Erosion sentence example

erosion
  • For many years, the town has been threatened by the erosion of the river banks.
    2198
    692
  • The granite forms the prevailing rock in valleys of erosion.
    927
    494
  • These Bad Lands were once a fairly level plain, but intricate stream erosion produced the labyrinth of ravines and ridges for which the region is noted.
    237
    183
  • In the south-west the results of this erosion are seen in an accentuated form in the region between the White river and the South Fork of the Cheyenne river, known as the Bad Lands or terres mauvaises.
    338
    286
  • One of the scarps or steps is the result of a great fault or displacement of the earth's crust, and is known as the Balcones fault scarp; others are due to erosion and weatherin g of alternate layers of hard and soft rocks lying almost horizontal.
    85
    67
    Advertisement
  • In this central region, however, it is only by way of exception that the cirques were so far enlarged by retrogressive glacial erosion as to sharpen the preglacial dome-like summits into acute peaks; and in no case did glacial action here extend down to the plains at the eastern base of the mountains; but the widened, trough-like glaciated valleys frequently descend to the level of the elevated intermont basins, where moraines were deployed forward on the basin floor.
    131
    116
  • The horizontal strata of the plateau present equal ease or difficulty of erosion in any direction; the streams and the submature valleys of the plateau therefore ramify in every direction, thus presenting a pattern that has been called insequent, because it follows no apparent control.
    90
    78
  • The erosion of the region must have been far advanced, perhaps practically completed, in very ancient times, for the even surface of the peneplain is overlapped by fossiliferous marine strata of early geological date (Cambrian); and this shows that a depression of the region beneath an ancient sea took place after a long existence as dry land.
    100
    90
  • The basins have been variously ascribed to glacial erosion, to obstruction of normal outlet valleys by barriers of glacial drift, and to crustal warping in connection with or independent of the presence of the glacial sheet.
    63
    56
  • The complexity of the glacial period and its subdivision into several glacial epochs, separated by interglacial epochs of considerable length (certainly longer than the postglacial epoch) has a structural consequence in the superposition of successive till sheets, alternating with non-glacial deposits, and also a physiographic consequence in the very different amount of normal postglacial erosion suffered by the different parts of the glacial deposits.
    94
    89
    Advertisement
  • The plan here too was roughly quadrangular with a central court, but owing to the erosion of the hillside a good deal of the eastern quarter has disappeared.
    72
    68
  • This iron is considered by several of the first authorities"on the subject to be of meteoric origin,' but no evidence hitherto given seems to prove decisively that it cannot be telluric. That the nodules found were lying on gneissic rock, with no basaltic rocks in the neighbourhood, does not prove that the iron may not originate from basalt, for the nodules may have been transported by the glaciers, like other erratic blocks, and will stand erosion much longer than the basalt, which may long ago have disappeared.
    54
    51
  • The rivers are shallow and more or less broken by rapids in the notches; rapids occur also near the outer border of the crystalline belt, as if the rivers there had been lately incited to downward erosion by an uplift of the region, and had not yet had time to regrade their courses.
    69
    66
  • They are usually fine-textured limestones and shales, lying horizontal; the moderate or small relief that they were given by mature preglacial erosion is now buried under the drift, but is known by numerous borings for oil, gas and water.
    54
    51
  • The plain and the oldland were well worn down by erosion and then were uplifted; were dissected by stream valleys, and were glaciated.
    7
    4
    Advertisement
  • This rocky barrier acts as a regulator for the water received from Albert Edward Nyanza and, by checking the erosion of the river bed, tends to maintain the level of the lake.
    98
    99
  • Produced by long-continued subaerial decay and erosion, in later Cretaceous times this lowland extended from the Atlantic Ocean well toward the interior of North America; since then the whole continent has been generally elevated, and by successive steps the Appalachian belt has been raised to form a wide but relatively low arch.
    46
    47
  • The occurrence of the lake basins in the lowland belts on either side of the Niagara cuesta is an abnormal feature, not to be explained by ordinary erosion, which can produce only valleys.
    41
    42
  • The peneplain is no longer in the cycle of erosion that witnessed its production; it appears to have suffered a regional elevation, for the riversthe upper Missouri and its branchesno longer flow on the surface of the plain, but in well graded, maturely opened valleys, several hundred feet below the general level.
    54
    55
  • The central section of the Great Plains, between latitudes 42 and 36, occupying eastern Colorado and western Kansas, is, briefly stated, for the most part a dissected fluviatile plain; that is, this section was once smoothly covered with a gently sloping plain of gravel and sand that had been spread far forward on a broad denuded area as a piedmont deposit by the rivers which issued from the mountains; and since then it has been more or less dissected by the erosion of valleys.
    48
    49
    Advertisement
  • On the east it is strongly undercut by the retrogressive erosion of the headwaters of the Red, Brazos and Colorado rivers of Texas, and presents a ragged escarpment, 500 to 800 ft.
    54
    54
  • Another consequence of revived erosion is seen in the occurrence of great landslides, where the removal of weak (Permian) clays has sapped the face of the Vermilion Cliffs (Triassic sandstone), so that huge slices of the cliff face have slid down and forward a mile or two, all shattered into a confused tumult of forms for a score or more of miles along the cliff base.
    2
    2
  • The structure of the region previous to faulting was dependent on long antecedent processes of accumulation and deformation and the surface of the region then was dependent on the amount of erosion suffered in the prefaulting cycle.
    2
    3
  • When, the region was broken into fault blocks and the blocks were uplifted and tilted, the back slope of each block was a part of the previously eroded surface and the face of the block was a surface of fracture; the present form of the higher blocks is more or less affected by erosion since faulting, while many of the lower blocks have been buried under the waste of the higher ones.
    2
    2
  • If this be true, the southern district will furnish a good illustration of an advanced stage of the cycle of arid erosion, in which the exportation of waste from enclosed depressions by the wind has played an important part.
