In the youthful Dutch universities the effect of the essays was greater.
His essays were collected and published by C. E.
They were all gentle and sympathetic and I felt the charm of their manner as much as I had felt the brilliancy of their essays and poems.
Among them are "Henry Esmond," "Bacon's Essays" and extracts from "English Literature."
The book will contain four essays, all in French, with the general title of Project of a Universal science, capable of raising our nature to its highest perfection; also Dioptrics, Meteors and Geometry, wherein the most curious matters which the author could select as a proof of the universal science which he proposes are explained in such a way that even the unlearned may understand them.'
He soon, however, turned his attention to metaphysics and psychology, and for the North American Review and later for the National he wrote philosophical essays on the lines of Mill, Darwin and Spencer.
Garrulous after a fashion as Montaigne is, he gives us no clear idea of any original or definite impulse leading him to write the famous Essays.
His place in literature rests really on the essays in his Plato.
In 1697 appeared the first volume of his Essays on Several Moral Subjects, to which a second was added in 1705, and a third in 1709.
The first series contained six essays, the most notable being that "On the office of a Chaplain," which throws much light on the position of a large section of the clergy at that time.
The Geometry of Descartes, unlike the other parts of his essays, is not easy reading.
Brasch, Gesammelte Essays and Characterkopfe zur neuen Philos.
He wrote Practical Sermons (1858; edited by Noah Porter); Lectures on the Moral Government of God (2 vols., 1859), and Essays and Lectures upon Select Topics in Revealed Theology (1859), all published posthumously.
Some of his shorter essays on medicine, logic, &c., take a poetical form (the poem on logic was published by Schmoelders in 1836).
Instead of yielding to this, he joined with Henry Bristowe Wilson and Rowland Williams, who had been similarly attacked, in the production of the volume known as Essays and Reviews.
In connexion with the Greek professorship Jowett had undertaken a work on Plato which grew into a complete translation of the Dialogues, with introductory essays.
The essays which should have accompanied the translation of Thucydides were never written.
Maitland's Essays on the Ref.; Froude's and R.
At Jena, where he lectured as a Privatdozent at the university, he contributed to the Athenaeum the aphorisms and essays in which the principles of the Romantic school are most definitely stated.
It is not, therefore, strange that Cromwell's first essays in war were characterised more by energy than technical skill.
1853) Le Reveil du sentiment religieux en France au X Vil e siecle, by Strowski (Paris, 1898); Four Essays on S.
and Three Essays on S.
In 1781 he followed this up with an introductory manual of Chemical Essays.
6 Published in Lectures and Essays.
Mill in the tentative approach to theism found in his posthumous volume (Three Essays on Religion; 1874).
A certain historical interest also attaches to the Burnett prize essays on theism: 1815, 1st prize, W.
Wallace (Lectures and Essays, incorporating Glasgow lectures) gives some useful historical references.
Since Huxley and Sully wrote their masterly essays in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia, the doctrine of evolution has outgrown the trammels of controversy and has been accepted as a fundamental principle.
Pater, Marius the Epicurean (London, 1888); Matthew Arnold's Essays; C. H.
The ante-Nicene age yields priceless records of the early struggles of Christianity; from it we have received specimens of the early apologetic and the early polemic of the Church, the first essays of Christian philosophy, Christian correspondence, Christian biblical interpretation: we owe to it.
Lecky, Historical and Political Essays (1908).
Essays and Reviews (1860) was a vehement announcement of scientific results - startling English conservatism awake for the first time.
He occupied a portion of his leisure in writing a book, entitled This Country of Ours (1897), treating of the organization and administration of the government of the United States, and a collection of essays by him was published posthumously, in 1901, under the title Views of an Ex-President.
He still continued his yearly experimental contributions to the North American Review, elaborating them with a view as much to ultimate historical proficiency as to immediate literary effect, the essays on Scottish Song (1826), Novel-Writing (1827), Moliere (1828), and Irving's Granada (1829)) belonging to this preparatory period.
On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June 1836, when the concluding note was written.
The winter found him arranging for the publication in England of the selection from his articles and reviews which appeared in 1845, under the title of Critical and Historical Essays, and was issued almost contemporaneously at New York under the title of Biographical and Critical Miscellanies.
He wrote essays on Les Legistes et leur influence sur la societe francaise (1878); Le Comte de Montlosier et le Gallicanisme (1880; and published in 1882 his Dix Annees de vie politique.
He edited in 1860 The Atonement, a collection of essays by various hands, prefaced by his study of the "Rise of the Edwardean Theory of the Atonement."
His other works consisted of theological essays, ascetic or exegetic, questions of ecclesiastical discipline and reform, and of various polemical writings called forth for the most part by the schism.
And in regard to Reid's favourite proof of the principles in question by reference to "the consent of ages and nations, of the learned and unlearned," it is only fair to observe that this argument assumes a much more scientific form in the Essays, where it is almost identified with an appeal to "the structure and grammar of all languages."
In addition to various essays (in his Gesammelte Schriften, Berlin, 1869-1870, 2 vols.), Hausser's lectures have been edited by W.
He published his Avis sur l'assiette et la repartition de la taille (1762-1770), and as president of the Societe d'agriculture de Limoges offered prizes for essays on the principles of taxation.
He wrote also Elements de metaphysique (1724), a "French Grammar on a new plan," and a number of historical essays.
In 1828, shortly after the discontinuance of the Farmers' Magazine, its Prize Essays and Transactions began to be issued statedly in connexion with the Quarterly Journal of Agriculture.
He had ceased to write for the Westminster in 1828; but during the years 1832 and 1833 he contributed many essays to Tait's Magazine, the Jurist, and the Monthly Repository.
Much of what he wrote then was subsequently incorporated in his systematic works: some of his essays were reprinted in his first two volumes of Dissertations and Discussions (1859).
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
In 1844 appeared his Essays on Some Unsettled Questions in Political Economy.
These essays were worked out and written many years before, and show Mill in his first stage as a political economist.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
Though Mill appears here purely as the disciple of Ricardo, striving after more precise statement, and reaching forward to further consequences, we can well understand in reading these essays how about the time when he first sketched them he began to be conscious of power as an original and independent thinker.
(On these points see Mary Taylor, Mrs Mill's grand-daughter, in Elliott's edition of the Letters.) closely reasoned and characteristic works, the Liberty, the Utilitarianism, the Thoughts on Parliamentary Reform, and the Subjection of Women, besides his posthumously published essays on Nature and on the Utility of Religion, were thought out and partly written in collaboration with his wife.
In his Representative Government (1860) he systematized opinions already put forward in many casual articles and essays.
The essays in the fourth volume of his Dissertations - on endowments, on land, on labour, on metaphysical and psychological questions - were written for the Fortnightly Review at intervals after his short parliamentary career.
In the fifth of his early essays he asserted that the method a priori is the only mode of investigation in the social sciences, and that the method a posteriori "is altogether inefficacious in those sciences as a means of arriving at any considerable body of valuable truth."
- Works: System of Logic (2 vols., 1843; 9th ed., 1875; "People's" ed., 1884); Essays on some Unsettled Questions of Political Economy (1844, ed.
1908), and Three Essays on Religion (1874).
His writings, consisting of short poems, philosophical essays, grammatical notes and letters, were published after his death by his pupil Jacob Faber.
But their attempts, in comparison with his, are like a schoolboy's essays beside the finished work of a master.
Many of the notes and essays written by him at Auxonne bear witness to his indomitable resolve to master all the details of his profession and the chief facts relating to peoples who had struggled successfully to achieve their liberation.
The judges at Lyons placed it fifteenth in order of merit among the sixteen essays sent in.
Morse, John Adams (Boston, 1885; later edition, 1899), in the " American Statesmen Series"; and Mellen Chamberlain, John Adams, the Statesman of the Revolution; with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898).
Thayer, with other essays, 1889), originally a lecture, and in spite of the compression due to its form, up to that time probably the ablest defence, based on external evidence, of the Johannine authorship, and certainly the completest treatment of the relation of Justin Martyr to this gospel.
Nitzsch, printed at Leipzig in 1811 - a miscellaneous set of detached essays on some Nitzsch.
Hirsch, Early English Hebraists (1899) Book of Essays (London, 1905), deals with Bacon as a Hebraist.
He is also the author of the Brazen Serpent (1831), the Doctrine of Election (1839), several "Introductory Essays" to editions of Christian Authors, and a posthumous work entitled Spiritual Order and Other Papers (1871).
(1802-1803); Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit (1777), and various essays and letters on necessarianism.
