, he published a standard edition, which is still highly valued.
Most of the principal poems, tales and essays of JOnas Hallgrimsson appeared in the periodical Fj olnir, which he began publishing at Copenhagen in 183 5, together with Konr65 Gislason, a well-known philologist, and the patriotic Thomas Saemundsson.
He wrote also a number of essays, such as "My Garden Acquaintance," "A Good Word for Winter," "On a Certain Condescension in Foreigners," which were incursions into the field of nature and society.
The literary refinement which marks his essays in prose is not conspicuous in his verse, which is of a more simple character.
During his residence there he took some part in the discussions on university reform, continued his studies, and wrote essays for various periodicals.
His works consist of a large number of historical essays, studies on palaeography, transcriptions of state and other papers, reviews, &c.
In 1810 appeared the Philosophical Essays, in 1814 the second volume of the Elements, in 1815 the first part and in 1821 the second part of the "Dissertation" written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica " Supplement," entitled "A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters."
Perhaps his most valuable and original work is his theory of taste in the Philosophical Essays.
But in 1890 a great stir was created by the publication, under his editorship, of Lux Mundi, a series of essays by different writers, being an attempt "to succour a distressed faith by endeavouring to bring the Christian Creed into its right relation to the modern growth of knowledge, scientific, historic, critical; and to modern problems of politics and ethics."
He wrote also on theology, and published three volumes of philosophical essays.
In 1699 he published two treatises, - one entitled Three Practical Essays on Baptism, Confirmation and Repentance, and the other, Some Reflections on that part of a book called Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton's Life, which relates to the Writings of the Primitive Fathers, and the Canon of the New Testament.
The Theaetetus indeed, in which Plato essays to deal with them, is in the broad sense of the word logical, the first distinctively logical treatise that has come down to us.
Muller also published an admirable translation of the Eumenides of Aeschylus with introductory essays (1833), and new editions of Varro (1833) and Festus (1839).
In one of his numerous incidental essays he propounded, in 1776, a theory of the solar constitution similar to that developed in 1795 by Sir William Herschel.
She married in 1848 William Stevens Robinson (1818-1876), who wrote in1856-1876the political essays signed ' Warrington " for the Springfield Republican.
They are now included, together with articles on Schumann and Schubert, and the elaborate and rather highflown essays on Chopin and Des Bohemiens et de leur musique en Hongrie (the latter certainly, and the former probably, written in collaboration with Madame de Wittgenstein), in his Gesammelte Schriften (6 vols., Leipzig).
To these may be added a series of short essays, entitled Discorsi politici, composed during Guicciardini's Spanish legation.
But he did not lose heart; at once he threw himself into the double duty, which now devolved on himself and Pusey, of counselling the many who had hitherto followed the movement, and who, now in their perplexity, might be tempted to follow their leader's example, and at the same time of maintaining the rights of the church against what he held to be the encroachments of the state, as seen in such acts as the Gorham judgment, and the decision on Essays and Reviews.
Tentative essays in criticism and dissertations on the art of poetry abounded.
Mr Webb was one of the early members of the Fabian Society, contributing to Fabian Essays (1889); and he became well-known as a socialist, both by his speeches and his writings.
Two volumes of historical essays, Bilder aus Alt-England (Gotha, 1860 and 1876), and Aufsatze zur englischen Geschichte (Leipzig, 1869 and 1883), -and numerous historical articles in German periodicals came from his pen; and he edited several of the English chroniclers for the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
The second of these essays (De La nature de l'air) contains the statement of the law that the volume of a gas varies inversely as the pressure, which, though very generally called by the name of Mariotte, had been discovered in 1660 by Robert Boyle.
Sir John Bowring tells us that when Bentham was casting about for such a criterion " he met with Hume's Essays and found in them what he sought.
Boyd (1825-1899), minister of St Andrews, was widely known by the numerous volumes of essays, especially the " Recreations of a Country Parson."