    2
    2
    Advertisement
  • The Cascade Range is in essence a maturely dissected highland, composed in part of upwarped Colombian lavas, in part of older rocks, and crowned with several dissected volcanoes, of which the chief are (beginning in the north) Mts Baker (Io,827 ft.), Rainier (14,363 ft.), Adams (12,470 ft.) and Hood (11,225 ft.); the first three in \Vashington, the last in northern Oregon- These bear snowfields and glaciers; while the dissected highlands, with ridges of very irregular arrangement, are everywhere sculptured in a fashion that strongly suggests the work of numerous local Pleistocene glaciers as an important supplement to preglacial erosion.
    2
    2
  • The Sierra Nevada may be described, in a very general way, as a great mountain block, largely composed of granite and deformed metamorphosed rocks, reduced to moderate relief in an earlier (Cretaceous and Tertiary?) cycle of erosion, sub-recently elevated with a slant to the west, and in this position sub-maturely dissected.
    2
    2
  • The mountains in the southern part of the block, which had been reduced to subdued forms in the former cycle of erosion, were thus given a conspicuous height, forming the High Sierra, and greatly sharpened by revived erosion, normal and glacial.
    4
    4
  • In the new altitude of the mountain mass, its steep eastern face has been deeply carved with short canyons; and on the western slope an excellent beginning of dissection has been made in the erosion of many narrow valleys, whose greatest depth lies between their headwaters which still flow on the highland surface, and their mouths at the low western base of the range.
    2
    2
  • Glacial erosion has been potent in excavating great cirques and small rock-basins, especially among the higher southern surmounting summits, many of which have been thus somewhat reduced in, height while gaining an Alpine sharpness of form; some of the short and steep canyons in the eastern slope have been converted into typical glacial troughs, and huge moraines have been laid on the desert floor below them.
    2
    2
    Advertisement
  • Farther south, through Oregon and northern California, many members of the coast ranges resemble the Cascades and the Sierra in offering well-attested examples of the uplift of masses of disordered structure, that had been reduced to a tame surface by the erosion of an earlier cycle, and that are now again more or less dissected.
    4
    4
  • Not only is it extensive in area, but the stratigraphic break is very great, as shown by (I) the excess of metamorphism of the lower group as compared with the upper, and (2) the amount of erosion suffered by the older group before the deposition of the younger.
    2
    2
  • They give some clue to the amount of erosion which the system has suffered, and also afford a clue to the route by which the animals whose fossils are found in the United States entered this country., Thus, the Niagara fauna of the interior of the United States has striking resemblances to the mid-Silurian fatinasof Sweden and Great Britain.
    2
    2
  • Widespread changes at the end of the period exposed the areas where deposition has been in progress during the period to erosion, and the (Upper) Cretaceous formations rest upon the Comanchean unconformably in most parts of the country.
    2
    2
  • The Dakota formation is largely sandstone, which gives rise to hogbacks where it has been tilted, indurated and exposed to erosion along the eastern base of the Rocky Mountains.
    4
    4
    Advertisement
  • Subsequent erosion has changed the details of topography on an extensive scale, and subsequent deformative movements have renewed large topographic features where erosion had destroyed those developed by the close of the Miocene.
    2
    2
  • This, however, is now known not to be the case, as remnants of the formation, isolated by erosion, lie under the old glacial drift in Illinois, and perhaps elsewhere.
    2
    2
  • They resulted in increased height of land, especially in the west, and therefore in increased erosion.
    2
    2
  • This epoch of relative uplift and active erosion is sometimes called the Sierran or Ozarkian epoch.
    4
    4
  • This is a limestone belt with parallel hard rock ridges left standing by erosion to form mountains.
    2
    2
    Advertisement
  • The Piedmont Plateau is a lowland worn down by erosion on hard crystalline rocks, then uplifted to form a plateau.
    2
    2
  • The Great Valley Region consists of folded sedimentary rocks, extensive erosion having removed the soft layers to form valleys, leaving the hard layers as ridges, both layers running in a N.E.-S.W.
    2
    2
  • On the land side the Kohala Mountains have been covered with lava from Mauna Kea, and form the broad plains of Kohala, having a maximum elevation of about 3000 ft.; on the ocean side, wherever this lava has not extended, erosion has gone on until bluffs woo ft.
    2
    2
  • The ridges and intervening valleys, long parts of which have an approximately parallel trend from south-west to north-east, were formed by the erosion of folded sediments of varying hardness, the weak belts of rock being etched out to form valleys and the hard belts remaining as mountain ridges.
    2
    2
  • Then came a broad uplift followed by the erosion which carved out the valleys, leaving hard rocks as mountain ridges which rise about to the level of the old erosion plain.
    2
    2
    Advertisement
  • But Holland's chief protection against inundation is its long line of sand dunes, in which only two real breaches have been effected during the centuries of erosion.
    6
    6
  • In other parts of the coast the dunes, though not pierced through, have become so wasted by erosion as to require artificial strengthening.
    6
    6
  • The land forms of a desert are exceedingly characteristic. Surface erosion is chiefly due to rapid changes of temperature through a wide range, and to the action of wind transferring sand and dust, often in the form of "dunes" resembling the waves of the sea.
    3
    4
  • This is shown by the evidences of erosion on the face of the rocks which formed the original shore-line of its southern basin, those evidences existing at the height of 65 to 80 ft.
    3
    3
  • These regions present magnificent examples of dry erosion by wind-borne sand, which acts as a powerful sand blast etching away the rocks and producing most beautiful sculpturing.
    4
    4
    Advertisement
  • That these high plateaus are planes of erosion is shown by their independence of geological structure, the upturned edges of the vertical and contorted schists having been abruptly shorn off and the granite having been wasted and levelled along its exposed surface.
    4
    4
  • Among the Southern Uplands exist traces of a similar tableland of erosion.
    4
    4
  • In the progress of this erosion full scope has been afforded for the modification of form by variation in geological structure.
    3
    3
  • The process by which the ancient tablelands have been trenched into valleys and confluent ridges is most instructively displayed among the higher mountains, where erosion proceeds at an accelerated pace.
    3
    3
  • As these hollows were caused by original irregular deposition rather than by erosion, they have no intimate relation to the present drainage-lines.
