The era of fractured power and corruption is about to end.
- In Josiah's reign a new era was beginning in the history of the world.
With this third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people.
With this third Moses (the other two being the Biblical lawgiver and Moses Maimonides) a new era opens in the history of the Jewish people.
"I think the era of us having a safe haven is over. I think … " Kiki paused.
In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
In the quiet of a country town, far removed from actual contact with painful scenes, but on the edge of the whirlwind raised by the Fugitive Slave Bill, memory and imagination had full scope, and she wrote for serial publication in The National Era, an anti-slavery paper of Washington, D.C., the story of "Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life among the Lowly."
Interestingly, political cartoons of the era, both for and against FDR, showed him unaffected by the disease.
The three voyages of Captain James Cook form an era in the history of geographical discovery.
The building was a superb example of craftsmanship from an era when quality was meant to survive those skilled men who proudly worked it.
"We enter a new era of peace," Jaylon said with some satisfaction.
"We enter a new era of peace," Jaylon said with some satisfaction.
Clusters of sixties and seventies-style subdivisions had blossomed during the post-war era of rush to the 'burbs. These look-alikes that originally carried names like Camelot or South Pacific were at first scorned by Parkside's gentry but had slowly gained a level of respectability.
In this vicinity was situated, at the time of the Christian era, the Parthian city of Spasini-Charax, which was succeeded by Bahman Ardashir (Bamishir) under the Sassanians, and by Moharzi under the Arabs.
Early in the year 1798 the Austrians, in pursuance of the scheme of partition agreed on at Campo Formio, entered Venice and brought to an end its era of independence which had lasted some 1100 years.
The disturbance of social, industrial and commercial affairs, during the first two or three years of the gold era, was very great.
The vegetation of the Palaeozoic era, till towards its close, was apparently remarkably homogeneous all over the world.
A few years afterwards, a Fleming named Rubruquis was sent on a similar mission, and had the merit of being the first traveller of this era who gave a correct account of the Caspian Sea.
Its ideals culminate in Josiah (§ 16, end), and there is a strong presumption that it is intended to impress upon the new era the lessons drawn from the past.
the activity in building for which Ravenna had been so remarkable suffered a check; but the reign of Theodoric (493-526) marks another era of magnificence.
- Megalothrips lati- Tubulif era are slow and deliberate.
In an era when cameras were cumbersome and the number of channels on TV could be counted on one hand with enough fingers left over to snap, very little video of any kind was seen.
- Megalothrips lati- Tubulif era are slow and deliberate.
Considerations such as these could not be expected to appeal to the nation at large, which hailed the advent of the Left as the dawn of an era of unlimited popular sovereignty, diminished administrative pressure, reduction of taxation and general prosperity.
At the beginning of the Mesozoic era the whole country became land, bearing upon its surface the salt lakes in which the Trias was laid down.
The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.
In the early part of the Palaeozoic era only the gneissic region of Finland and Olonets and probably the Archean mass of S.
Kris, I think the era of the Council as a whole is over.
Cepa, dating from about the beginning of the Christian era (Origin of Cultivated Plants, p. 71).
The problems of geography had been lightened by the destructive criticism of the French cartographer D'Anville (who had purged the map of the world of the last remnants of traditional fact unverified by modern observations) and rendered richer by the dawn of the new era of scientific travel, when Kant brought his logical powers to bear upon them.
The fortresses in the basin of the Po chiefly belong to the era of divided Italy and are now out of date; the chief coast fortresses are Vado, Genoa, Spezia, Monte Argentaro, Gacta, Straits of Messina, Taranto, Maddalena.
Towards the close of the Palaeozoic era France had become a part of a great continent; in the north the Coal Measures of the Boulonnais and the Nord were laid down in direct connection with those of Belgium and England, while in the Central Plateau the Coal Measures were deposited in isolated and scattered basins.
Towards the close of the Palaeozoic era France had become a part of a great continent; in the north the Coal Measures of the Boulonnais and the Nord were laid down in direct connection with those of Belgium and England, while in the Central Plateau the Coal Measures were deposited in isolated and scattered basins.
The reformers of the previous reign had endeavoured to make the emancipated peasantry administratively and economically independent of the landed proprietors; the conservatives of this later era, proceeding on the assumption that the peasants did not know how to make a proper use of the liberty prematurely conferred upon them, endeavoured to re-establish the influence of the landed proprietors by appointing from amongst them " land-chiefs," who were to exercise over the peasants of their district a certain amount of patriarchal jurisdiction.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
The first of these occurred towards the close of the Palaeozoic era, when a great mountain system was raised in the north running approximately from E.
Although the first definite endeavour to locate the Golden Chersonese thus dates from the middle of the 2nd century of our era, the name was apparently well known to the learned of Europe at a somewhat earlier period, and in his Antiquities of the Jews, written during the latter half of the 1st century, Josephus says that Solomon gave to the pilots furnished to him by Hiram of Tyre commands " that they should go along with his stewards to the land that of old was called Ophir, but now the Aurea Chersonesus, which belongs to India, to fetch gold."
The Elsa and the Era, which join it on its left bank, descending from the hills near Siena and Volterra, are inconsiderable streams; and the Serchio, which flows from the territory of Lucca and the Alpi Apuani, and formerly joined the Arno a few miles from its mouth, now enters the sea by a separate channel.
the later period of the Mesozoic era saw the almost sudden advent of a fully developed angiospermous vegetation which rapidly occupied the earths surface, and which it is not easy to link on with any that preceded it.
Then we hear little more of it till at the opening of the Christian era it appears as flourishing Romano-Spanish town with a Latin-speaking population and the rank of municipium.
These events shook the whole Persian empire; Babylon and other subject states rose in revolt, and to the Jews it seemed that Persia was tottering and that the Messianic era was nigh.
This conception of matter, as infinitely divisible and continuous, was taught by Anaxagoras more than four centuries before the Christian era, and in the philosophy of Aristotle the same ideas are found.
During the era of so-called " prosperity " between 1881 and 1890 an enormous amount of bank notes were issued under various authorizations, especially that of the " free banking law " of 1887.
In the early years of the 'seventies the colonies entered upon an era of wellbeing, and for about twelve years every man, willing to work and capable of exerting himself, readily found employment.
That was indeed the hope for atomic energy in that era, and it did not pan out.
The inn's rooms are outfitted in rich colors with comfy armchairs and furnishings from the colonial era.
de Arnaud, The New Era in Russia (Washington, 1890); E.
It would seem that up to the 4th century of our era the Sinhalese had written exclusively in their own tongue; that is to say that for six centuries they had studied and understood Pali as a dead language without using it as a means of literary expression.
They first entered Poland from Germany during the era of the crusades, and soon spread through Lithuania, Courland, the Ukraine, and, in the 18th century, Bessarabia.
Many of the houses are from the turn-of-the-century era, lending the area an authentic old-fashioned charm.
Babylon speedily fell (539 B.C.) and a fresh era opened.
2 seq.), and this conception of a new era in Yahweh's relations with the people is associated with the family of Moses and with small groups.
There is some reason to hope that the day of these misconceptions is passed; although there is also some reason to fear that on other grounds the present era may be known to posterity as an era of instrumentation comparable, in its gorgeous chaos of experiment and its lack of consistent ideas of harmony and form, only to the monodic period at the beginning of the 17th century, in which no one had ears for anything but experiments in harmonic colour.
Robertson Smith, on the other hand, a new era was reached, in which the recently recognized existence of Totemism was made the basis of an attempt to give a 1 Scipione de Ricci, bishop of Pistoia from 1780 to 1791, on the ex-Jesuits requesting him to consecrate a bell dedicated to this object, issued a pastoral letter (3rd June 1784) in which he pointed out that the spirit of true religion was "far removed from fetichism," and warned his flock against "cardiolatry."
In May 1900, however, very rich deposits of gold and silver were discovered in Nye county, near the summit of the San Antonio Mountains, and a new era began in Nevada's mining industry.
While some find the old-fashioned décor to be a bit hokey, the restaurant certainly has its romantic charm and hearkens back to a bygone era of upscale dining.
A city occupying approximately the same site had been the capital of one of the principalities into which China was divided some centuries before the Christian era; and during the reigns of the two Tatar dynasties that immediately preceded the Mongols in northern China, viz.
Enjoy the lifestyle of the golden era with elegant dining rooms, ballrooms, theatres and lounges.
There were, therefore, two principal epochs of folding in the island, one at the close of the Palaeozoic era which affected the whole of the island, and one at the close of the Mesozoic which was felt only in the western region.
advent of a rigid and honest statesman would usher in a new era of Italian parliamentary life.
The era of the Temple of Jerusalem starts with a new regime, another captain of the army L EWS [OLD Testament History and another priest.
advent of a rigid and honest statesman would usher in a new era of Italian parliamentary life.
The diner's vintage red booths add to the atmosphere of a bygone era.
The guys we're running into are wearing uniforms from the war era.
The other suit at the bar had not turned around and the painters and barkeeper were in their own world of batting averages and ERA's.
As to the introduction of domesticated cats into Europe, the opinion is very generally held that tame cats from Egypt were imported at a relatively early date into Etruria by Phoenician traders; and there is decisive evidence that these animals were established in Italy long before the Christian era.