The results of her study of German philosophy were seen in philosophical essays; in lectures on "Doubt and Belief," "The Duality of Character," &c., delivered in1860-1861in her home in Boston, and later in Washington; and in addresses before the Boston Radical Club and the Concord school of philosophy.
He had increased his reputation by the publication in 1597 of his Essays, along with which were the Colours of Good and Evil and the Meditationes Sacrae; but his private fortunes were in a bad condition.
Finally, in December 1624, he published his Apophthegms, and Translations of some of the Psalms, dedicated to George Herbert; and, in 1625, a third and enlarged edition of the Essays.
Among the literary works are included all that he himself designated moral and historical pieces, and to these may be added some theological and minor writings, such as the Apophthegms. Of the moral works the most valuable are the Essays, which have been so widely read and universally admired.
A sentence from the Essays can rarely be mistaken for the production of any other writer.
The first edition contained only ten essays, but the number was increased in 1612 to thirtyeight, and in 1625 to fifty-eight.
The short tract, Colours of Good and Evil, which with the Meditationes Sacrae originally accompanied the Essays, was afterwards incorporated with the De Augmentis.
In 1841 he published under the title Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik two essays which he had sent in 1838-1839 in competition for prizes offered.
Yet for this bulky collection of essays, philosophical and others, Schopenhauer received as honorarium only ten free copies of the work.
This was the Gothic Society, which was Lorenzo Hammarskold1 8 182 who in (75-7) 1803 introduced the views of Tieck and Schelling by founding the society in Upsala called " Vitterhetens Va,nner," and by numerous critical essays.
These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
She published in 1897 a biography of the Swedish author, Almqvist; in 5899 she collected her finest essays in the volume called Thought Pictures; in 1900 appeared, under the title Human Beings, studies of the Brownings and of Goethe; but the finest of Ellen Key's books is The Century of Childhood (1901), a philosophical survey of the progress of elementary education in the last hundred years.
When Courbet had made a name as an artist he grew ambitious of other glory; he tried to promote democratic and social science, and under the Empire he wrote essays and dissertations.
Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), giving a useful account of the revolutionary struggle and the main actors; and the same author's Historia jeneral de la republics de Chile, a collection of essays on the early republican history by various writers.
Other monographs and essays have been noted in the course of this article.
Dr Boyd was a very famous preacher and talker, and his desultory essays have very much of the charm of his conversation.
His "Eloisa to Abelard" (1717) is carefully modelled on the form of Ovid's "Heroides," while in his Moral Essays he adopts the Horatian formula for the epistle.
Essays, Historical and Theological, appeared in 1878 (2 vols.), with a biographical preface by his sister Anne, who also edited some of his Letters (1884).
Of these school-days Charles Lamb has given delightful glimpses in the Essays of Elia.
Three volumes of political writings, entitled Essays on his Own Times, were also published by Sara Coleridge in 1850.
His historical essays, notably the famous anonymous eulogy on Torstenson crowned by the Academy, are full of feeling and exquisite in style, - his letters to his friends are delightful.
More modern essays are published by Kolling, Der I.
Two other essays appeared in the early part of last century, by Beckhaus, Specimen observationum de verbis airaf XEyou.
He wrote, besides, biographies, catechisms and hymnals for children, manuals of religious verse, lectures and essays on Dante, &c.
The fragments of the life of Joseph Scaliger have been printed in the Essays, i.
Odes modernas, written in youth, show " Santo Anthero," as his friends called him, in revolutionary, freethinking and combative mood, and are ordinary enough, but the prose of his essays, e.g.
His remarkable works include Arnor de Perdirao, Amor de Salvarao, Retrato de Ricardina, and the series entitled Novellas do Minho; moreover some of his essays in history and literary criticism, such as Bohemia do Espirito, rank only next to his romances.
Lopes de Mendonga treats of the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries in articles in the Annaes das sciencias e letras; and the Memorias de litteratura portugueza printed by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (1792-1814) contain essays on the drama and the Arcadia, but the 19th century has naturally received most attention.