If there were, it is not a miracle; if there were not, it is " (Essays, p. 224).
" The question can be stated fairly as depending on a balance of evidence, a certain amount of positive evidence in favour of miracles, and a negative presumption from the general course of human experience against them " (Essays on Religion, p. 221).
Henceforth his name was known in all European countries; the English translation by Mrs Austin was the occasion of one of Macaulay's most brilliant essays.
There he collaborated with Oscar Leopold von Gebhardt in Texte and Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (1882 sqq.), an irregular periodical, containing only essays in New Testament and patristic fields.
Some of his addresses on social matters have been published under the heading "Essays on the Social Gospel" (1907).
A reprint of Primitive Marriage, with "Kinship in Ancient Greece" and some other essays not previously published, appeared in 1876, under the title of Studies in Ancient History.
The new essays in this volume were mostly critical, but one of them, in which perhaps his guessing talent is seen at its best, "The Divisions of the Irish Family," is an elaborate discussion of a problem which has long puzzled both Celtic scholars and jurists; and in another, "On the Classificatory System of Relationship," he propounded a new explanation of a series of facts which, he thought, might throw light upon the early history of society, at the same time putting to the test of those facts the theories he had set forth in Primitive Marriage.
iv., and Freeman in his Historical Essays (1871), give noteworthy but conflicting appreciations.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
Entering the Royal Marines in 1854, he rose to be captain in 1867, retiring in 1869; and thenceforth he devoted himself to the study of naval and military problems, on which he had already published some excellent essays.
(see Thomas Wright's Essays on England in the Middle Ages, ii.
In 1869 he was one of the consecrating prelates when Temple became bishop of Exeter, and endeavoured to remove the prejudice against his appointment by showing that Temple was not responsible for the views of other writers in the famous Essays and Reviews (1860).
Tout's "Wales and the March during the Barons' War," in Owens College Historical Essays, pp. 87-136 (1902); J.
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
Thorpe, Essays in Historical Chemistry (2nd ed., 1902).
Similar essays at map-making are reported in connexion with Australians, Maoris and Polynesians.
The history of the modern forward movement may be studied in Essays and Addresses by John Wilhelm Rowntree, and in Present Day Papers edited by him.
See eulogy by his friend Dr David Hosack (Essays, i., New York, 1824), with biographical details taken from a letter of Rush to President John Adams; also references in the works of Thacker, Gross and Bowditch on the history of medicine in America.
Many of his essays were collected in a series of six volumes entitled Bausteine (Berlin, 1879-1884).
Besides the works already noticed, Ficino composed a treatise on the Christian religion, which was first given to the world in 1476, a translation into Italian of Dante's De monarchia, a life of Plato, and numerous essays on ethical and semi-philosophical subjects.
(1st ed., 1887), both tracts translated into English under the title Essays on the Theory of Numbers (Chicago, 1901).
Perles' most important essays were on folk-lore and custom.
Perles' essays are rich in suggestiveness, and have been the starting-point of much fruitful research.
It was now recognized that he was to be an author, and he contributed many essays, tales and fantasies to various journals and magazines.
In this year was published Virginibus puerisque, the earliest collection of Stevenson's essays.
Here he was very quiet, and steadily active with his pen, writing both the greater part of the Master of Ballantrae and many of his finest later essays.
His attitude about this time to life and experience is reflected in Pulvis et umbra, one of the noblest of all his essays.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
Stevenson's other works include: Memories and Portraits (1887); The Merry Men and other Tales and Fables (1887); The Black Arrow (1888); Edinburgh: Picturesque Notes (1889); Across the Plains, with other Memories and Essays (1892), and the posthumous works, Songs of Travel and other Verses (1896), St Ives (1899), completed by Sir A.
those in Essays on Ceremonial, p. 246) are quite inconclusive, as ` vestment ' is often a convertible term with ' chasuble '; and it does not seem to be at all conclusively established that ' vestment ' with ' alb ' mentioned separately, and ' cope ' given as an alternative, in a document with the precision and directive force of a Rubric, means more than the actual chasuble."
Channing (1790-1856) until 1821, contributing essays and criticisms which attracted wide attention.
For the next ten years he lived in various health resorts, in considerable suffering (he declares that the year contained for him 200 days of pure pain), but dashing off, at high pressure, the brilliant essays on which his fame rests.
There is much keen analysis and original investigation in his two essays Der jiidische Stamm (1869) and Der jiidische Stamm in nicht jiidischen Spriich-wortern (1881-1882).
two manuscript essays on Christian IV.
Besides this he wrote a number of biographical and historical essays, as well as numerous articles and papers on contemporary politics, of which some are valuable contributions to political thought.
The most important of the essays have been collected under the title Historische and politische Aufscitze (4 vols., Leipzig, 1896); a selection from his more controversial writings was made under the title Zehn Jahre deutscher Kampfe; in 1896 a new volume appeared, called Deutsche Kampfe, neue Folge.
Three volumes of his Czech articles and essays were published as Radhost (3 vols., Prague, 1871-1873).
It consisted of two essays, the first of which was designed to prove that oracles were not given by the supernatural agency of demons, and the second that they did not cease with the birth of Christ.
trans., London, 1899); Weismann, Essays upon Heredity (Eng.
Here he was still supposed to study law, but devoted himself in part to literary essays, in part to storing up his immense treasure of gossiping history.
This Berlin visit is more or less familiar to English readers from the two great essays of Macaulay and Carlyle as well as from the Frederick 'of the ' latter.
In English the essays of Carlyle and Viscount Morley (1872) are both in their way invaluable, and to a great extent correct one another.
Graunt and Petty's Essays are reprinted in Economic Writings of Sir W.
Giddings published a series of political essays signed "Pacificus" (1843); Speeches in Congress (1853); The Exiles of Florida (1858); and a History of the Rebellion: Its Authors and Causes (1864).
The mounted division, and also a division from Helles, were quietly concentrated there, and on the 21st a determined attempt was made to capture some of the high ground which had baffled the essays of the invaders on the 9th and loth.
Opposition to France was the inspiring principle of the Historisches Journal founded by him in 1799-1800, which once more held up English institutions as the model, and became in Germany the mouthpiece of British policy towards the revolutionary aggressions of the French republic. In 1801 he ceased the publication of the Journal, because he disliked the regularity of journalism, and issued instead, under the title Beitrdge zur Geschichte, &c., a series of essays on contemporary politics.
Theologie (1873), pp. 428 sqq., besides the essays of J.
In the same year he edited Aids to Faith, a volume written in opposition to Essays and Reviews, the progressive sentiments of which had stirred up a great storm in the Church of England.
- Konrad Maurer, Ober Angelsachsische Rechtsverhaltnisse, Kritische Ueberschau (Munich, 1853 ff.), still the best account of the history of Anglo-Saxon law; Essays on Anglo-Saxon Law, by H.
In 1850 he published a tragedy, Galileo Galilei, and two volumes of his Lectures on the Atomic Theory and Essays Scientific and Literary appeared in 1858, with a preface by his kinsman Dr John Brown, the author of Horae Subsecivae.
(1888); Essays on the Higher Education (1899), defending the "old" (Yale) system against the Harvard or "new" education, as praised by George H.
Hosmer's Life of Thomas Hutchinson (Boston, 1896), and a biographical chapter in John Fiske's Essays Historical and Literary (New York, 1902).
Adams also published: Life of Albert Gallatin (1879), John Randolph (1882) in the "American Statesmen Series," and Historical Essays (1891); besides editing Documents Relating to New England Federalism (1877), and the Writings of Albert Gallatin (3 volumes, 1879).
In collaboration with his elder brother Charles Francis Adams, Jr., he published Chapters of Erie and Other Essays (1871), and, with H.
Laughlin, Essays in Anglo-Saxon Law (1876).
Among his principal works upon these subjects may be noted the four volumes of Letteratura della nuova Italia (1860-1910); his essays upon Goethe, Ariosto, Shakespeare, Corneille, and the Poetry of Dante; his two volumes Storia della storiografia italiana del secolo XIX.
and the collection of essays entitled Una famiglia di patrioti.
C. Lodge's A Fighting Frigate, and Other Essays and Addresses (New York, 1902), which contains in an appendix an interesting letter by Senator George F.
Savonarola's writings may be classed in three categories: - (I) numerous sermons, collected mainly by Lorenzo Violi, one of his most enthusiastic hearers; (2) an immense number of devotional and moral essays and some theological works, of which Il Trionfo della Croce is the chief; (3) a few short poems and a political treatise on the government of Florence.
