But Erasmus could not be content with the Bible in Latin.
The common man, to whom the diet of Augsburg alludes, had, long been raising his voice against the " parsons " (Pfaffen); the men of letters, Brand, Erasmus, Reuchlin, and above all Ulrich von Hutten, contributed, each in their way, to discredit the Roman Curia; and lastly, a new type of theology, represented chiefly by Martin Luther, threatened to sweep away the very foundations of the papal monarchy.
DESIDERIUS ERASMUS (1466-1536), Dutch scholar and theologian, was born on the night of the 27/28th of October, probably in 1466; but his statements about his age are conflicting, and in view of his own uncertainty x.
Erasmus was at Deventer from 1475 to 1484, and when he left, had learnt from Johannes Sinthius (Syntheim) and Alexander Hegius, who had come as headmaster in 1483, the love of letters which was the ruling passion of his life.
These he defended with great ability, but with so much heat that Erasmus joined in demanding his expulsion from the city.
degree in 1515 and removed to Cambridge, where Erasmus had helped to establish a reputation for Greek and theology.
There he continued his literary and scientific labours, enjoying congenial intercourse with such men as Matthew Boulton, James Keir, James Watt and Erasmus Darwin at the periodical dinners of the Lunar Society.
He was a man of exemplary life and a friend of Erasmus and the humanists, besides being a persona grata at the court of Louise of Savoy and Francis I.
A great friend of Erasmus, whom he invited to Cambridge, whilst earnestly working for a reformation of abuses, he had no sympathy with those who attacked doctrine; and he preached at Paul's Cross (12th of May 1521) at the burning of Luther's books.
The colloquy of Erasmus De sacerdotiis captandis bears witness to the same state of things.
His works were studied and _learned by heart by the great Latin writers of the Renaissance, such as Erasmus and Melanchthon; and Casaubon, in his anxiety that his son should write a pure Latin style, inculcates on him the constant study of Terence.
The fame of Erasmus Darwin as a poet rests upon his Botanic Garden, though he also wrote The Temple of Nature, or the Origin of Society, a Poem, with Philosophical Notes (1803), and The Shrine of Nature (posthumously published).
From 1526 he had corresponded with Oecolampadius, who in 1529 invited him to Basel, which Erasmus.
Charitable institutions include a deaf and dumb asylum (1875-1886), the Metropolitan infirmary for children (1841), and the royal sea-bathing infirmary, established in 1791 and enlarged through the munificence of Sir Erasmus Wilson in 1882.
Erasmus lived in Basel 1521-1529, and on his death there (1536) was buried in the cathedral, attached to which are cloisters, in which various celebrated men are buried, e.g.
In 1521 the university had condemned Luther's Babylonish Captivity, and in 1527 Erasmus's Colloquies met with the same fate.
The principal other buildings are the court house, government buildings (formerly a Jesuit monastery), episcopal palace, grammar school (once attended by Erasmus), a prison, hospitals, arsenal and barracks.
He studied at Venice, where he became acquainted with Erasmus and Aldus Manutius, and at an early age was reputed one of the most learned men of the time.
His conduct evoked the fiercest denunciations of Luther, but it also displeased more moderate men and especially Erasmus.
7, a text which, in the wake of a line of scholars from Erasmus downwards, Abbe Paulin Martin had, in 1887, exhaustively shown to be no older than the end of the 4th century A.D.
Hardly any theoretical system is of English birth; Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802), the grandfather of the great Charles Darwin, alone makes an exception.
Erasmus Reinhold has described the method in his edition of G.
some of the fragments are fine, its attempt at scientific exposition approximates too closely to the manner of Erasmus Darwin to suit a modern ear.
The principal buildings are the Roman Catholic church, which is the pro-cathedral of the diocese of Killaloe; the parish church formed out of the ruins of the Franciscan Abbey, founded in 1240 by Donough Carbrac O'Brien; a school on the foundation of Erasmus Smith, and various county buildings.
In 1511 he removed to Basel, where he became intimate with Desiderius Erasmus, and took an active share in the publishing enterprises of Joannes Froben.
princeps, from a MS. discovered by himself, 1522); Tacitus (1519, exclusive of the Histories); Livius (1535); and Erasmus (with a life, 9 vols.
Editions of the complete works: Erasmus (9 vols., Basel, 1516.
The authenticity of the book was unquestioned thenceforward till the Reformation, when the view of Jerome was revived by Erasmus, Carlstadt, Luther and others under various forms. In the Lutheran Church this opposition lasted into the next century, but in the Reformed it gave way much earlier.
Another son, Erasmus (1625-1698), born at Roskilde, spent ten years in visiting England, Holland, Germany and Italy, and filled the chairs of mathematics and medicine at Copenhagen.
ERASMUS DARWIN (1731-1802), English man of science and poet, was born at Elton, in Nottinghamshire, on the 12th of December 1731.
These reflections were, however, for his intimate friends, and like him, his much greater contemporary, Erasmus, abhorred anything suggesting open revolt or revolution.
The extraordinary popularity of Erasmus is a sufficient (1464- indication that his attitude of mind was viewed with sympathy by the learned, whether in France, England, Germany, Spain or Italy.
The laity should read their New Testament, and would in this way come to feel the true significance of Christ's life and teachings, which, rather than the Church, formed the centre of Erasmus's religion.
