A map was attached on which several great equatorial lakes are shown, and the empire of Monomwezi or Unyamwezi is laid down.
On this globe an equatorial and a meridional ocean divide our earth FIG.
From the surface to 500 fathoms the general form of the isothermals remains the same, except that instead of an equatorial maximum belt there is a focus of maximum temperature off the eastern coast of the United States.
The concentration of these substances is least in the warm equatorial seas and greatest near the poles.
The mounting in 1859 of an equatorial of 13 in.
On the eastern side the southern flora finds representatives in Abyssinia, including Protea, and on the mountains of equatorial Africa, Calodendron capense occurring on Kilimanjaro.
The red type is peculiar to America, inhabiting every climate from polar to equatorial, and containing representatives of many stages of culture which had apparently developed without the aid or interference of people of any other race until the close of the 15th century.
This is partly due to the equatorial position and the heavy rainfall.
In the equatorial region between these belts the salinity is markedly less, especially in the eastern part.
du Bois (Magnetic Circuit, p. 33), the demagnetizing factor, and the ratio of the length of the ellipsoid 2c to its equatorial diameter 2a (=c/a), the dimensional ratio, denoted by the symbol nt.
refused this, but granted him a coadjutor, and placed the whole of equatorial Africa under his charge.
These last may be of the nature of " reaction " currents; they are collectively known as the equatorial counter-current.
He remodelled the volumes of observations, put the library on a proper footing, mounted the new (Sheepshanks) equatorial and organized a new magnetic observatory.
5 part per million of nitrogen in the above forms. The North Atlantic contains, on the average, about 0.15 part per million and the equatorial seas little more than about o 1 part per million.
The daughter nuclei may have arrived at the anaphase stage, and have even gone the length of forming a nuclear membrane, without an equatorial depression having shown itself in the cell-body.
Buchanan pointed out in 1876, that the great contrasts in surface salinity between the tropical maxima and the equatorial minima give place at the moderate depth of 200 fathoms to a practically uniform salinity in all parts of the ocean.
inland are equatorial, the rainfall in the western half of the country being about 150 in.
A well-marked trochosphere is formed by the development of an equatorial ciliated band; and subsequently, by the disproportionate growth of the lower hemisphere, the trochosphere becomes a veliger.
Sometimes the equatorial depression fails entirely, and the separation, as in some vegetable cells, takes place through the construction of a cell-plate.
The chief facts already established are the greater saltness of the North Atlantic compared with the South Atlantic at all.depths, and the low salinity at all depths in the eastern equatorial region, off the Gulf of Guinea.
The trade winds give rise, in the region most exposed to their influence, to two westward-moving drifts - the equatorial currents, which are separated in parts of their course by currents moving in the opposite direction along the equatorial belt.
Where surface water is banked up against the land, as by the equatorial and Gulf Stream drift currents, it appears to penetrate to very considerable depths; the escaping stream currents are at first of great vertical thickness and part of the water at their sources has a downward movement.
No part of the equatorial mounting is shown in the figure, as it resembles in every respect the usual Fraunhofer mounting.
The excess of heat received in equatorial regions expands the water, but at the same time excess of evaporation concentrates it, so that the density increases.
In intermediate latitudes there is a loss of heat and then the increased density due to equatorial concentration becomes a factor.
Water drifting into the North Atlantic from the equatorial stream has a relatively high salinity (from 36°/oo to 36.5°/00) and a high temperature (from 15°C. to 20°C.), and when the distribution of salinity from season to season is studied it is seen that the area of dense water (salinity 36°/00) extends farther to the N.
These are the " axial " and " equatorial " positions of Faraday.
Both the humidity and the temperature are increased by the great mass of water, the Mozambique current, flowing south from the equatorial regions.
The nucleolus is elongated, and its longest measurement lies in the direction of the equatorial plane of the nucleus.
The development of other species of Vitis, such as the curious succulent species of the Soudan and other parts of equatorial Africa, or the numerous kinds in India and Cochin China, is of course possible under suitable conditions; but it is obvious that an extremely long period must elapse before they can successfully compete with the product of many centuries.