In 1854 he delivered, in Exeter Hall, London, a lecture on the Theological Essays of the Rev. F.
Maurice, which he afterwards published, along with a fuller examination of the doctrine of the essays.
Congreve, Essays Political, Social and Religious (1874); J.
Hales is best known for his Statical Essays.
His essays, collected under the title Zeiten, Volker and Menschen (Berlin, 1874-1885), show clear discernment, a finely balanced cosmopolitan judgment and grace of style.
He also edited a collection of essays dealing with Italy, under the title Italia (4 vols., Leipzig, 1874-1877).
Essays, Reviews and Addresses, iv.
Essays, Reviews and Addresses, i.
And when in 1890 he began to gather together the miscellaneous essays and papers written during a period of sixty years, he expressed the hope that, though " they could lay no claim to logical consistency," they might yet show " beneath the varying complexion of their thought some intelligible moral continuity," " leading in the end to a view of life more coherent and less defective than was presented at the beginning."
For his essays are fine examples of permanent literature appearing in an ephemeral medium, and represent work which has solid worth for later thought as well as for the speculation of their own time.
Essays, Reviews and Addresses, ii.
233.7 Essays, Reviews and Addresses, i., iii.
It is the Tsure-zure-gusa (Materials/or Dispelling Ennui), by KenkO-bOshi, described by Mr Aston as one of the most delightful oases in Japanese literature; a collection of short sketches, anecdotes and essays on all imaginable subjects, something in the manner of Seldens Table Talk.
Brief mention must also be made of two other kinds of books belonging to this epoch; namely, the Shingakusho (ethical essays) and the .Jilsuroku-mono (true records).
But a few years ago they used to compile laborious essays, in which the inspiration was drawn from Occidental text-books, and the alien character of the source was hidden under a veneer of Chinese aphorisms., To-day they write terse, succinct, closely-reasoned articles, seldom diffuse, often witty; and generally free from extravagance of thought or diction.
It is possible that the essays in perspective found in the pictures of Hokusai, Hiroshige, and some of the popular artists of the I 9th century, were suggested by Kokans drawings and writings.
Setting aside rude prehistoric essays in stone and metal, which have special interest for the antiquary, we have examples of sculpture in wood and metal, magnificent in conception and technique, dating from the earliest periods of what we may term historical Japan; that is, from near the beginning of the great Buddhist propaganda under the emperor Kimmei (540571) and the princely hierarch, ShOtoku Taishi (573621).
1854, "the Genesis of Science" (in Essays, vol.
1857, Progress, its Law and Cause (Essays, vol.
1858, Essays (containing most of his contributions to the Westminster Review; 1863, vol.
Dr Drake (Essays illustr.
229-327; " Periodical Essays of the Age of Anne," in N.
xlvi.; Drake, Essays on the " Spectator," " Tatler," &c. (1810-1814); Courthope, Addison (" Engl.
Nannestad, consisting of moral and theological essays.
In 1759 Sumarakov founded the Trudolyubivaya Ptcheld, or " Industrious Bee," giving translations from the Spectator, and, for the first time, critical essays.
He did not confine himself to news, but wrote something very like finished essays on questions of policy, trade and domestic concerns; he also introduced a "Scandal Club," in which minor questions of manners and morals were treated in a way which undoubtedly suggested the Tatlers and Spectators which followed.
In addition to the principal authorities already mentioned see John Forster, Historical and Biographical Essays (1858); G.
In 1864 the Convocation of the province of Canterbury, having taken the opinion of two of the most eminent lawyers of the day (Sir Hugh Cairns and Sir John Rolt), passed judgment upon the volume entitled Essays and Reviews.
(1876), pp. 176 ff., Essays of an Americanist (1890), p. 132.
i.-vi.; Essays, vols.
He settled in Leipzig as a journalist; but the democratic views expressed in some essays and the volumes of poems Glocke and Kanone (1481) and Irdische Phantasien (1842) led to his expulsion from Saxony in 1846.
His political works, in which the expression is often splendidly eloquent, spirited and dignified, are for the most part exceedingly rhetorical in style, while his philosophical essays were undertaken with the chief object of displaying his eloquence, and no characteristic renders writings less readable for posterity.
The treatises have been grouped in the four following sections: (I) genuine; (2) those consisting of notes taken by students and collected after the death of Hippocrates; (3) essays by disciples; (4) those utterly spurious.
Marshall, The Second Athenian Confederacy (1905), one of the Cambridge Historical Essays (No.
The charm of Villehardouin can escape no reader; but few readers will fail to derive some additional pleasure from the two essays which SainteBeuve devoted to him, reprinted in the ninth volume of the Causeries du lundi.
Weizsacker's short essays are extremely valuable, and have elucidated several important points previously overlooked.
In that year he published Theological Essays, wherein were stated opinions which savoured to the principal, Dr R.
The Religions of the World (1847); Moral and Metaphysical Philosophy (at first an article in the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana, 1848); The Church a Family (1850); The Old Testament (1851); Theological Essays (1853); The Prophets and Kings of the Old Testament (1853); Lectures on Ecclesiastical History (1854); The Doctrine of Sacrifice (1854); The Patriarchs and Lawgivers of the Old Testament (1855); The Epistles of St John (1857); The Commandments as Instruments of National Reformation (1866); On the Gospel of St Luke (1868); The Conscience: Lectures on Casuistry (1868); The Lord', Prayer, a Manual (1870).
He published Garibaldi and the Making of Italy (1911); Life of John Bright (1913); Clio, a Muse, and other Essays (1913); Scenes from Italy's War (1919).
Two articles in the Westminster Review, one on the Italian question, which procured him the special thanks of Cavour, the other on Essays and Reviews, which had the probably undesigned effect of stimulating the attack on the book, attracted especial notice.
Of his separate publications, the most important are his lives of Cromwell (1888), William the Silent, (1897), Ruskin (1902), and Chatham (1905); his Meaning of History (1862; enlarged 1894) and Byzantine History in the Early Middle Ages (1900); and his essays on Early Victorian Literature (1896) and The Choice of Books (1886) are remarkable alike for generous admiration and good sense.
In 1852 a selection of Literary Essays and Characters from the Literature of Europe was published.
He also wrote Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1856), in which he applied to history the doctrine of organic evolution; Discourses and Essays (1856); A Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1857), a translation of Guericke; A History of Christian Doctrine (2 vols., 1863); Theological Essays (1877); Literary Essays (1878); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1879); The Doctrine of Endless Punishment (1885); and he edited Coleridge's Complete Works (7 vols., New York, 1894).
He was several times a successful competitor for the prizes given by the Academy of Sciences of Paris; the subjects of his essays being: - the laws of motion (Discours sur les lois de la communication du mouvement, 1727), the elliptical orbits of the planets, and the inclinations of the planetary orbits (Essai d'une nouvelle physique celeste, 1735).
In 1903, under the title The Development of Modern Philosophy and Other Essays, his more important lectures were published with a short biographical introduction by Prof. W.
He published essays on the way to destroy mendicancy and to improve the condition of the labourers, and also on the establishment of a fund for rural relief and the organization of rural education.
It was two years after he had taken up his work at Rugby that the volume entitled Essays and Reviews gave rise to an extraordinary storm.
The publication in 1889 of Lux Mundi, a series of essays attempting to harmonize Anglican Catholic doctrine with modern thought, was a severe blow to him, for it showed that even at the Pusey House, established as the citadel of Puseyism at Oxford, the principles of Pusey were being departed from.
Besides the works mentioned, Liddon published several volumes of Sermons, a volume of Lent lectures entitled Some Elements of Religion (1870), and a collection of Essays and Addresses on such themes as Buddhism, Dante, &c.
As a result of his favourable review of Bunsen's "Biblical Researches" contributed to Essays and Reviews (1860) he was prosecuted for heterodoxy.
In 1712 he wrote two essays, which are still in manuscript, one on substance and accident, and the other called Clavis Philosophica.
17 Essays on Supernatural Religion, 264, 265.
As a historical writer he excelled chiefly in brilliant and thoughtful essays on the leading political personalities of his time, such as Paul Nagy, Bertalan, Szemere and others.
He also published An Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church (1850, 2 vols.); History of the so-called Jansenist Church of Holland (1858); Essays on Liturgiology and Church History (1863); and many other works.
He was first known as a mathematician by his essays in the Ladies' Diary for 1744.
Next came (1884) a collection of articles and papers, most of which had appeared in magazines, under the title of Practical Essays.
Haldane, Essays Phil.
