How to use Equivalent in a sentence
To give that terrible order seemed to him equivalent to resigning the command of the army.
The indicator was connected with a Ruhmkorff coil or other equivalent apparatus, designed to cause a continual succession of sparks to pass between the indicator and a metal plate situated beneath it and having a plane surface parallel to its line of motion.
The wheel was connected to a receiving antenna and the mercury to earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity.
The total amount of water given is approximately equivalent to a rainfall of about 35 in.
The whole noble order was disfranchised; to be noble was equivalent to being shut out from public office.Advertisement
Stoke, however, was dissolved in the following reign, and Parker received a pension equivalent to £400 a year in modern currency.
The old South Arabian phonetic equivalent `Athtar is, however, a male deity.
Kuhn, is the etymological equivalent of the Sanskrit Saranyu, who, having turned herself into a mare, is pursued by Vivasvat, and becomes the mother of the two Asvins, the Indian Dioscuri, the Indian and Greek myths being regarded as identical.
The oxygen contained in the compound was deducted, together with the equivalent amount of hydrogen, and the heat of combustion of the compound was then taken to be equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in the residue.
This ruling may be interpreted as part of a campaign directed against the counsellors of Alexander or as an instance of their general principle that intention is equivalent to commission in the eye of the Law.Advertisement
To him belongs the merit of carrying out some of the earliest determinations of the quantities by weight in which acids saturate bases and bases acids, and of arriving at the conception that those amounts of different bases which can saturate the same quantity of a particular acid are equivalent to each other.
Kepler's Problem, namely, that of finding the co-ordinates of a planet at a given time, which is equivalent - given the mean anomaly - to that of determining the true anomaly, was solved approximately by Kepler, and more completely by Wallis, Newton and others.
The fact that the growth of a leguminous crop, such as red clover, leaves the soil in a higher condition for the subsequent growth of a grain crop - that, indeed, the growth of such a leguminous crop is to a great extent equivalent to the application of a nitrogenous manure for the cereal crop - was in effect known ages ago.
He changed his name from Gemistus to the equivalent Pletho ("the full"), perhaps owing to the similarity of sound between that name and that of his master Plato.
He also split his Grallatores and Natatores (practically identical with the Grallae and Anseres of Linnaeus) each into four sections; but he failed to see - as on his own principles he ought to have seen - that each of these sections was at least equivalent to almost any one of his other " Ordres."Advertisement
To obviate this difficulty, the Scots Act 1449, c. 18, made possession of the subjects of the lease equivalent to sasine.
It is estimated that the amount thus used in India exclusive of the consumption of mills is equivalent to about 400,000 bales.
Up to the year 1885 there was an average yearly export equivalent to about 2140 bales of 500 lb, after which date the export practically ceased.
Louis took the equivalent of 25% of the assessed value of the city's realty and personalty.
It had already been understood that the various genera of the Ratitae were the representatives of so many different groups, each of which was at least equivalent to ordinal rank, and that therefore, if the Ratitae were still to be considered a natural group, this common ancestry must be referred to a remote geological epoch.Advertisement
In place of the relative molecular weights, attention was concentrated on relative atomic or equivalent weights.
From the results obtained by Laurent and Gerhardt and their predecessors it immediately followed that, while an element could have but one atomic weight, it could have several equivalent weights.
In 1735 appeared the first edition of the Systema naturae of Linnaeus, in which the "Insecta" form a group equivalent to the Arthropoda of modern zoologists, and are divided into seven orders, whose names - Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, &c., founded on the nature of the wings - have become firmly established.
The exports were equivalent to 2 bales of 50o lb in 1902-1903, 114 bales in 1903 - 1904, 570 bales in '904 - 1905, 1 553 bales in 1905-1906 and 1052 bales in 1906-1907.
From similar investigations of valerianic acid he was led to conclude that fatty acids were oxygen compounds of the radicals hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, &c., combined with the double carbon equivalent C2.Advertisement
Although Kekule founded his famous benzene formula in 1865 on the assumptions that the six hydrogen atoms in benzene are equivalent and that the molecule is symmetrical, i.e.
The formula has the advantage that it may be constructed from tetrahedral models of the carbon atom; but it involves the assumption that the molecule has within it a mechanism, equivalent in a measure to a system of railway points, which can readily close up and pass into that characteristic of benzene.
In general analytical work the standard solution contains the equivalent weight of the substance in grammes dissolved in a litre of water.
A standard sodium hydrate solution can be prepared by dissolving 42 grammes of sodium hydrate, making up to a litre, and diluting until one cubic centimetre is exactly equivalent to one cubic centimetre of the sulphuric acid.
This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.Advertisement
The equivalent weight is capable of fairly ready determination, but the settlement of the second factor is somewhat more complex, and in this direction the law of atomic heats is of service.
It has been shown that certain elements and groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting crystal forms are nearly identical.
It will be seen that (1) the increase in equivalent volume is about 6.6; (2) all the topic parameters are increased; (3) the greatest increase is effected in the parameters x and tG, which are equally lengthened.
Down to the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748 she went on fighting for Silesia or its equivalent.
Werner (1514) devised three heart-shaped projections, one of which was equivalent.Advertisement
In 1790 the interest was reduced to 3%, and as the treasury had again become exhausted, a further issue was decided upon; it was also decreed that the assignats were to be accepted as legal tender, all public departments being instructed to receive them as the equivalent of metallic money.
Call this class w; then to say that x is a w is equivalent to saying that x is not an x.
Accordingly, to say that w is a w is equivalent to saying that w is not a w.
The landlord received from his tenant (kmet) a fixed percentage, usually one third (tretina), of the annual produce; and, of the remaining two thirds, the cash equivalent of one tenth (desetina) went to the state.
The silver coinage consisted of the mejidie (weight 24.055 grammes, 0.830 fine), equivalent to 20 piastres, and its subdivisions 10, 5, 2, I, and 2 piastre pieces.Advertisement
Bayezid consented; later on John Palaeologus offered an equivalent sum and, since he engaged to furnish an auxiliary force of 12,000 men into the bargain, Bayezid replaced him on the throne.
The arrival of the Spaniards at Constance necessitating the formation of a fifth nation, Pierre d'Ailly availed himself of the opportunity to ask either that the English nation might be merged in the German, or that each great nation might be allowed to divide itself into little groups each equivalent to the English nation.
The phrase was used as a booktitle by Origen and others, and is equivalent to our " miscellanies."
We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.
The head is rather large, and is furnished at first with five simple eyes of nearly equal size; but as it increases in size the homologues of the facetted eyes of the imago become larger, whereas those equivalent to the ocelli remain small.Advertisement
In accordance with this view there would be also some probability in favour of regarding the collar nerve-tube of the Enteropneusta as the equivalent of the cerebral vesicle only of Amphioxus and the Ascidian tadpole, and also of the primary forebrain of vertebrates.
Marshal Massena with 120,000, including the corps of Ney, Junot, Reynier and some of the Imperial Guard, was to operate from Salamanca against Portugal; but first Soult, appointed major-general of the army in Spain (equivalent to chief of the staff), was, with the corps of Victor, Mortier and Sebastiani (70,000), to reduce Andalusia.