This was done in 1612 by Christoph Scheiner, who fully described his method of solar observation in the Rosa Ursina (1630), demonstrating very clearly and practically the advantages and disadvantages of using the camera, without a lens, with a single convex lens, and with a telescopic combination of convex object-glass and concave enlarging lens, the last arrangement being mounted with an adjustable screen or tablet on an equatorial stand.
In the extreme south are the isolated atolls of Addu and Fua-Mulaku, separated from Suvadiva by the Equatorial Channel, which is itself separated from the main chain of atolls by One-and-ahalf-degree Channel.'
Jupiter was measured on eleven nights in the months of June and July 1794; from these measures Schur derives the values 35"39 and 37".94 for the polar and equatorial diameter respectively, at mean distance, corresponding with a compression 1/14.44.
They provided a splendid, rigidly mounted, equatorial stand, fitted with every luxury in the way of slow motion, and scales for measuring the displacement of the segments were read by powerful micrometers from the eye-end.
The Brazilian Basin has also a large area lying at a depth greater than 2500 fathoms and culminates in the Romanche Deep close to the Equatorial Ridge in o° rr' S., 18° 15' W.
The comparatively fresh equatorial belt of water, has a salinity of 35.
The trade-wind regions correspond pretty closely with westward-flowing currents, while in the equatorial calm belts there are eastward-running countercurrents, these lying north of the equator in the Atlantic and Pacific, but south of the equator in the Indian Ocean.
On reaching the South American coast, the southern equatorial current splits into two parts at Cape St Roque: one branch, the Brazil current, is deflected southwards and follows Currents.
The second branch proceeds north-westwards towards the West Indies, where it mingles with the waters of the northern equatorial; and the two drifts, blocked by the
The development of the equatorial and the Brazil currents in the South Atlantic has already been described.
The division in all cases takes place by constriction, or by a simultaneous splitting along an equatorial plane.
In the higher plants, after the separation of the daughter nuclei, minute granular swellingc appear, in the equatorial region, on the connecting fibres which still persist between the two nuclei, to form what is called the cell-plate.
The polar regions travelled a little from west to east relatively to the equatorial, which lagged behind.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.
When the middle and hinder regions of the blastopore are closing in, an equatorial ridge of ciliated cells is formed, converting the embryo into a typical trochosphere.
The equatorial currents produce conditions differing from those existing at corresponding latitudes on the neighboring continent.
Various considerations throw doubt on Mr Moore's theory, especially the almost entire absence of marine fossiliferous beds in the whole of equatorial Africa at a distance from the sea, of any remains of Jurassic faunas which might link the Tanganyika forms with those of undoubted Jurassic age in neighbouring regions.
This alteration and the new equatorial mounting have been admirably made by Grubb; the result is completely I successful.
the depths are between 1500 and 2000 fathoms, and then it rises again to about 150o fathoms and runs eastward under the name of the Equatorial Ridge.
disk to depths of 31 and 36 fathoms in the Sargasso Sea, but in the cold currents of the north and also in the equatorial current the depth of visibility was only from zi to 162 fathoms. to the tropical parts of the Indian and the Pacific Oceans the depth of visibility increases again to from 20 to 27 fathoms. Some allowance should be made for the elevation of the sun at the time of observation.
In each of the three oceans there are two maxima of salinity-one in the north, the other in the south tropical belt, separated by a zone of minimum salinity in the equatorial region, and giving place poleward to regions of still lower salinity.
The belt of equatorial minimum salinity corresponds with the excessively rainy belt of calms and of the equatorial countercurrent, the salinity diminishing towards the east.
The north equatorial current divides into the current entering the Caribbean Sea and issuing thence by the Strait of Florida as the Gulf Stream, and the Antilles current passing to the north of the Antilles.
The west-wind drifts on the poleward side carry back part of the water southward to reunite with the equatorial current, and thus there is set up an anticyclonic circulation of water between io and 40° in each hemisphere, the movement of the water corresponding very closely with that of the wind.
an hour only 22 fathoms. It follows that a pure trade-wind drift cannot reach to any great depth, and this seems to be confirmed by observation, as when tow-nets are sunk to depths of 50 fathoms and more in the region of the equatorial current they always show a strong drift away from the side of the ship, the ship itself following the surface current.