The free library and art gallery of the corporation, a fourstoreyed building in Italian style erected in 1887, contains the library of the Rev. Rowland Williams (one of the authors of Essays and Reviews), the rich Welsh collection of the Rev. Robert Jones of Rotherhithe, a small Devonian section (presented by the Swansea Devonian Society), and about 8000 volumes and 2500 prints and engravings, intended to be mutually illustrative, given by the Swansea portrait-painter and art critic, John Deffett Francis, from 1876 to 1881, to receive whose first gift the library was established in 1876.
His works, which include a grammar of the Bohemian language and a history of Bohemian literature, were mostly written in German or Latin, and his only Bohemian works are some essays which he contributed to the early numbers of the Casopis Musea Krdlovstvi Ceskeho (Journal of the Bohemian Museum) and a collection of letters.
He had previously won repute by his published essays, but in 1853 the publication of the fourth volume of his history of the Jews made him famous.
His more important essays were republished under the titles Essays and Reviews (1857), Princeton Theological Essays, and Discussions in Church Polity (1878).
In 1871 Wallace's two essays, written at Sarawak and Ternate, were published with others as a volume, Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection.
Probably, next to the Origin of Species, no single work has done so much to promote clear understanding of natural selection and confidence in its truth; for in addition to these two historic essays, there are others in which the new theory is applied to the interpretation of certain classes of facts.
Thus the two concluding essays contend that man has not, like the other animals, been produced by the unaided operation of natural selection, but that other forces have also been in operation.
The expression of his opinion on both these points of divergence from Darwin will be found in Darwinism (1889), a most valuable and lucid exposition of natural selection, as suited to the later period at which it appeared as the Essays were to the ealier.
Tropical Nature and other Essays appeared in 1878, since republished combined with the 1871 Essays, of which it formed the natural continuation.
His attitude towards Essays and Reviews in 1861, against which he wrote an article in the Quarterly, won him the special gratitude of the Low Church party, and latterly he enjoyed the full confidence and esteem of all except the extreme men of either side and party.
His urbanity and perfect ' On this head see the 3rd marquess of Salisbury's Political Essays, reprinted from the Quarterly Review.
The strongest influences in his development about this time were the liberating philosophy of Coleridge, the mystical visions of Swedenborg, the intimate poetry of Wordsworth, and the stimulating essays of Carlyle.
Carlyle introduced Emerson's Essays into England.
When the lectures had served their purpose he rearranged the material in essays and published them.
He founded and edited The Universalist Magazine (1819; later called The Trumpet) and The Universalist Expositor (1831; later The Universalist Quarterly Review); wrote about io,000 sermons, many hymns, essays and polemic theological works; and is best known for Notes on the Parables (1804), A Treatise on Atonement (1805) and Examination of the Doctrine of a Future Retribution (1834); in these, especially the second, he showed himself the principal American expositor of Universalism.
Some of the main points it illustrates may be briefly stated here, the reader being referred for further information to Huxley's Essays.
Throughout his work he gives a prominent place to everything which illustrates human progress in moral and religious, as well as political conceptions, and specially to the rise and development of the idea of religious toleration, finding his authorities not only in the words and actions of men of mark, but in the writings of more or less obscure pamphleteers, whose essays indicate currents in the tide of public opinion.
Then he visited Italy, and, besides writing many essays, produced two poems, Napoleon (1835) and Promethee (1838), which being written in verse (of which he was not a master) are inferior to Ahasverus.
Of his prose works, the Juvenilia appeared in 1633; the Lxxx Sermons in 1640; Biathanatos in 1644; Fifty Sermons in 1649; Essays in Divinity, 1651; his Letters to Several Persons of Honour, 1651; Paradoxes, Problems and Essays, 1652; and Six and Twenty Sermons, 1661.
The last of his theological works were Nazarenus, or Jewish, Gentile and Mahometan Christianity (1718), and Tetradymus (1720), a collection of essays on various subjects, in the first of which (Hodegus) he set the example, subsequently followed by Reimarus and the rationalistic school in Germany, of interpreting the Old Testament miracles by the naturalistic method, maintaining, for instance, that the pillar of cloud and the fire of Exodus was a transported signal-fire.