He found that the amounts of the substances liberated in each cell were proportional to the chemical equivalent weights of those substances.
The common name in Brazil is preguica, which is equivalent to its English name.
Fresnel (1815), who gave a formula equivalent to (5) below.Advertisement
In the 15th and 16th centuries the town was a leading seat of the salt industry ("salt to Dysart" was the equivalent of "coals to Newcastle"), but the salt-pans have been abandoned for a considerable period.
The name was used in the early part of the 18th century as the equivalent of "Latitudinarian," i.e.
This action and reaction between layers in relative motion is equivalent to a frictional stress tending to equalize the velocities of adjacent layers.
Taking the chemical equivalent weight of silver, as determined by chemical experiments, to be 107.92, the result described gives as the electrochemical equivalent of an ion of unit chemical equivalent the value 1 036 X 5.
If, as is now usual, we take the equivalent weight of oxygen as our standard and call it 16, the equivalent weight of hydrogen is I o08, and its electrochemical equivalent is I 044 X 5.
The electrochemical equivalent of any other substance, whether element or compound, may be found by multiplying its chemical equivalent by I 036X Io-5.
If two solutions containing the salts AB and CD be mixed, double decomposition is found to occur, the salts AD and CB being formed till a certain part of the first pair of substances is transformed into an equivalent amount of the second pair.
It is clear that, when two opposite streams of ions move past each other, equivalent quantities are liberated at the two ends of the system.
The salts tabulated are those of which the equivalent conductivity reaches a limiting value indicating that complete ionization is reached as dilution is increased.
A series of equivalent solutions all containing the same coloured ion have absorption spectra which, when photographed, show identical absorption bands of equal intensity.
Van 't Hoff's formula is equivalent to taking the frequency of dissociation as proportional to the square of the concentration of the molecules, and the frequency of recombination as proportional to the cube of the concentration of the ions.
For acids its value is usually rather less than for salts at equivalent concentrations.
This is fully borne out by the experiments of Julius Thomsen, who found that the heat of neutralization of one gramme-molecule of a strong base by an equivalent quantity of a strong acid was nearly constant, and equal to 13,700 or 13,800 calories.
Zinc dissolves at the anode, an equal amount of zinc replaces an equivalent amount of copper on the other side of the porous partition, and the same amount of copper is deposited on the cathode.
The electric forces then soon stop further action unless an equivalent quantity of positive ions are removed from the solution.
In order that positively electrified ions may enter a solution, an equivalent amount of other positive ions must be removed or negative ions be added, and, for the process to occur spontaneously, the possible action at the two electrodes must involve a decrease in the total available energy of the system.
Thus, the thermal equivalent of the unit of resultant electrochemical change in Daniell's cell is 5.66 - 3.00 =2.66 calories.
The dynamical equivalent of the calorie is 4.18 X Io 7 ergs or C.G.S.
In the latter case, the tendency of the metal to dissolve in the more dilute solution is greater than its tendency to dissolve in the more concentrated solution, and thus there is a decrease in available energy when metal dissolves in the dilute solution and separates in equivalent quantity from the concentrated solution.
An Orthodox bishop, vested for the holy liturgy, wears over his cassock - (i) the rnxcipcov, or alb (q.v.); the E7nrpay,Acov, or stole (q.v.); (3) the a narrow stuff girdle clasped behind, which holds together the two vestments above named; (4) the E7 n, uaviexa, liturgical cuffs, corresponding, possibly, to the pontifical gloves of the West;' (5) the i 7rtyovarcov, a stiff lozengeshaped piece of stuff hanging at the right side by a piece of riband from the girdle or attached to the o-AKKos, the equivalent of the Western maniple (q.v.); (6) the like the Western dalmatic (q.v.), worn instead of the 4acv6Acov, or chasuble; (7) the c?µocp6pcov, the equivalent of the Western pallium (q.v.).
The population of the duchy in 1900 was 809,918, which is equivalent to 174.8 inhabitants per sq.
If the form, sometimes termed a quantic, be equated to zero the n+I coefficients are equivalent to but n, since one can be made unity by division and the equation is to be regarded as one for the determination of the ratio of the variables.
To represent the simplest perpetuant, of weight 7, we may take as base either A2B 1 B 2 or A l A 2 B2, and since Ai+Bi =o the former is equivalent to A 2 ArB 2 and the latter to A 2 B i B2; so that we have, (1 -f-aix) (1 + a2x).
When carbon dioxide is passed into this solution the whole of the added oxide, and even part of the oxide of the normal salt, is precipitated as a basic carbonate chemically similar, but not quite equivalent as a pigment, to white lead.
When the length of the wire exceeds 400 diameters, or thereabouts, Ho may generally be considered as equivalent to H, 10.
It can be shown that if a current i circulates in a small plane circuit of area S, the magnetic action of the circuit for distant points is equivalent to that of a short magnet whose axis is perpendicular to the plane of the circuit and whose moment is iS, the direction of the magnetization being related to that of the circulating current as the thrust of a right-handed screw to its rotation.
The creation of an external magnetic field H will, in accordance with Lenz's law, induce in the molecule an electric current so directed that the magnetization of the equivalent magnet is opposed to the direction of the field.
The effect of the field upon the speed of the revolving electrons, and therefore upon the moments of the equivalent magnets, is necessarily a very small one.
If S is the area of the orbit described in time T by an electron of charge e, the moment of the equivalent magnet is M = eST; and the change in the value of M due to an external field H is shown to be OM = - He'S/47rm, m being the mass of the electron.
A magnetizable substance was supposed to consist of an indefinite number of spherical particles, each containing equivalent quantities of the two fluids, which could move freely within a particle, but could never pass from one particle to another.
The Insecta of Linnaeus was a group exactly equivalent to the Arthropoda founded a hundred years later by Siebold and Stannius.
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
In the Tableau Elementaire, published in 1795, Cuvier adopts Linnaeus's term in its earlier sense, but uses the French word "Reptiles," already brought into use by Brisson, as the equivalent of Amphibia.
The letter rate was at first 200 reis (nearly 52d.), but it has been increased to 300 reis, which is equivalent to 8d.
But this is equivalent to a confession that Scholasticism had failed in its task, which was to rationalize the doctrines of the church.
Erigena pronounces no express opinion upon the question which was even then beginning to occupy men's minds; but his Platonico-Christian theory of the Eternal Word as containing in Himself the exemplars of created things is equivalent to the assertion of universalia His whole system, indeed, is based upon the idea of the divine as the exclusively real, of which the world of individual existence is but the theophany; the special and the individual are immanent, therefore, in the general.
They possess the principle of individuation in themselves, he teaches, but plurality of individuals is in such a case equivalent to plurality of species (in eis tot sunt species quot sunt individua).
It becomes equivalent to economic laisser-faire and "Manchesterism," and as such it must fight its own corner with those who now take into consideration many national factors which had no place in the early utilitarian individualistic regime of Cobden's own day.
Population.-Hungary had in 1900 a population of 19,254,559, equivalent to 153.7 inhabitants per square mile.
These armaments, which cost Matthias 1,000,000 florins per annum, equivalent to 200,00O, did not include the auxiliary troops of the hospodars of Walachia and Moldavia, or the feudal levies of the barons and prelates.