    3
    3
  • The region was once covered, with the exception of the higher summits, by the Laurentian glacier, whose erosion, while perhaps having little effect on the larger features of the country, has greatly modified it in detail, producing lakes and ponds, whose number is said to exceed 1300, and causing many falls and rapids in the streams. Among the larger lakes are the Upper and Lower Saranac, Big and Little Tupper, Schroon, Placid, Long, Raquette and Blue Mountain.
    7
    7
  • The ravine, formed by the Rummel, through erosion of the limestone, varies greatly in width - at its narrowest part the cliffs are only 15 ft.
    3
    3
  • Erosion buttes and mesas occasionally rise as picturesque monuments above the general level of the plains, and in the vicinity of the mountains the plains strata, elsewhere nearly horizontal, are bent sharply upward and carved by erosion into " hogback " ridges.
    3
    3
  • The sloping surface is gently rolling, and has resulted from the uplift and dissection of a nearly level plain of erosion developed on folded, crystalline rocks.
    3
    3
  • The ridges lie in vast folds and wrinkles; and elevations in the valley are often found to be pierced by erosion.
    3
    3
  • Here volcanic activity and powerful erosion have combined to produce a series of remarkable scenic effects.
    3
    3
  • The outline of the mountains is generally rounded, the rocks having been subjected to erosion from a very early geological age, but hard formations cause bold peaks at several points, as in Kebnekaise and the Sarjeksfj ?,ll.
    2
    2
  • Intrusive dikes - locally known as ironstone - by preventing erosion are often the cause of the flat-topped hills which are a common feature of the landscape.
    2
    2
  • Possibly the ordinary processes of denudation and erosion, acting on those recent deposits which overlie the harder beds of the older series, may have much to say to these climatic changes, and the wanton destruction of forests may have assisted the efforts of nature; but it is difficult to understand the widespread desiccation of large areas of the Baluch highlands, where evidences of Arab irrigation works and of cultivation still attest to a once flourishing agricultural condition, without appealing to more rapidly destructive principles for the change.
    2
    2
  • It shows few traces of dynamic disturbance, but has been carved, mainly by erosion since the Miocene epoch, into many caverns, of which the Mammoth Cave is the largest.
    4
    4
  • North of Bhutan, between the Himalayan crest and Lhasa, this formation is approximately maintained; farther east, although the same natural forces first resulted in the same effect of successive folds of the earth's crust, forming extensive curves of ridge and furrow, the abundant rainfall and the totally distinct climatic conditions which govern the processes of denudation subsequently led to the erosion of deeper valleys enclosed between forest-covered ranges which rise steeply from the river banks.
    3
    3
  • It is, however, possible that this erosion was merely local, for in other places there seems to be a complete passage from the Carboniferous to the Permian.
    3
    3
  • Within the area of the transIndus mountains we have beds of hard limestone or sandstone alternating with soft shales, which leads to the scooping out by erosion of long narrow valleys where the tion.
    3
    3
  • Taking the average elevation of the central axial line of snowy peaks as 19,000 ft., the average height of the passes is not more than 10,000 owing to this process of cutting down by erosion and gradual encroachment into the northern basin.
    3
    3
  • Everywhere are evidences of water and wind erosion, of desiccation and differential weathering.
    3
    3
  • Instead of being one plain formed by erosion, this region is rather a series of plains built up with sheets of lava, several thousand feet deep, varying considerably in elevation and in smoothness of surface according to the nature of the lava, and being greater in area than any other lava beds in North America except those of the Columbia river, which are of similar formation and, with the Snake river plains, form the Columbia plateau.
    2
    2
  • The northern part is rugged mountainous "old land," not completely worn down by erosion; and the southern part is a portion of the old coastal plain, whose layers contain salt, gypsum and some inferior coal.
    3
    3
  • The Triassic age of the Hawkesbury Sandstone is supported by the evidence of the fossil fish; though, according to Dr Smith Woodward, they may perhaps be Rhaetic, .'But the fossil plants of which the chief are Taeniopteris daintreei and Thinnfeldia odontopteroides are regarded by Seward as Lower Jurassic. At Talbragar there is a bed containing Jurassic fish, which rests in an erosion hollow in the Hawkesbury Sandstone.
    4
    4
  • A royal commission on Coast Erosion was appointed to inquire into this question in 1906 (see Report, 1907 sqq.).
    3
    3
  • Contemporary igneous outbursts are extremely common in some of the ancient formations, and add, by their resistance to atmospheric erosion, to the extreme ruggedness of the scenery.
    1
    1
  • In these hollows the Tertiary rocks were protected from erosion, and remain to form the London and the Hampshire Basins respectively, while on the anticlinal axis the whole of the Tertiary and the upper Cretaceous strata have been dissected away, and a complex and beautiful configuration has been impressed on the district of the Weald.
    4
    4
  • The whole region may be looked upon as formed by an arch or anticline of Carboniferous strata, the axis of which runs north and south; the centre has been worn away by erosion, so that the Coal Measures have been removed, and the underlying Millstone Grit and Carboniferous Limestone exposed to the influences which form scenery.
    2
    2
  • Few other regions have so many large lakes so variously ' This condition results from the fact that Maine and the adjacent region were worn down nearly to sea-level by stream erosion, except certain peaks and ridges inland; then the region was elevated and numerous river valleys were cut down below the general erosion surface formed before.
    1
    1
  • The glaciation is also responsible for the poor soil of most of the state, for, although the rocks are the same crystallines which give good soils further south in unglaciated regions, all the decayed portions of the Maine rocks have been removed by glacial erosion, revealing fresh, barren rock over great areas, or depositing the rather sterile hard-pan as a thin coating in other places.
    2
    2
  • Some of the valleys are of considerable width; in other cases the opposite walls of the gorges are but two or three hundred yards apart, and fall almost vertically thousands of feet, representing an erosion of hard rock of many millions of cubic feet.
    2
    2
  • Erosion has developed deep and sometimes broad valleys along the fault-lines and elsewhere, so that many of the blocks and portions of blocks are isolated from their neighbours.
    2
    2
  • Stream erosion has dissected these domes far enough to reveal the core of the igneous rock and to give a rugged topography.
    2
    2
  • The mountain ranges of the Basin Region are most frequently formed by faulted and tilted blocks of the earth's crust, which have been carved by stream erosion into rugged shapes.