In the essays of J.
with other Essays and Addresses (Boston, 1898); T.
of Montalembert) and English Monastic Life (1904); and Newman's two essays on the Benedictines, among the Historical Sketches.
This was followed in 1786 by the French translation of Larcher, a valuable work, accompanied by copious notes and essays.
He settled in Philadelphia as a lawyer, and in February 1780 he published in Philadelphia a series of essays on finance, in which he criticized the issue of legal-tenders, denounced laws passed for the benefit of the debtor class, and urged the people to tax themselves for the common good.
By the end of the century, however, owing to a great extent to the publication of the essays of Malthus, the pendulum had swung far in the opposite direction, it was thought desirable to possess the means of judging from time to time the relations between an increasing population and the means of subsistence.
Sybel had been much influenced by Burke, on whom he had published two essays.
Some of Sybel's numerous historical and political essays have been collected in Kleine historische Schriften (3 vols., 1863, 1869, 1881; new ed., 1897); Vortrage and Aufscitze (Berlin, 1874); and Vortrage and Abhandlungen, published after his death with a biographical introduction by C. Varrentrapp (Munich, 1897).
He also wrote essays and prepared maps on the geology of Seine et Marne and Seine et Oise for the Geological Survey of France (1844).
He was the author of The Religious Aspects of Philosophy (1885); California (1886, in the American Commonwealth Series) The Feud of Oakfield Creek (1887, a novel); The Spirit of Modern Philosophy (1892); The Conception of God (1895); Studies of Good and Evil (1898); The World and the Individual (2 vols., 1900-1, Gifford Lectures at the university of Aberdeen); The Conception of Immortality (1900); Outlines of Psychology (1903); Herbert Spencer: An Estimate and Review (1904); The Philosophy of Loyalty (1908); Race Questions, Provincialism and Other American Problems (1908);' William James and Other Essays on the Philosophy of Life (1911); Bross Lectures on the Sources of Religious Insight (1912); The Problem of Christianity (2 vols., 1913, lectures before Manchester College, Oxford); War and Insurance (1914); The Hope of the Great Community (1916, war addresses) and the posthumously published Lectures on Modern Idealism (1919).
To be recorded also is a volume of essays and literary criticisms, How to Tell a Story (1897).
Bp Lightfoot's Essays on ...
The answer to dogmatic atheism, that it implies infinite knowledge, has been well stated in John Foster's Essays, and restated by Chalmers in his Natural Theology, and its force is recognized in Holyoake's careful qualification of the sense in which secularism accepts atheism, " always explaining the term atheist to mean `not seeing God' visually or inferentially, never suffering it to be taken for anti-theism, that is, hating God, denying God - as hating implies personal knowledge as the ground of dislike, and denying implies infinite knowledge as the ground of disproof."
A series of popular essays on the subject were published over his own signature in The Tribune in 1869, and subsequently republished in book form, with a title-page describing protection to home industry as a system of national co-operation for the elevation of labour.
His published works are: Hints Toward Reforms (1850); Glances at Europe (1851); History of the Struggle for Slavery Extension (1856); Overland Journey to San Francisco (1860); The American Conflict (2 vols., 1864-1866); Recollections of a Busy Life (1868; new edition, with appendix containing an account of his later years, his argument with Robert Dale Owen on Marriage and Divorce, and Miscellanies, 1873); Essays on Political Economy (1870); and What I know of Farming (1871).
Mason, who, in The Christian's Magazine, of which he was editor, had attacked the Episcopacy in general and in particular Hobart's Collection of Essays on the Subject of Episcopacy (1 806).
Nettleship, Lectures and Essays (1885).
Clowes; The Rough Riders (1899); Oliver Cromwell (1901); the following works on hunting and natural history, Hunting Trips of a Ranchman (1886), Ranch Life and Hunting Trail (1888), The Wilderness Hunter (1893), Big Game Hunting in the Rockies and on the Plains (1899; a republication of Hinting Trips of a Ranchman and The Wilderness Hunter), The Deer Family (1902), with other authors, and African Game Trails (1910); and the essays, American Ideals (2 vols., 1897) and The Strenuous Life (1900); and State Papers and Addresses (1905) and African and European Addresses (1910).
It is certainly very noticeable that the earlier essays, those of the first two books, differ from the later in one most striking point, in that of length.
Speaking generally, the essays of the third book average fully four times the length of those of the other two.
They contain, as at present published, no fewer than ninety-three essays, besides an exceedingly long apology for the already mentioned Raymund Sabunde, in which some have seen the kernel of Montaigne's philosophy.
Sometimes, though not very often, the sections are in no proper sense essays, but merely commonplace book entries of singular facts or quotations, with hardly any comment.
The nominal title, even when most strictly observed, is rarely more than a starting-point; and, though the brevity of these first essays for the most part prevents the author from journeying very far, he contrives to get to the utmost range of his tether.
Whatever may be the biographical value of this work, which has rarely been reprinted with the Essays themselves, and the MS. of which disappeared early, it is almost entirely destitute of literary interest.
His second term of office terminated in 1585; and in 1588 after a visit of some length to Paris, the third book of the Essays was published, together with the former ones considerably revised.
The new essays, as has been remarked, differ strikingly from the older ones in respect of length; and the whimsical unexpectedness of the titles reappears in but two of them: "Des Coches" and "Des Boiteux."
It has been suggested that the form which the essays assumed was in a way accidental, and this of itself precludes the idea of a definite model, even if such a model could be found.
He was a contemporary of Ronsard, and his first essays were published when the innovations of the Pleiade had fully established themselves.
By the time at least when he began to meditate his essays in the retirement of his country house it was tolerably certain that no golden age was about to return.
The general tenor of the essays is in complete contrast with this sceptical attitude, at least in its more decided form, and it is worth notice that the motto "Que scai je?"
There is discernible in his essays no attempt to map out a complete plan, and then to fill up its outlines.
In Paris, too, at this time he made a whimsical but pleasant friendship. Marie de Jars de Gournay (1565-1645), one of the most learned ladies of the 16th and 17th centuries, had conceived such a veneration for the author of the Essays that, though a very young girl and connected with many noble families, she travelled to the capital on purpose to make his acquaintance.
It has been thought from these two facts, and from an expression in one of the later essays, that the marriage of his daughter Leonore to Gaston de La Tour had not turned out to his satisfaction.
It would seem that he returned from Paris to his old life of study and meditation and working up his Essays.
Frazer, Anthrop. Essays to E.
His articles on music in the Encyclopedic deal very superficially with the subject; and his Dictionnaire de musique (Geneva, 1767), though admirably written, is not trustworthy, either as a record of facts or as a collection of critical essays.
Besides these works, Zunz published a new translation of the Bible, and wrote many essays which were afterwards collected as Gesammelte Schriften.
Nowhere perhaps does his style appear to more advantage than in his four series of essays entitled Short Studies on Great Subjects(1867-1882), for it is seen there unfettered by the obligations of narrative.
His collected articles and essays on places of historical interest are perhaps the most pleasing of his writings, but they deal exclusively with historical associations and architectural features.
The quantity of work which he turned out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain 'his ' Norman Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William Rufus (1882), and his Essays (1872-1879), and the crowd of his smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected contributions to periodicals.
In his Statical Essays (1727) he gave an account of numerous experiments and observations which he had made on the nutrition of plants and the movement of sap in them.
His publications include The Two fold Alternative (3rd ed., 5900), The Inner Mission of the Church (new ed., 1900), and two volumes of collected essays.
This work, with other essays, brought him into conflict with the authorities of the church, in consequence of which he gave up theology as his professional study and chose that of philosophy.
' For the Greek priests, see, besides Schomann and other works on Greek antiquities, Newton, Essays on Art and Archaeology, p. 136 seq.
Essays (1909), pp. loo seq., 112 seq.
His first work, Essays on the Formation and Publication of Opinions, published anonymously in 1821 (2nd ed., 1826; 3rd ed., 1837), attracted more attention than any of his other writings.
A sequel to it appeared in 1829, Essays on the Pursuit of Truth (2nd ed., 1844).
His doctoral thesis at Harvard was published with essays by Henry Adams, L.
Laughlin and Ernest Young, under the title Essays on AngloSaxon Land Law (1876).
He wrote: Life and Letters of George Cabot (1877); Alexander Hamilton (1882), Daniel Webster (1883) and George Washington (2 vols., 1889), in the "American Statesmen" series; A Short History of the English Colonies in America (1881); Studies in History (1884); Boston (1891), in the "Historic Towns" series; Historical and Political Essays (1892); with Theodore Roosevelt, Hero Tales from American History (1895); Certain Accepted Heroes (1897); The Story of the American Revolution (2 vols., 1898); The War with Spain (1899); A Fighting Frigate (1902); A Frontier Town (1906); and, with J.