This transposition has had, as we shall see, much to do with the history of our subject, ultimately influencing the ecclesiastical chant and lasting until the 17th century of our era.
In France, as in Great Britain, volcanic eruptions occurred during several of the Palaeozoic periods, but during the Mesozoic era the // /
This material dates from the earliest times down to the commencement of our era.
The arrangements made by the allies in accordance with the treaty of Paris (June I 2, 1814) and the Final Act of the congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815), imposed on Italy boundaries which, roughly speaking, corresponded to those of the pre-Napoleonic era.
The practical annihilation of the old Right in the elections of 1876 opened a new parliamentary era.
The first is Dhammapala, who wrote in Kancipura, the modern Conjevaram in south India, in the 5th century of our era.
In Burma, on the other hand, where Pali was probably introduced from Ceylon, no writings in Pali can be dated before the nth century of our era.
Though now on the way to extinction, Cycadeae are still widely represented in the southern hemisphere by genera which, however, have no counterpart in the Mesozoic era.
It confirms the general belief on geological grounds that this was the seat of their development at the close of the Mesozoic era.
The Jews have always been, however, an intensely literary people, and the books ultimately accepted as canonical were only a selection from the literature in existence at the beginning of the Christian era.
The last member of it, Simon the Just (either Simon I., who died about 300 B.C., or Simon II., who died about 200 B.C.), was the first of the next series, called Elders, represented in the tradition by pairs of teachers, ending with Hillel and Shammai about the beginning of the Christian era.
While the influence of the great prophets Elijah and Elisha is clearly visible, it is instructive to find that the south, too, has its 'share in the inauguration of the new era.
With Nehemiah and Ezra we enter upon the era in which a new impulse gave to Jewish life and thought that form which became the characteristic orthodox Judaism.
- With the failure in 135 of the attempt led by Barcochebas to free Judaea from Roman domination a new era begins in the history of the Jews.
Throughout Europe the 18th century was less an era of stagnation than of transition.
initiated in Austria a new era for the Jews.
(1780-1790) inaugurated a new era for the Jews of his empire.
Soon after his accession he abolished the distinctive Jewish dress, abrogated the poll-tax, admitted the Jews to military service and their children to the public schools, and in general opened the era of emancipation by the Toleranzpatent of 1782.
ascended the throne in that year, and though the constitution of 1849 recognized the principle of religious liberty, an era of reaction supervened, especially when " the concordat of 1855 delivered Austria altogether into the hands of the clericals."
Kossuth succeeded in granting them temporary emancipation, but the suppression of the War of Independence led to an era of royal autocracy which, while it advanced Jewish culture by enforcing the establishment of modern schools, retarded the obtaining of civic and political rights.
There are also several of the Martello towers of the Napoleonic era.
The comparative evidence afforded by the discovery of Egyptian relics shows that the Great Age of the Cretan palaces covers the close of the third and the first half of the second millennium before our era.
The period of decline referred to above (Late Minoan III.), which begins about the beginning of the 14th century before our era, must, from the abundance of its remains, have been of considerable duration.
In the extreme east and west of the island the aboriginal Eteocretan" element, however, as represented respectively by the Praesians or Cydonians, still held its own, and inscriptions written in Greek characters show that the old language survived to the centuries immediately preceding the Christian era.
During the wild era of speculation which followed (especially in 1832 - upon the opening of the Chickasaw Cession to settlement) a large number of banks and railroad corporations with banking privileges were chartered.
It may be divided into three parts: that contracted between 1848 and 1861 for the construction of roads, railways and canals; that contracted during the Civil War for other than war purposes; and that contracted during the Reconstruction era, nominally in the form of loans to railway companies.
Syriac is the eastern dialect of the Aramaic language which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
The period from about 1880 has been an era of boundary-making in Asia, of defining the politicogeographical limits of empire, and of determining the responsibilities of government.
It is interesting to observe, as will be shown later, that during the Mesozoic era there was a land-mass in the north of Asia and another in the south, and between them lay the sea in which ordinary marine sediments were deposited.
But there is positive evidence that much of the north and east of Asia has been land since the Palaeozoic era, and it has been conclusively proved that the peninsula of India has never been beneath the sea since the Carboniferous period at least.
Between these ancient land masses lies an area in which marine deposits of Mesozoic age are well developed and which was evidently beneath the sea during the greater part of the Mesozoic era.
Excepting in the extreme north, where marine Jurassic and Cretaceous fossils have been found, there is no evidence that this part of Siberia has been beneath the sea since the early part of the Palaeozoic era.
After the Christian era it was accompanied by Chinese Buddhism.
Soon after the Christian era central Asia began to boil over, and at least seven great.
On the contrary there have been 20 dynasties since the Christian era.
In the 16th century a new era began with the discovery by the Portuguese of the route to India round the Cape, and the naval powers of Europe started one after another on careers of oriental conquest.
These in their turn migrated to other settlements and were replaced, about the end of the 5th century of our era, by Slavonic tribes, the Wilzi and the Pomerani.
To begin with a comparatively small, though not unimportant, matter, Pasteur's discoveries on fermentation inaugurated a new era in the brewing and wine-making industries.
The restoration of peace to Europe, and the re-enactment of the Corn Laws in 1815, mark the beginning of another era in the history of agriculture.
This era of revival was not, however, without its calamities.
Her insular position, continuity of political development and freedom from domestic broils played an important part in bringing about a steady and continuous growth of industry and manufactures for several generations before the modern era.
As early as the 5th century of the Christian era we find mention made of these historical traditions in the work of an Armenian author, Moses of Chorene (according to others, he lived in the 7th or 8th century).
Palaeozoic Era >>
Medieval Christian synchronists make Cuchulinn's death take place about the beginning of the Christian era.
The occurrence of weevils - among the most specialized of the Coleoptera - in Triassic rocks shows us that this great order of metabolous insects had become differentiated into its leading families at the dawn of the Mesozoic era, and that we must go far back into the Palaeozoic for the origin of the Endopterygota.
This Egyptian picture was said to date from the time of the third or fourth dynasty, some three thousand years before the Christian era.
The series of native inscriptions, written in Aramaic, begins a few years after; the earliest bears the date 304 of the Seleucid era, i.e.
Dates were reckoned by the Seleucid era, which began in October 312 B.C.
It seems to have continued to flourish down into the Christian era; remains of its ecclesiastical buildings still exist.
For five centuries before the Christian era cotton was largely used in the domestic manufactures of India; and the clothing of the inhabitants then consisted, as now, chiefly of garments made from this vegetable product.
He had faced difficult problems with independence and yet he had been able to inaugurate something of an " era of good feeling."
The faulting which formed the depressions is certainly later than the deposition of the Cretaceous beds and probably belongs to the later portion of the Tertiary era.
To the north of Aleppo and Antioch live remnants of pre-Aramaean stocks, mixed with many half-settled and settled Turkomans (Yuruks, Avshars, &c.) who came in before the Mahommedan era, and here and there colonies of recently imported Circassians.
Over against its want of originality must be set the fact, not merely that Syrian culture ultimately spread extensively towards the West, but that the Syrians (as is shown by the inscriptions of Teima, &c.) long before the Christian era exercised over the northern Arabs a perceptible influence which afterwards, about the beginning of the r st century, became much stronger through the kingdom of the Nabataeans.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
The general historical situation, also, presupposed or referred to, is that of the period from the year 200 B.C. to the beginning of our era; in particular, the familiar references to kings as a part of the social system, and to social dislocations (servants and princes changing places, x.
The probability is that the book had received the stamp of popular approbation before the end of the 1st century of our era, and the leading men did not dare to reject it.
Their conversion from paganism took and Super- place during the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries of our era.
Hindus appear to have settled in Sumatra and Java as early as the 4th century of our era, and to have continued to exercise sway over the native populations for many centuries.
To the modern reader the importance of the Therapeutae, as of the Essenes, lies in the evidence they afford of the existence of the monastic system long before the Christian era.
The year 1512 marks the beginning of a new era.
To the " Pelasgic " era may perhaps be referred (with Curtius and MilchhSfer) the immense double terrace on the north-eastern Pnyx.
While modern research has added considerably to our knowledge of prehistoric Athens, a still greater light has been thrown on the architecture and topography of the city in the earlier historic or " archaic " era, the subsequent age of Athenian greatness, and the period of decadence which set in with the Macedonian conquest; the first extends from the dawn of history to 480-479 B.C., when the city was destroyed by the Persians; the second, or classical, age closes in 322 B.C., when Athens lost its political independence after the Lamian War; the third, or Hellenistic, in 146 B.C., when the state fell under Roman protection.
The age of the Peisistratids (560-511 B.C.) marked an era in the history of Athenian topography.
The era of decadence, of honorary statues and fulsome inscriptions, began.
In the Elizabethan era and afterwards mentions abound; see the works of Shakespeare, Sidney, Ben Jonson, Drayton, Warner, A.
From the close of the 17th century a long era of conflict ensued between the Chinese and the aborigines.
The people seemed to regard the American flag as the harbinger of a new era.