Besides several essays in the Nineteenth Century, Dr Adler has written extensively on topics of Anglo-Jewish History and published two volumes of sermons.
They are in reality a collection of stiff and formal essays which have long ago fallen into merited oblivion.
Having left the university in 1816 he held successively a number of curacies, and in 1827 he published Essays on the Philosophical Evidence of Christianity, followed by a volume of Parochial Sermons illustrative of the Importance of the Revelation of God in Jesus Christ (1828).
He had already, before the opening of the Council, defined his personal attitude towards the dogmatic problem in two essays, Against the Gentiles and On the Incarnation, without, however, any special relation to the Arian controversy.
Of the exceedingly numerous writings relative to Corneille we may mention the Recueil de dissertations'sur plusieurs tragedies de Corneille et de Racine of the abbe Granet (Paris, 1740), the criticisms already alluded to of Voltaire, La Harpe and Palissot, the well-known work of Guizot, first published as Vie de Corneille in 1813 and revised as Corneille et son temps in 1852, and the essays, repeated in his Portraits litte'raires, in Port-Royal, and in the Nouveaux Lundis of Sainte-Beuve.
In referring to this code, Sir Henry Maine spoke of Livingston as "the first legal genius of modern times" (Cambridge Essays, 1856, p.17).
During his professorship he published the Institutes of Surgery, arranged in the order of the lectures delivered in the university of Edinburgh (1838); and in 1841 he wrote a volume of Practical Essays, two of which, "On Squinting," and "On the action of purgatives," are of great value.
His writings include a number of essays contributed to the Edinburgh Review from 1804 onwards, various papers in the Phil.
Her main ideas on the subject are contained in a posthumous volume of her essays (Induction and Deduction, 1890), edited by Dr Lewins.
Laurence, appeared in 1906; and his History of Freedom and other Essays and Historical Essays and Studies (by the same editors) in 1907.
In 1618 he published an Italian translation of Bacon's essays.
Of critical estimates of Burke's life the Edmund Burke of John Morley, "English Men of Letters" series (1879), is an elaboration of the above article; see also his Burke, a Historical Study (1867); "Three Essays on Burke," by Sir James Fitzjames Stephen in Horae Sabbaticae, series iii.
The nature of the dream, in which the elder Scipio appears to his (adopted) grandson, and describes the life of the good after death and the constitution of the universe from the Stoic point of view, gives occasion for Macrobius to discourse upon many points of physics in a series of essays interesting as showing the astronomical notions then current.
His Miscellaneous Essays and Occasional Writings were published at Philadelphia in 3 vols., 1792.
These volumes also contain poems, essays on aesthetical subjects and other creations of his prolific mind.
On this latter point Reid, in his Essays on the Active Powers of the Human Mind (1788), states a conclusion more in harmony with common sense, only maintaining that " no act can be morally good in which regard for what is right has not some influence."
Martineau (1902); The Development of European Polity (1903); Miscellaneous Essays and Addresses (1904); Lectures on the Philosophy of Kant (1905).
The former is one of the best essays in literary criticism which antiquity has bequeathed to us.
In his earlier essays he endeavoured to point out the defects of ancient and modern ethical thinkers, particularly of Kant and Fichte, Plato and Spinoza only finding favour in his eyes.
Further, he has no systematic works; his doctrines exist for the most part in short detached essays, in comments on the writings of Boehme and Saint Martin, or in his extensive correspondence and journals.
The most distinguished and popular advocate of the philological school was Max Muller, whose views may be found in his Selected Essays and Lectures on Language.
See Cornhill Magazine, " How the Stars got their Names " (1882, p. 35), and " Some Solar and Lunar Myths " (1882, P. 440); Max Muller, Selected Essays, i.
Essays (not published till 1846) on the lighter and more popular subjects, Del bello and Del buono, followed the Introduzione.