The same diet which destroyed the national armaments and depleted the exchequer confirmed the disgraceful peace of Pressburg, concluded between Wladislaus and the emperor Maximilian on the 7th of November 1491, whereby Hungary retroceded all the Austrian conquests of Matthias, together with a long strip of Magyar territory, and paid a war indemnity equivalent to £200,000.
He therefore supported Venice against her enemies, refused to enter the League of Cambray in 1508, and concluded a ten years' alliance with the Signoria, which obliged Hungary to defend Venetian territory without any equivalent gain.
In particular Szechenyi insisted that the people must not look exclusively to the government, 1 Litterae credentiales, nearly equivalent to a coronation oath.
In the same way we have (A-a) 2 =A 2 -2Aa+a 2, (A-a)3 = A 3 -3A 2 a+3Aa 2 -a 3, ..., so that the multinomial equivalent to (A-a)" has the same coefficients as the multinomial equivalent to (A+a)", but with signs alternately + and -.
The multinomial which is equivalent to (A= a)", and has its terms arranged in ascending powers of a, is called the expansion of (A= a) n.
The" bishops "of the Lutheran Church in Transylvania are equivalent to the superintendents.
These results were adopted until Peligot in 1840 discovered that Berzelius's (and Klaproth's) metal contains oxygen, and that his (Ur 2) 0 3 really is (U606) 03= 3U 2 0 3, where U= 120 is one equivalent weight of real uranium.
Whether he subsequently regarded the victory of the monarchy and its corollary, the admittance of the middle classes to all offices and dignities, as a satisfactory equivalent for his original demands; or whether he was so overcome by royal favour as to sacrifice cheerfully the political liberties of his country, can only be a matter for conjecture.
It is often difficult to obtain quite accurate or even adequate reproductions of scenes and subjects, and, when this is done, it is obviously necessary to refrain from treating the work of the old artists and sculptors as equivalent to photographic representations.
A modern Bedouin equivalent has long sleeves; it is common to both sexes, the chief difference lying in the colour - white for men, dyed with indigo for women.
The silver 5-bolivar piece is usually known as a ” dollar," and is equivalent to 484 pence, or 962 cents U.S. gold.
The term, in Hungarian, means generally a frontier province governed by a ban and is equivalent to the German term Mark.
None of these men founded a school - a result due in part to their intellectual character, in part to the absence in England of medical schools equivalent in position and importance to the universities of the Continent.
Its briefest equivalent may be given as "persecuting and privileged orthodoxy" in general, and, more particularly, it is the particular system which Voltaire saw around him, of which he had felt the effects in his own exiles and the confiscations of his books, and of which he saw the still worse effects in the hideous sufferings of Calas and La Barre.
The undertakings of the three dock companies mentioned above were transferred to and vested in the Port Authority, an equivalent amount of port stock created under the act being issued to each.
The interest on the annual contribution to the sinking-fund or its equivalent should be reckoned at a low rate of interest, for such funds are assumed to be invested in perfectly safe securities.
Lacking the support of the ultra-royalists, he was given the title of minister of state without portfolio, which was equivalent to a retirement.
The pressure of the air is a convenient unit to employ in practical work, where it is called an " atmosphere "; it is made the equivalent of a pressure of one kg/cm'; and one ton/inch 2, employed as the unit with high pressure as in artillery, may be taken as 150 atmospheres.
The motion of these cylinders across the line of centres is the equivalent of a line doublet along each axis.
In the early inscriptions of Lagash the whole district is known as Gu-Edinna, the Sumerian equivalent of the Semitic Kisad Edini.
So, for -example, the word for " name " may be written by a sign MU, or it may be written out by two signs shu-mu, the one sign MU representing the " Sumerian " word for " name," which, however, in the case of a Babylonian or Assyrian text must be read as shumu - the Semitic equivalent of the Sumerian MU.
Similarly the word for " clothing " may be written SIG-BA, which represents again the " Sumerian " word, whereas, the BabylonianAssyrian equivalent being lubushtu it is so to be read in Semitic texts, and may therefore be also phonetically written lu-bu-ush-tu.
In consequence of its use in this general sense of pensioner, "bedesman" was long used in English as equivalent to "servant."
With the growth of scientific geography they came to be located somewhat less vaguely, and indeed their name was employed as the equivalent of the Assyrian and Hebrew Cush, the Kesh or Ekosh of the Hieroglyphics (first found in Stele of Senwosri I.), i.e.
Subsequently it was discovered that this obligation pressed heavily upon the resources of the native state, and in 1832 the pecuniary equivalent for Anjar, both prospectively and inclusive of the arrears which had accrued to that date, was wholly remitted by the British government.
Each gild numbered various classes of members, ranging from beginners, or Schiller (corresponding to trade-apprentices), and Schulfreunde (who were equivalent to Gesellen or journeymen), to Meister, a Meister being a poet who was not merely able to write new verses to existing melodies but had himself invented a new melody.
The factory expenses are taken at £30,000 per annum, or £3 per ton on a crop of 10,000 tons (the sugar to cost £8 per ton all told at the factory) - equivalent to £300 per day for the loo working days of crop time.
These results are equivalent to 66.88% extraction for single crushing.
The total saving effected is stated to be equivalent to 3 francs per ton of beetroot worked up. This system is also being tried on a small scale with sugar-cane juice in the West Indies.
Eight years later, on the 1st of August 1896, the bounties offered by the governments of Germany and Austria-Hungary were approximately doubled, and France had a bill in preparation to increase hers correspondingly, although it was computed that they were even then equivalent to a grant of 3, 5s.
The concentration of nervous matter and ganglionic substance at the oral end of Trematodes is equivalent to the " brain " of the Planarians, but the similar thickening in the scolex of Cestodes is by no means so certainly to be called by that name.
The name is the Latin equivalent of the Greek Tupprivia or Tupojvia, which is used by Latin writers also in the forms Tyrrhenia, Tyrrhenii; the Romans also spoke of Tusci, whence the modern Tuscany.
Hence it still seems best to assume some unknown Aramaic form equivalent to 7rapaicX y as, and then to take the latter in the sense of comfort or encouragement.
Not being able to answer on the spur of the moment, he was nicknamed 6 Kpovos (the God, equivalent to "slowcoach") by Ptolemy.
The change from the double standard was effected without any noticeable disturbance in commercial affairs, but this was in part due to the precaution of making the British pound sterling legal tender in the republic and establishing the legal equivalent between gold and silver at 10 soles to the pound.
The only legal tender is the Mexican dollar, and the British and Hong-Kong dollar, or other silver dollars of equivalent value duly authorized by the governor.
In a tablet attributed to the 14th century B.C. which Sellin found in the course of his excavations at Tell Ta'annuk (the Taanach of the O.T.) a name occurs which may be read Ahi-Yawi (equivalent to Hebrew Ahijah); 6 if the reading be correct, this would show that Yahweh was worshipped in Central Palestine before the Israelite conquest.
It is generically fixed to the titles of men of rank, as Khan Sahib, Nawab Sahib, Raja Sahib, and is equivalent to master.