    2
    2
  • Superficially, each is a simple rolling plateau, much broken by erosion (though considerable undissected areas drained by underground channels remain), especially in the east, and dotted with hills; some of these are residual outliers of the eroded Mississippian limestones to the west, and others are the summits of an archaean topography above which sedimentary formations that now constitute the valley-floor about them were deposited and then eroded.
    2
    2
  • This is explained by the fact that the Chalk fissures are almost invariably rounded and enlarged by the erosion of carbonic acid carried from the surface by the water passing through them.
    2
    2
  • The loss of water by leakage through such joints or fissures below the puddle wall may or may not be a serious matter in itself; but if at any point there is sufficient movement of water across the base of the trench to produce the slightest erosion of the clay above it, that movement almost invariably increases.
    2
    2
  • As erosion proceeds, the contraction of the space from which the clay is washed continues, chiefly by the sinking down of the clay above the sand.
    2
    2
  • Wherever the base of a puddle wall cannot be worked into a continuous bed of clay or shale, or tied into a groove cut in sound rock free from water-hearing fissures, the safest course is to base it on an artificial material at once impermeable and incapable of erosion, interposed between the rock and the puddled clay.
    2
    2
  • Unless such places are carefully dug out or re-puddled before the work of filling is resumed, the percolation may increase along the vertical plane where it is greatest, by the erosion and falling in of the clay roof, as in the other cases cited.
    2
    2
  • It looks like the beginning of success of an effort made by a slight percolation during the whole life of the reservoir to increase itself materially by erosion.
    2
    2
  • It exhibits much evidence of powerful erosion, having deep canyons in its sides, and it bears evidence of previous glaciers.
    3
    3
  • The powerful erosion has often caused the columnar black basalt to assume weird and fantastic shapes.
    2
    2
  • The low clayey or sandy shores are subject to erosion by waves.
    3
    3
  • In places there are terraced uplands, and in others the undulating plain is cut by erosion into low escarpments.
    3
    3
  • There are a few plains, like that of David, in Chiriqui province, but irregular surface is normal; and this irregularity is the result of very heavy rains with a consequent extremely developed drainage system cutting river valleys down nearly to the sea-level, and of marine erosion, as may be seen by the bold and rugged islands, notably those in the Gulf of Panama.
    3
    3
  • The fjords and glens which cut into it are shut in by precipitous walls of basalt, which plainly shows that they have been formed by erosion through the mass of the plateau.
    3
    3
  • Numerous valleys or glens penetrate into the tableland, especially on the north and east, and between them long mountain spurs, sections of the tableland which have resisted the action of erosion, thrust themselves towards the sea.
    1
    1
  • The lakes of Iceland owe their origin to different causes, some being due to glacial erosion, others to volcanic subsidence.
    1
    1
  • South of the Arkansas river these ledges of sandstone continue as far as Okmulgee, but the evidences of erosion are less noticeable.
    1
    1
  • The existing land features, with the fjords, are due to ice erosion in the glacial period.'
    4
    4
  • The rapid erosion of the soft limestone bed at one time threatened the destruction of the power, but this has been prevented by an enormous apron and an artificial concrete floor (completed in 1879).
    1
    1
  • Stream valleys and bottom lands are the conspicuous modifying feature of the prairie region; but in general, owing to the gentle slope of the streams and the great breadth of the plains, erosion has been slight; and indeed the streams, overloaded in seasonal freshets, are building up their valley floors.
    1
    1
  • The old river then became emptied and its bed was raised and, to prevent further erosion and washing away of the soil and a consequent fall of the river, was paved with huge flags.
    1
    1
  • These form the continental watershed, but in this region erosion is taking place so rapidly that the day is not far distant when Lakes La Plata and Fontana, situated to the east at a height of 3000 ft.
    1
    1
  • It consists of parallel ridges and valleys developed by erosion on folded sandstones, shales and limestones, the valley quality predominating because the weak limestones were of great thickness.
    1
    1
  • While Mount Monadnock is less than thirty-two hundred feet, it stands alone as the highest peak for miles round, and due to early burning and erosion, is bare of trees for its top third.
    1
    1
  • The phrase has become a euphemism for the erosion of workers' basic rights.
    1
    1
  • However, smaller slacks nearer the sea may in any case be part of a cyclic alternation of building and erosion phases.
    1
    1
  • This is a wide sandy beach with a narrow backshore berm of coarser sediment supplied from local erosion of high sandstone and breccia cliffs.
    1
    1
  • This normally involves foreshore erosion and, less frequently, the creation of a high backshore storm berm.
    2
    2
  • This formation, the Mount Warning erosion caldera, is one of the major examples of this landform in the world.
    1
    1
  • Figure 2 shows the effect of erosion as the result of transient cavitation on an aluminum electrode.
    1
    1
  • Cavitation damage An erosion process in which metal is removed by cavitation damage An erosion process in which metal is removed by cavitation.
    1
    1
  • Beach erosion has been severe along much of the island's coastline.
    4
    4
  • Mulch improves water filtration into the soil and prevents the compaction and erosion that heavy rainfall can cause.
    1
    1
  • Copper tube can pinhole due to a number of different mechanisms of pitting or erosion corrosion.
    1
    1
  • At a time when links are being made between poverty, disempowerment and terrorism this erosion of the democratic contract is downright dangerous.
    1
    1
  • Plain water doesn't cause tooth decay or erosion.
    1
    2
  • The erosion of job demarcation is presented as an erosion of status and security for the worker, and as something imposed from above.
    1
    2
  • Soil erosion Soil erosion is reduced where digested sludge from farm slurry digested sludge from farm slurry digester schemes provides a good fertilizer.
    1
    2
  • Soil erosion Soil erosion is reduced where digested sludge from farm slurry digester schemes provides a good fertilizer.
    1
    2
  • The entire mountain is deeply dissected by valleys radiating from the peaks, which are largely attributed to glacial erosion.
    1
    2
  • Soil materials are more likely to move downslope either by landslide or erosion on steeper slopes.
    1
    2
  • The erosion was perhaps aggravated by the summer dryness preventing sufficient plant colonization to protect the ditch faces from winter rains.