7) Amalek is mentioned among the enemies of Israel - just as Greek writers of the 6th century of this era applied the old term Scythians to the Goths (Noldeke), - and the traditional hostility between Saul and Amalek is reflected still later in the book of Esther where Haman the Agagite is pitted against Mordecai the Benjamite.
A new era followed the erection of the laboratories at Bonn and Berlin according to the plans of A.
The one pleasing aspect of his life is his patronage of the arts, and in his days a new architectural era was initiated in Rome with the coming of Bramante.
In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had become the companion, the friend and the defender of man and his home; and in the and century of the Christian era Arrian wrote that "there is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and ensnaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical assaults of robbers at sea and the victorious naval engagements of the Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis."
The era of the great councils of the 15th century was closed; the constitution of the Church remained monarchical.
1 In the early decades of the Christian era the text was current in two forms, which are denoted by H a and H R in this article and in the edition of the text published by the Oxford University Press.
In the 2nd century of the Christian era we find a marked change with respect to the institution of slavery, both in the region of thought and in that of law.
A new era was opened up by the discovery of the course of the Congo by H.
The heterodox movements in Italy in the 13th and 14th centuries, such as those of the Segarellists, Dolcinists, and Fraticelli of every description, were penetrated with Joachimism; while such independent spirits as Roger Bacon, Arnaldus de Villa Nova and Bernard Dblicieux often comforted themselves with the thought of the era of justice and peace promised by Joachim.
He stands at the meetingpoint between the old world and the new era which begins with Zoroaster.
This, in its turn, may be too high: but, in any case, Zoroaster belongs to a prehistoric era.
Jews seem to have entered eagerly into the larger intellectual life of the last three centuries before the beginning of our era.
Like a true Hegelian he saw three stages in the development of labour: the ancient and feudal period, which, through the subjection of the labourer, sought solidarity without freedom; the reign of capital and the middle classes, established in 1789, which sought freedom by destroying solidarity; and the new era, beginning in 1848, which would reconcile solidarity with freedom by introducing the principle of association.
But the wars with Russia and other Christian powers, and the different risings of the Greeks and Servians, helped to stimulate the feelings of animosity and contempt entertained towards them by the ruling race; and the promulgation of the Tanzimat undoubtedly heralded for the subject nationalities the dawn of a new era.
The Treaty of Paris was regarded as opening a new era in the progress of Turkey.
The New Era.
The era of the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars falls into two main divisions, the first of which (1792-1801) is dealt with under the heading French Revolutionary Wars.
References in the Jewish Talmud show that this city still continued to exist at and after the commencement of our era; but according to Arabian writers, at the time when the Arab city of Bagdad was founded by the caliph Mansur, there was nothing on that site except an old convent.
There is, further, the objection that no distinctive crisis in the agricultural era can be associated with the date of the Passover.
Some centuries before the Christian era, immigrants from the east coast of India began to exert a powerful influence over Cambodia, into which they introduced Brahmanism and the Sanskrit language.
there begins a dynasty which embraces the zenith of Khmer greatness and the era during which the great Brahman monuments were built.
The peach has not, it is true, been found wild in China, but it has been cultivated there from time immemorial; it has entered into the literature and folk-lore of the people; and it is designated by a distinct name, "to" or "tao," a word found in the writings of Confucius five centuries before Christ, and even in other writings dating from the 10th century before the Christian era.
While the peach has been cultivated in China for thousands of years, the almond does not grow wild in that country and its introduction is supposed not to go back farther than the Christian era.
There were many Jewish settlers in Melos in the beginning of the Christian era, and Christianity was early introduced.
The results of Omars research werea revised edition of the Zif or astronomical tables, and the introduction of the Tarikh-i-Malikshahi or JalalI, that is, the so-called Jalalian or SeljUk era, which commences in A.H.
During the Roman period the ancient Carthaginians of Phoenician origin and the bastard population termed by ancient authors Libyo-Phoenicians, like the modern Maltese, invariably formed the predominant population of the towns on the littoral, and retained the Punic language until the 6th century of the Christian era.
East of the old Seljuk capital is Giaur Kalah, the Mer y of the Nestorian era and the capital of the Arab princes.
These must one and all be cleared away before we can enter on that era of universal peace towards the attainment of which the tsar of Russia declared, in his famous circular of 1898, the efforts of all governments should be directed.
There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.
was a great builder, and, in the prosperous era which followed his son's accession to the throne, the town reached the open valley to the south, with the Cowgate as its chief thoroughfare.
in 1513, along with other disastrous results of the battle of Flodden, brought this era of prosperity to an abrupt close.
Then succeeded the era of Scott's Marmion and The Lady of the Lake, followed by the Waverley novels and the foundation of Blackwood's Magazine and the Edinburgh Review.
Few memorials of the Roman era 2 or of the first centuries of Christianity have been preserved (except the legend of St Ansanus), and none at all of the interval preceding the Lombard period.
A new era was opened by E.
In Scotus Erigena, at the beginning of the Scholastic era, there is no such subordination contemplated, because philosophy and theology in his work are in implicit unity.
The chief events of his administration, which has been called the " era of good feeling," were the Seminole War (1817-18); the acquisition of the Floridas from Spain (1819-21); the "Missouri Compromise " (1820), by which the first conflict over slavery under the constitution was peacefully adjusted; the veto of the Cumberland Road Bill (1822) 1 on constitutional grounds; and - most 1 The Cumberland (or National) Road from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, West Virginia, was projected in 1806, by an appropriation of 1819 was extended to the Ohio River, by an act of 1825 (signed by Monroe on the last day of his term of office) was continued to Zanesville, and by an act of 1829 was extended westward from Zanesville.
Rakoczy also did much for education and civilization generally, and their era has justly been called the golden era of Transylvania.
This era of repression corresponds roughly with the reign of Leopold I.
In polite literature the heroic poem Zrinyidsz (1651), descriptive of the fall of Sziget, by Nicholas Zrinyi, grandson of the defender of that fortress, marks a new era in Hungarian poetry.
His plays bear a distinctive national character, the subjects of most of them referring to the golden era of the country.
The earliest Indian mathematician of whom we have certain knowledge is Aryabhatta, who flourished about the beginning of the 6th century of our era.
A chief merit of Ray is to have limited the term " species " and to have assigned to Ray it the significance which it bore till the Darwinian era, whereas previously it was loosely and vaguely applied.
3 By Syriac is denoted the dialect of Aramaic which, during the early centuries of the Christian era, prevailed in Mesopotamia and the adjoining regions.
From Christian writers we learn that Harran continued to be a seat of pagan worship and culture down to and even later than the Mahommedan era.
a Such tasselled or fringed caps were used by the Syrians in the Christian era, see W.
Each play has an argument in metre by Sulpicius Apollinaris (2nd century of our era).
Starting from these men arose a school of physicians who endeavoured to give to the study of symptoms the same precision as belonged to anatomical observations, and by the combination of both methods made a new era in clinical medicine.
In the other German schools, though some great names might be found, as Moritz Heinrich Romberg (1795-1873), the founder of the modern era in the study of nervous diseases, the general spirit was scholastic and the result barren till the teaching of one man, whom the modern German physicians generally regard as the regenerator of scientific medicine in their country, made itself felt.
The Norman era closes with the death of Stephen in 1154.
In the first centuries of our era the art of glassmaking was developed at Rome and other cities under Roman rule in a most remarkable manner, and it reached a point of FIG.
A few small vessels have been found in the " topes," as in that at Manikiala in the Punjab, which probably dates from about the Christian era; but they exhibit no remarkable character, and fragments found at Brahmanabad are hardly distinguishable from Roman glass of the imperial period.
This apocalypse is of very great importance, on account of its very full treatment of the theological questions rife in the latter half of the 1st century of the Christian era.
Kohler (Kohut Memorial Volume, 18 97, pp. 264-338) has given good grounds for regarding the whole work, with the exception of some interpolations, as "one of the most remarkable productions of the pre-Christian era, explicable only when viewed in the light of Hasidean practice."
Though apocalyptic served its purpose in the opening centuries of the Christian era, it must be confessed that in many of its aspects its office is transitory, as they belong not to the essence of Christian thought.
It may belong, however, to the 2nd or 3rd centurie of the Christian era.
Grape-stones have been found among the remains of Swiss and Italian lake dwellings of the Bronze period, and others in tufaceous volcanic deposits near Montpellier, not long before the historic era.
- About the 1st century of the Christian era a new kingdom grew up at Axum, of which a king Zoscales is mentioned in the Periplus Marls Erythraei.
20, has an inaccurate notice from Nearchus of the Indian honey-bearing reed, and various classical writers of the first century of our era notice the sweet sap of the Indian reed or even the granulated saltlike product which was imported from India, or from Arabia and Opone (these being entrepots of Indian trade), 1 under the name of saccharum or aaKxape (from Skr.
Their increase in number and power was particularly rapid in the time of Edward III., whose reign marks an era of industrial progress.
Berzelius hailed this discovery as marking the dawn of a new era in organic chemistry, and proposed for benzoyl the names "Proin" or "Orthrin" (from irpcoi and dpOpus).
In the south of Arabia, where an advanced civilization existed for centuries before the Christian era, the ruins of castles and city-walls are still in existence, and have been mentioned, though not examined carefully, by several travellers.