This and other reasons led to his rejection of the dualistic hypothesis and the adoption, on the ground of probability, and much more from convenience, of the tenet that " acids are particular compounds of hydrogen, in which the latter can be replaced by metals "; while, on the constitution of salts, he held that " neutral salts are those compounds of the same class in which the hydrogen is replaced by its equivalent in metal.
His father, Louis Chenier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years of successful commerce in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a position equivalent to that of French consul at Constantinople.
The common use of the word animal as the equivalent of mammal, as opposed to bird or reptile or fish, is erroneous.
To avoid unnecessary complications we shall assume this latter condition in all the following discussion, which is equivalent simply to assuming that all our electrical measurements are made in air or in vacuo.
If we consider the charge of a conductor to be measured by the number of tubes of electric force which proceed from it, then, since each tube must end on some other conductor, the above statement is equivalent to saying that the charges at each end of a tube of electric force are equal.
The reader is also referred to an article by Lord Kelvin (Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism, p. 178), entitled " Determination of the Distribution of Electricity on a Circular Segment of a Plane, or Spherical Conducting Surface under any given Influence," where another equivalent expression is given for the capacity of an ellipsoid.
If a condenser of capacity C is charged to potential V, and discharged n times per second through a galvanometer, this series of intermittent discharges is equivalent to a current nCV.
Suppose that the dielectric has a constant K, then we must multiply both sides by K and the expression for the energy per unit of volume of the field is equivalent to z DE where D is the displacement or polarization in the dielectric.
The remainder is equivalent to the external work, W, done by the body in expanding or otherwise, which can be utilized for mechanical purposes, and ceases to exist as heat in the body.
Mayer (1842) made this assumption in calculating the mechanical equivalent of heat.
For a finite change it is necessary to represent the path by a series of small steps, which is the graphic equivalent of integration along the path represented by the given relation between v and 0, or p and 0.
Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
If two monatomic molecules, having energy of translation only, equivalent to 3 degrees of freedom, combined to form a diatomic molecule with 5 degrees of freedom, the energy lost would.
The relation of the gold to the potassium bromide, as well as the amounts of silver and silver bromide which are equivalent to the potassium bromide, were determined.
In 18 99, 57 62 stamps were in operation, crushing 7,331,446 tons of ore, and yielding £15,134,000, equivalent to 25.5% of the world's production.
The potassium salt is obtained by crystallizing equivalent quantities of potassium and auric chlorides.
The office of stadtholder is a proconsulatus, and the High German equivalent is Statthalter, a delegate.
Biscay is one of the Basque Provinces, and its name is occasionally employed as geographically equivalent to Basque, in that case including the three provinces of Biscay proper, Guipuzcoa and Alava.
A passage difficult of interpretation, but apparently meant to be equivalent to the Eastern Epiklesis or invocation of the Holy Ghost.
Corporations cannot be created by a special act of the legislature, and no corporation may issue stock except for an equivalent value of money, labour or property.
Equivalent terms, which are not necessarily identical or literal translations, were adopted for the English, French and German languages, the equivalence being closest and most systematic between the English and German terms.
Sorensen and Martin Knudsen after a careful investigation decided to abandon the old definition of salinity as the sum of all the dissolved solids in sea-water and to substitute for it the weight of the dissolved solids in 1000 parts by weight of sea-water on the assumption that all the bromine is replaced by its equivalent of chlorine, all the carbonate converted into oxide and the organic matter burnt.
On the continent of Europe it is customary to consider coal as divisible into two great classes, depending upon differences of colour, namely, brown coal, corresponding to the term "lignite" used in England and France, and black or stone coal, which is equivalent to coal as understood in England.
These can, however, only be used advantageously where there are fixed pumps, the fall of water generating the power resulting in a load to be removed by the expenditure of an equivalent amount of power in the pumping engine above that necessary for keeping down the mine water.
This is equivalent to a steady pressure p i per unit area where +0 pi - zfff v J 1 (h3m3/ir3)e hm(u2+v2+w2)mu2dudvdw.
If the volume of the gas is kept constant, we put dv=o in equation (18) and dQ = JC0NmdT, where C v is the specific Specific heat of the gas at constant volume and J is the mechanical equivalent of heat.
On this theory, all substances which could be burnt were composed of phlogiston and some other substance, and the operation of burning was simply equivalent to the liberation of the phlogiston.
In the Greek Church the equivalent word is yuvriipcov, a mystery, a usage which is explained below.
Referring to the calculations given above, this is equivalent to 1' deflection for every degree of elevation, which amount had to be given towards the higher wheel.
With smooth-bore arms of short range, the soldier needed little more, in the way of sights, than the rough equivalent of the dispart of cannon, viz.
It is a contracted form of khagan (khakan), a word equivalent to sovereign or emperor, used among the Mongol and Turki-nomad hordes.
He was reported to have already expended the equivalent of about 250,000,000 on these aims and to be continuing to sink further millions in them.
This led to a loss of the English subsidy, and they applied to Napoleon for an equivalent.
The ordinary definition of a circle is equivalent to definition as the figure generated by the rotation of a radius of constant length in a plane, and is thus essentially analytical.
The right trapezium so constructed, F ' may be called the equivalent right trapezium.
In E'; the case of a parallelogram, the equivalent right,, trapezium is a rectangle; in the case of a triangle, Al it is a right-angled triangle.
Then, if we take ordinates Kb, Lg, Mc, Nd, Pf, equal to B'B, GG', C'C, D'D, FF', the figure abgcdfe will be the equivalent trapezoid, and any ordinate drawn from the base to the a LM N P e X top of this trapezoid will be equal to the portion of this ordinate (produced) which falls within the original figure.
If, for instance, the graph were a trapezium, the calculation of the area would be equivalent to finding the integral, from x=a to x=b, of an expression of the form px+q.
Any plane figure might be converted into an equivalent trapezette by an extension of the method of § 25 (iv).
The removal of part of the copper from the blank raises the percentage of silver contained in them and this is allowed for by adding an equivalent amount of copper to the metal when it is melted.
Chandler ascertained in 1888 the compensatory nature of these disturbances; 3 and he afterwards found the most important among several which probably conspire to produce the observed effects, to be comprised in a period of 15,000 light-cycles, equivalent to 118 years.
Until sixteen years of age no child is to be so employed without an employment certificate issued by a commissioner of health, and showing that the child has completed an eight years' course of study in a public school of the state or has had an equivalent schooling elsewhere.
The compulsory education law as amended in 1907 and 1909 requires the full attendance at a public school, or at a school which is an approximate equivalent, of all children who are between seven and fourteen years of age, are in the proper physical and mental condition, and reside in a city or school district having a population of 5000 or more and employing a superintendent of schools; in such a city or district children between fourteen and sixteen years must attend school unless they obtain an employment certificate and are regularly engaged in some useful employment or service; and outside of such a city or district all children between the ages of eight and fourteen years and those between fourteen and sixteen years who are not regularly employed must attend school on all school days from October to June.
In a city of the first or second class every boy between fourteen and sixteen years of age who has an employment certificate, but has not completed the course of study prescribed for the elementary public schools or the equivalent, must attend an evening school not less than six hours each week for a period of not less than sixteen weeks each year, or a trade school not less than eight hours a week for sixteen weeks a year.