This was due to the renewed enthusiasm for, and appreciation of, St Paul with which Erasmus sympathized, and which found an able exponent in England in John Colet and in France in Lefevre of Etaples (Faber Stapulensis).
Erasmus was read and approved, and his notion of reform by culture no doubt attracted many adherents among English scholars.
He had an unbounded admiration for Erasmus, with whom he entered into correspondence, and from whom he received a somewhat chilling patronage; whilst the brilliant humanist, Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494), taught him to criticize, in a rationalizing way, the medieval doctrines of Rome.
There he studied the New Testament in the editions of Erasmus and began to found his preaching on "the Gospel," which he declared to be simple and easy to understand.
It was his claim that he had discovered the Gospel before ever Luther was heard of in Switzerland, and he was as anxious as Erasmus to make it clear that he was not Luther's disciple.
At the instance of his friend Erasmus he prepared an elaborate commentary on Augustine's De Civitate Dei, which was published in 1522 with a dedication to Henry VIII.
Erasmus gives a vivid picture of the glories of the shrine and of all that was shown to the pilgrims on his visit with Colet to Canterbury in 1514.
In the 15th century it was the seat of a celebrated academy, founded by the humanist Rodolphus Agricola, which contributed not a little to the revival of learning in this part of Germany; Erasmus of Rotterdam was one of its students.
His lectures on Erasmus and other 16th-century subjects were largely attended.
About 1484 Erasmus' father died, leaving him and an elder brother Peter, both born out of wedlock, to the care of guardians, their mother having died shortly before.
Erasmus was eager to go to .a university, but the guardians, acting under a perhaps genuine enthusiasm for the religious life, sent the boys to another school at Hertogenbosch; and when they returned after two or three years, prevailed on them to enter monasteries.
Peter went to Sion, near Delft; Erasmus after prolonged reluctance became an Augustinian canon in St Gregory's at Steyn, a house of the same Chapter near Gouda.
But the journey was abandoned, and after some months Erasmus found that even with occasional chances to read at Groenendael, the life of a court was hardly more favourable to study than that of Steyn.
The bishop consented and promised a small pension; and in August 1495 Erasmus entered the "domus pauperum" of the college of Montaigu, which was then under the somewhat rigid rule of the reformer Jan Standonck.
But as nothing promised at once, Erasmus accepted Mountjoy's offer, and thus a tie was formed which led Mountjoy then or a few years later to grant him a pension of £20 for life.
Otherwise the visit to England gave no hope of preferment; and in the summer Erasmus prepared to leave.
When they returned to Rome, his pupil departed to Scotland, to fall a few years later by his father's side at Flodden; Erasmus also found a summons to call him northwards.
He wrote to Erasmus of a land flowing with milk and honey under the "divine" young king, and with Warham sent him £10 for journey money.
At first Erasmus hesitated.
The origin of Erasmus's connexion with Johann Froben is not clear.
But in 1513 Froben, who had just reprinted the Aldine Adagia, acquired through a bookseller-agent Erasmus' amended copy which had been destined for Badius.
That the agent was acting entirely on his own responsibility may be doubted; for within a few months Erasmus had decided to betake himself to Basel, bearing with him Seneca and Jerome, the latter to be incorporated in the great edition which Johannes Amerbach and Froben had had in hand since 15ro.
Through the winter of 1514-1515 Erasmus worked with the strength of ten; and after a brief visit.
Though from this time forward Basel became the centre of occupation and interest for Erasmus, yet for the next few years he was mainly in the Netherlands.
The general ardour for the restoration of the arts and of learning created an aristocratic public, of which Erasmus was supreme pontiff.
Luther spoke to the people and the ignorant; Erasmus had the ear of the educated class.
Though Erasmus led a very hard-working and far from luxurious life, and had no extravagant habits, yet he could not live upon little.
Erasmus declined all, and in November 1521 settled permanently at Basel, in the capacity of general editor and literary adviser of Froben's press.
Froben's enterprise, united with Erasmus's editorial skill, raised the press of Basel, for a time, to be the most important in Europe.
But during the years of Erasmus's co-operation the Froben press took the lead of all the presses in Europe, both in the standard value of the works published and in style of typographical execution.
In these editions, partly texts, partly translations, it is impossible to determine the respective shares of Erasmus and his many helpers.
The prefaces and dedications are all written by him, and some of them, as that to the Hilarius, are of importance for the history as well of the times as of Erasmus himself.
In this "mill," as he calls it, Erasmus continued to grind incessantly for eight years.
Shortly after Froben's death the disturbances at Basel, occasioned by the zealots for the religious revolution which was in progress throughout Switzerland, began to make Erasmus desirous of changing his residence.
Erasmus proposed only to remain at Freiburg for a few months, but found the place so suited to his habits that he bought a house of his own, and remained there six years.
But Erasmus was even less disposed now than he had been before to barter his reputation for honours.
Erasmus's features are familiar to all, from Holbein's many portraits or their copies.
Hence, on a superficial view, Erasmus is set down as the most inconsistent of men.
Nisard, Erasmus was one of those "dont la gloire a ete de beaucoup comprendre et d'affirmer peu."
This equal openness to every vibration of his environment is the key to all Erasmus's acts and words, and among them to the middle attitude which he took up towards the great religious conflict of his time.