Meanwhile Maine had published in 1885 his one work of speculative politics, a volume of essays on Popular Government, designed to show that democracy is not in itself more stable than any other form of government, and that there is no necessary connexion between democracy and progress.
To the same order belong Ludwik Finkel's Fontes rerum polonicarum (Lemberg, 1901, &c.), and the innumerable essays and articles in The Historical Quarterly Review of Poland (Pol., Lemberg, 1887, &c.).
Xavier Liske, born in 1838, professor of universal history at Lemberg, has published many historical essays of considerable value, and separate works by him have appeared in the German, Polish, Swedish, Danish and Spanish languages.
This was followed by a long series of popular treatises in rapid succession, amongst the more important of which are Light Science for Leisure Hours and The Sun (1871); The Orbs around Us and Essays on Astronomy (1872); The Expanse of Heaven, The Moon and The Borderland of Science (1873); The Universe and the Coming Transits and Transits of Venus (1874);(1874); Our Place among Infinities (1875); Myths and Marvels of Astronomy (1877); The Universe of Stars (1878); Flowers of the Sky (1879); The Peotry of Astronomy (1880); Easy Star Lessons and Familiar Science Studies (1882); Mysteries of Time and Space and The Great Pyramid (1883); The Universe of Suns (1884); The Seasons (1885); Other Suns than Ours and Half-Hours with the Stars (1887).
A few of her voluminous writings, which include poems, plays, novels, short stories, essays, collections of aphorisms, &c., may be singled out for special mention.
Egger, L'Histoire d'helle'nisme en France (1869); Mark Pattison, Essays, i., and Life of Casaubon; in Germany, C. Bursian, Gesch.
A certain discontent with the current traditions of classical training found expression in the Essays on a Liberal Education (1867).
Woodward, Studies in Education during the Age of the Renaissance (1906), chap. xiii.; Acland and Llewellin Smith, Studies in Secondary Education, with introduction by James Bryce (1892); Essays on a Liberal Education, ed.
C. Jebb, " Humanism in Education," Romanes Lecture of 1899, reprinted with other lectures on cognate subjects in Essays and Addresses (1907); Foster Watson, The Curriculum and Practice of the English Grammar Schools up to 1660 (1908); " Greek at Oxford," by a Resident, in The Times (December 27, 1904); Cambridge University Reporter (November i i and December 17, 1904); British Association Report on Curricula of Secondary Schools (with an independent paper by Professor Armstrong on " The Teaching of Classics "), (December 1907); W.
Essays, 1755) showed that it was a constituent of the carbonated alkalis and called it "fixed air."
(London, 1905); C. C. Chesney, Essays in Military Biography (1874); FreytagLoringhoven, Studien fiber Kriegfiihrung, 1861-1865 (Berlin, 190'- 1903), are the most important.
For that, when it came, much was due to the work of Graf (a pupil of Reuss, whose Geschichtliche Bucher des Alten Testaments appeared in 1866); to the Dutch scholar Kuenen, who, starting from the earlier criticism, came over to the new, made it the basis of his Religion of Israel (1869-1870), a masterly work and a model of sound method, and continued to support it by a long series of critical essays in the Theologisch Tijdschrift; and to Wellhausen, who displayed an unrivalled combination of grasp of details and power of historical construction: his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels was published in 1878 and translated into English in 1885; the history itself, Israelitische u.
England has made many weighty contributions both to Introduction and Canon, especially Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion (collected in 1889); editions of Books of the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers; Westcott, editions; Hort, especially Romans and Ephesians (posthumous, 1895); Swete, editions; Knowling and others.
Essays, 1909, p. 226).
Essays (1909), pp. 174 seq.
They were collected and published in French as Memoires de chymie (Paris, 1785-1788); in English as Chemical Essays, by Thomas Beddoes (London, 1786); in Latin as Opuscula, translated by Schafer, edited by Hebenstreit (Leipzig, 1788-1789); and in German as Sdmmtliche Werke, edited by Hermbstadt (Berlin, 1793).
A version of Abd-Allatif, Relation arabe sur l'Egypte, and essays on the history of the law of property in Egypt since the Arab conquest (1805-1818).
Before his decease Smith directed that all his manuscripts except a few selected essays should be destroyed, and they were accordingly committed to the flames.
The following may be referred to for biographical details: Dugald Stewart, Biographical Memoir of Adam Smith, originally read (1793) before the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and afterwards prefixed to Smith's Essays on Philosophical Subjects; J.
Huxley's researches, and especially his share in the development of the philosophy of palaeontology, will be found in his essays, The Scientific Memoirs of Thomas Henry Huxley (4 vols., London, 1898-1902).
Among American contributions to vertebrate palaeontology, 'the development of Cope's theories is to be found in the volumes of his collected essays, The Origin of the Fittest (New York, 1887), and The Primary Factors of Organic Evolution (Chicago, 1896).
Three volumes of his essays have been published (1902-1908); these were collected as Gesammelte Schriften from his periodical Jeschurun.
Hirsch, A Book of Essays (London, 1905).
- The first essays in Biblical translation, or rather paraphrasing, assumed in English, as in many other languages, a poetical form.
Gasquet, The Old English Bible and Other Essays (London, 1897), pp. 102 ff.
It need mean no more (Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion, 172 seq.) than narratives of (or concerning) the Lord; on the other hand, the phrase is capable of a much more definite meaning, and there are many scholars who hold that it refers to a document which contained a collection of the sayings of Jesus.
Although much of his literary work consisted of political journalism, he yet found time to write a large number of essays, poems and tales.
He was anxious to see the rise of a "Greater France," on the model of "Greater Britain," and it was with this idea that he undertook to present to the public a series of essays, written by famous explorers or political men, under the title of La France coloniale, histoire, geographic, commerce (1886; 6th ed., 1893).
For many years Archdeacon Denison represented the extreme High Tory party not only in politics but in the Church, regarding all "progressive" movements in education or theology as abomination, and vehemently repudiating the "higher criticism" from the days of Essays and Reviews (1860) to those of Lux Mundi (1890).
The attention devoted by him to chronological subjects is evidenced by the publication about this period of several essays in which he sought to prove that the birth of Christ took place five years earlier than the commonly accepted date.
An adequate monograph on ancient pseudonymous literature remains to be written; meantime, further reference may be made to the older essays of Mosheim (Dissertatio de caussis suppositorum librorum inter Christianos saeculi primi et secundi, 1 733); Bentley's Dissertation on Phalaris, pp. 80 seq.; K.
The Metaphysics is clearly a compilation formed from essays or discourses; and it illustrates another characteristic of Aristotle's gradual method of composition.
Dunning, Essays on the Civil War and Reconstruction (1898).
His controversial writings are vigorous if prolix and his theological essays have little merit.
Sericulture was enjoined under penalties by statute; it was encouraged by bounties and rewards; and its prosecution was stimulated by learned essays and rhapsodical rhymes, of which this is a sample: " Where Wormes and Food doe naturally abound A gallant Silken Trade must there be found.
He wrote a few essays for the Quarterly Review and other periodicals, and in 184 9 (aet.
At the end of the year 1864 Ruskin delivered at Manchester a new series of lectures - not on art, but on reading, education, woman's work and social morals - the expansion of his earlier treatises on economic sophisms. This afterwards was included with a Dublin lecture of 1868 under the fantastic title of Sesame and Lilies (perhaps the most popular of his social essays), of which 44,000 copies were issued down to 1900.
He made this, in 1871, the first volume of his collected lectures and essays, the more popular and didactic form of his new Utopia of human life.
Another agency, called the " American Association for International Conciliation," seeks by the publication of essays on the different aspects of international friendship to promote the same cause.
His collected contributions to literary periodicals appeared in 1890 under the title Essays and Studies Educational and Literary.
le Pieux et son Temps (1888); Bryant, The Reign of Antonine (Cambridge Historical Essays, 1895); P. B.
Maine de Biran's first essays in philosophy were written avowedly from the point of view of Locke and Condillac, but even in them he was brought to signalize the essential fact on which his later speculation turns.
Accord ing to Caird, Kant " reduces the inaccessible thing in itself (which he at first speaks of as affecting our sensibility) to a noumenon which is projected by reason itself " (Essays, ii.
In connexion with these views reference should be made to a work entitled Personal Idealism, Philosophical Essays by Eight Members of the University of Oxford (1902), edited by H.