We see, then, that the conditions for the application of Fourier's theorem are equivalent to saying that all disturbances will travel along the system with the same velocity.
Thus if a pendulum always receives a slight impulse in the direction of motion just about the lowest point, this is equivalent to an increase of the restoring force if received before passage through the lowest point, and to a decrease if received after that passage, and in either case it tends to maintain the swing.
Formerly it was generally supposed that the Tartini tone was due to the beats themselves, that the mere variation in the amplitude was equivalent, as far as the ear is concerned, to a superposition on the two original tones of a smooth sine displacement of the same periodicity as that variation.
And in effect he succeeded in concentrating the equivalent of an army corps, in addition to Keller's force, opposite to Kuroki's right.
Sovereignty is also used in a wider sense, as the equivalent of the power, actual or potential, of the whole nation or society (Gierke, 3.568).
Often the phrase is the equivalent of sovereignty.
The inclined tensions and compressions in the bars of a braced web are equivalent to this shear.
In the earlier girder bridges the live load was taken to be equivalent to a uniform load of 1 ton per foot run for each line of way.
Waddell has calculated tables of such equivalent uniform loads.
Then the bridge is designed, so far as the direct stresses are concerned, for bending moments due to a uniform dead load and the uniform equivalent load we.
A good many years later he was entrusted by the committee of the British Association on standards of electric resist ance with the task of deducing the mechanical equivalent of heat from the thermal effects of electric currents.
It was an attempt to reform the administration without first reforming the State on equivalent lines.
In fact, the terms jesuitical and ultramontane may, in numerous cases, be regarded as equivalent.
The name is a Chippewa word meaning "first" or "he goes before," and is said to have been chosen at the request of the Pioneer Iron Company as an equivalent for "Pioneer."
At the Boston City Hospital graduate nurses receive $ 4 20 (£84) a year, and at the Indianapolis City Hospital those on private duty are paid $72 a month, which is equivalent to £172 a year, with board, lodging, laundry and uniform.
The Confession of Augsburg uses words equivalent to the Articles quoted above which were based upon it.
Y Y ing Himself with the sinner in perfect sympathy, and feeling for him an " equivalent repentance " for his sin.
It strictly designates only that district in upper Saxony that is bounded by the Werra, the Harz Mountains, the Saale and the Thuringian Forest; in common parlance, however, it is frequently used as equivalent to the Thuringian states, i.e.
As a result, the surface has been carved into fantastic forms. The early French explorers called the region les terres mauvaises, on account of the difficulties that here met the traveller, and in its English equivalent, " the Bad Lands," this appellation still remains.
A Serpent was the Egyptian equivalent of Scorpio; the Arrow only of Sagittarius was retained; Capricornus became " Life," or a Mirror as an image of life; Aquarius survived as Water; Taurus, Virgo and Pisces remained unchanged.'
They were divided on the same principle; each opened at the spring equinox; the first Arab sign Sharatan was strictly equivalent to the Hindu Acvini; and eighteen constellations in each were virtually coincident.
They bought practically all of what is now Essex county from the Indians for "fifty double hands of powder, one hundred bars of lead, twenty axes, twenty coats, ten guns, twenty pistols, ten kettles, ten swords, four blankets, four barrels of beer, ten pairs of breeches, fifty knives, twenty horses, eighteen hundred and fifty fathoms of wampum, six ankers of liquor (or something equivalent), and three troopers' coats."
This merely thermal energy - which is gradually but very slowly being restricted in amount as new subsidiary organized types become recognized in it - though transmutable in equivalent quantities with the other kinds, yet is so only to a limited extent; the tracing out of the laws of this limitation belongs to the science of thermodynamics.
Again, we may split a narrow beam of light by partial reflexion from a transparent plate, and recombine the constituent beams after they have traversed different circuits of nearly equivalent lengths, so as to obtain interference fringes.
The ordinary word for twelve o'clock was middceg, midday, also the equivalent of the canonical hour "sext."
Ultimately, indeed, as sanctuaries were multiplied and the priests all over the land came to form one well-marked class, " Levite and legitimate priest became equivalent expressions, as is explained in the article Levites.
It is impossible to get behind the Christian uses, in which from the earliest times it was employed as the equivalent of the Latin sacer and sanctus.
The new rates were supposed to be no more than equivalent to those replaced by them, but in fact were in some cases higher.
Pierpont Morgan, and Mr Carnegie himself retired from business, he was bought out at a figure equivalent to a capital of approximately 100,000,000.
The medieval church had spanned the centuries by supposing that Christ's death was continuous down through the age in the sacrifice of the Mass; Protestant theology had nothing equivalent.
Yet Aristippus was compelled to admit that some actions which give immediate pleasure entail more than their equivalent of pain.
The name Tristan is now generally admitted to be the equivalent of the Pictish Drostan, and on the whole, the story is now very generally allowed to be of insular, probably of British, origin.
Sodium sulphide, Na 2 S, obtained by saturating a caustic soda solution with sulphuretted hydrogen and adding an equivalent of alkali, is employed in the manufacture of soluble soda glass.
Sodium sulphite, Na2S03, which is employed as an antichlor, is prepared (with 7H20) by saturating a solution of sodium carbonate with sulphur dioxide, adding another equivalent of carbonate and crystallizing.
The nearest equivalent in the ancient Church was the local and temporary African practice of restoring lapsed Christians to communion at the intercession of confessors and prospective martyrs in prison.
However, as the primitive practice of public penance for sins died out in the Church, there grew up a system of equivalent, or nominally equivalent, private penances.
In any region of velocity where it is possible to represent p with sufficient accuracy by an empirical formula composed of a single power of v, say v m, the integration can be effected which replaces the summation in (to), (16), and (24); and from an analysis of the Krupp experiments Colonel Zabudski found the most appropriate index m in a region of velocity as given in the following table, and the corresponding value of gp, denoted by f (v)or v m lk or its equivalent Cr, where r is the retardation.
For the most part, the Arab tribes have been reluctant to avail themselves of their new powers, and where they have done so the hasty reversal of the traditions of centuries has proved demoralizing to the natives, without any sufficient equivalent in the way of healthy French colonization.
The kerubim might perhaps be symbolic representatives of the god Rakab'el or Rekub'el, probably equivalent to Hadad, whose sacred animal was the bull.
Potassium sulphite, K 2 S0 3, is prepared by saturating a potash solution with sulphur dioxide, adding a second equivalent of potash, and crystallizing in a vacuum, when the salt separates as small deliquescent, hexagonal crystals.
The salt K2S03 H20 may be obtained by crystallizing the metabisulphite, K 2 S 2 0 5 (from sulphur dioxide and a hot saturated solution of the carbonate, or from sulphur dioxide and a mixture of milk of lime and potassium sulphate) with an equivalent amount of potash.
The equivalent terms applied by Sars are Anostraca, Notostraca, Conchostraca, involving a termination already appropriated to higher divisions of the Crustacean class, for which it ought to be reserved.
He retained, however, those passages of which there was no Hebrew equivalent, and added translations of the Hebrew where the latter was not represented in the Septuagint.
It is legally equivalent to the silver peso, which continues in circulation.