When equatorial mountings for telescopes became more general, no filar micrometer was considered complete which was not fitted with a position circle.'
equatorial telescope, is the first position micrometer constructed capable of measuring position angles to 1' of arc.
equatorial made for Struve at Dorpat by Fraunhofer; it was completed in 1825.
On the polar side of the high-pressure area a west wind drift is under the control of the " roaring forties," and on reaching South Africa part of this is deflected and sent northwards along the west coast as the cold Benguella current which rejoins the equatorial.
This main scheme is complicated in various ways: (r) by the rotation of the earth, which continually deflects currents of water or air to the right in the northern or to the left in the southern hemisphere; (2) by the conformation of the land masses (as in the case of the equatorial stream which is banked up in the Gulf of Mexico and flows out through the Straits of Florida); (3) by the varying depth of the ocean, for currents tend to flow more readily through deep than in shallow waters (as in the case of the main Atlantic drift, which flows most strongly through the deep channel between Shetland and the Faroe Is.); and (4) by the driving force of the winds acting on the surface of the sea (thus the drift of water from the equator is not N.E., as one might expect, but from E.
in equatorial Africa.
UGANDA, a British protectorate in Eastern Equatorial Africa, lying between Lakes Victoria and Albert and between the Mountain Nile and Lake Rudolf.
Austin, With Macdonald in Uganda (1903) and Among Swamps and Giants in Equatorial Africa (1902); Winston Churchill, My African Journey (1908); Bishop Tucker, Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa (1908); articles on ethnology by the Rev. H.
Naivasha was discovered in 1883 by Gustav Adolf Fischer (1848-1886), one of the early explorers of the Tana and Masai regions, and the first to demonstrate the continuance of the rift-valley through equatorial Africa.
The large and brightly coloured bongo (Boocercus euryceros) of the equatorial forest-districts serves in some respects to connect the bushbucks with the elands, having horns in both sexes, and a tufted tail, but a brilliant orange coat with vertical white stripes.
In fact the modern equatorial, and the altitude and azimuth circle are astrolabes in the strictest and oldest meaning of the term; and Tycho in one of his astrolabes came so near the modern equatorial that it may be taken as the first of the kind.
12 The essential difference, however, between the nakshatras and the sieu is that the latter were equatorial, not ecliptical, divisions.
Most of the islands of the archipelago belong to the great equatorial forest-belt.
In 1861 she removed from Nantucket to Lynn, where she used a large equatorial telescope presented to her by the women of America; and there she lived until 1865, when she became professor of astronomy and director of the observatory at Vassar College; in 1888 she became professor emeritus.
On his recovery he was consecrated bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa (June 1884), and in January 1885 started again for the scene of his mission, and visited Palestine on the way.
Between these two areas, almost on the equator, a strip of globigerina ooze was found, corresponding to the zone of globigerina in the equatorial region of the Atlantic. Globigerina ooze covers considerable areas in the intermediate depths of the west and south Pacific - west of New Zealand, and along the parallel of 40° S., between 80°-98° W.
The trade-winds are generally weaker and less persistent in the Pacific than in the Atlantic, and the intervening belt of equatorial calms is broader.
The North Equatorial Current is due to the action of the north-east trades.
Part of this rejoins the North Equatorial Current, and part probably forms the variable Mexican Current, which follows the coasts of Mexico and California close to the land.
The Equatorial CounterCurrent flowing eastwards is largely assisted during the latter half of the year by the south-west monsoon, and from July to October the south-west winds prevailing east of 150° E.
The South Equatorial Current is produced by the southeast trades, and is more vigorous than its northern counterpart.
On reaching the western Pacific part of this current passes southwards, east of New Zealand, and again east of Australia, as the East Australian Current, part northwards to join the Equatorial CounterCurrent, and during the north-east monsoon part makes its way through the China Sea towards the Indian Ocean.
On the west coast of South America the cold waters of the Humboldt or Peruvian Current corresponding to the Benguela Current of the South Atlantic, make their way northwards, ultimately joining the South Equatorial Current.
palpalis, of Equatorial Africa, whose bite transmits the human parasite (T.
He was also a diligent and skilful observer, and busied himself not only with astronomical subjects, such as the double stars, the satellites of Jupiter and the measurement of the polar and equatorial diameters of the sun, but also with biological studies of the circulation of the sap in plants, the fructification of plants, infusoria, &c.