It was not timidity or weakness which kept Erasmus neutral, but the reasonableness of his nature.
The motto which was already current in his lifetime, "that Erasmus laid the egg and Luther hatched it," is so far true, and no more.
Erasmus would have suppressed the monasteries, put an end to the domination.
And when out of Luther's revolt there arose a new fanaticism - that of evangelism, Erasmus recoiled from the violence of the new preachers.
Passages have been collected, and it is an easy task, from the writings of Erasmus to prove that he shared the doctrines of the Reformers.
In the words of Drummond: "Erasmus was in his own age the apostle of common sense and of rational religion.
Erasmus is accused of indifference.
Erasmus never flouted at religion nor even at theology as such, but only at blind and intemperate theologians.
In the mind of Erasmus there was no metaphysical inclination; he was a man of letters, with a general tendency to rational views on every subject which came under his pen.
It is impossible in reading Erasmus not to be reminded of the rationalist of the 18th century.
Erasmus has been called the "Voltaire of the Renaissance."
Erasmus drew the line at the first of these.
He was not an anticipation of the 18th century; he was the man of his age, as Voltaire of his; though Erasmus did not intend it, he undoubtedly shook the ecclesiastical edifice in all its parts; and, as Melchior Adam says of him, "pontifici Romano plus nocuit jocando quam Lutherus stomachando."
But if Erasmus was unlike the 18th century rationalist in that he did not declare war against the church, but remained a Catholic and mourned the disruption, he was yet a true rationalist in principle.
The principle that reason is the one only guide of life, the supreme arbiter of all questions, politics and religion included, has its earliest and most complete exemplar in Erasmus.
Along with the charm of style, the great attraction of the writings of Erasmus is this unconscious freedom by which they are pervaded.
These freedoms are part cause of Erasmus's popularity.
At the date of his death the Catholic revival, with its fell antipathy to art and letters, was only in its infancy; and when times became dangerous, Erasmus cautiously declined to venture out of the protection of the Empire, refusing repeated invitations to Italy and to France.
In Italy a Bembo and a Sadoleto wrote a purer Latin than Erasmus, but contented themselves with pretty phrases, and were careful to touch no living chord of feeling.
It was only in the Empire that such liberty of speech as Erasmus used was practicable, and in the Empire Erasmus passed for a moderate man.
Disraeli has not noticed Erasmus in his Quarrels of Authors, perhaps because Erasmus's quarrels would require a volume to themselves.
Cosmopolitan as Erasmus was, to the French literati he was still the Teuton.
The only contemporary name which could approach to a rivalry with his was that of Budaeus (Bude), who was exactly contemporary, having been born in the same year as Erasmus.
Budaeus, though a Frenchman, knew Greek well; Erasmus, though a Dutchman, very imperfectly.
But the Frenchman Budaeus wrote an execrable Latin style, unreadable then as now, while the Teuton Erasmus charmed the reading world with a style which, though far from good Latin, is the most delightful which the Renaissance has left us.
Erasmus's Latin was a living and spoken tongue.
Though Erasmus had passed nearly all his life in England, France and Germany, his conversation was Latin; and the language in which he talked about common things he wrote.
He complains that much reading of the works of St Jerome had spoiled his Latin; but, as Scaliger says (Scalig er 2 a), " Erasmus's language is better than St Jerome's."
The same critic, however, thought Erasmus would have done better "if he had kept more closely to the classical models."
In the annals of classical learning Erasmus may be regarded as constituting an intermediate stage between the humanists of the Latin Renaissance and the learned men of the age of Greek scholarship, between Angelo Poliziano and Joseph Scaliger.
Erasmus, though justly styled by Muretus (Varr.
Even Julien Gamier could discover that Erasmus "falls in his haste into grievous error in his Latin version of St Basil, though his Latinity is superior to that of the other translators" (Pref.
It must be remembered that the commercial interests of Froben's press led to the introduction of Erasmus's name on many a title page when he had little to do with the book, e.g.
the Latin Josephus of 1524 to which Erasmus only contributed one translation of 14 pages; or the Aristotle of 1531, of which Simon Grynaeus was the real editor.
Where Erasmus excelled was in prefaces - not philological introductions to each author, but spirited appeals to the interest of the general reader, showing how an ancient book might be made to minister to modern spiritual demands.
Of Erasmus's works the Greek Testament is the most memorable..
Even if Erasmus had had at his disposal the MSS.
In four reprints, 1519, 1522, 1527, 1 535, Erasmus gradually weeded out many of the typographical errors of his first edition, but the text remained essentially such as he had first printed it.
Erasmus did nothing to solve the problem, but to him belongs the honour of having first propounded it.
Besides translating and editing the New Testament, Erasmus paraphrased the whole, except the Apocalypse, between 1517 and 1524.
The paraphrases were received with great applause, even by those who had little appreciation for Erasmus.
Later in the century they were read in schools, and some of Shakespeare's lines are direct reminiscences of Erasmus.
University Library; it is divided into three sections, for Erasmus's writings, the books he edited, and the literature about him.
There is an excellent sketch of Erasmus's life down to 1519 in F.
1522), Erasmus (d.
His great admiration for Erasmus first led him to Greek and biblical studies, and his election in May 1519 as rector of the university was regarded as a triumph for the partisans of the New Learning.