In fact, it has become the equivalent of an order of knighthood, the members of which form a brotherhood bound by oath to succour each other at need and to refrain from fighting among themselves.
The name Minos seems to be philologically the equivalent of Minyas, the royal ancestor of the Minyans of Orchomenus, and his daughter Ariadne ("the exceeding holy") is a double of the native nature-goddess.
He invented a method of printing, perhaps somewhat akin to stereotyping - though the details are not clearly known, - whereby the Institute could produce Bibles and Testaments in Luther's version at a very low cost, and sell them, in small size, at prices equivalent to 10d.
The population of the duchy in 1900 was 193,247, which is equivalent to 69 inhabitants per square mile.
Relative to the uncertain connexion of length, capacity and weight in the ancient metrological systems of the East, Sir Charles Warren, R.E., has obtained by deductive analysis a new equivalent of the original cubit (Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly, April, July, October 1899).
For the length of the building cubit Sir C. Warren has deduced a length equivalent to 20.6169 English inches, which compares with a mean Pyramid cubit of 20.6015 in.
In Roman times the artaba remained (Didymus), but 1/6 was the usual unit (name unknown), and this was divided down to 1/24 or 1/144 artaba (35) -- thus producing by 1/12 artaba a working equivalent to the xestes and sextarius (35).
Beside the equivalence of the hon to 5 utens weight of water, the mathematical papyrus (35) gives 5 besha = (2/3)cubic cubit (Revillout's interpretation of this as 1 cubit cubed is impossible geometrically; see Rev. Eg., 1881, for data); this is very concordant, but it is very unlikely for 3 to be introduced in an Egyptian derivation, and probably therefore only a working equivalent.
If, however, the weight in a degraded form, and the foot in an undegraded form, come from the East, it is needless to look for an exact relation between them, but rather for a mere working equivalent, like the 1000 ounces to the cubit foot in England.
The mineral nearly always contains a small amount of silver, and sometimes antimony, arsenic, copper, gold, selenium, &c. Argentiferous galena is an important source of silver; this metal is present in amounts rarely exceeding %, and often less than o 03% (equivalent to 104 ounces per ton).
A sandstone found in the neighbourhood of Palapye is considered to be the equivalent of the Waterberg formation of the Transvaal.
The original equivalent of the chasuble is the phelonion (0e66140v, c€X6vris, 4acv6Xcov, from paenula).
Waukegan was settled about 1835, and until 1849 was known as Little Fort, which is supposed to be the English equivalent of the Indian name Waukegan.
Silver cyanide, AgNC, is formed as a white precipitate by adding potassium cyanide to silver nitrate solution; or better, by adding silver nitrate to potassium silver cyanide, KAg(NC) 2, this double cyanide being obtained by the addition of one molecular proportion of potassium cyanide to one molecular proportion of silver nitrate, the white precipitate so formed being then dissolved by adding a second equivalent of potassium cyanide.
There is in some places an unconformity between the Richmond beds (or their equivalent) and underlying formations, and this unconformity, together with certain palaeontological considerations, has raised the question whether the uppermost part of the system, as outlined above, should not be classed as Silurian (Upper Silurian).
In part, at least, it is equivalent in time of origin to the Chemung formation; but the latter is of marine origin, while the Catskill formation appears to be of terrestrial origin.
In earlier literature the Lafayette formation was described under the name of Orange Sand, and was at one time thought to be the southern equivalent of the glacial drift.
Lettres de cachet were abolished by the Constituent Assembly, but Napoleon reestablished their equivalent by a political measure in the decree of the 9th of March 1801 on the state prisons.
The generality of treatment is indeed remarkable; he gives as the fundamental property of all the conics the equivalent of the Cartesian equation referred to oblique axes (consisting of a diameter and the tangent at its extremity) obtained by cutting an oblique circular cone in any manner, and the axes appear only as a particular case after he has shown that the property of the conic can be expressed in the same form with reference to any new diameter and the tangent at its extremity.
He calculated that the cost of carriage from abroad of wheat, or the equivalent of the product of an acre of good wheat land in Great Britain, would not be less than 30s.
This Long Period, However, May Be Reduced To Four Hundred Years; For Since The Dominical Letter Goes Back Five Places Every Four Years, Its Variation In Four Hundred Years, In The Julian Calendar, Was Five Hundred Places, Which Is Equivalent To Only Three Places (For Five Hundred Divided By Seven Leaves Three); But The Gregorian Calendar Suppresses Exactly Three Intercalations In Four Hundred Years, So That After Four Hundred Years The Dominical Letters Must Again Return In The Same Order.
These two operations are not quite equivalent, since a weight added to the interior does not affect the volume of liquid displaced when the instrument is immersed up to a given division of the scale, while the addition of weights to the exterior increases the displacement.
In comparing the densities of different liquids, it is clear that this instrument is precisely equivalent to that of Fahrenheit, and must be employed in the same manner, weights being placed in the top scale only until the hydrometer sinks to the mark on the wire, when the specific gravity of the liquid will be proportional to the weight of the instrument together with the weights in the scale.
A Greek statue was therefore chosen as the idol, and it was proclaimed as the anthropomorphic equivalent of a much revered and highly popular Egyptian beast-divinity, the dead Apis, assimilated to Osiris.
Gorz and Gradisca had in 1900 a population of 232,338, which is equivalent to 203 inhabitants per square mile.
In this age the choachytae, as the Greeks called them ("libation priests, " or "shrine-openers" in Egyptian), belonged to an inferior grade of the priesthood, equivalent to the pastophori of the deities, and were organized in gilds for the different cemeteries.
Chromium ammonium sulphate, (NH4)2S04 Cr2(S04)3.24H20, results on mixing equivalent quantities of chromic sulphate and ammonium sulphate in aqueous solution and allowing the mixture to crystallize.
In law, the word is the equivalent of mailles blanches, for rent paid in silver ("white") money.
The latter were regarded as forming a distinct branch, equivalent in rank to the other three classes together, the latter all possessing the radula which is wanting in Lamellibranchs.
This latter differs very little in actual practice from the previous method of determination by the number of deniers per 476 metres, the denier being calculated on the equivalent of 0.0531 gramme, the English equivalent showing 333 deniers per one dram avoirdupois.
This is the process equivalent to combing in the wool industry.
The word thus came to be applied to the whole body of doctrine taught by Christ and his disciples, and so to the Christian revelation generally (see Christianity); by analogy the term " gospel " is also used in other connexions as equivalent to " authoritative teaching."
Mexican peasants regularly paint or tattoo a cross on their foreheads, and the old Armenian equivalent for destiny or fate is cakatagir or forehead-writing.
He ingeniously suggested that the external agent is one feeling regarded objectively, and the internal effect another feeling regarded subjectively; " and therefore," to quote his own words, " to say that it is a molecular movement which produces a sensation of sound, is equivalent to saying that a sensation of sight produces a sensation of hearing."
P. Lesson, who had previously (loc. cit.) made some blunders about it, placed it (Traite d'Ornithologie, p. 12), though only, as he says, "par analogie et a priori," in his first division of birds, "Oiseaux Anomaux," which is equivalent to what we now call Ratitae, making of it a separate family "Nullipennes."