By a curious coincidence, almost at the time of the appearance of the Essays on Personal Idealism, an American writer, G.
Howison, published The Limits of Evolution, and other Essays illustrating the Metaphysical Theory of Personal Idealism (1901).
Mr Balfour's other publications, not yet mentioned, include Essays and Addresses (1893) and The Foundations of Belief, being Notes introductory to the Study of Theology (1895).
Some of these were essays, such as his Baptized Property, an attack on serfdom; others were periodical publications, the Polyarnaya Zvyezda (or Polar Star), the Kolokol (or Bell), and the Golosa iz Rossii (or Voices from Russia).
Early period: besides the histories of Babylonia and Assyria see Winckler, various essays in his Altor.
Among his other works are The Growth of Church Institutions (1887); Essays in Biblical Greek (1889); A Concordance to the Septuagint (in collaboration with H.
His works (collected edition, Venice, 1729) include a History of Venice (1551) from 1487 to 1513, dialogues, poems, and what we would now call essays.
In 1751 he published his Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion (Ger.
(1898); revised and amplified in Essays on Evolution, pp. 220-270 (1908); id.
Berlin (Jena, 1902); revised in Essays on Evolution, 271-292; id.
" The Place of Mimicry in a Scheme of Defensive Coloration," Essays on Evolution, pp. 293-382 (1908); W.
His first separate publication was Meteorological Observations and Essays (1793), which contained the germs of several of his later discoveries; but in spite of the originality of its matter, the book met with only a limited sale.
In 1800 he became a secretary of the society, and in the following year he presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled "Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases; on the force of steam or vapour of water and other liquids in different temperatures, both in Torricellian vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and on the expansion of gases by heat."
The second of these essays opens with the striking remark, "There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into liquids; and we ought not to despair of effecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the unmixed gases"; further, after describing experiments to ascertain the tension of aqueous vapour at different points between 32° and 212° F., he concludes, from observations on the vapour of six different liquids, "that the variation of the force of vapour from all liquids is the same for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapour of any given force."
He thus enunciated the law of the expansion of gases, stated some months later by Gay-Lussac. In the two or three years following the reading of these essays, he published several papers on similar topics, that on the "Absorption of gases by water and other liquids" (1803), containing his "Law of partial pressures."
Dr Muir was also the author of a volume of Metrical Translations from the Sanskrit, an anonymous work on Inspiration, several works in Sanskrit, and many essays in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society and elsewhere.
Numerous biographies of Mary Stuart have been published, as well as essays and treatises dealing with particular episodes in her life, of which the most worthy of mention are: George Chalmers, Life of Mary Queen of Scots, (2 vols., London, 1818); Henry Glassford Bell, Life of Mary Queen of Scots (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1828-1831); the "Life" in Agnes Strickland's Lives of the Queens of Scotland (8 vols., Edinburgh, 1850); J.
Mignet, Histoire de Marie Stuart (2 vols., Brussels, 1851); Martin Philippson, Histoire du regne de Marie Stuart (3 vols., Paris, 1891); Sir John Skelton, Mary Stuart (London, 1893), Maitland of Lethington and the Scotland of Mary Stuart (2 vols., Edinburgh, 1887), The Impeachment of Mary Stuart (Edinburgh, 1878), and Essays in History and Biography, including the Defence of Mary Stuart (Edinburgh, 1883); Joseph Stevenson, Mary Stuart: The First Eighteen Years of her Life (Edinburgh, 1886); D.
Lessing's third residence in Berlin was made memorable by the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759-1765), a series of critical essays - written in the form of letters to a wounded officer - on the principal books that had appeared since the beginning of the Seven Years' War.
The latter is one of his best essays on criticism, defining with perfect lucidity what is meant by "action" in works of the imagination, and distinguishing the action of the fable from that of the epic and the drama.
Among the literary and scientific associations of Copenhagen may be mentioned the Danish Royal Society, founded in 1742, for the advancement of the sciences of mathematics, astronomy, natural philosophy, &c., by the publication of papers and essays; the Royal Antiquarian Society, founded in 1825, for diffusing a knowledge of Northern and Icelandic archaeology; the Society for the Promotion of Danish Literature, for the publication of works chiefly connected with the history of Danish literature; the Natural Philosophy Society; the Royal Agricultural Society; the Danish Church History Society; the Industrial Association, founded in 1838; the Royal Geographical Society, established in 1876; and several musical and other societies.
In connexion with his position as chief statistical adviser to the government, he was constantly employed in drawing up reports, giving evidence before commissions of inquiry, and acting as a government auditor, besides publishing a number of important essays on financial subjects.
His principal publications were Essays on Finance (1879 and 1884), The Progress of the Working Classes (1884), The Growth of Capital (1890), The Case against Bimetallism (1892), and Economic Inquiries and Studies (1904).
In 1741 he published the first volume of his Essays, which had a considerable and immediate success.
These essays Butler, to whom he had sent a copy of his Treatise, but with whom he had failed to make personal acquaintance, warmly commended.
Hume had the greatest respect for the author of the Analogy, ranks him with Locke and Berkeley as an originator of the experimental method in moral science, and in his specially theological essays, such as that on Particular Providence and a Future State, has Butler's views specifically in mind.
After a brief sojourn at Ninewells, doubtless occupied in preparing for publication his Philosophical Essays (afterwards entitled An Inquiry concerning Human Understanding), Hume was again associated with General St Clair as secretary in the embassy to Vienna and Turin (1748).
During his absence from England, early in the year 1748, the Philosophical Essays were published; but the first reception of the work was little more favourable than that accorded to the Treatise.
" I believe the Philosophical Essays contain everything of consequence relating to the understanding which you would meet with in the Treatise, and I give you my advice against reading the latter.
The Essays are undoubtedly written with more maturity and skill than the Treatise; they contain in more detail application of the principles to concrete problems, such as miracles, providence, immortality; but the entire omission of the discussion forming part ii.
The last two essays are contributions of no great importance to aesthetics, a department of philosophy in which Hume was not strong.
His economic essays were published in the volumes entitled Political Discourses (1752) and Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects (1753); the most important are those on Commerce, on Money, on Interest and on the Balance of Trade, but, notwithstanding the disconnected form of the essays in general, the other less important essays combine to make a complete economic system.
of the Belgian compilation, Cinquante ans de liberte (1882), and by his essays in literary history.
Sir James Stephen's interesting paper on Baxter, contributed originally to the Edinburgh Review, is reprinted in the second volume of his Essays.
Usually, and so far correctly, it is coupled with the Essays of Montaigne, to which the author is under very extensive obligations.
On his seventieth birthday, 1896 (during which year he started on an expedition to Malaysia), he was presented with a volume of essays composed by the most distinguished ethnologists in celebration of the event and dedicated to him.
He was a large contributor to periodical literature; many of his essays are included in Prose Idylls and other works in the above list.
Hs is famous chiefly as the author of a volume entitled Resolves,Divine, Moral and Political, containing one hundred short and pithy essays.
For a complete list of his numerous works, consisting of translations from Greek into Latin (Plato, Aristotle and the Fathers) and original essays in Greek (chiefly theological) and Latin (grammatical and rhetorical), see Fabricius, Bibliotheca Graeca (ed.
The facts that he used to walk with Bacon at Gorhambury, and would jot down with exceptional intelligence the eager thinker's sudden " notions," and that he was employed to make the Latin version of some of the Essays, prove nothing when weighed against his own disregard of all Bacon's principles, and the other evidence that the impulse to independent thinking came to him not from Bacon, and not till some time after Bacon's death in 1626.1 So far as we have any positive evidence, it was not before the year 1629 that Hobbes entered on philosophical inquiry.
Works on Pascal are innumerable: Sainte-Beuve's Port Royal, Cousin's writings on Pascal and his Jacqueline Pascal, and the essays of the editors of the Pensees just mentioned are the most noteworthy.
About a year after the representation of Irene, he began to publish a series of short essays on morals, manners and literature.
A large party pronounced the style perfect, so absolutely perfect that in some essays it would be impossible for the writer himself to alter a single word for the better.
In the spring of 1758 Johnson put forth the first of a series of essays, entitled the Idler.
During two years these essays continued to appear weekly.
Burgon, Lives of Twelve Good Men (1888-1889); James Martineau, Essays, Reviews and Addresses (London,1891), iii.
Austria, meanwhile, had been making the first tentative essays in constitutional concession, which culminated, in May 1861, in the establishment at Vienna of a Reichsrat for the whole empire, including Hungary.