    1
    2
  • This may represent sediment supplied by cliff erosion being entrained by the westward flowing recirculating eddy (Dyer, 1971 ).
    1
    2
  • The roots of this erosion lie in the ECJ's increasingly rigorous interpretation of the freedoms enshrined in the EC Treaty.
    1
    1
  • Soot blowing is carried out twice weekly, although there are concerns that the steam may accelerate erosion of the boiler tube surfaces.
    1
    1
  • Some areas of localized severe erosion were nonetheless reported by Hutchinson (1965 ).
    1
    1
  • Measures or policies taken to address coastal erosion or flooding can often pose a new risk to historic assets.
    1
    1
  • Although there is no direct evidence of glacial erosion, the area would have been covered during the Ice Age.
    1
    1
  • To listen to her music is to bear witness to a gradual erosion of personality.
    2
    2
  • Environmental problems The main environmental problem is accelerated soil erosion.
    1
    1
  • You do need an examination to exclude the possibility of a cervical erosion, or perhaps there may be a polyp.
    1
    1
  • Littoral drift rates and volumes should be estimated using details of cliff, and shoreface erosion inputs and beach volume changes.
    1
    1
  • Those in the Scottish Region had suffered more from crankcase cavitation erosion due to water problems.
    1
    1
  • Research is being carried out into developing methods of slowing the rate of cliff erosion without damaging the SSSI.
    1
    1
  • The blanket peat erosion in parts of the Semer Water catchment is typical of many parts of the Pennines.
    1
    1
  • The fact sheet includes information on, how gullies develop, triggers for development, prevention measures and controlling gully erosion.
    1
    1
  • Particular adverse events Some local adverse events (itching, erythema, burning and erosion or excoriation) were reported with imiquimod.
    1
    1
  • Relating fluvial processes (erosion, transport and deposition) to the formation of fluvial landforms.
    1
    1
  • Solutions to footpath erosion s Accessibility How should the problem of footpath erosion s Accessibility How should the problem of footpath erosion be approached?
    1
    1
  • Yield of fine sand from erosion of the Eocene cliffs has created a wide sandy intertidal foreshore.
    1
    1
  • The groups were set tasks which required them to list geological formations that would be caused by given agents of erosion.
    1
    1
  • Erosion of tile grout is the most common indicator that the water is calcium hungry.
    1
    1
  • Regardless of actual party politics, it is the creeping erosion of norms which scares the hell out of me.
    1
    1
  • The LEG has been studying overland flow hydraulics and soil erosion for 25 years.
    1
    1
  • Some gravel and coarse sand may derive from erosion of sediment infills of earlier (Pleistocene) buried channels and valley terrace deposits.
    1
    1
  • Jutexpo uses jutexpo uses Jute a natural bast fiber which prevents soil erosion and nurtures new vegetation, raw jute is available in inexhaustible quantities.
    1
    1
  • High risk of erosion silt loam Predominantly silt with very little sand or clay.
    1
    1
  • The development of the consumer monoculture Historically, the erosion of cultural integrity was a conscious goal of colonial developers.
    1
    1
  • The disorder can affect the mucous membranes of the mouth and genitals where it looks like a grayish erosion (shallow ulcer ).
    2
    2
  • Ice sheet erosion patterns in valley systems in northern Sweden investigated using cosmogenic nuclides.
    1
    1
  • They have usually undergone weathering and erosion that has increased porosity.
    1
    1
  • Millions of years of wind and water erosion have carved an eerie sight from the vast prairies of western South Dakota.
    1
    1
  • Cosmogenic radionuclides allow the rates of erosion to be derived over the temporal scales which are pertinent to the operation of geomorphological processes.
    1
    1
  • Many of the fields worst affected by soil erosion have also been put into arable reversion, he added.
    1
    1
  • Restoring damaged areas by constructing revetments and erosion barriers, filling, grading, reseeding and transplanting.
    1
    1
  • A rock revetment was constructed in 1992 in an attempt to address the basic cause of slope instability, i.e. basal wave erosion.
    1
    1
  • West believed that the erosion of the Sphinx was not caused by the action of wind-blown sand, but by water.
    1
    1
  • The erosion scars of paths, however, suffer constant trampling pressure; with no opportunities for re-vegetation they will only get worse.
    1
    1
  • High risk of erosion silt loam Predominantly silt loam Predominantly silt with very little sand or clay.
    1
    2
  • His visionary voice is potentially stifled by sorrow and grief, and he attempts to contain that dangerous erosion of his prophetic vision.
    2
    2
  • One of the current models suggests that during the early stages of cancer telomere erosion leads to short dysfunctional telomere erosion leads to short dysfunctional telomeres.
    1
    2
  • In vulnerable areas in the USA, conservation tillage has reduced erosion by up to 95% .
    1
    2
  • Of the three conservation measures tested, bench terraces are the most effective in erosion control, followed by ridge tillage and grass strips.
    1
    2
  • How a single plant species could hold the sand in place and mitigate its erosion is utterly unbelievable.
    1
    2
  • This complements the natural undulations of the stone, in a way, producing a controlled form of man-made erosion.
    1
    2
  • Erosion can also cause your teeth to appear quite unsightly.
    1
    2
  • This vast mountainous region was formed by massive volcanic upheaval and erosion by wind and water.
    1
    2
  • At Torre Abbey Sands some erosion took place, exposing the forest bed and digging out many heart urchins.
    1
    2
  • The banks are suffering from erosion and we've had no success in introducing various water plants as they are always eaten.
    1
    2
  • The shingle bank formed from the erosion of Arm Hill is home to sea wormwood, another rare plant.
    2
    3
  • In the Newer Appalachian region, the beds which still lie horizontal in the plateau province were long ago thrown into folds and planed off by erosion, alternate belts of hard and soft rock being left exposed.
    2
    3
  • Uplift permitted renewed erosion to wear away the soft belts, leaving mountain ridges of hard rock separated by parallel valleys.
    2
    3
  • The seams are principally above water levels and in many cases have been laid bare by erosion; and the supply is varied - besides a " fat coking, gassy bituminous," there are an excellent grade of splint coal (first mined in 1864 at Coalburg, Kanawha county) and (except that in Kentucky) the only important supply of cannel coal in the United States.