A circlet of cilia forms when the embryo is still nearly spherical in an equatorial position.
The family is confined to the equatorial forest-tract of Africa, where it is most numerously represented on the west side.
GUINEA, the general name applied by Europeans to part of the western coast region of equatorial Africa, and also to the gulf formed by the great bend of the coast line eastward and then southward.
It is common throughout equatorial Africa.
At this time ivory and slave traders, nominally Egyptian subjects, penetrated as far south as Unyoro, and a few years later (1870-74) Baker, as governorgeneral of the Equatorial Provinces, extended Egyptian influence over the country and placed a garrison at Foweira on the Victoria Nile.
Unyoro has played rather an important role in the past (unwritten) history of Equatorial Africa as being the region from which the ancient Gala (Hamitic) aristocracy, coming from Nileland, penetrated the forests of Bantu Africa, bringing with them the Neolithic civilization, the use of metals, and the keeping of cattle.
The mountain chain immediately overhanging it, the high temperature of the sea washing it,,the frequent thunderstorms to which it is subject, the moist atmosphere of its equatorial situation, and the shorter regime of the dry south-east wind are the principal causes of the heavier rainfall on the west coast.
BELGIAN CONGO, a Belgian colony in Equatorial Africa occupying the greater part of the basin of the Congo river.
in the exploration and commercial development of the equatorial regions of Africa had led, in the creation of the Congo Free State, to results which had originally g ?
At distances greater than this it is impossible to see anything clearly in these equatorial forests, and it is very difficult to do so even at this short distance.
Hot desert conditions are primarily found along the tropical belts of high atmospheric pressure in which the conditions of warmth and dryness are most fully realized, and on their equatorial sides, but the zonal arrangement is considerably modified in some regions by the monsoonal influence of elevated land.
There was no prospect of further territory in Equatorial Africa, and the hope of bringing about a closer union with the South African Republic was not fulfilled.
After 1899 many more enlisted: the greater number were Shilluks and Dinkas coming from the country between Fashoda and the equatorial provinces, but a proportion came from the western borders of the Sudan, and some from Wadai and Bornu.
In 1865 Suakin and Massawa were assigned to Egyptian rule by the sultan, and in 1870 Sir Samuel Baker proceeded up the Nile to the conquest of the Equatorial provinces, of which General Gordon was appointed governorgeneral in 1874.
That town was captured, after an obstinate defence, on the 17th of January 1883, by which time almost the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in open rebellion, except the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial provinces, where for a time Lupton Bey and Emin Pasha were able to hold their own.
Stewart, to resign his commission, and to proceed with the stores and the steamers to the equatorial provinces, which he would consider as placed under the king of the Belgians.
Equatoria.In the Equatorial Province, which extended from the Albert Nyanza to Lado, Emin Bey, who had a force of 1300 Egyptian troops and 3000 irregulars, distributed aniong many stations, held out, hoping for reinforcdments.
But their influence, especially that of the missionaries, is felt in every part of the protectorate, and in few parts of equatorial Africa have the natives more readily responded to European influences.
Its shrines and monasteries stretched in a continuous line from the Caspian to the Pacific, and still extend from the confines of the Russian empire to the equatorial archipelago.
Both are abundantly illustrated in most popular works on astronomy, and it seems sufficient to refer the reader to the original descriptions.2 We pass, therefore, directly to the equatorial telescope, the instrument par excellence of the modern extra-meridian astronomer.
In its simplest form the mounting of an equatorial telescope consists of an axis parallel to the earth's axis, called" the polar axis "; a second axis at right angles to the polar axis called" the declination axis "; and the telescope tube fixed at right angles to the declination axis.
- Equatorial Telescope.
Since the transit circle is preferable to the equatorial for such observations wherein great accuracy is required, the declination and hour circles of an equatorial are employed, not for the determination of the right ascensions and declinations of celestial objects, but for directing the telescope with ease and certainty to any object situated in an approximately known position, and which may or may not be visible to the naked eye, or to define approximately the position of an unknown object.
- Equatorial mountings may be divided into six types.
for 1824 (part 3, pp. 1-412) will be found a description by Sir John Herschel and Sir James South of the equatorial telescope which they employed in their measurements of double stars.