The connexion with Palestine has always been close; and the Abyssinian settlement is probably as late as the beginning of the Christian era.
section Antiquities above), which have done service both by their own indication of a great civilization in Arabia for nearly (or more than) a thousand years before the Christian era, and by the new stimulus which they gave to the study and appreciation of the materials in the Assyrian inscriptions, the Old Testament, and the Greek and Roman writers.
His Hebrew Grammar inaugurated a new era in biblical philology.
The story of Vienna begins in the earliest years of the Christian era, with the seizure of the Celtic settlement of Vindomina by the Romans, who changed its name to Vindobona, and established a fortified camp here to command the Danube and protect the northern frontier of the empire.
A new era of power and splendour begins in 1276, when it became the capital of the Habsburg dynasty, after the defeat of Ottacar by Rudolph of Habsburg.
Now the new era begins, and even the heathen do homage to Yahweh by bringing due tribute to the annual feast of tabernacles.
In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them.
He is remembered through the Creevey Papers, published in 1903 under the editorship of Sir Herbert Maxwell, which, consisting partly of Creevey's own journals and partly of correspondence, give a lively and valuable picture of the political and social life of the late Georgian era, and are characterized by an almost Pepysian outspokenness.
Several centuries before the Christian era the name Jhvh had ceased to be commonly used by the Jews.
The tradition that the utterance of the name in the daily benedictions ceased with the death of Simeon the Just, two centuries or more before the Christian era, perhaps arose from a misunderstanding of Menalioth, 109b; in any case it cannot stand against the testimony of older and more authoritative texts.
SEVEN WONDERS OF THE WORLD, the name conferred on a select group of ancient works of art which had obtained pre-eminence among the sight-seers of the Alexandrian era.
Its strategic importance was early recognized by the Romans, and about 13 B.C. Drusus, the son-in-law of Augustus, erected a fortified camp here, to which the castellum Mattiacorum (the modern Castel) on the opposite bank was afterwards added, the two being connected with a bridge at the opening of the Christian era.
Duff wrote a pamphlet on the question, entitled "A New Era of the English Language and Literature in India."
At the beginning of the Christian era, and for many previous centuries, no eruption had been known to take place from the mountain, and the volcanic nature of the locality was perhaps not even suspected by the inhabitants who planted their vineyards along its fertile slopes, and built their numerous villages and towns around its base.
From his account and other references in classical authors we gather that in the first century of the Christian era, and probably for hundreds of years before that time, the sides of the mountain were richly cultivated, as they are still, the vineyards being of extraordinary fertility.
In other dialects, however, it had been palatalized to a sibilant before i-sounds some time before the Christian era; e.g.
Many inscriptions of the Christian era have been found, some as late even as the 7th century.
Excavations around the cathedral have incontestably proved that Frankfort-on-Main (Trajectum ad Moenum) was a settlement in Roman times and was probably founded in the 1st century of the Christian era.
If the calculation be carried farther backas has been done by the seismic disaster investigation committee of Japan, a body of scientists constantly engaged in studying these phenomena under government auspices,it is found that, since the countrys history began to be written in the 8th century AD,, there have been 2006 major disturbances; but inasmuch as 1489 of these occurred before the beginning of the Tokugawa administration (early in the 17th century, and therefore in an era when methods of recording were comparatively defective), exact details are naturally lacking.
During the whole of the Mesozoic era Japan appears to have lain on or near the margin of the Asiatic continent, and the marine deposits are confined for the most part to the eastern side of the islands.
During the first 40 years of the Meiji era numerous meteorological stations were established.
As far back as the beginning of the Christian era the Japanese and the Koreans could not hold intercourse without the aid of interpreters.
These compilations together with the Nikon Gwaishi (History of Japan Outside the Court), written by Rai Sanyo and published in I827~ constituted the chief sources of historical knowledge before the Meiji era.
But it was not until the Meiji era that history, in the modern sense of the tei~m, began to be written.
During the medieval era of internecine strife the Buddhist priests were the sole depositaries of literary talent, and seeing that, from the close of the 14th century, the ShintO mime (Kagura) was largely employed by the military class to invo,~ce or acknowledge the assistance of the gods, the monks of Buddha set themselves to compose librettos for this mime, and the performance, thus modified, received the name of NO.
Apart from philosophical researches and the development of the drama, as above related, the Tokugawa era is remarkable for folk-lore, moral discourses, fiction and a peculiar form of poetry.
They are charmingly simple and graceful, and they have been rendered into English again and again since the beginning of the Meiji era.
The translator was Tsubouchi Shyo, one of the greatest writers of the Meiji era.
As illustrating the rapid development of familiarity with foreign authors, a Japanese retrospect of the Meiji era notes that whereas Macaulays Esfays were ii the curriculum of the Imperial University in 1881-1882, they were studied, five or six years later, in secondary schools, and pupils of the latter were able to read with understanding the works of Goldsmith, Tennyson and Thackeray.
Accurate reviewers of the era have divided it into periods of two or three years each, according to the various groups of foreign authors that were in vogue, and every year sees a large addition to the number of Japanese who study the masterpieces of Western literature in the original.
During the three years tha separated the death of the Shimbun-shi from the birth of the Meij era (October 1867) no less than ten quasi-journals made thei appearance.
Thenceforth the great majority of the newspapers and periodicals ranged themselves under the flag of this or that Era of party.
An era of embittered polemics ensued.
The palace of the Ashikaga shoguns then replaced the Imperial court as the centre of patronage of art and literature and established a new era in art history.
Down to the end of this era painting was entirely in the hands of a patrician castecourtiers, priests, feudal nobles and their military retainers, all men of high education and gentle birth, living in a polished circle.
A new era in art began in the latter half of the 17th century with the establishment of a popular school under an embroiderers draughtsman named Hishigawa Moronobu (c. I64&- Fourth 1713).
It was the era of the artisan artist.
As to the former, the Japanese method does not differ from that seen in the beautiful iron censers and vases inlaid with gold which the Chinese produced from the Snen-tl era (1426-1436).
It is a golden yellow bronze, called seniokuthis being the Japanese pronunciation of Suen-t, the era of the Ming dynasty of China when this compound was invented.
This departure from established canons must be traced to the influence of the short-lived academy of Italian art established by the Japanese government early in the Meiji era.
CeramicsAll research proves that up to the 12th century of the Christian era the ceramic ware produced in Japan was of a very rude character.
Thus, in the early years of the Meiji era, there was a period of complete prostitution.
Ninsei, in the middle of the 17th century, inaugurated a long era of beautiful productions with his cream-like fish-roe eraquel glazes, carrying jrich decoration of clear and brilliant vitrifiable enamels.
aim being to rival the Sung Chien-yao, with its glaze Tokyo of mirror-black or ravenii-wing green, and its leveret era in s S.
But the Meiji era has had its Zeshin, and it had in 1909 Shirayama Fukumatsu, Kawanabe ltchO, Ogawa ShOmin, Uematsu HOmin, Shibayama SOichi, Morishita Morihachi and other lesser experts, all masters in designing and execution.
The only branch of the lacquerers art that can be said to have shown any marked development in the Meiji era is that in which parts of the decorative scheme consist of objects in gold, silver, shakudo, shibuichi, iron, or, above all, ivory or mother- N
There followed then a period of gradual decline, and the enamels exported to Europe showed so much inferiority that they were supposed to be the products of a widely different era and of different makers.
Communications.From the conditions actually existing in the 8th century after the Christian era the first compilers of Japanese history inferred the conditions which might Roads and have existed in the 7th century before that era.
These evidences of civilization did not make their appearance until the first great era of Japanese reform, the Taika period (645650), when stations were established along the principal highways, provision was made of post-horses, and a system of bells and checks was devised for distinguishing official carriers.
There is little or no physical difference between them and the typical Abyssinians, except perhaps that their eyes are a little more oblique; and they may certainly be regarded as Hamitic. It is uncertain when they became Jews: one account suggests in Solomon's time; another, at the Babylonian captivity; a third, during the 1st century of the Christian era.
It created a new era in periodical criticism, and assumed from the commencement a wider range and more elevated tone than any of its predecessors.
The weekly New Era (1904-1905) was succeeded by the South African Magazine (1906-1907); both were edited by C. H.
From 1701 commenced a new era for the Journal, which was then acquired by the chancellor de Pontchartrain for the state and placed under the direction of a commission of learned men.
A new era in German periodical literature began when Bertuch brought out at Jena in 1785 the Allgemeine Literaturzeitung, to which the leading writers of the country were contributors.
Similar changes had taken place in some of the local dialects of Italy before the Christian era.
In the early centuries of the Christian era the Zuider (i.e.
Like Varro, he survived Cicero by some years, but the tone and spirit in which his works are written assign him to the republican era.
The Augustan age was one of those great eras in the world like the era succeeding the Persian War in Greece, the Elizabethan age in England, and the beginning of the 19th Lk y.
Its execution was the work of a life prolonged through the languor and dissolution following so soon upon the promise of the new era, during which time the past became glorified by contrast with the disheartening aspect of the present.