    2
    3
  • Jagged crags, sudden abysses, magnificent canyons, forests with open parks, undulating hills, mountain prairies, freaks of weathering and erosion, and the enclosing lines of the successive hog-backs afford scenery of remarkable variety and wild beauty.
    2
    3
  • The Prussian and Dutch governments annually expend large sums for the protection of the islands, and in some cases the erosion on the seaward side is counterbalanced by the accretion of land on the inner side, fine sandy beaches being formed well suited for sea-bathing, which attracts many visitors in summer.
    2
    3
  • The forms of Vermont's mountains, even to the highest summits, were to a great extent rounded by glaciation, but as the rocks vary much in texture and are often steeply inclined, stream erosion has cut valleys deep and narrow, often mere gorges.
    2
    3
  • Its valley banks are cut back by the erosion of minor tributaries, or by rain-wash if the climate be moist, or left steep and sharp while the river deepens its bed if the climate be arid.
    2
    2
  • Movements of the land either of subsidence or elevation, changes in the land by the action of erosion in cutting back an escarpment or cutting through a col, changes in climate by affecting the rainfall and the volume of water, all tend to throw the river valley out of harmony with the actual condition of its stream.
    2
    3
  • A land may thus be characterized by its position in the " geographical cycle," or cycle of erosion, as young, mature or old, the last term being reached when the base-level of erosion is attained, and the land, however varied its relief may have been in youth or maturity, is reduced to a nearly uniform surface or peneplain.
    2
    3
  • How extensive this work of erosion has been may be seen in the Tocantins-Araguaya basin, where a great pear-shaped depression, approximately 100 to 500 m.
    4
    4
  • It flows into the Gulf of Martaban, and near its mouth its course is constantly changing owing to erosion and corresponding accretions.
    2
    2
  • Now the granite, continuing for long distances, forms the prevailing rock; then, again, it forms the foundation for thick strata of schist and sandstone, itself only appearing in valleys of erosion and river boulders, in rocky projections on the coasts or in the ridges of the mountains....
    2
    2
  • Here the tributary streams tumble down the sides of the lake valleys, whose bottoms have been deepened by glacial erosion, leaving the tributary valleys hanging.
    2
    2
  • Many slender columns of clay, supporting masses of .sandstone which have protected them from erosion, rise from the surface like gigantic toadstools.
    2
    2
  • The Bibans or Portes de fer (Iron Gates) consist of two defiles with stupendous walls of rock, which by erosion have assumed the most fantastic shapes.
    2
    2
  • Each of the disturbances altered the attitude of the mass with respect to the general base-level of the ocean surface; each movement therefore introduced a new cycle of erosion, which was interrupted by a later movement and the beginning of a later cycle.
    2
    2
  • The more resistant rocks, even though dissected by Tertiary erosion, retain in their summit tiplands an indication of the widespread peneplain of Cretaceous tinie, now standing at the altitude given to it by the Tertiary upwarping and post-Tertiary uplift; and the most resistant rocks surmount the Cretaceous peneplain as unconsumed monadnocks of the Mesozoic cycle.
    2
    2
  • On the other hand, the weaker rocks are more or less completely reduced to lowlands by Tertiary erosion, and are now trenched by the narrow and shallow valleys of the short post-Tertiary cycle.
    2
    2
  • The belts of structure and the cycles of erosion thus briefly described are recognizable with more or less continuity from the Gulf of St Lawrence i 500 m.
    2
    2
  • But the dimensions of the several belts and the strength of the relief developed by their later erosion varies greatly along the system.
    2
    2
  • In a middle section of the system, from the Hudson river in southern New York to the James river in southern Virginia, the crystalline belt is narrowed, as if by the depression of its south-eastern part beneath the Atlantic Ocean or beneath the strata of the Atlantic coastal plain which now represents the ocean; but the stratified belt is here broadly developed in a remarkable series of ridges and valleys determined by the action of erosion on the many alternations of strong and weak folded strata; and the plateau assumes full strength southward from the monochinal Mohawk valley which separates it from the Adirondacks.
    2
    2
  • But the Hudson is strikingly exceptional in this respect; it possesses a deep and navigable tide-water channel all through its gorge in the highlands, a feature which has usually been explained as the result of depression of the land, but may also be explained by glacial erosion without change of land-level; a feature which, in connection with the Mohawk Valley, has been absolutely determinative of the metropolitan rank reached by New York City at the Hudson mouth.
    2
    2
  • These irregular features are wanting south of the limits of Pleistocene glaciation; there the rivers have had time, in the latest cycle of erosion into which they have entered, to establish themselves in a continuous flow, and as a rule to wear down their courses to a smoothly graded slope.
    2
    2
  • It is not defined by rock structure, but appears to result from the retrogressive erosion of the shorter Atlantic rivers, whereby the highlands, drained by much longer rivers, are undercut.
    2
    2
  • In this province, therefore, we find a part of one of those ancient mountain regions, initiated by crustal deformation, but reduced by long continued erosion to a peneplain of modern relief, with occasional surmounting monadnocks of moderate height not completely consumed during the peneplanation of the rest of the surface.
    2
    2
  • A belted arrangement of relief s and soils, resulting from differential erosion on strata of unlike composition and resistance, characterizes almost the entire area of the coastal plain.
    2
    2
  • Exception to this statement must be made in the south-west, close to the mountains in southern Colorado, where some lava-capped mesas (Mesa de Maya, Raton Mesa) stand several thousand feet above the general plain level, and thus testify to the widespread erosion of this region before it was aggraded.
    2
    2
  • The crystalline highlands thereabouts, at altitudes of 8000 to 10,000 ft., are of so moderate a relief as to suggest that the mass had stood much lower in a former cycle of erosion and had then been worn down to rounded hills; and that since uplift to the present altitude the revived streams of the current cycle of erosion have not entrenched themselves deep enough to develop strong relief.