It is worth noting that in later times the heriot of an " ordinary thegn " (medema pegn) - by which is meant apparently not a king's thegn but a man of the twelfhynde class - consisted of his horse with its saddle, &c. and his arms, or two pounds of silver as an equivalent of the whole.
The followers (called by Tacitus comites, in England " thegns," among the Franks antrustiones, &c.) were expected to remain faithful to their lord even to death; indeed so close was the relationship between the two that it seems to have reckoned as equivalent to that of father and son.
In selling yarn for export it is usual to allow the buyer only 11% for payment in 14 days, or in some cases the discount is at the rate of 5% per annum for 3 months, which is equivalent to 14%.
The absence of any equivalent names in Babylonian or Assyrian documents is noteworthy, 3 especially as the Babylonians spoke of the "Sea-Country" (mat Tamtim).
Since a Mitanni princess of these letters is called in Egyptian scarabs a princess of Naharin, it is clear that Mitanni and Naharin are more or less equivalent, whilst in the Amarna letters, even Tushratta, the king of Mitanni, seems to use in the same way the name Khanigalbat.
One way in which this has been secured is by obtaining the under cooling by temporary cooling of the air space by a spiral tube in which ether may be evaporated, the outer vessel being filled with ice in contact with a solution of equivalent concentration to that within.
Now measurements of osmotic properties of these solutions show that their osmotic pressures are abnormally great and that, at extreme dilution, the ratio of their osmotic pressures to that of equivalent solutions of non-electrolytes is equal to the number of ions indicated by the electrolytic properties.
In the Eastern churches the only vestment that has any true analogy with the dalmatic or liturgical upper tunic is the sakkos, the tunic worn by deacons and subdeacons over their everyday clothes being the equivalent of the Western alb.
The mistress of Gebal was no doubt `Ashtart (Astarte in Greek, `Ashtoreth in the Old Testament, pronounced with the vowels of bosheth, " shame "), a name which is obviously connected with the Babylonian Ishtar, and, as used in Phoenician, is practically the equivalent of " goddess."
Istria had in 1900 a population of 344, 1 73, equivalent to 180 inhabitants per square mile.
A treaty concluded by him with the Allies (Dec. 2) stipulated that he was to receive back all his former territories, or their equivalent, and at the same time to restore the ancient constitution of his country.
The name " Hebrew " is derived, through the Greek `E$3paios, from `ibhray, the Aramaic equivalent of the Old Testament word `ibhri, denoting the people who commonly spoke of themselves as Israel or Children of Israel from the name of their common ancestor (see JEws).
In a tertiary sense the word appears to have been occasionally employed as equivalent to the Latin miles - usually translated by thegn - which in the earlier middle ages was used as the designation of the domestic as well as of the martial officers or retainers of sovereigns and princes or great personages.
In these connexions "Shekinah" thus becomes the equivalent of "God" or its synonyms. One or two examples will make the Targum-usage clear.
On the 10th of January, 1569, the judgment given at the conference acquitted Murray and his adherents of rebellion, while affirming that nothing had been proved against Mary - a verdict accepted by Murray as equivalent to a practical recognition of his office as regent for the infant king.
In the spelling Mar-tu, the name is as old as the first Babylonian dynasty, but from the 15th century B.C. and downwards its syllabic equivalent Amurru is applied primarily to the land extending northwards of Palestine as far as Kadesh on the Orontes.
Plants of this character should be potted a little less firmly than specimens which are likely to stand long in the pot, and indeed the soil should be made comparatively light by the intermixture of leaf-mould or some equivalent, in order that the roots may run freely and quickly into it.
The British Pharmacopoeia contains a watery solution - the Aqua Chloroformi - which is useful in disguising the taste of nauseous drugs; a liniment which consists of equal parts of camphor liniment and chloroform, and is a useful counter-irritant; the Spiritus Chloroformi (erroneously known as "chloric ether"), which is a useful anodyne in doses of from five to forty drops; and the Tinctura Chloroformi et Morphinae Composita, which is the equivalent of a proprietary drug called chlorodyne.
Wrought iron is slag-bearing malleable iron, containing so little carbon (0.30% or less), or its equivalent, that it does not harden greatly when cooled suddenly.
The pretty elaborate appliances, tongs or their equivalent, which would be needed to enable him to hold it conveniently while hot, could hardly have been devised till a very much later period; but then he may have been content to forge it inconveniently, because the great ease with which it mashes out when hot, perhaps pushed with a stout stick from the fire to a neighbouring flat stone, would compensate for much inconvenience.
Only in the presence of much manganese, nickel, or their equivalent can the true austenite be preserved in the cold so completely that the steel remains non-magnetic.
As, in succeeding members of this same series of cast irons, more of the graphite of the initial skeleton changes into cementite and thereby becomes part of the metallic matrix, so the graphite skeleton becomes progressively thinner and more discontinuous, and the matrix richer in cementite and hence in carbon and hence equivalent first to higher and higher carbon steel, such as tool steel of I carbon, file steel of 1.50%, wire-die steel of 2% carbon and then to white cast iron, which consists essentially of much cementite with little ferrite.
The resultant of these two effects has not yet been well established; but it is probable that the strongest cast iron has a little more than 1% of carbon combined as cementite, so that its matrix is nearly equivalent to the strongest of the steels.
In short, there can be no doubt that the biblical name Shinar was practically equivalent to the mat Shumeri u Akkadi= non-Semitic Kengi-Uri of the Babylonian inscriptions.
Pinches has pointed out' that Shumer may be a dialectic form of an as yet unestablished non-Semitic form, Shenger, just as the non-Semitic word dimmer, " god," is equivalent to another form, dingir.
This non-Semitic system, which is found, in many instances, on alternate lines with a regular Semitic translation, in other cases in opposite columns to a Semitic rendering, and again without any Semitic equivalent at all, has been held by one school, founded and still vigorously defended by the distinguished French Assyriologist, Joseph Halevy, to be nothing more than a priestly system of cryptography based, of course, on the then current Semitic speech.
The Mogul Baber in his memoirs (1526) relates how in his conquest of India he captured at Agra the great stone weighing 8 mishkals, or 320 ratis, which may be equivalent to about 187 carats.
But it is usual, and it will be convenient here, to use the term monasticism in a broader sense, as equivalent to the technical " religious life," and as embracing the various forms that have come into being so prolifically in the Latin Church at all periods since the middle of the r r th century.
Here apparently synderesis and conscience (o vv€LSrtacs) are equivalent.
All structures morphologically equivalent with the leaf are now included under the general term phyllome (leaf-structure).
This comes from the usage in heraldry (first in French) for the colour equivalent to black, represented conventionally by a crosshatching of vertical and horizontal lines.
Besides these ten-mark pieces, there are Doppclkronen (double crowns), about equivalent in value to an English sovereign (the average rate of exchange being 20 marks 40 pfennige per LI sterling), and, formerly, half-crowns (halbe Kronen =5 marks) in gold were also issued, hut they have been withdrawn from circulation.
Silver coins are 5, 2 and I mark pieces, equivalent to 5, 2 and 1 shillings respectively, and 50 pfennige pieces=6d.
