In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.
The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready determination, but the settlement of the second factor is somewhat more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats is of service.
We may sum up the chief results of Faraday's work in the statements known as Faraday's laws: The mass of substance liberated from an electrolyte by the passage of a current is proportional (I) to the total quantity of electricity which passes through the electrolyte, and (2) to the chemical equivalent weight of the substance liberated.
Taking the chemical equivalent weight of silver, as determined by chemical experiments, to be 107.92, the result described gives as the electrochemical equivalent of an ion of unit chemical equivalent the value 1 036 X 5.
If, as is now usual, we take the equivalent weight of oxygen as our standard and call it 16, the equivalent weight of hydrogen is I o08, and its electrochemical equivalent is I 044 X 5.
These results were adopted until Peligot in 1840 discovered that Berzelius's (and Klaproth's) metal contains oxygen, and that his (Ur 2) 0 3 really is (U606) 03= 3U 2 0 3, where U= 120 is one equivalent weight of real uranium.
Furthermore his electrochemical investigations, and particularly his discovery of the important law of electrolysis, that the movement of a certain quantity of electricity through an electrolyte is always accompanied by the transfer of a certain definite quantity of matter from one electrode to another and the liberation at these electrodes of an equivalent weight of the ions, gave foundation for the idea of a definite atomic charge of electricity.
(I) In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
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