    2
    2
  • It is true that many of these ranges are characterized by the rounded tops and the rather evenly slanting, waste-covered slopes which ncrmally result from the long-continued action of the ordinary agencies of erosion; that they bear little snow in summer and are practically wanting in glaciers; that forests are often scanty on the middle and lower slopes, the mord so because of devastation by fires; and that the general impression of great altitude is much weakened because the mountains are seen from a base which itself is 5000 or 6000 ft.
    2
    2
  • The Henry Mountains in south-western Utah are peculiar in owing their relief to the doming or blistering up of the plateau strata by the underground intrusion of large bodies or cisterns (laccolites) of lava, now more or less exposed by erosion.
    2
    2
  • In the southern part of the Basin Range province the ranges are well dissected and some of the intermont depressions have rock floors with gentle, centripetal slopes; hence it is suggested that the time since the last dislocation in this part of the province is relativel remote; that erosion in the current cycle has here advanced muc farther than in the central or northern parts of the province; and that, either by outwash to the sea or by exportation of wind-borne dust, the depressions-perhaps aggraded for a time in the earlier stages of the cyclehave now been so deeply worn down as to degrade the lower and weaker parts of the tilted blocks to an evenly sloping surface, leaving the higher and harder parts still in relief as residual ranges.
    2
    2
  • Erosion by wave attack is combated by a wide range of revetment systems.
    2
    2
  • Whatever the stimulus for erosion and deposition, the sediments within these hollows typically contain an important record of local environmental change.
    2
    2
  • Weathering makes a small additional contribution, but there is no evidence of seepage erosion.
    2
    2
  • The pebbles, from which shingle beaches are made, is formed by wave action in the general process of coastal erosion.
    2
    2
  • Simulations on over fifteen reef island settings found maximum shoreline erosion between three and thirty meters for a one meter increase in sea level.
    2
    2
  • One of the current models suggests that during the early stages of cancer telomere erosion leads to short dysfunctional telomeres.
    2
    2
  • Conventional tillage, which depletes soil organic matter and creates the conditions for erosion is a major cause.
    2
    2
  • In vulnerable areas in the USA, conservation tillage has reduced erosion by up to 95 %.
    2
    2
  • On what time scale does the seismic perturbation of the erosion signal decay?
    2
    2
  • The pebbles or sand build up on the upwind protected side while there is significant erosion of beach material on the downwind side.
    2
    2
  • Sheltered locations, to the upwind end of large areas of water, will prove more resistant to erosion.
    2
    2
  • Vetiver grass is also used to protect against soil erosion.
    2
    2
  • The banks are suffering from erosion and we 've had no success in introducing various water plants as they are always eaten.
    2
    2
  • Subsequent erosion of the chemically weathered granite took place as a generally radial drainage network evolved around the granite dome.
    2
    3
  • Several protected wrecks of 18th century warships in the English Channel are known to be at risk from erosion and human disturbance.
    2
    2
  • They are known for their ability to absorb water and are great to use to prevent soil erosion.
    2
    2
  • It can also help prevent erosion on creeks, lakes, and rivers.
    2
    2
  • There are several types of water pollution ranging from sewage and fertilizers to soil erosion.
    2
    2
  • Erosion is one of the biggest causes of water pollution today.
    3
    3
  • Planting vegetative covers, strict erosion management and implementing beneficial farming methods are just a few of the many possible approaches to soil conservation.
    2
    2
  • Do you know of a large area of land where soil erosion has been spotted?
    3
    3
  • Erosion occurs for many reasons such as over-development of land, whether it's for new housing developments, industry growth or agriculture.
    2
    3
  • Extreme weather conditions can exacerbate erosion in regions where it is a problem.
    2
    2
  • Other methods, like reducing soil erosion or improving water treatment, attempt to stop contaminants from entering natural water systems through runoff or leaks.
    2
    3
  • It can also help control erosion and keep diseases at bay by keeping dirt from splashing up onto plants when it rains.
    2
    3
  • Jasminum mesnyi is often recommended for erosion control because it roots so easily.
    2
    2
  • No border or wall is necessary with this type of raised bed, but adding a small border of bricks or plastic edging can help prevent erosion as well as adding an ornamental touch.
    2
    2
  • Pine straw also prevents erosion, so it's good to use on hillsides or areas where water runoff is a problem.
    2
    2
  • It prevents erosion, is lightweight, and is cost effective.
    2
    2
  • The needles work together to keep water erosion down and prevent weeds from popping up in garden beds.
    2
    2
  • Organic farming practices preserve the soil while conventional farming has contributed to uncontrolled soil erosion.
    2
    2
  • Fine soils like clay benefit from the addition of compost because it increases porosity, makes the soil resistant to erosion and as an added benefit, makes it easier to work.
    2
    2
  • Sandy soil is loose, which makes erosion a problem.
    2
    2
  • Soil treatment supports earth-friendly practices for recycling, minimizing soil erosion and reducing soil depletion through crop rotation and other replenishment methods.
    2
    2
  • Intensive farming methods, the type that most commercial and conventional farms use today, cause erosion of soil and destroy the natural habitat of many different species of animals.
    2
    2
  • Herpes simplex, recurrent corneal erosion (RCE), and acanthamoeba infections are other conditions that can mimic a corneal abrasion but which require very different treatments.
    3
    3
  • Approximately 10 to 25 percent of those with corneal abrasions will develop recurrent corneal erosion (RCE) a condition in which the epithelium of the cornea pulls off because it did not heal properly or completely.
    2
    2
  • This erosion is usually treated conservatively with lubricating drops and hypertonic saline ointment for a month or more, although some patient need a debridement of the cornea or laser treatment.
    2
    2
  • In some extreme cases, when there is a lot of stomach acid regurgitation, the child's teeth will show enamel erosion.
    2
    2
  • This form of gingivitis is characterized by painful, bleeding gums, and death (necrosis) and erosion of gums between the teeth.
    2
    2
  • Erosion or destruction of the nasal cartilage as a result of inhalant or cocaine abuse, however, usually requires surgical treatment.
    2
    2
  • Acute lesions produce a watery exudate and are often accompanied by exfoliation (scaling or peeling of layers of skin) and erosion (destruction of the skin surface).