Erasmus Alberus >>
1204-1252), produced several Latin vocabularies which were still in use in the boyhood of Erasmus.
One of the younger Ciceronians criticized by Erasmus was Longolius, who had died at Padua in 1522.
Before touching on the salient points in the subsequent centuries, in connexion with the leading nations of Europe, we may briefly note the cosmopolitan position of Erasmus (1466-1536), who, although he was a native of the Netherlands, was far more closely connected with France, England, Italy, Germany and Switzerland, than with the land of his birth.
He was still a school-boy at Deventer when his high promise was recognized by Rudolf Agricola, " the first (says Erasmus) who brought from Italy some breath of a better culture."
Late in 1499 Erasmus spent some two months at Oxford, where he met Colet; it was in London that he met More and Linacre and Grocyn, who had already ceased to lecture at Oxford.
C. Jebb, " Erasmus " (1890) and " Bentley " (1882), and " Porson " (in Dict.
(B) THE Study Of The Classics In Secondary Education After the Revival of Learning the study of the classics owed much to the influence and example of Vittorino da Feltre, Budaeus, Erasmus and Melanchthon, who were among the leading representatives of that revival in Italy, France, England and Germany.
Colet (1510), the friend of Erasmus, whose treatise De pueris instituendis (1529) has its English counterpart in the Governor of Sir Thomas Elyot (1531).
Erasmus, writing to W.
The first published text was that of Erasmus.
Erasmus issued new editions in 1519, 1522, 1527 and 1535, and the Aldine Greek Testament, printed at Venice in 1518, is a reproduction of the first edition.
His two first editions (1546, 1549) were based on Erasmus, the Complutensian, and collations of fifteen Greek MSS.
This rendering of Erasmus, together with his annotations and prefaces to the several books, make his editions the first great monument of modern Biblical study.
Seebohm, The Oxford Reformers (3rd ed., London, 1887) - for Erasmus; M.
Lecturing on Isaiah he condemned current ecclesiastical abuses, and in a public disputation (loth of August 1523) was so successful that Erasmus writing to Zurich said "Oecolampadius has the upper hand amongst us."
Erasmus in 1516 published the New Testament in Greek, with a new Latin version of his own; the Hebrew text of the Old Testament had been published as early as 1488.
Be it enough for our purpose to say that he thoroughly saturated his mind with the " new learning," first at Oxford, where in 1515 he was admitted to the degree of M.A., and then in Cambridge, where the fame of Erasmus still lingered.
1 He translated straight from the Hebrew and Greek originals, although the Vulgate and more especially Erasmus's Latin version were on occasion consulted.
Coverdale consulted in his revision the Latin version of the Old Testament with the Hebrew text by Sebastian Minster, the Vulgate and Erasmus's editions of the Greek text for the New Testament.
But the Rhetoric to Alexander was considered spurious by Erasmus, for the inadequate reasons that it has a preface and is not mentioned in the list of Diogenes Laertius, and was assigned by Petrus Victorius, in his preface to the Rhetoric, to Anaximenes.
At the head of the educational institutions there is a classical school endowed by Erasmus Smith.
In 1530 he was denounced to the Inquisition as limiting the papal power and leaning to opinions of Erasmus, but the process failed; he was made professor of philosophy and (1533-1539) regent in theology.
For the moment the balance of his faculties seemed to be restored by a revival of the antagonistic sentiment of humanism which he had imbibed from the Oxford circle of friends, and specially from Erasmus.
The dates as regards More's early life are uncertain, and we can only say that it is possible that the acquaintance with Erasmus might have begun during Erasmus's first visit to England in 1499.
Tradition has dramatized their first meeting into the story given by Cresacre More' - that the two happened to sit opposite each other at the lord mayor's table, that they got into an argument during dinner, and that, in mutual astonishment at each other's wit and readiness, Erasmus exclaimed, " Aut tu es Morus, aut nullus," and the other replied, " Aut tu es Erasmus, aut diabolus !
" Rejecting this legend, which bears the stamp of fiction upon its face, we have certain evidence of acquaintance between the two men in a letter of Erasmus, with the date " Oxford, 29th October 1499."
If we must admit the correctness of the date of Ep. 1 4 in the collection of Erasmus's Epistolae, we should have to assume that their acquaintance had begun as early as 1497.
More was now able, as he writes to Erasmus, to return to the life which had always been his ambition, when, free from business and public affairs, he might give himself up to his favourite studies and to the practices of his devotion.
interior Erasmus has drawn a charming picture, which may vie with Holbein's celebrated canvas, " The Household of Sir Thomas More."
Erasmus only ventures to say in his friend's defence " that while he was chancellor no man was put to death for these pestilent opinions, while so many suffered death in France and the Low Countries."
traducta (Paris, 1506 and 1514; Venice, Aldus, 1516, &c.) was accomplished by Erasmus and More in 1505.
better known as Utopia, was printed at Louvain in 1516, under the superintendence of Erasmus, and appeared in many subsequent editions, many of them of great bibliographical value, the finest being the Basel edition of 1518.
The vacillation of tradition and the dissimilarity of the epistle from those of Paul were brought out with great force by Erasmus.