As a result of the war Venetia was to be added to Italy and an equivalent amount of territory in North Germany to Prussia.
The irides are of a light orange, and the sclerotic tunics - equivalent to the "white of the eye" in most animals - which in few birds are visible, are in this very conspicuous and of a bright scarlet, giving it an air of great ferocity.
Unable to meet the expenses of his rank, which was equivalent to the grade of colonel in the army, he retired in 1775.
On the aoth of September the Reichsrath was prorogued, which was equivalent to the suspension of the constitution; and in December the emperor opened the Hungarian diet in person, with a speech from the throne that recognized the validity of the laws of 1848.
This, when supported as shown, can be arranged to have an extremely slow period of vertical motion, and in this respect be equivalent to a weight attached to a very long spring, an alternative which is, however, impracticable.
By this means the natives of Nigeria were secured in the possession of their land - the government imposing land taxes, which are the equivalent of rent.
The state, as ultimate proprietor, imposes a tax which is the equivalent of rent.
Constitution and AdministrationEgypt is a tributary state of the Turkish empire, and is ruled by an hereditary prince with the style of khedive, a Persian title regarded as the equivalent of king.
During its continuance plenary indulgence is obtainable by all the faithful, on condition of their penitently confessing their sins and visiting certain churches a stated number of times, or doing an equivalent amount of meritorious work.
The Latin word alga seems to have been the equivalent of the English word " seaweed " and probably stood for any or all of the species of plants which form the C/assifl- " wrack " of a seashore.
After fertilization the equivalent of the oospore divides directly to form a group of carpospores.
It acts as a weak base and forms salts with one equivalent of an acid.
She had claimed, since the riots at Perth in 1559, the Power of the Keys, with the power of excommunicating even the king, a sentence practically equivalent to outlawry.
Scotland was to have forty-five members and sixteen elected peers at Westminster; the holders of Darien stock were compensated; as a balance to equality of taxation a pecuniary equivalent was to be paid, the kirk and Scottish courts of justice were safeguarded (final appeal being to the British House of Lords), and Scots shared English facilities and privileges of trade, in name, for many years passed before Scotland really began to enjoy the benefits.
It is found, more especially in the case of organic compounds, that if a substance which oxidizes readily at ordinary temperature be mixed with another which is not capable of such oxidation, then both are oxidized simultaneously, the amount of oxygen used being shared equally between them; or in some cases when the substance is spontaneously oxidized an equivalent amount of oxygen is converted into ozone or hydrogen peroxide.
Now it is possible that the whole conception of Antichrist has its final roots in this already complicated myth, that the form of the mighty adversary of God is but the equivalent in human form of the devil or of the dragon of chaos.
There is no precise Babylonian or Egyptian equivalent, though attempts have been made to produce points of contact with Babylonian or Egyptian beliefs.
On adding to this solution, after settling out the mud, a quantity of potassium chloride equivalent to the calcium chlorate, the reaction Ca(C10 3) 2 +2KC1=CaC1 2 +2KC10 3 is produced, the ultimate proportions thus being theoretically 2KC10 3 to 6CaCl2, though in reality there is rather more calcium chloride present.
There can be no doubt that the series as a whole is the equivalent of the Gondwana system, and when the country has been more closely examined the association of marine fossils with Gondwana plants will be of the greatest value in determining the precise homotaxis of the Indian deposits.
This kurta is the equivalent for the shirt of Europe.
Further, by causing the hour circle, and with it the polar axis, to rotate by clockwork or some equivalent mechanical contrivance, at the same angular velocity as the earth on its axis, but in the opposite direction, the telescope will, apart from the effects of refraction, automatically follow a star from rising to setting.
In this case the equivalent focal length is 150 ft.
It was one of the old quarter-days, being equivalent to midsummer, the others being Martinmas, equivalent to Michaelmas, Candlemas (Christmas) and Whitsuntide (Easter).
It is better to use a fairly large calorimeter to diminish the rate of cooling and the uncertainty of the correction for the water equivalent.
These methods have reached their highest development in connexion with the determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat, but they may be applied with great advantage in connexion with other problems, such as the measurement of the variation of specific heat, or of latent heats of fusion or vaporization.
The phrase " mechanical equivalent of heat" is somewhat vague, but has been sanctioned by long usage.
The numerical value of the mechanical equivalent necessarily depends on the particular units of heat and work employed in the comparison.
The Values Deduced In This Manner For The Equivalent Agreed As Closely As Could Be Expected Considering The Impossibility Of Regulating The External Condition Of Temperature And Moisture With Any Certainty In An Engine Room.
The Value Of The International Electrical Units Has By This Time Been So Accurately Determined In Absolute Measure That They Afford A Very Good, Though Indirect, Method Of Determining The Mechanical Equivalent Of Heat.
The Water Equivalent Of The Calorimeter Was About 85 Grammes, And Was Determined By Varying The Quantity Of Water From 140 To 260 Or 280 Grammes, So That The Final Results Depended On A Difference In The Weight Of Water Of 120 To 140 Grammes.
The Uncertainty Due To The Correction For The Water Equivalent Was Minimized By Making It Small (About 27 Grammes) In Comparison With The Water Weight.
Admitting That The Electro Chemical Equivalent Of Silver Increases With The Age Of The Solution, A Fact Subsequently Discovered, And That The E.M.F.
The Water Equivalent Of The Calorimeter Is Immaterial, Since There Is No Appreciable Change Of Temperature.
This unit is taken as being 4.180 joules per gramme-degree-centigrade on the scale of the platinum thermometer, corrected to the absolute scale as explained in the article Thermometry, Which Has Been Shown To Be Practically Equivalent To The Hydrogen Scale.
In Any Case The Value Of The Mechanical Equivalent Is Uncertain To At Least I In 2000.
Cicero preferred the cretic -, which he says is the metrical equivalent of the paean.
The basis consists of a cretic or its metrical equivalent.
The portion of the story covered by the text relates to the warning given by Ea to Ut-napishtim, the Babylonian equivalent of the Hebrew Noah.
The account of the compound simply sets itself taken piecemeal as equivalent to itself taken as aggregate.
So too, if the canon of the Method of Agreement is never more than approximately satisfied, intermixture of effects will in practice mean that we at least often do not know the cause or antecedent equivalent of a given effect, without the possibility of an alternative.
There was scope for diversity of view and there was diversity of view, according as the vital issue of the formula was held to lie in the relation of intellectual function to organic function or in the not quite equivalent relation of thinking to being.
Hamilton was probably influenced by the recollection of its Greek equivalent, the Pythagorean Tetractys (TerpaKrt, the number four), the mystic source of all things.
Employing Joule's value of the mechanical equivalent of heat, then recently published, in connexion with the value of the ratio of the specific heats of air S/s=I.
It is equivalent, as Callendar (loc. cit.) points out, to supposing that the variation of the specific heat is due to the formation and solution of a mass w/(v-w) of vapour molecules per unit mass of the liquid.
The eternal generation of the Son is equivalent to the eternal creation of the world.
The theosophical conception of brotherhood is thus rather transcendental than materialistic, and is not therefore to be regarded as the exact equivalent of the socialistic doctrine of the solidarity of the human race.