Monticolo have published many essays and editions of chronicles in the Archivio Veneto, and the "Fonti per la Storia d'Italia," in the Istituto storico italiano; H.
A volume of essays was also collected from his papers and published in 1873, as left for publication by his daughter Mrs Shelley.
The latter includes three essays on "The Primitive Chaos and Creation of the World," "The General Deluge, its Causes and Effects," and "The Dissolution of the World and Future Conflagrations."
A series of political essays, written by him for the Salem Gazette, was copied by a prominent Philadelphia journal, the editor of which attributed them to the Hon.
162) is provided by the Ibrahim legend, the great importance of which, as throwing light on the evolution of Mahomet's doctrine in its relation to older revealed religions, has been convincingly set forth by Dr Snouck Hurgronje in his dissertation for the doctor's degree and in later essays.'
In 1892 he published another volume of verse, including The Countess Kathleen (a romantic drama), which gave the book its title, and in 1893 The Celtic Twilight, a volume of essays and sketches in prose.
In 1903 he collected and published a volume of literary and critical essays, to which he gave the title, Ideas of Good and Evil.
Several of his essays first appeared in the Encyclopredia Britannica, and his article on the Koran, with some others, was republished in a volume called Oriental Sketches.
In earlier years he was a regular contributor to The Times, and he wrote numerous essays in the principal reviews on political and economic subjects.
His Homer and the Epic appeared in 1893; a new prose translation of The Homeric Hymns in 1899, with essays literary and mythological, in which parallels to the Greek myths are given from the traditions of savage races; and his Homer and his Age in 1906.
In 1845 he was appointed select preacher, and published in 1847 a volume of Sermons and Essays on the Apostolic Age, which not only laid the foundation of his fame as a preacher, but also marked his future position as a theologian.
From 1860 to 1864 academical and clerical circles were agitated by the storm which followed the publication of Essays and Reviews, a volume to which two of his most valued friends, Benjamin Jowett and Frederick Temple, had been contributors.
Stanley's part in this controversy may be studied in the second and third of his Essays on Church and State (1870).
The result of his action was to alienate the leaders of the High Church party, who had endeavoured to procure the formal condemnation of the views advanced in Essays and Reviews.
One of his last essays dealt with the war of 1866 and the influence of the breech-loading rifle, and he died at Passy on the 24th of March 1869 only a year before the Franco-German War.
The influence of these studies is to be seen in the essays Ober den Grund unseres Vergnugens an tragischen Gegenstanden and Ober tragische Kunst (1792), as well as in his correspondence with his friend Kerner.
An immediate outcome of the new friendship was Schiller's admirable essays, published in the Horen (1795-1796) and collected in 1800 under the title Ober naive and sentimentalische Dichtung.
The publications of the Chicago Historical Society, of the "Fergus Historical" series, of the State Historical Library, of the Wisconsin Historical Society, also the Michigan Pioneer Collections, contain valuable documents and essays.
The first of these was a collection of essays on the principal truths of natural religion (Abhandlungen von den vornehmsten Wahrheiten der natiirlichen Religion, 1755, 7th ed., 1798); the second (Betrachtungen fiber die Triebe der Thiere, 1760, 4th ed., 1798) dealt with one particular branch of the same subject.
All these are discussed in his Essays on Questions of the Day (revised edition, 1894).
In 1889 he edited the Fabian Essays, to which he contributed "The Economic Basis of Socialism" and "The Transition to Social Democracy."
In 1895 to 1898 he was dramatic critic to the Saturday Review, his articles being collected in 1907 as Dramatic Opinions and Essays.
There are essays on his work by H.
His Antiquarische Aufsatze (1778-1779) is a valuable collection of essays connected with the history of ancient art.
Yet as evidence that he was not merely receptive we have essays already breathing that admiration of the classical world which he never lost.
But the best evidence of Hegel's attention to contemporary politics is two unpublished essays - one of them written in 1798, " On the Internal Condition of Wurttemberg in Recent Times, particularly on the Defects in the Magistracy," the other a criticism on the constitution of Germany, written, probably, not long after the peace of Luneville (1801).
Both essays are critical rather than constructive.
Grimm, Schiller and Goethe (Essays, 1858; 3rd ed., 1884); G.
Carlyle, Essays on Goethe (1828-1832); X.
His chief work on art is the Saggi sopra le belle anti (" Essays on the Fine Arts").
A selection of his essays was published in Short Studies in Ecclesiastical History and Biography (1884), and Short Studies, Ethical and Religious (1885).
A great part of his writings, particularly on jurisprudence and astronomy, as well as essays on special logical subjects, prolegomena to philosophy, criticisms on Avicenna and Alfarabius (Farabi),remain in manuscript in the Escorial and other libraries.
He expressed a qualified sympathy with some of the writers of Essays and Reviews, and then joined in the censure of it by the bishops (1861).
The world at large knew better; but even Temple warned him, in the case of Essays and Reviews, " You will not keep friends if you compel them to feel that in every crisis of life they must be on their guard against trusting you."
Besides editing several series of books, including "The Great Educators" and "The Teachers' Professional Library," he published The Meaning of Education (1898), a collection of essays; and two series of addresses, True and False Democracy (1907), and The American as he is (1908) .
Durand, The First Afghan War (1879); Wyllie's Essays on the External Policy of India (1875); Elphinstone, Account of the Kingdom of Kabul (1809); Parliamentary Papers, " Afghanistan "; Curzon, Problems in the Far East; Holdich, Indian Borderland( 1901); India (1903); Indian Survey Reports; Russo-Afghan Boundary Commission (1886); Pamir Boundary Commission (1896).
In 1817 he commenced his studies at Leiden University, proving a brilliant scholar, and twice obtaining a gold medal for his prize essays.
The first edition of his Historische Schetsen (" Historical Essays") was issued in 1860, the second in 1872.
Of Van Hogendorp's Essays and Speeches, indeed, he published a standard edition, which is still highly valued.
Most of the principal poems, tales and essays of JOnas Hallgrimsson appeared in the periodical Fj olnir, which he began publishing at Copenhagen in 183 5, together with Konr65 Gislason, a well-known philologist, and the patriotic Thomas Saemundsson.
He wrote also a number of essays, such as "My Garden Acquaintance," "A Good Word for Winter," "On a Certain Condescension in Foreigners," which were incursions into the field of nature and society.
The literary refinement which marks his essays in prose is not conspicuous in his verse, which is of a more simple character.
(1904); Latest Literary Essays and Addresses (1891); The Old English Dramatists (1892); Conversations on some of the Old Poets (Philadelphia, David M`Kay; reprint of the volume published in 1843 and subsequently abandoned by its author, 18 93); The Power of Sound: a Rhymed Lecture (New York, privately printed, 1896); Lectures on English Poets (Cleveland, The Rowfant Club, 1899).
During his residence there he took some part in the discussions on university reform, continued his studies, and wrote essays for various periodicals.
His works consist of a large number of historical essays, studies on palaeography, transcriptions of state and other papers, reviews, &c.
In 1810 appeared the Philosophical Essays, in 1814 the second volume of the Elements, in 1815 the first part and in 1821 the second part of the "Dissertation" written for the Encyclopaedia Britannica " Supplement," entitled "A General View of the Progress of Metaphysical, Ethical, and Political Philosophy since the Revival of Letters."
Perhaps his most valuable and original work is his theory of taste in the Philosophical Essays.
But in 1890 a great stir was created by the publication, under his editorship, of Lux Mundi, a series of essays by different writers, being an attempt "to succour a distressed faith by endeavouring to bring the Christian Creed into its right relation to the modern growth of knowledge, scientific, historic, critical; and to modern problems of politics and ethics."
He wrote also on theology, and published three volumes of philosophical essays.
In 1699 he published two treatises, - one entitled Three Practical Essays on Baptism, Confirmation and Repentance, and the other, Some Reflections on that part of a book called Amyntor, or a Defence of Milton's Life, which relates to the Writings of the Primitive Fathers, and the Canon of the New Testament.
The Theaetetus indeed, in which Plato essays to deal with them, is in the broad sense of the word logical, the first distinctively logical treatise that has come down to us.
Seeck, "Kaiser Augustus" (Monographien zur Weltgeschichte, xvii., 1902), nine essays on special problems, e.g.
Muller also published an admirable translation of the Eumenides of Aeschylus with introductory essays (1833), and new editions of Varro (1833) and Festus (1839).
In one of his numerous incidental essays he propounded, in 1776, a theory of the solar constitution similar to that developed in 1795 by Sir William Herschel.