This fourth period is itself subdivided into three divisions: (I) from the accession of Tiberius to the death of Nero, 68 - the most important part of it being the Neronian age, 54 to 68; (2) the Flavian era, from the death of Nero to the death of Domitian, 96; (3) the reigns of Nerva and Trajan and part of the reign of Hadrian.
(e) The period of discovery and colonization opened up a new era for migration.
Christianity was introduced in the 3rd century of our era.
The Jews had no general era, properly so called.
In the history of Babylonia, the fixed point from which time was reckoned was the era of Nabonassar, 747 B.C. Among the Greeks the reckoning was by Olympiads, the point of departure being the year in which Coroebus was victor in the Olympic Games, 776 B.C. The Roman chronology started from the foundation of the city, the year of which, however, was variously given by different authors.
The most generally adopted was that assigned by Varro, 753 B.C. It is noteworthy how nearly these three great epochs approach each other, - all lying near the middle of the 8th century B.C. But it is to be remembered that the beginning of an era and its adoption and use as such are not the same thing, nor are they necessarily synchronous.
Of the three ancient eras above spoken of, the earliest is that of the Olympiads, next that of the foundation of Rome, and the latest the era of Nabonassar.
It is not known when the Romans began to use their era.
Even after the adoption in Europe of the Christian era, a great variety of methods of dating - national, provincial and ecclesiastical - grew up and prevailed for a long time in different countries, thus renewing in modern times the difficulties experienced in ancient times from diversities of reckoning.
It will be sufficient here to point out in general terms the import of the message of archaeological discovery in the Victorian Era in its bearings upon the great problems of world-history.
On the contrary, the champions of the tradition that the earth was less than six thousand years old held their ground most tenaciously, and the earlier years of the Victorian era were years of bitter controversy.
If we go back in imagination to the beginning of the Victorian era and ask what was then known of the history of Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia and Asia Minor, we find ourselves confronted with a startling paucity of knowledge.
It would have been a bold, not to say a reckless, dreamer who dared predict that any future researches could restore to us the lost knowledge that had been forgotten for more than two millenniums. Yet the Victorian era was scarcely ushered in before the work of rehabilitation began, which was to lead to the most astounding discoveries and to an altogether unprecedented extension of historical knowledge.
Indeed, approximate accuracy is not attained until we are within sixteen hundred years of our own era; but the sequence of events of a period preceding this by two thousand years is well established, and the recent discoveries of Professor Petrie carry back the record to a period which cannot well be less than five thousand, perhaps not less than six thousand years B.C. Both from Egypt and Mesopotamia, then, the records of the archaeologist have brought us evidence of the existence of a highly developed civilization for a period exceeding by hundreds, perhaps by thousands, of years the term which had hitherto been considered the full period of man's existence.
As Professor Mahaffy has suggested, the era of the Pyramids may have been the veritable autumn of civilization.
The only fragments of Greek manuscripts antedating the Christian era that have been preserved to us have been found in Egypt, where a hospitable climate granted them a term of existence not to be hoped for elsewhere.
But it is necessary to notice here the different Eras and Periods that have been employed by historians, and by the different nations of the world, in recording the succession of time and events, to fix the epochs at which the eras respectively commenced, to ascertain the form and the initial day of the year made use of, and to establish their correspondence with the years of the Christian era.
These elements will enable us to convert, by a simple arithmetical operation, any historical date, of which the chronological characters are given according to any era whatever, into the corresponding date in the Christian era.
It consists of 7980 Julian years; and the first year of the Christian era corresponded with the year 4714 of the Julian period.
The games in which Coroebus was victor, and which form the principal epoch of Greek history, were celebrated about the time of the summer solstice 776 years before the common era of the Incarnation, in the 3938th year of the Julian period, and twentythree years, according to the account of Varro, before the foundation of Rome.
Some authors, however, among whom are Eusebius, Jerome and the historian Socrates, place its commencement at the 1st of September; these, however, appear to have confounded the Olympic year with the civil year of the Greeks, or the era of the Seleucidae.
It is material to observe, that as the Olympic years and periods begin with the 1st of July, the first six months of a year of our era correspond to one Olympic year, and the last six months to another.
In referring dates expressed by Olympiads to our era, or the contrary, we must therefore distinguish two cases.
The year of the era, therefore, will be found by subtracting the number of the Olympic year from 776.
For example, Varro refers the foundation of Rome to the 21st of April of the third year of the sixth Olympiad, and it is required to find the year before our era.
Thus, the moon was eclipsed on the 27th of August, a little before midnight,' in the year 413 before our era; and it is required.
to find the corresponding year in the Olympic era.
If the year is after Christ, and the event took place in one of the first six months of the Olympic year, that is to say, between July and January, we must subtract 776 from the number of the Olympic year to find the corresponding year of our era; but if it took place in one of the last six months of the Olympic year, or between January and July, we must deduct 777.
The computation by Olympiads seldom occurs in historical records after the middle of the 5th century of our era.
Era of the Foundation of Rome.
Now this consulship corresponded with the 238th year of our era; therefore, deducting 238 from 991, we have 753 to denote the year before Christ.
The consulate is the date employed by the Latin historians generally, and by many of the Greeks, down to the 6th century of our era.
In the era of Rome the commencement of the year is placed at the 21st of April; an event therefore which happened in the months of January, February, March, or during the first twenty days of April, in the year (for example) 500 of Rome, belongs to the civil year 501.
The Christian Era.
- The Christian or vulgar era, called also the era of the Incarnation, is now almost universally employed in Christian countries, and is even used by some Eastern nations.
In the Christian era the years are simply distinguished by the cardinal numbers; those before Christ being marked B.C. (Before Christ), or A.C. (Ante Christum), and those after Christ A.D.
For, since the commencement of the era is placed at an intermediate period of history, we are compelled to resort to a double manner of reckoning, backward as well as forward.
Astronomers denote the year which preceded the first of our era by o, and the year previous to that by 1 B.C.; but chronologers, in conformity with common notions, call the year preceding the era 1 B.C., the previous year 2 B.C., and so on.
By reckoning in this manner, there is an interruption in the regular succession of the numbers; and in the years preceding the era, the leap years, instead of falling on the fourth, eighth, twelfth, &c., fall, or ought to fall, on the first, fifth, ninth, &c.
Dionysius, the author of the era, adopted the day of the Annunciation, or the 25th of March, which preceded the birth of Christ by nine months, as the commencement of the first year of the era.
This epoch therefore precedes that of the vulgar era by nine months and seven days.
Various computations were made at different times, from Biblical sources, as to the age of the world; and Des Vignoles, in the preface to his Chronology of Sacred History, asserts that he collected upwards of two hundred different calculations, the shortest of which reckons only 3483 years between the creation of the world and the commencement of the vulgar era and the longest 6984.
The so-called era of the creation of the world is therefore a purely conventional and arbitrary epoch; practically, it means the year 4004 B.C., - this being the date which, under the sanction of Archbishop Usher's opinion, won its way, among its hundreds of competitors, into general acceptance.
Buccherius places the beginning of this cycle in the year 162 B.C.; Prideaux in the year 291 B.C. According to the account of Prideaux, the fifth cycle must have begun in the year 46 of our era; and it was in this year, according to St Prosperus, that the Christians began to employ the Jewish cycle of eighty-four years, which they followed, though not uniformly, for the regulation of Easter, till the time of the Council of Nice.
This improvement was first proposed by Rabbi Samuel, rector of the Jewish school of Sora in Mesopotamia, and was finally accomplished in the year 360 of our era by Rabbi Hillel, who introduced that form of the year which the Jews at present follow, and which, they say, is to endure till the coming of the Messiah.
Till the 15th century the Jews usually followed the era of the Seleucidae or of Contracts.
Since that time they have generally employed a mundane era, and dated from the creation of the world, which, according to their computation, took place 3760 years and about three months before the beginning of our era.
This era, which is still used in the Greek Church, and was followed by the Russians till the time of Peter the Great, dates from the creation of the world.
The Incarnation falls in the year 5509, and corresponds, as in our era, with the fourth year of the 194th Olympiad.
At the commencement of our era there had elapsed 5508 years and four months of the era of Constantinople.
In order, therefore, to find the year of Christ corresponding to any given year in the era of Constantinople, we have the following rule: If the event took place between the 1st of January and the end of August subtract 5508 from the given year; but if it happened between the ist of September and the end of the year, subtract 5509.
But in reducing Alexandrian dates to the common era it must be observed that Julius Africanus placed the epoch of the Incarnation three years earlier than it is placed in the usual reckoning, so that the initial day of the Christian era fell in the year 5503 of the Alexandrian era.
however, continued only from the introduction of the era till the accession of Diocletian, when an alteration was made by dropping ten years in the Alexandrian account.
The Alexandrian era continued to be followed by the Copts in the 15th century, and is said to be still used in Abyssinia.
Dates expressed according to this era are reduced to the common era by subtracting 5502, up to the Alexandrian year 57 86 inclusive, and after that year by subtracting 5492; but if the date belongs to one of the four last months of the Christian year, we must subtract 5503 till the year 5786, and 5493 after that year.
The chronological reckoning of Julius Africanus formed also the basis of the era of Antioch, which was adopted by the Christians of Syria, at the instance of Panodorus, an Egyptian monk, who flourished about the beginning of the 4th century.
