The burgh, which stretches for a mile along the south shore of the Firth of Forth, is intersected by the Esk and embraces the village of Fisherrow on the left bank of the river.
The antiquity of the town is placed beyond doubt by the Roman bridge across the Esk and the Roman remains found in its vicinity.
East of Wasdale lies the range of Scafell (q.v.), its chief points being Scafell (3162 ft.), Scafell Pike (3210), Lingmell (2649) and Great End (2984), while the line is continued over Esk Hause Pass (2490) along a fine line of heights (Bow Fell, 2960; Crinkle Crags, 2816), to embrace the head of Eskdale.
It lies on the left bank of the South Esk, 74 m.
It is situated on the North Esk and near the West Water, which falls into the Esk 2 m.
Inveresk (pop. 2939), finely situated on the Esk some 6 m.
The Annan has its mouth near the town of that name; and the Esk and Eden at the head of the firth, in Cumberland.
It is situated on both sides of the Esk, 16 m.
The Esk is crossed by a three-arched stone bridge, uniting the old town on the left bank with the new on the right, and a suspension bridge.
The Esk and Liddel being favourite fishing streams, Langholm is the headquarters of the association which protects the rights of anglers.
It is separated from England by the Solway Firth, the Sark, Scotsdyke (an old embankment in 55°3' N., connecting the Sark with the Esk), the Esk (for one mile), the Liddel, the Kershope, the Cheviot Hills, the Tweed and a small area known as the " liberties " of Berwick.
This long and wide depression, though it looks like one great valley, strictly speaking, includes portions of the valleys of the Tay, Isla, North Esk and South Esk, all of which cross it.
Towards the south margin of the Highlands notable instances of true canyons in the Old Red Sandstone are to be seen where the Isla and North Esk enter that formation.
Over the principal rivers at this early period there were bridges near the most populous places, as over the Dee near Aberdeen, the Esk at Brechin, the Tay at Perth and the Forth near Stirling.
SIR JOHN MALCOLM (1769-1833), Anglo-Indian soldier, diplomatist, administrator and author, was born at Burnfoot on the Esk, near Langholm, Dumfriesshire, Scotland, on the 2nd of May 1769.
Whitby is beautifully situated at the mouth and on both banks of the River Esk; the old town of narrow streets and picturesque houses standing on the steep slopes above the river, while the modern residential quarter is mainly on the summit of West Cliff.
The coast is cliff-bound and very beautiful both to the north and to the south, while inland the Esk traverses a lovely wooded vale, surrounded by open, high-lying moors.
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At the extreme west between the Sark and Esk as far up the latter as its junction with the Liddel, there was a strip of country, a "No man's land," for generations the haunt of outlaws and brigands.
On the English side the region is watered by the Till, Bowmont, Coquet, Rede and North Tyne; on the Scottish by the Tweed, Whiteadder, Leet, Kale, Jed, Kershope, Liddel, Esk and Sark.
The Macquarie, receiving the Elizabeth and Lake, falls into the South Esk, which unites with the North Esk to form the Tamar at Launceston.