- The most important examples of type B are Airy's equatorial at Greenwich (originally made to carry a telescope of 13-in.
Fraunhofer's chef-d'oeuvre, the great Dorpat refractor, made for Otto Struve about 1820, had a mounting of this type, and was the first equatorial of any importance to be provided with clockwork.
About 1840 a great advance was made by the Repsolds of Hamburg in the equatorial mounting of the Oxford heliometer.
(A figure of the instrument is given in the Oxford Observations for 1850.) About 1850 Thomas Cooke of York began his career as a maker of equatorial telescopes.
- T he modern equatorial should, for general purposes, be capable of carrying spectroscopes of considerable weight, so that the proportional strength of the axes and the rigidity of the instrument have to be considerably increased.
The chief defect in equatorial mountings of type C is that in general they are not capable of continued observing much past the meridian without reversal.
- The first important equatorial of type D was the 4-ft.
96, pp. 735-74 1, Loewy gives an account of an instrument which he calls an "equatorial coude," designed (I) to attain greater stability and so to measure larger angles than is generally possible with the ordinary equatorial; (2) to enable a single astronomer to point the telescope and make observations in any part of the sky without changing his position; (3) to abolish the usual expensive dome, and to substitute a covered shed on wheels (which can be run back at pleasure), leaving the telescope in the open air, the observer alone being sheltered.
Sir David Gill tested the equatorial coude on double stars at the Paris Observatory in 1884, and his last doubts as to the practical value of the instrument were dispelled.
- Loewy's Coude Equatorial.
A modification of Loewy's equatorial coude has been suggested by Lindemann (Asir.
3935); it consists in placing both the mirrors of Loewy's "equatorial coude" at the top of the polar axis instead of the lower end of it.
series 2, p. 61) proposed a form of equatorial telescope of which an The excellent example was erected at Cambridge (Eng).
The instrument in some respects resembles the equatorial equatorial coude of Loewy, but instead of two mirrors Camp there is only one.
Thus, as in the equatorial coude, the observer remains in a fixed position looking down the polar tube from above.
23) is a polar axis, like that of an equatorial telescope, rotating in twenty-four hours by clockwork.
The mirrors of Lindemann's equatorial coude reflecting light downwards upon the mirror R would furnish an ideal siderostat for stellar spectroscopy in conjunction with a fixed horizontal telescope.
in the case of symmetry about an axis it appears that the ratio of the polar to the equatorial diameter of the ellipsoid cannot be less than I/~2.
equatorial erected at Washington Observatory in 1873.
equatorial at the United States Naval Observatory, Newcomb devoted it almost exclusively for the first two years to observations of the satellites of Uranus and Neptune, being of opinion that it was better to do one thing well than many things indifferently.
Equatorial Africa, and the chimpanzees of W.
and Central Equatorial Africa.
The mountain sparrow (Passer montana) is abundant in Java and Singapore in a uniform equatorial climate, and also inhabits Britain and a considerable portion of northern Europe.
Some of these birds have lived thus exposed for many years, enduring the English cold easterly winds, rain, hail and snow, all through the winter - a marvellous contrast to the equable equatorial temperature (hardly ever less than 70°) to which many of them had been accustomed for the first year or years of their existence.
But we have the same phenomenon in single varieties of man, such as the American, which inhabits alike the frozen wastes of Hudson's Bay and Tierra del Fuego, and the hottest regions of the tropics, - the low equatorial valleys and the lofty plateaux of the Andes.
Now there is a zone of the equatorial Andes, ranging between about 4000 and 6000 feet altitude, where the very best flavoured coffee is grown, where cane is less luxuriant but more saccharine than in the plains, and which is therefore very desirable to cultivate, but where the red man sickens and dies.
By the Nile waterways there is easy transport from the southern and western equatorial provinces and from Sennar and other eastern districts.
At the extreme south, where Chilean territory extends across to the Atlantic entrance to the Straits of Magellan, a new climatic influence is encountered in the warm equatorial current flowing down the east coast of South America, which gives to eastern Tierra del Fuego a higher temperature than that of the western shore.
This came to him in the following year, when General Charles George Gordon, who had recently succeeded Sir Samuel Baker as governor of the equatorial provinces of Egypt, invited Schnitzer, who was now known as "Emin Effendi," to join him at Lado on the upper Nile.