Panodorus struck off ten years from the account of Julius Africanus with regard to the years of the world, and he placed the Incarnation three years later, referring it to the fourth year of the 194th Olympiad, as in the common era.
Hence the era of Antioch differed from the original era of Alexandria by ten years; but after the alteration of the latter at the accession of Diocletian, the two eras coincided.
In reckoning from the Incarnation, however, there is a difference of seven years, that epoch being placed, in the reformed era of Alexandria, seven years later than in the mundane era of Antioch or in the Christian era.
As the Syrian year began in autumn, the year of Christ corresponding to any year in the mundane era of Antioch is found by subtracting 5492 or 5493 according as the event falls between January and September or from September to January.
This era is famous in astronomy, having been generally followed by Hipparchus and Ptolemy.
On account of the difference in the length of the Julian and Babylonian years, the conversion of dates according to the era of Nabonassar into years before Christ is attended with considerable trouble.
The Greeks of Alexandria formerly employed the era of Nabonassar, with a year of 365 days; but soon after the reformation of the calendar of Julius Caesar, they adopted, like other Roman provincials, the Julian intercalation.
In the year 136 of our era, the first of Thoth in the ancient Egyptian year corresponded with the 10th of July, between which and the 29th of August there are forty days.
The adoption of the Julian year must therefore have taken place about 160 years before the year 136 of our era (the difference between the Egyptian and Julian years being one day in four years), that is to say, about the year 25 B.C. In fact, the first of Thoth corresponded with the 29th of August in the Julian calendar, in the years 25, 24, 23 and 22 B.C.
The era of the Seleucidae dates from the time of the occupation of Babylon by Seleucus Nicator, 311 years before Christ, in the year of Rome 44 2, and twelve years after the death of Alexander the Great.
By the Jews it was called the Era of Contracts, because the Syrian governors compelled them to make use of it in civil contracts; the writers of the books of Maccabees, call it the Era of Kings.
The author of the first book of Maccabees makes the era commence with the month Nisan, or April; and the author of the second book with the first Tishrin, or October.
Some authors who follow the Macedonian era, use the Egyptian or vague year of 365 days; Albategni adopts the Julian year of 3654 days.
According to the computation most generally followed, the year 312 of the era of the Seleucidae began on the ist of September in the Julian year preceding the first of our era.
Some of the Greek historians have assumed as a chronological epoch the death of Alexander the Great, in the year 325 B.C. The form of the year is the same as in the preceding era.
This era has not been much followed; but it requires to be noticed in order that it may not be confounded with the era of the Seleucidae.
Era of Tyre.
- The era of Tyre is reckoned from the 19th of October, or the beginning of the Macedonian month Hyperberetaeus, in the year 126 B.C. In order, therefore, to reduce it to the common era, subtract 125; and when the date is B.C., subtract it from 126.
Dates expressed according to this era occur only on a few medals, and in the acts of certain councils.
This era was established to commemorate the victory obtained by Julius Caesar on the plains of Pharsalia, on the 9th of August in the year 48 B.C., and the 706th of Rome.
According to the computation of the Greeks, the 49th year of the Caesarean era began in the autumn of the year preceding the commencement of the Christian era; and, according to the Syrians, the 49th year began in the autumn of the first year of the Incarnation.
- The Julian era begins with the ist of January, forty-five years B.C. It was designed to commemorate the reformation of the Roman calendar by Julius Caesar.
The conquest of Spain by Augustus, which was completed in the thirty-ninth year B.C., gave rise to this era, which began with the first day of the following year, and was long used in Spain and Portugal, and generally in all the Roman provinces subdued by the Visigoths, both in Africa and the South of France.
Several of the councils of Carthage, and also that of Arles, are dated according to this era.
In Portugal it is said to have been in use so late as the year 1415, or 1422, though it would seem that after the establishment of the Portuguese monarchy, no other era was used in the public acts of that country than that of the Incarnation.
As the era of Spain began with the 1st of January, and the months and days of the year are those of the Julian calendar, any date is reduced to the common era by subtracting thirty-eight from the number of the year.
This era was established to commemorate the battle of Actium, which was fought on the 3rd of September, in the year 31 B.C., and in the 15th of theJulian era.
By the Romans the era of Actium was considered as beginning on the 1st of January of the 16th of the Julian era, which is the 30th B.C. The Egyptians, who used this era till the time of Diocletian, dated its commencement from the beginning of their month Thoth, or the 29th of August; and the Eastern Greeks from the 2nd of September.
By the latter it was also called the era of Antioch, and it continued to be used till the 9th century.
It must not be confounded with the Caesarean era of Antioch, which began seventeen years earlier.
Many of the medals struck by the city of Antioch in honour of Augustus are dated according to this era.
Besides the era of Actium, there was also an Augustan era, which began four years later, or 27 B.C., the year in which Augustus prevailed on the senate and people of Rome to decree him the title of Augustus, and to confirm him in the supreme power of the empire.
It has been already stated that the Alexandrians, at the accession of the emperor Diocletian, made an alteration in their mundane era, by striking off ten years from their reckoning.
At the same time they established a new era, which is still followed by the Abyssinians and Copts.
It begins with the 29th of August (the first day of the Egyptian year) of the year 284 of our era, which was the first of the reign of Diocletian.
The denomination of Era of Martyrs, subsequently given to it in commemoration of the persecution of the Christians, would seem to imply that its commencement ought to be referred to the year 303 of our era, for it was in that year that Diocletian issued his famous edict; but the practice of dating from the accession of Diocletian has prevailed.
Hence to reduce a date according to this era to our own reckoning, it is necessary, for common years, to add 283 years and 240 days; but if the date belongs to the first three months of the year following the intercalation, or, which is the same thing, if in the third year of the Julian cycle it falls between the 30th of August and the end of the year, we must add 283 years and 241 days.
The Ethiopians do not reckon the years from the beginning of the era in a consecutive series, but employ a period of 532 years, after the expiration of which they again begin with 1.
The cycle of Indiction was very generally followed in the Roman empire for some centuries before the adoption of the Christian era.
Era of the Armenians.
- The epoch of the Armenian era is that of the council of Tiben, in which the Armenians consummated their schism from the Greek Church by condemning the acts of the council of Chalcedon; and it corresponds to Tuesday, the 9th of July of the year 552 of the Incarnation.
The Armenians also make use of the mundane era of Constantinople, and sometimes conjoin both methods of computation in the same documents.
In their correspondence and transactions with Europeans, they generally follow the era of the Incarnation, and adopt the Julian year.
To reduce the civil dates of the Armenians to the Christian era, proceed as follows.
Since the epoch is the 9th of July, there were 176 days from the beginning of the Armenian era to the end of the year J52 of our era; and since 552 was a leap year, the year 553 began a Julian intercalary period.
The era in use among the Turks, Arabs and other Mahommedan nations is that of the Hegira or Hejra, the flight of the prophet from Mecca to Medina, 622 A.D.
The era begins from the first day of the month of Muharram preceding the flight, or first day of that Arabian year which coincides with Friday, July 16, 622 A.D.
It is necessary to remember that by astronomers and by some historians the era is assigned to the preceding day, July 15.
It is stated by D'Herbelot that the era of the Hegira was instituted by Omar, the second caliph, in imitation of the Christian era of the martyrs.
Era of Yazdegerd, or Persian or Jelalaean Era.
- This era begins with the elevation of Yazdegerd III.
to the throne of Persia, on the 16th of June in the year of our era 632.
This era was at one period universally adopted in Persia, and it still continues to be followed by the Parsees of India.
We have stated that the era began with the 16th June 632.
To the year of the Persian era, therefore, add 631, and the sum will be the year of our era in which the Persian year begins.
According to this method of dating the years a new era commences with every reign; and the year corresponding to a Chinese date can only be found when we have before us a catalogue of the Nien-hao, with their relation to the years of our era.
His was especially the era of artistic development.
In any case the invasion of the Yue-Chi cannot have been very long before or very long after the Christian era, and had an important influence on Indian civilization.
In the first three centuries of the Christian era Hippo was one of the richest cities in Roman Africa; but its chief title to fame is derived from its connexion with St Augustine, who lived here as priest and bishop for thirty-five years.
When the proportion of calcium carbonate in the blue mud is considerable there results a calcareous ooze, which when found on the continental slope and in enclosed seas is largely composed of remains of deep-sea corals and bottom-living foraminif era, pelagic organisms including pteropods being less frequently represented.
Harrar is believed to owe its foundation to Arab immigrants from the Yemen in the 7th century of the Christian era.
In this year also the protectorate was extended over Unyoro and Busoga.1 In the middle of 1897 this era of peace was rudely interrupted.
If we date its rise from the 4th century B.C., at the time of the fall of Greece and the foundation of the GraecoMacedonian empire, we must look for its final dissolution in the 7th century of the Christian era, at the time of the fall of Alexandria and the rise of the Mahommedan power.
During the last century and a half before the Christian era, the school, as it might be called, began to break up and to lose its individuality.
Alexandria continued to be celebrated as a school of mathematics and science long after the Christian era.
Alexander had planted a colony of Jews who had increased in number until at the beginning of the Christian era they occupied two-fifths of the city and held some of the highest offices.