PHYSIOGNOMY, the English form of the middle Greek 4uo-coyvwµia, a contraction of the classical ciuotoyvcoµovia (from qSvQCs, nature, and yvc'oµwv, an interpreter), (i) a term which denotes a supposed science for the " discovery of the disposition of the mind by the lineaments of the body " (Bacon); (2) is also used colloquially as a synonym for the face or outward appearance, being variously spelled by the old writers: fysenamy by Lydgate, phisnomi in Udall's translation of Erasmus on Mark iv., physnomie in Bale's English Votaries (i.
As in many other points Grotius inevitably recalls Erasmus, so he does in his attitude towards the great schism.
granted letters patent for the occupation of Virginia it was directed that the " word and service of God be preached, We must not, however, overlook the remarkable appeal made by Erasmus in the first book of his treatise on the art of preaching (Ecclesiastes sive concionator evangelicus).
Behind the exchange is the great market-place, built on vaulting over a canal, and containing a bronze statue of Erasmus, who was born in Rotterdam in 1467.
Erasmus Darwin, B.
Among its auxiliary establishments are a good natural history museum, an observatory, a laboratory, and a library which contains a copy of Erasmus' New Testament with marginal annotations by Luther.
writings of Poliziano, the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, Dante's Divine Comedy, Petrarch's poems, a collection of early Latin poets of the Christian era, the letters of the younger Pliny, the poems of Pontanus, Sannazzaro's Arcadia, Quintilian, Valerius Maximus, and the Adagia of Erasmus were printed, either in first editions, or with a beauty of type and paper never reached before, between the years 1495 and 1514.
It is enough here to mention that they included Erasmus and the English Linacre.
One of his contemporaries was Edward Lee (c. 1482-1544) arch the battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, North Anna, bishop of York, famous for his attack on Erasmus, who replied to Cold Harbor and the long siege of Petersburg, in which, him in his Epistolae aliquot eruditorum virorum.
At fifteen he went to the Erasmus Smith School in Dublin.
The cathedral of St Erasmus (S.
From the school at Rottweil, on the Neckar, he went (1510) to the university of Basel, and became a good classic. From 1514 he obtained schoolmaster posts at Basel, where he married, and made the acquaintance of Erasmus and of Holbein, the painter.
The idea at the bottom of the "Knight and Death" seems to be a combination of the Christian knight of Erasmus's Enchiridion militis Christiani with the type, traditional in medieval imagery, of the pilgrim on his way through the world.
He journeyed by the Rhine, Cologne, and thence by road to Antwerp, where he was handsomely received, .and lived in whatever society was most distinguished, including that of Erasmus of Rotterdam.
In copper-engraving Diirer's work during the same years was confined entirely to portraits, those of the cardinal-elector of Mainz ("The Great Cardinal"), Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony, Willibald Pirkheimer, Melanchthon and Erasmus.
Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles Darwin, set forth ',in' Zoonomia a much more definite theory of the relation of variation to evolution, and the following passage, cited by Clodd, clearly expresses it: "When we revolve in our minds the metamorphoses of animals, as from the tadpole to the frog; secondly, the changes produced by artificial cultivation, as in the breeds of horses, dogs and sheep; thirdly, the changes produced by conditions of climate and season, as in the sheep of warm climates being covered with hair instead of wool, and the hares and partridges of northern climates becoming white in winter; when, further, we observe the changes of structure produced by habit, as shewn especially by men of different occupations; or the changes produced by artificial mutilation and prenatal influences, as in the crossing of species and production of monsters; fourth, when we observe the essential unity of plan in all warmblooded animals - we are led to conclude that they have been alike produced from a single living filament."
In 1511 he, being then a lad, met Erasmus at Paris (Nichols's Epistles of Erasmus, ii.
Thus he never lost his sympathy with humanism and with its great German representative, Erasmus.
As authorities for the life, the most valuable are the ecclesiastical histories of Socrates, Sozomen and Theodoret; and amongst the moderns, Erasmus, Cave, Lardner and Tillemont, with the church history of Neander, and his monograph on the Life and Times of Chrysostom, translated by J.
He spent many years travelling in Spain, France and Belgium, where he corresponded with Erasmus and other learned men.
Bentley died in 1780 and Wedgwood remained sole owner of the Etruria works until 1790, when he took some of his sons and a nephew, named Byerley, into partner - ship. He died on the 3rd of January 1795, rich in honours and in friends, for besides being a great potter he was a man of high moral worth, and was associated with many noted men of his time, amongst whom should be mentioned Sir Joseph Banks, Joseph Priestley and Erasmus Darwin.
After an absence from Corsica for a period of five years, during which he visited England and the Low Countries, and became acquainted with Erasmus and More, he returned to Nebbio, about 1522, and there remained, with comparatively little intermission, till in 1536, when, while returning from a visit to Genoa, he perished in a storm at sea.
The scheme adopted breathed the spirit of the Renaissance; provision was made for the teaching of Greek, Erasmus lauded the institution and Pole was one of its earliest fellows.
With a liberal Scotsman, Dr William Small, then of the faculty of William and Mary and later a friend of Erasmus Darwin, and George Wythe (1726-1806), a very accomplished scholar and leader of the Virginia bar, Jefferson was an habitual member, while still in college, of a partie carree at the table of Francis Fauquier (c. 1720-1768), the accomplished lieutenant-governor of Virginia.