    2
    2
  • The property should not have any toxic chemicals, radioactive materials, pollutions or any drainage or erosion problems.
    2
    2
  • Every day we use that money to pay for crews to travel to polluted regions of the waterway to remove litter, saw apart large natural debris and work to prevent soil runoff and erosion.
    2
    2
  • The spinning tires and roaring engines can wreak havoc with wildlife and cause problems with erosion.
    2
    2
  • Common side effects include nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, protein deficiency, vitamin and mineral deficiencies, heartburn, abdominal pain, injury to the spleen, band slippage or erosion.
    3
    3
  • The mountains are composed in great part of Paleozoic strata, often modified by vulcanism and greatly denuded and sculptured by wind and water erosion.
    9
    11
  • The main object, therefore, of the American cotton-planter is to prevent erosion.
    10
    12
  • The reason is to be found in its geographical position, a cold ice-covered polar current 68' running south along the land, while not far outside there is an open warmer sea, a circumstance which, while producing a cold climate, must also give rise to much precipitation, the land being C', thus exposed to the alternate erosion of a rough atmosphere and large glaciers.
    48
    50
  • The remarkably level character of the Red River district is due to horizontal deposits in the bottom of this lake, which have been little dissected by river erosion.
    7
    9
  • Where the material is too large to be taken up by an individual cell, the dissolution is brought about by the cells surrounding the material, to which they closely apply themselves, and by the secreting of the ferment, a gradual process of erosion is brought about with ultimate absorption.
    49
    51
  • Being protected by the water from the rapid subaerial erosion which sharpens the features of the land, and subjected to the regular accumulation of deposits, the whole ocean floor has assumed some approach to uniformity.
    59
    61
  • West of the Missouri river the sheet of glacial drift is absent, and the lands everywhere show evidence of extensive stream erosion.
    7
    9
  • Extensive and deep-seated crumpling was necessarily accompanied by vertical uplift throughout the zone affected, but once at least since their birth the mountains have been worn down to a lowland, and the mountains of to-day are the combined product of subsequent uplift of a different sort, and dissection by erosion.
    7
    9
  • The coastal plain, however, is the result, not of a single recent uplift, but of movements dating back to Tertiary time and continued with many oscillations to the present; nor is its surface smooth and unbroken, for erosion began upon the inner part of the plain long before the outer border was revealed.
    53
    55
  • The extent of the submergence and the area over which the Palaeozoic strata were deposited are unknown; for in consequence of renewed elevation without deformation, erosion in later periods has stripped off an undetermined amount of the covering strata.
    60
    62
  • This knob or ridge may be appropriately regarded as an ancient physiographic fossil, inasmuch as, being a monadnock of very remote origin, it has long been preserved from the destructive attack of the weather by burial under sea-floor deposits, and recently laid bare, like ordinary organic fossils of much smaller size, by the removal of part of its cover by normal erosion.
    4
    6
  • It is doubtful whether the convergent action of the streams has been the sole agency in the erosion of these striking cavities, or whether snow and glacier-ice have had a share in the work.
    4
    6
  • These mountains, consisting of various sorts of gneiss, intrusive granite and gabbro, have been formed partly by faulting but mainly by erosion, the lines of which have been determined by the presence of faults or the presence of relatively soft rocks.
    4
    6
  • A conspicuous feature of the New Mexican landscape is the mesa, a flat-topped hill created by differential erosion and projecting above the surrounding country like a table.
    2
    4
  • They are intended to prevent erosion - please keep to them.
    12
    14
  • Its surface is much broken by the remains of the ancient plateau which has been worn down by erosion, leaving escarpments and ranges of flat-topped mountains, called chapadas, capped in places by horizontal layers of sandstone.
    4
    6
  • The protection of the shore may therefore have been decreased, with the result of increased land erosion and the formation of extensive shallow submarine plateaux.
    4
    6
  • For many years past both the town and cantonment have been threatened by the erosion of the river Indus.
    4
    6
  • Straits have been formed (I) by fracture across isthmuses, and such may be by longitudinal fracture as in the Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb, or transverse fracture as in the Strait of Gibraltar or Cook Strait; (2) by erosion, e.g.
    70
    73
  • Associated with these irregular escarpments are occasional rectilinear ridges, the work of extensive erosion on monoclinal structures, of whick Echo Cliffs, east of the Painted Desert (so called from its manycoloured sandstones and clays), is a good example.
    4
    7
  • With the renewal of uplift by which the earlier cycle of erosion was interrupted and the present cycle introduced, inequalities of surface due to renewed faulting were again introduced; these still appear as cliffs, of more nearly rectilinear front than the retreating escarpments formed in the previous cycle.
    4
    7
  • These cliffs are peculiar in gradually passing from one formation to another, and in having a height dependent on the displacement of the fault rather than on the structures in the fault face; they are already somewhat battered and dissected by erosion.
    4
    7
  • They are peculiar in having their altitude dependent on the depth of revived erosion, instead of the amount of faulting, and they are sometimes topographically reversed, in that the revived scarp overlooks a lowland worn on a weak formation in the upheaved fault-block.
    4
    7
  • The rate of denudation in exposed positions is exceedingly rapid; while spots sheltered from the sand blast suffer a minimum of erosion, as shown by the preservation of ancient inscriptions.
    4
    7
  • But, regarded broadly, the Highland mountains are monuments of erosion, the relic of an old tableland, the upper surface and former inclinations of which are shown approximately by the summits of the existing masses and the direction of the chief water-flows.
    4
    8
  • The results of the first cycle of erosion are seen in the widespread exposure of the resistant Carboniferous limestone as a broad platform in the south-western area of greater uplift through central Arizona, where the higher formations were worn away; and in the development of a series of huge, south-facing, retreating escarpments of irregular outline on the edges of the higher formations farther north.
    3
    8
  • During the current cycle of erosion, several of the faults, whose scarps had been worn away in the previous cycle, have been brought to light again as topographic features by the removal of the weak strata along one side of the fault line, leaving the harder strata on the other side in relief; such scarps are known as fault-line scarps, in distinction from the original fault scarps.
    3
    8
  • The helicopter ride was demonstrating the widespread erosion of the surrounding plains.
    887
    1128