So far as the Jewish succession is concerned, the great name is that of Philo in the first century of our era.
Ashdod became the seat of a bishop early in the Christian era, but seems never to have attained any importance as a town.
The glacial era has left abundant evidences in the topography of the state.
In Massachusetts, as in New England generally, the word " town " is used, officially and colloquially, to designate a township, and during the colonial era the New England town-meeting was a notable school for education in self-government.
At the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789, David was carried away by the flood of enthusiasm that made all the intellect of France believe in a new era of equality and emancipation from all the ills of life.
Its adoption by the languages of Europe cannot apparently be traced farther back than the 4th century of our era, at which date it was employed to designate an imaginary animal living on the banks of the Euphrates.
North-east of the Palais de Justice, which like the Sadiki College is built in the Moorish style, rises the great dome, surrounded by smaller cupolas, of the largest mosque in the city, that named after Sidi Mahrez, a renowned saint of the 5th century of the Mahommedan era, whose tomb makes it a sancutary for debtors.
Vikramanka's exploits against the Hoysala kings and others, celebrated by the poet Bilhana, were held to justify him in establishing a new era dating from his accession.
Dale, p. 374 ff.) of moment for the Commonwealth era, between " Independency " as a principle and " Congregationalism " as an ideal of church polity.
A parallel is afforded by the history of Congregationalism in Scotland, which arose early in the 19th century through the evangelistic fervour of the Haldanes in an era of " moderatism "; also by the rise of the kindred Evangelical Union, shortly before the Disruption in 1843.
Under the first constitution the decentralization of administration, which began early in the colonial era, continued without interruption, and under the second it was checked by a few measures only.
At the close of the colonial era there were a court of chancery, a supreme court, circuit courts and courts of oyer and terminer which were held in the several counties by the justices of the supreme court, a court of common pleas and a court of sessions in each county, and courts held by justices of the peace in the several towns.
But from the English conquest to the close of the colonial era the chief purpose of the government with respect to education was to prepare leaders for the state church; to this end King's College was founded in 1754, and from 1704 to 1776 the other schools were principally those maintained by the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.
had abolished in 1686, and throughout the remainder of the colonial era the history of the province relates chiefly to the rise of popular government and the defence of the northern frontier.
- The Turkish Revolution of 1908 was thought, at the time, to promise an era of genuine reformation and revival for the Ottoman Empire; a few years showed that it had opened, instead, the final brief period of that empire's existence.
The chronology is still vague, since only a few very late inscriptions are dated by an era and the era itself is not certain.
The inscriptions of the latest period present a series of dates-669, 640, 582, 573, 385 - of an unknown era.
Reinaud thought of the Seleucid era, which is not impossible; but Halevy observes that the fortress of Mawiyyat (now Hisn Ghorab) bears the date 640, and is said to have been erected " when the Abyssinians overran the country and destroyed the king of Himyar and his princes."
525), Halevy fixes 115 B.C. as the epoch of the Sabaean era.
The development of the diamond mines and of the gold and coal industries - of which Brand saw the beginning - had far-reaching consequences, bringing the Boer republics into vital contact with the new industrial era.
A new era in the history of Saxony dates from 1423, the year when the emperor Sigismund bestowed the vacant electoral duchy of Saxe-Wittenberg upon Frederick, margrave of Meissen.
Frederick Augustus was succeeded in 1827 by his brother Antony, to the great disappointment of the people, who had expected a more liberal era under Prince Frederick Augustus, the king's nephew.
Organized nursing does not appear to have formed any part of medical treatment, except in so far as the deacons of the church attended on the poor, until the 4th century of the Christian era.
Aryabhata, about the beginning of the Christian era, reckoned by the same signs as Hipparchus.
The reform by which Krittika, now relegated to the third place, was superseded as the head of the series by " Agvini " 4 was accomplished under Greek influence somewhere near the beginning of the Christian era.
The refined system of astrological prediction based upon the solar zodiac was invented in Chaldaea, obtained a second home and added elaborations in Egypt, and spread irresistibly westward about the beginning of the Christian era.
Her commerce with India, China and probably Japan dates from the beginning of the Christian era or earlier, while that with Europe began in the 16th century.
In the first centuries of our era an oracle of Besas was consulted at Abydos, where A.
Little, however, was done in the science of botany, properly so called, until the 16th century of the Christian era, when the revival of learning dispelled the darkness which had long hung over Europe.
A new era dawned on botanical classification with the work of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu (1748-1836).
The secret of the enthusiasm of the masses for the analogous expression Theotokos is to be sought not so much in the Nicene doctrine of the incarnation as in the recent growth in the popular mind of notions as to the dignity of the Virgin Mary, which were entirely unheard of (except in heretical circles) for nearly three centuries of the Christian era.
All critics agree, indeed, that the Arakcheev administration was the golden era of the Russian artillery.
A new era was opened by the publication in 1857 of the second edition of Ritschl's Entstehung der altkatholischen Kirche, in which he broke away from the Tubingen school and introduced new points of view that have revolutionized the interpretation of the early church.
Thus a network of treaties was spread over Europe, leading to much great freedom of trade and opening an era of freer international exchange.
The era of moderated tariffs, which began with the great treaty of 1860, lasted for about twenty years, and was followed in Italy, Austria, Belgium, Switzerland and Spain by a reversion to protection, although usually to a less high system of protection than had prevailed before 1860.
(3) Four years later, however, in 1846, a very considerable change was secured by the South, and a new era was entered on.
In its present form it is probably not older than the latter half of the 2nd century of our era.
The introduction of the coefficients now called Laplace's, and their application, commence a new era in mathematical physics.
But with the Election of election of Michael Wisniowiecki in 1669 a new era Michael began.
Yet an era was now to follow, compared with which even the age of Sobieski seemed to be an age of gold.
Poland in short shared in the new era of milder rule which began in Russia.
1846), United States attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia in 1881-1883, and a member of the National House of Representatives in 1883-1885, wrote The End of an Era (1899) and Recollections of Thirteen Presidents (1906).
Since far back in the colonial era, no minister, preacher, or priest The General Assembly regularly elected the governor during the period 1776-1838.
In the colonial era Maryland had an interesting list of governmental subdivisions - the manor, the hundred, the parish, the county, and the city - but the two last are about all that remain and even these are in considerable measure subject to the special local acts of the General Assembly.
Before the Christian era Ghadames was a stronghold of the Observed.
The tombs date from the 5th to the 7th century of the Christian era, and lie in two distinct groups between Tiaret and Frenda, a distance of 35 m.
and printed editions is that of the Massoretic text, the date of which is usually placed somewhere between the 6th and 8th centuries of the Christian, era.
during the period immediately preceding the Christian era.
Particular states also not unfrequently introduced fixed eras, which obtained a more or less extensive currency, as the era of the first Olympiad (776 B.C.), of the foundation of Rome (753 B.C.), and of the Seleucidae at Antioch (312 B.C.), which is followed by the Jewish author of the first book of Maccabees.
Beginning of the era of the Seleucidae (reckoned from the time when Seleucus Nicator, Alexander's former heavy cavalry officer, finally established himself in the satrapy of Baby lonia.
The thoughts of men were still set upon the near approach of the end, the troublous times that would issue in the break-up of the existing order and the return of Christ to introduce a new era.
Bengel, abbot of Alpirspach (a Lutheran community), published in 1734, at Tubingen, an edition of the New Testament which marks the beginning of a new era.
Lachmann, the famous classical scholar, opened a new era in textual criticism in 1842-1850, in his N.T.
This Saturninus was the middle one of the three governors of Syria named above, and as his successor Varus must have arrived by the middle of 6 B.C. at latest (for coins of Varus are extant of the twenty-fifth year of the era of Actium), his own tenure must have fallen about 8 and 7 B.C., and his census cannot be placed later than 7 or 7-6 B.C. The independence of Tertullian's information about this census is guaranteed by the mere fact of his knowledge of the governor's name; and if there was a census about that date, it would be unreasonable not to identify it with St Luke's census of the Nativity.
Two centuries B.C. the region was occupied by the fair and blue-eyed Ussuns, who were driven away in the 6th century of our era by the northern Huns.
In these we are presented, in a condensed form, with an account of the people, the language and the civil and ecclesiastical history, as well as the agricultural and commercial state of Scotland during the first thirteen centuries of our era.
The withdrawal of Sennacherib's army, in which the doctrine of the inviolability of Zion received the most striking practical confirmation, was welcomed by Isaiah and his disciples as an earnest of the speedy inbringing of the new spiritual era.
farther) by way of the lagoon and inland channels, and is to be extended to San Carlos, farther S., as the fruit-growing industry of this region is developed Santa Marta was founded by Rodrigo de Bastidas in 1525, and became an important port and centre of trade during the Spanish colonial era.
The sedimentary deposits of the Tertiary era do not occupy a very wide area.
He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.
Although not much enforced, this, with some slight changes, continued to be the school law until the close of the colonial era.
The beginning of the new era was marked by the founding of Phillips Exeter Academy (1781), and later several other similar schools were opened.