The gymnasium is descended from the Latin school of which the celebrated Alexander Hegius was master in the third quarter of the 15th century, when the young Erasmus was sent to it, and at which Adrian Floreizoon, afterwards Pope Adrian VI., is said to have been a pupil about the same time.
He was appointed regent, or professor, of philosophy in the college of Montaigu; and there he was a contemporary of Erasmus, who in two epistles has spoken of him in the highest terms. When William Elphinstone, bishop of Aberdeen, was laying his plans for the foundation of the university of Aberdeen (King's College) he made Boece his chief adviser; and the latter was persuaded, after receipt of the papal bull erecting the university (1494), to be the first principal.
On leaving the Erasmus school at Rotterdam he gave proof of his ability by an Oratio scholastica de medicina (1685), and at Leiden University in 1689 he maintained a thesis De brutorum operationibus, in which he advocated the Cartesian theory of automatism among animals.
The uncleanliness of the city was comparable to that of oriental cities at the present day, and, according to contemporary testimony (Garencieres, Angliae flagellum, London, 16 47, p. 85), little improved since Erasmus wrote his well-known description.
All three were disciples of Erasmus, the great apostle of a new, tolerant, scholarly religion very different from the grimy pedantry of the medieval doctors.
and therefore they are opposed to any violent change; they consider, for instance, that northern Europe would have done better to listen to Erasmus than to Luther.
Johann Reuchlin, who entered the lecture-room of Argyropoulos at Rome in 1482, Erasmus of Rotterdam, who once dwelt at Venice as the house guest of the Aldi, applied their critical knowledge of Hebrew and of Greek to the elucidation and diffusion of the Bible.
What Ariosto is for Italy, Cervantes for Spain, Erasmus for Holland, Luther for Germany, Shakespeare for England, that is Rabelais for France.
In Holland and Germany, with Erasmus, Reuchlin and Melanchthon, it developed types of character, urbane, reflective, pointedly or gently critical, which, left to themselves, would not have plunged the north of Europe into the whirlpool of belligerent reform.
But humanism, first of all in its protagonist Erasmus, afterwards in the long 'a ' list of critical scholars and editors, Lipsius, Heinsius sc and Grotius, in the printers Elzevir and-Plantin, developed ship. itself from the centre of the Leiden university with massive energy, and proved that it was still a motive force of intellectual progress.
CASPAR AQUILA [KASPAR ADLER] (1488-1560), German reformer, was born at Augsburg on the 7th of August 1488, educated there and at Ulm (1502), in Italy (he met Erasmus in Rome), at Bern (1508), Leipzig (151o) and Wittenberg (1513).
He is the author of a mystical and allegorical commentary on the Psalms, first published by Erasmus in 1522, and by him attributed to the elder Arnobius.
In 1519, at the king's expense, he went to Padua, the Athens of Europe, according to Erasmus; and there, where Colet and Cuthbert Tunstall had also been educated, the "nobleman of England" as he was called, came into contact with the choicest minds of the later Italian Renaissance, and formed the friendships that influenced his life.
1751-2-4); Life of Erasmus (2 vols.
The first-fruits of this new resolve were a quite gratuitous attack on his old friend, the distinguished humanist and jurist Ulrich Zasius (1461-1536), for a doctrine proclaimed ten years before, and a simultaneous assault on Erasmus's Annotationes in Novum Testamentum.
This was tried largely in the case of smallpox, and once at least by Dr Erasmus Darwin in the case of scarlet fever.
In 1531 he printed his first oration against Erasmus, in defence of Cicero and the Ciceronians.
It is a piece of vigorous invective, displaying, like all his subsequent writings, an astonishing command of Latin, and much brilliant rhetoric, but full of vulgar abuse, and completely missing the point of the Ciceronianus of Erasmus.
The word encyclopaedist fits Damiao de Goes, a diplomatist, traveller, humanist and bosom friend of Erasmus.
The controversy was assumed to be against prejudice, ignorance, obscurantism; what monks were to Erasmus the clergy as such were to Woolston.
An old oak lectern, dating from the middle of the 15th century, carries a chained copy, in a Tudor binding of brass, of Dean Comber's (1655-99) book on the Common Prayer, and a black-letter copy of Erasmus's Paraphrase of the Gospels.
The last of these claims has now been very generally given up, and indeed Erasmus might quite as reasonably be claimed for the Reformation as Rabelais.
But Rabelais, in his own way, held off from the Reformation even more distinctly than Erasmus did.
Urswick was very friendly with Erasmus and with Sir Thomas More.
His grandfather was the poet-naturalist Erasmus Darwin, and Charles Darwin was his cousin.
Christian also entertained Erasmus, with whom he discussed the Reformation, and let fall the characteristic expression: "Mild measures are of no use; the remedies that give the whole body a good shaking are the best and surest."
What he lacked was that insight into the best classical masterpieces, that command of the best classical diction, which is the product of successive generations of scholarship. To attain to this, Giovanni da Ravenna, Colluccio Salutato, Poggio and Filelfo had to labour, before a Poliziano and a Bembo finally prepared the path for an Erasmus.
His Dutch version of the New Testament, following the Latin of Erasmus, was never completed.
Erasmus), which dominates the whole city, had its origin in a fort (Belforte) erected by King Robert the Wise in 1343.