The name of Barere de Vieuzac, by which he continued to call himself long after the renunciation of feudal rights on the famous 4th of August, was assumed from a small fief belonging to his father, a lawyer at Vieuzac. He began to practise as an advocate at the parlement of Toulouse in 1770, and soon earned a considerable reputation as an orator; while his brilliant and flowing style as a writer of essays led to his election as a member of the Academy of Floral Games of Toulouse in 1788.
Besides commenting on various physical treatises of Aristotle's, he wrote some philosophical essays, notably one on the Republic or Regime of the Solitary, understanding by that the organized system of rules, by obedience to which the individual may rise from the mere life of the senses to the perception of pure intelligible principles and may participate in the divine thought which sustains the world.
Besides the works already enumerated, it contained the Sermones de motu gravium composed at Pisa between 1589 and 1591; his letters to his friends, with many of their replies, as well as several of the essays of his scientific opponents; his laudatory comments on the Orlando Furioso, and depreciatory notes on the Gerusalemme Liberata, some stanzas and sonnets of no great merit, together with the sketch of a comedy; finally, a reprint of Viviani's Life, with valuable notes and corrections.
In the Gorham controversy of 1850, in the question of Oxford reform in 18J4, in the prosecution of some of the writers of Essays and Reviews, especially of Benjamin Jowett, in 1863, in the question as to the reform of the marriage laws from 1849 to the end of his life, in the Farrar controversy as to the meaning of everlasting punishment in 1877, he was always busy with articles, letters, treatises and sermons.
Milman (London, 1868), who also collected and published in 1879 a volume of his essays and articles.
Dumas was a prolific writer, and his numerous books, essays, memorial addresses, &c., show him to have been gifted with a clear and graceful style.
He also wrote essays and short stories, and an English version of Tolstoi's Sebastopol (1887); and among his publications are The Danube (1891), Capillary Crime and other Stories (1892), and Expedition to the Philippines (1899).
Two years after his death a collection of excellent essays on English subjects was published in English.
While spending a part of his time writing vaudevilles and comic operas, he began to collect old essays and rare pamphlets by old French historians.
For fuller information regard - ing the Scottish parish see Connell on Teinds; Duncan's Parochial Ecclesiastical Law; the Cobden Club essays on Local Government and Taxation in the United Kingdom (1882); Goudy and Smith's Local Government in Scotland; Atkinson, Local Government in Scotland.
Kiessling, 1821), containing some 120 essays; for a list of them see Fabricius, Bibliotheca graeca (ed.
In the evenings he wrote for the Revue des deux mondes and the Debats the exquisite essays which appeared in 1857 and 1859 under the titles Etudes d'histoire religieuse and Essais de morale et de critique.
In his two volumes of essays Renan shows himself a Liberal, but no longer a Democrat.
In a volume of collected essays, Feuilles detachees, published also in 1891, we find the same mental attitude, an affirmation of the necessity of piety independent of dogma.
In the early essays we find the principles of the current philosophies, those of Leibnitz and English empiricism, applied in various directions to those problems which serve as tests of their truth and completeness; we note the appearance of the difficulties or contradictions which manifest the one-sidedness or imperfection of the principle applied; and we can trace the gradual growth of the new conceptions which were destined, in the completed system, to take the place of the earlier method.
The successive essays which have already been enumerated as composing Kant's precritical work are not to be regarded as so many imperfect sketches of the doctrines of the Kritik, nor are we to look in them for anticipations of the critical view.
There can be no doubt that some of the special features of the Kritik are to be found in these precritical essays, e.g.
In his previous essays, Kant, while likewise maintaining that such pure, irreducible notions existed, had asserted in general terms that they applied to experience, and that their applicability or justification rested on experience itself, but had not raised the question as to the ground of such justification.
In his early essays he had rightly drawn the distinction between mathematical demonstration and philosophic proof, referring the certainty of the first to the fact that the constructions were synthetic in character and entirely determined by the action of constructive imagination.
Among his best works are his " outdoor essays," especially Little Rivers (1895) and Fisherman's Luck (1899).
In the second volume of his essays he gives some recollections of his experiences in the East, including an account of Mehemet Ali, and a (not very friendly) sketch of Lord Stratford de Redcliffe.