Upon the failure of this attempt, a temporary nominal union with Massachusetts was formed, but in 1692 Samuel Allen, the assign of Mason, caused a royal government to be established with his son-in-law, John Usher, as lieutenant-governor, and during the remainder of the colonial era New Hampshire was separate from Massachusetts except that from 1699 to 1741 the two had the same governor.
During the troubles of the Reformation era, when the papal deposing power threatened to become a reality, the Gallican theory became of great importance.
Niebuhr's Roman History counts among epoch-making histories both as marking an era in the study of its special subject and for its momentous influence on the general conception of history.
Anuradhapura became the capital of Ceylon in the 5th century B.C., and attained its highest magnificence about the commencement of the Christian era.
The marble and graphite, as well as some other indirect evidence of life less susceptible of brief statement, have been thought by many geologists sufficient to warrant the inference that life existed before the close of the era when the Archean rocks were formed.
Hence the era of their formation is called the Archeozoic era.
The first of these differences between the two systems is significant of the dynamic changes suffered by the Archean before the beginning of that part of the Proterozoic era represented by known formations.
lay east of the site of the Appalachian Mountains throughout the Palaeozoic era, and quantities of sediment from it Were accumulated where these mountains were to arise later.
The site of these mountains had been, for the most part, an area of deposition throughout the Palaeozoic era, and the body of sediments which had gathered here at the western base of Appalachia, by the close of the Pennsylvanian period, was very great.
Triassic SystemThis system has but limited representation in the eastern part of the United States, being known only east of the Appalachian Mountains in an area which was land throughout most of the Palaeozoic era, hut which was deformed when the eastern mountains were developed at the close of the Palaeozoic. In the troughs formed in its surface during this time of deformation, sediments of great thickness accumulated during the Triassic period.
These great changes in the relation of land and water, and in topography, led to correspondingly great changes in life, and the combination marks the transition from the Mesozoic to the Cainozoic era.
The first newspaper, the Onondaga Gazette, was established in 1823; and in 1825 the completion of the Erie Canal opened a new era of prosperity.
The era was that of the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), and during that great upheaval England was sometimes fighting France.
It was an era of missionary zeal in the Roman Catholic church, and Canada became the favourite mission.
It was a critical era.
It was born during the era of the American Civil War, and was planned to correct defects which time had revealed in the American federation.
He arrives at it from a classification of categories, by which he here means " things stated in no combination " era KaTa pr)bEpiav avparro,c v XeyoµEva) or what we should call " names," capable of becoming predicates (KaT'gyopovpeva, Karnyopiac).
II, 77 a 31-33); in that for appropriate principles it substitutes the probabilities of authority era g vbo a) which are the opinions of all, or of the majority, or of the wise (Top. i.
This Mistake Having Been Discovered, Augustus Ordered That All The Years From The Thirtyseventh Of The Era To The Forty Eighth Inclusive Should Be Common Years, By Which Means The Intercalations Were Reduced To The Proper Number Of Twelve In Forty Eight Years.
The Discovery Of The Period Of Thirty Three Years Is Ascribed To Omar Khayyam, One Of The Eight Astronomers Appointed Byjelal Ud Din Malik Shah, Sultan Of Khorasan, To Reform Or Construct A Calendar, About The Year 1079 Of Our Era.
So Early As The Znd Century Of Our Era, Great Disputes Had Arisen Among The Christians Respecting The Proper Time Of Celebrating Easter, Which Governs All The Other Movable Feasts.
The First Problem Which The Construction Of The Calendar Presents Is To Connect The Week With The Year, Or To Find The Day Of The Week Corresponding To A Given Day Of Any Year Of The Era.
At The End Of The Cycle The Dominical Letters Return Again In The Same Order On The Same Days Of The Month; Hence A Table Of Dominical Letters, Constructed For Twenty Eight Years, Will Serve To Show The Dominical Letter Of Any Given Year From The Corn Mencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
The Cycle, Though Probably Not Invented Before The Time Of The Council Of Nicaea, Is Regarded As Having Commenced Nine Years Before The Era, So That The Year One Was The Tenth Of The Solar Cycle.
In Order To Make Use Of The Solar Cycle In Finding The Dominical Letter, It Is Necessary To Know That The First Year Of The Christian Era Began With Saturday.
It Deserves To Be Remarked, That As The Dominical Letter Of The First Year Of The Era Was B, The First Column Of The Following Table Will Give The Dominical Letter Of Every Year From The Commencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
took place the year preceding the commencement of our era.
Its commencement is referred to the 1st of January of the year 313 of the common era.
By extending it backwards, it will be found that the first of the era was the fourth of the cycle of indiction.
It is unnecessary, however, in the present case to exhibit the general solution of the problem, because when the number in the period corre sponding to any one year in the era has been ascertained, it is.
We shall therefore find the number of the Julian period corresponding to the first of our era.
We have already seen that the year 1 of the era had Io for its number in the solar cycle, 2 in the lunar cycle, and 4 in the cycle of indiction; the question is therefore to find a number such, that Iv.
Having Found The Number 4714 For The First Of The Era, The Correspondence Of The Years Of The Era And Of The Period Is As Follows: Era, I, 2, 3,...
X, Period, 47 1 4, 47 1 5, 4716,...4713 X; From Which It Is Evident, That If We Take P To Represent The Year Of The Julian Period, And X The Corresponding Year Of The Christian Era, We Shall Have P= 47 1 3 X, And X=P 4713.
With Regard To The Numeration Of The Years Previous To The Commencement Of The Era, The Practice Is Not Uniform.
Chronologists, In General, Reckon The Year Preceding The First Of The Era I, The Next Preceding 2, And So On.
But Astronomers, In Order To Preserve The Uniformity Of Computation, Make The Series Of Years Proceed Without Interruption, And Reckon The Year Preceding The First Of The Era O.
Thus Era, O, I, 2,...
Let L Denote The Number Of The Dominical Letter Of Any Given Year Of The Era.
But As L Can Never Exceed 7, The Number X Will Always Exceed L After The First Seven Years Of The Era.
In The Year Preceding The First Of The Era, The Dominical Letter Was C; For That Year, Therefore, We Have L =3; Consequently For Any Succeeding Year X, L =7M 3 X, The Years Being All Supposed To Consist Of 365 Days.
Hence In The Julian Calendar The Dominical Letter Is Given By The Equation L= 7M 3 X () W This Equation Gives The Dominical Letter Of Any Year From The Commencement Of The Era To The Reformation.
The Calendar Is Dated From The Creation, Which Is Considered To Have Taken Place 37 60 Years And 3 Months Before The Commencement Of The Christian Era.
The Mahommedan Era, Or Era Of The Hegira, Used In Turkey, Persia, Arabia, &C., Is Dated From The First Day Of The Month Preceding The Flight Of Mahomet From Mecca To Medina, I.E.
The Sum Will Be The Year Of The Christian Era, And The Day Of The Year Will Be Found By Multiplying The Decimal Figures By 365.
All The Tables Of This Kind Previously Published, Which Extend Beyond The Year 1900 Of The Christian Era, Are Erroneous, Not Excepting The Celebrated French Work, L'Art De Verifier Les Dates, So Justly Regarded As The Greatest Authority In Chronological Matters.
[[Seljuks, Seljuks]], or Seljuqs, the name of several Turkish dynasties issued from one family, which reigned over large; parts of Asia in the Ilth, 12th and 13th centuries of the Christian era.
At his instigation the calendar was revised, and a new era, dating from the reign of Malik Shah and known as the Jelalian, was introduced.
The plant has been cultivated in Egypt from the beginning of the Christian era, but there is no proof that it was known to the ancient Egyptians.
Towards the beginning of the Christian era raw silk began to form an important and costly item among the prized products of the East which came to Rome.
One is mentioned in the annals of China two centuries before our era, between the territories of the Huns in the west and those of the Tunguses in theeast - a vast area of some 300 to 400 m., on the opposite margin of which the two peoples kept watch.
The Growth of the Spirit of Christianity from the First Century to the Dawn of the Lutheran Era, established his reputation as a liberal and spiritually minded theologian; and Queen Victoria invited him to preach at Balmoral.
It was now declared, not by the secret resolutions of cabinets, but by the work of the spade marking the solid earth for ever, that the era of conquest was ended.
VIKRAMADITYA, a legendary Hindu king of Uzjain, who is supposed to have given his name to the Vikram Samvat, the era which is used all over northern India, except in Bengal, and at whose court the "nine gems" of Sanskrit literature are also supposed to have flourished.
The Vikram era is reckoned from the vernal equinox of the year 57 B.C., but there is no evidence that that date corresponds with any event in the life of an actual king.
As a matter of fact, all dates in this era down to the 10th century never use the word Vikram, but that of Mala y a instead, that being the tribe that gives its name to Malwa.
At the beginning of our era the Teutonic peoples stretched from the Rhine to the Vistula.
These latter districts, however, had been conquered from the Boii, a Celtic people, shortly before the beginning of our era.
On the whole it seems not unlikely that at the beginning of the Christian era the Teutonic peoples of the continent were in a state of transition from cognatic to agnatic organization.
- It is a much disputed question whether the Teutonic peoples were really settled agricultural communities at the time when they first came into contact with the Romans, shortly before the beginning of our era.
There is no doubt that Roman influence brought about a considerable advance in civilization during the early centuries of our era.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.