De Sacramentis Corporis et Sanguinis Domini; a treatise, in three books, against the Berengarian heresy, highly commended by Peter of Cluny and Erasmus.
He married Elizabeth, niece of Sir Erasmus Dryden, the poet's grandfather.
Pope arranged that Erasmus Lewis should act as literary agent in negotiating the manuscript.
He was educated at Westminster school and at St Edmund's Hall, Oxford, where, while an undergraduate, he published several translations of Latin works, including Erasmus In Praise of Folly.
A generous patron of art and learning, he counted Erasmus among his friends.
The first English scholars of the Renaissance, like Erasmus on the continent, did not see the logical outcome of their own discoveries, nor realize that the campaign against obscurantism would develop into a campaign against Roman orthodoxy.
Descartes and Spinoza had speculated there; it had been the home of Erasmus and Grotius; it was now the refuge of Bayle.
And in this work of collection and instruction Filelfo excelled, passing rapidly from place to place, stirring up the zeal for learning by the passion of his own enthusiastic temperament, and acting as a pioneer for men like Poliziano and Erasmus.
The Tabulae Prutenicae, calculated on Copernican principles by Erasmus Reinhold (1511-1553), appeared in 1551.
Erasmus and Ignatius Loyola also studied here.
Though we cannot with Beza regard Calvin at this time as a centre of Protestant activity, he may well have preached at Lignieres as a reformatory Catholic of the school of Erasmus.
Under this heading may be included royal and diocesan schools and schools upon the foundation of Erasmus Smith, and others privately endowed.
In 1549 he wrote a dedication to Edward for a translation of the second volume of Erasmus's Paraphrases; and in 1550 he translated Otto Wermueller's Precious Pearl, for which Protector Somerset, who had derived spiritual comfort from the book while in the Tower, wrote a preface.
at Florence; and Humanists, like Erasmus, Ludovicus Vives and Nizolius, enamoured of the popular philo sophy of Cicero and Quintilian, poured out the vials of their contempt on scholastic barbarism with its " impious and thriceaccursed Averroes."
During his residence abroad he became acquainted with Budaeus (Guillaume Bude) and Erasmus, and with the teaching of Savonarola.
His methods did much to influence Erasmus, who visited Oxford in 1498, and in after years Erasmus received an annuity from him.
ERASMUS ALBERUS (c. 1500-1553), German humanist, reformer and poet, was a native of the village of Sprendlingen near Frankfort-on-Main, where he was born about the year 1500.
Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Erasmus Alberus (1894).
Erasmus in 1527 threw doubt on the accuracy of this ascription, and the author is usually spoken of as Ambrosiaster or pseudo-Ambrose.
His father, one of the ejected ministers, having died in 1682, he was taken by his mother in 1685 to Rotterdam to escape persecution, where he for some time attended the school founded by Erasmus.
However, during a period of fifty-four years (1854-1908) the records show a range of extremes from - 30° at Erasmus, Cumberland county, in February 1899, to 107° at several places in July 1901.
Forthcoming: Fully annotated edition of Erasmus Darwin's The Temple of Nature, in preparation with Romantic Circles website.
His grandfather was Erasmus Darwin, an eminent naturalist and poet.
Like Erasmus, Grotius sought to end the religious schism and urged the papacy to reconcile with the Protestant faiths.
Erasmus was the leading scholar in Europe and also a brilliant satirist.
First and foremost of these was Erasmus; others were Hermann von dem Busche, the missionary of humanism, Conrad Goclenius (Gockelen), Conrad Mutianus (Muth von Mudt) and pope Adrian VI.
Holberg took no rest, and before the end of 1723 the comedies of Barselstuen (The Lying-in Room), The Eleventh of July, Jakob von Thyboe, Den Bundeslose (The Fidget), Erasmus Montanus, Don Ranudo, Ulysses of Ithaca, Without Head or Tail, Witchcraft and Melampe had all been written, and some of them acted.
Lamarck, Treviranus, Erasmus Dar win, Goethe, and Saint-Hilaire preached to deaf ears, for they advanced the theory that living beings had developed by a slow process of transmutation in successive generations from simpler ancestors, and in the beginning from simplest formless matter, without being able to demonstrate any existing mechanical causes by which such development must necessarily be brought about.
In 1526 he returned to Schlettstadt, and devoted himself to a life of learned leisure, enlivened with epistolary and personal intercourse with Erasmus (the printing of whose more important works he personally superintended) and many other scholars of his time.
Discussions between them on theological questions soon convinced Colet of Erasmus' worth, and he sought to persuade him to stay and teach at Oxford.
But the bigotry of the Flemish clergy, and the monkish atmosphere of the university of Louvain, overrun with Dominicans and Franciscans, united for once in their enmity to the new classical learning, inclined Erasmus to seek a more congenial home in Basel.
Theological historians from that time forward have perpetuated the indictment that Erasmus sided with neither party in the struggle for religious truth.
The most moderate form of the censure presents him in the odious light of a trimmer; the vulgar and venomous assailant is sure that Erasmus was a Protestant at heart, but withheld the avowal that he might not forfeit the worldly advantages he enjoyed as a Catholic. When by study of his writings we come to know Erasmus intimately, there is revealed to us one of those natures to which partisanship is an impossibility.