Nind Hopkins, Cambridge Historical Essays, No.
She married in 1848 William Stevens Robinson (1818-1876), who wrote in1856-1876the political essays signed ' Warrington " for the Springfield Republican.
They are now included, together with articles on Schumann and Schubert, and the elaborate and rather highflown essays on Chopin and Des Bohemiens et de leur musique en Hongrie (the latter certainly, and the former probably, written in collaboration with Madame de Wittgenstein), in his Gesammelte Schriften (6 vols., Leipzig).
Among his writings are: Introduction to the Study of Federal Government (1890), Formation of the Union (1892, in the Epochs of American History series), Practical Essays on American Government (1893), Studies in American Education (1895), Guide to the Study of American History (with Edward Channing, 1897), Salmon Portland Chase (1899, in the American Statesman series), Foundations of American Foreign Policy (1901), Actual Government (1903), Slavery and Abolition (1906, the volume in the American Nation series dealing with the period 1831-1841), National Ideals Historically Traced (1907), the 26th volume of the American Nation series, and many historical pamphlets and articles.
In the scene on the walls of Troy, in the third book of the Iliad, after Helen has pointed out Agamemnon, Ulysses and Ajax in answer to Priam's 1 " As a poet Homer must be acknowledged to excel Shakespeare in the truth, the harmony, the sustained grandeur, the satisfying completeness of his images " (Shelley, Essays, &c., i.
To these may be added a series of short essays, entitled Discorsi politici, composed during Guicciardini's Spanish legation.
But he did not lose heart; at once he threw himself into the double duty, which now devolved on himself and Pusey, of counselling the many who had hitherto followed the movement, and who, now in their perplexity, might be tempted to follow their leader's example, and at the same time of maintaining the rights of the church against what he held to be the encroachments of the state, as seen in such acts as the Gorham judgment, and the decision on Essays and Reviews.
Tentative essays in criticism and dissertations on the art of poetry abounded.
Mr Webb was one of the early members of the Fabian Society, contributing to Fabian Essays (1889); and he became well-known as a socialist, both by his speeches and his writings.
Two volumes of historical essays, Bilder aus Alt-England (Gotha, 1860 and 1876), and Aufsatze zur englischen Geschichte (Leipzig, 1869 and 1883), -and numerous historical articles in German periodicals came from his pen; and he edited several of the English chroniclers for the Monumenta Germaniae historica.
The second of these essays (De La nature de l'air) contains the statement of the law that the volume of a gas varies inversely as the pressure, which, though very generally called by the name of Mariotte, had been discovered in 1660 by Robert Boyle.
In 1898 at the Congress of Musicians held at Omaha during the Trans-Mississippi Exposition she read "several essays upon the songs of the North American Indians ...
Maitland (1910); The Republican Tradition in Europe (1911); Political Unions (1911) and Napoleon Bonaparte (1913); besides essays and review articles.
Sir John Bowring tells us that when Bentham was casting about for such a criterion " he met with Hume's Essays and found in them what he sought.
Boyd (1825-1899), minister of St Andrews, was widely known by the numerous volumes of essays, especially the " Recreations of a Country Parson."
The results of her study of German philosophy were seen in philosophical essays; in lectures on "Doubt and Belief," "The Duality of Character," &c., delivered in1860-1861in her home in Boston, and later in Washington; and in addresses before the Boston Radical Club and the Concord school of philosophy.
He had increased his reputation by the publication in 1597 of his Essays, along with which were the Colours of Good and Evil and the Meditationes Sacrae; but his private fortunes were in a bad condition.
See Essays, " Of Ambition."
Finally, in December 1624, he published his Apophthegms, and Translations of some of the Psalms, dedicated to George Herbert; and, in 1625, a third and enlarged edition of the Essays.
4 See, among many other passages, Essays, " Of Great Place ": " For corruptions do not only bind thine own hands or thy servant's hands from taking, but bind the hands of suitors also from offering; for integrity used doth the one; but integrity professed, and with a manifest detestation of bribery, doth the other; and avoid not only the fault but the suspicion."
Among the literary works are included all that he himself designated moral and historical pieces, and to these may be added some theological and minor writings, such as the Apophthegms. Of the moral works the most valuable are the Essays, which have been so widely read and universally admired.
A sentence from the Essays can rarely be mistaken for the production of any other writer.
The first edition contained only ten essays, but the number was increased in 1612 to thirtyeight, and in 1625 to fifty-eight.
The short tract, Colours of Good and Evil, which with the Meditationes Sacrae originally accompanied the Essays, was afterwards incorporated with the De Augmentis.
The Essays have been edited more than twenty times since 1870; the following editions may be mentioned: - Archbishop Whately (6th ed., 1864); W.
and a number of essays connected with the history of theology and especially of apologetics.
Robertson); his essays (A Collection of the Tracts of a certain Free Enquirer, 1 7391 745) are forcible but lack refinement.
Essays (1909), p. 181.
Essays (1909), pp. 163-192; C. G.
Essays, pp. 172 sqq.
Abrahams, Judaism (1907), and the essays of S.
Anthropological Essays presented to E.
- Fustel de Coulanges, La Cite antique (Paris, 1864); Lubbock, Origin of Civilization (1870); Whitney, Oriental and Linguistic Studies (New York, 1872 and 18 74); Brinton, The Religious Sentiment (1876); Myths of the New World' (New York, 1876); Essays of an Americanist (1890); Religions of Primitive Peoples (1897); Keary, Outlines of Primitive Belief (London, 1882); Leblois, Les Bibles et les initiateurs de l'humanite (4 vols.
of the Magnalia; The Short History of New England (1694); Bonifacius, usually known as Essays To Do Good (Boston, 1710; Glasgow, 1825; Boston, 1845), one of his principal books and one which had a shaping influence on the life of Benjamin Franklin; Psalterium Americanum (1718), a blank verse translation of the Psalms from the original Hebrew; The Christian Philosopher: A Collection of the Best Discoveries in Nature, with Religious Improvements (1721); Parentator (1724), a memoir of his father; Ratio Disciplinae (1726), an account of the discipline in New England churches; Manuductio ad Ministerium: Directions for a Candidate of the Ministry (1726), one of the most readable of his books.
In 1841 he published under the title Die beiden Grundprobleme der Ethik two essays which he had sent in 1838-1839 in competition for prizes offered.
2 He also projected a translation of Hume's Essays and wrote a preface for it.
Yet for this bulky collection of essays, philosophical and others, Schopenhauer received as honorarium only ten free copies of the work.
Giffen, Essays in Finance (London, 1880 and 1886); R.
This was the Gothic Society, which was Lorenzo Hammarskold1 8 182 who in (75-7) 1803 introduced the views of Tieck and Schelling by founding the society in Upsala called " Vitterhetens Va,nner," and by numerous critical essays.
These are English philosophy in the writings of Herbert Spencer, French realism in the practice and the preaching of Zola, Norwegian drama mainly through Ibsen, and Danish criticism in the essays and monographs of Georg Brandes.
She published in 1897 a biography of the Swedish author, Almqvist; in 5899 she collected her finest essays in the volume called Thought Pictures; in 1900 appeared, under the title Human Beings, studies of the Brownings and of Goethe; but the finest of Ellen Key's books is The Century of Childhood (1901), a philosophical survey of the progress of elementary education in the last hundred years.
When Courbet had made a name as an artist he grew ambitious of other glory; he tried to promote democratic and social science, and under the Empire he wrote essays and dissertations.
Vicuna Machenna, Vida de O'Higgins (Santiago, 1882), giving a useful account of the revolutionary struggle and the main actors; and the same author's Historia jeneral de la republics de Chile, a collection of essays on the early republican history by various writers.
12 f.), and, harping still on Abraham, the apostle essays, with fresh rabbinic dialectic, to establish Christianity over legalism as the free and final religion for men, applying this to the moral situation of the Galatians themselves (v.
The editions of Lightfoot and Jowett are especially valuable for their subsidiary essays, and Sir W.
Other monographs and essays have been noted in the course of this article.
Dr Boyd was a very famous preacher and talker, and his desultory essays have very much of the charm of his conversation.
- A branch of poetry bears the name of the Epistle, and is modelled on those pieces of Horace which are almost essays (sermones) on moral or philosophical subjects, and are chiefly distinguished from other poems by being addressed to particular patrons or friends.
His "Eloisa to Abelard" (1717) is carefully modelled on the form of Ovid's "Heroides," while in his Moral Essays he adopts the Horatian formula for the epistle.