It marks the difference between 1513 and 1669 that, in a reprint of the Julius Exclusus published in 1669 at Oxford, it was thought necessary to leave out a sentence in which the writer of that dialogue, supposed by the editor to be Erasmus, asserts the right of states to deprive and punish bad kings.
And when these judgments were winged by epigram, and weighted by the name of Erasmus, who stood at the head of letters, a widespread exasperation was the consequence.
The style of Erasmus is, considered as Latin, incorrect, sometimes even barbarous, and far removed from any classical model.
Nichols from Erasmus's letters down to 1517, with an ample commentary which amounts almost to a -biography; and an edition of the letters, in Latin, was begun by the Oxford University Press in 1906 (vol.
Both of these papal secretaries were mentioned in complimentary terms by Erasmus in his celebrated dialogue, the Ciceronianus (1528), in which no less than one hundred and six Ciceronian scholars of all nations are briefly and brilliantly reviewed, the slavish imitation of Cicero denounced, and the law laid down that " to speak with propriety we must adapt ourselves to the age in which we live - an age that differs entirely from that of Cicero."
This is taken verbatim from Lilye's contribution to the Brevis Institutio, originally composed by Colet, Erasmus and Lilye for St Paul's School (1527), and ultimately adopted as the Eton Latin Grammar.
The Nouum Instrumentum published by Erasmus in 1516 (see above, Textual Criticism) contained more than the mere Editio Princeps of the Greek text: Erasmus accom panied it with a Latin rendering of his own, in which he aimed at giving the meaning of the Greek without blindly following the 'conventional phraseology of the Latin Vulgate, which was the only form in which the New Testament had been current in western Europe for centuries.
The stereotyped information supplied in these prefaces was drawn from various sources: Erasmus distinguishes, e.g., between the direct statements in the Acts and the inferences which may be drawn from incidental allusions in the Pauline Epistles, or from the statements of ancient noncanonical writers.'
His Latin style, though wanting the inimitable ease of Erasmus and often offending against idiom, is yet in copiousness and propriety much above the ordinary Latin of the English scholars of his time.
His correspondence with Erasmus is partly included in the editions of the Letters of Erasmus, and much of his correspondence is calendared in Gairdner's Letters and Papers of Henry VIII., the letters written to his family in his last days being found in vol.
Opposite the door of the cathedral is a candelabrum with interesting sculptures of the end of the 13th century, consisting of 48 panels in bas-relief, with 24 representations from the life of Christ, and 24 of the life of St Erasmus (A.
The invention of that ingenious dilemma for extorting contributions from poor and rich alike is ascribed as a tradition to Morton by Bacon; but the story is told in greater detail of Fox by Erasmus, who says he had it from Sir Thomas More, a well-informed contemporary authority.
Reuchlin was no less learned than Pico; Melanchthon no less humane than Ficino; Erasmus no less witty, and far more trenchant, than Petrarch; Ulrich von Hutten no less humorous than Folengo; Paracelsus no less fantastically learned than Cardano.
Archbishop Trench (Study of Words) supposed that when " religion " became equivalent to the monastic life, and " religious " to a monk, the words lost their original meaning, but the Ancren Riwle, ante 1225, and the Cursor Mundi use the words both in the general and the more particular sense (see quotations in the New English Dictionary), and both meanings can be found in the Imitatio Christi and in Erasmus's Colloquia.
The worst of this method was that the disease thus inoculated did not always prove of a mild character, and in the case of Dr Erasmus Darwin's son the scarlet fever was exceedingly severe and very nearly proved fatal.
" It is," wrote Bishop Tunstall to Erasmus in 1523, "no question of pernicious novelty, it is only that new arms are being added to the great band of Wycliffite heretics."
His first antagonist on this head was Albert Pighius, a Romanist, who, resuming the controversy between Erasmus and Luther on the freedom of the will, violently attacked Calvin for the views he had expressed on that subject.
More than one scholar of the 16th century, George Cassander, Erasmus, and the two editors of the Decretum of Gratian, Dumoulin (d.
However, during a period of fifty-four years (1854-1908) the records show a range of extremes from - 30Ã‚° at Erasmus, Cumberland county, in February 1899, to 107Ã‚° at several places in July 1901.
Erasmus Darwin invented a device to copy drawings or writing in which two quill pens were fastened together.
Erasmus was now in the zenith of his fame, a fame which has never been surpassed in the annals of men of letters.
A commendatory letter from Erasmus gained him the good offices of Sir Thomas More.
Erasmus and Calvin were among his correspondents.
Erasmus Darwin (Zoonomia, 17 94), though a zealous evolutionist, can hardly be said to have made any real advance on his predecessors; and, notwithstanding the fact that Goethe had the advantage of a wide knowledge of morphological facts, and a true insight into their signification, while he threw all the power of a great poet into the expression of his conceptions, it may be questioned whether he supplied the doctrine of evolution with a firmer scientific basis than it already possessed.
The name St Elmo is an Italian corruption through Sant' Ersno of St Erasmus, a bishop, during the reign of Domitian, of Formiae, Italy, who was broken on the wheel about the 2nd of June 304.
Erasmus Darwin's mind was in fact rather that of a man of science than that of a poet.
The monastery once entered, there was no drawing back; and Erasmus passed through the various stages which culminated in his ordination as priest on the 25th of April 1492.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.