In these he acquitted himself so well that when, in 1878, Gordon's successor at Lado was deprived of his office on account of malpractices (Gordon himself having been made governor-general of the Sudan), Emin was chosen to fill the post of governor of the Equatorial Province (i.e.
the old equatorial provinces minus the Bahr-el-Ghazal) and given the title of "bey."
Guayaquil sarsaparilla is obtained chiefly in the valley of Alausi, on the western side of the equatorial Andes.
In 1871 Baker, then governor-general of the equatorial provinces of Egypt, established a military post at Gondokoro which he named Ismailia, after the then khedive.
CONGO FREE STATE, the name formerly given by British writers to the Etat Independant du Congo, a state of equatorial Africa which occupied the greater part of the basin of the Congo river.
It is the largest fragment within the colony of the immense forest which at one time seems to have covered the whole equatorial region.
Situated in the equatorial zone, Belgian Congo shows, over the greater part of its area, only a slight variation of temperature all the year round.
Other places of importance are Luluaburg, on the Lulua river; Lusambo, the capital of the Lualaba-Kasai district, on the Sankuru river; Coquilhatville, the capital of the equatorial district, at the mouth of the Ruki; Stanleyville, the principal station of Stanley Falls district; New Antwerp, a thriving little town, the capital of the Bangala district, situated on the right bank of the Congo close to 19° E.; Banzyville, the capital of the Ubangi district, on the river of that name; and Basoko, at the junction of the Aruwimi and the Congo.
At Trinil, in Java, in an equatorial region where, if anywhere, a.
They are carried across the disk by the sun's rotation, partaking in the equatorial acceleration; they also show marked displacements of their own, whether with, or relative to, the neighbouring photosphere does not appear; at the beginning of their life they usually outrun the average daily rotation appropriate to their latitude.
But this theory gives no clue to the results relating to hydrogen, which belongs to a high level, and which Adams has shown to move with an angular velocity decidedly greater than the equatorial angular velocity below it, and not to show any sign of falling off towards the poles.
Better determinations of the actual value came from the heliometer, and gave an angular diameter of 31' 59.26" =0.10", and the value of the polar diameter exceeded the equatorial by 0.038" =0.023".
Linear, 109 Xearth's equatorial diameter =864,000 M.
A considerable part of the republic is covered by the equatorial belt of calms, whose oscillations divide the year into a wet and dry season.
Along the line of the equator the Indian counter-current flows eastwards all the year round, acting as compensation to the great Equatorial current flowing westwards between the parallels of 7° and 20° S.
The equatorial current, on meeting the northern extremity of Madagascar, sends a branch southwards along the east coast of that island, sometimes called the Mascarene current.
When the main equatorial current reaches the African coast a minor stream is sent northwards to the source of the Indian counter-current, but the discharge is chiefly by the Mozambique current, which south of Cape Corrientes becomes the Agulhas current, one of the most powerful stream currents of the globe.
In the case of the southern continents the difficulty is, however, to determine whether allied groups of mammals (and other animals) have reached their present isolated habitats by dispersal from the north along widely sundered longitudinal lines, or whether such a distribution implies the former existence of equatorial land-connexions.
Meanwhile Airy had in July suggested to Challis that the planet should be sought for with the Cambridge equatorial.
Coordinates referred to this system are termed equatorial.
A system of equatorial co-ordinates may also be used when the origin is on the earth's surface.
The vernal equinox is taken as the initial point on the sphere from which co-ordinates are measured in the equatorial and ecliptic systems. Referring to fig.
But, in consequence of the centrifugal force generated by the rotation, it assumes a spheroidal form, the equatorial regions bulging out.
If a planet rotates on its axis so rapidly as to have a considerable ellipticity, and if it has satellites revolving very near the plane of the equator, the combined actions of the sun and of the equatorial protuberances may be such that the whole system will rotate almost as if the planes of revolution of the satellites were solidly fixed to the plane of the equator.
In the measurement of equatorial co-ordinates, the polar distance is determined in an analogous way.
In the equatorial system this co-ordinate (the right ascension) is measured in a different way, by making the rotating earth perform the function of a graduated circle.
The following are those most used in astrometry: The equatorial telescope is an instrument which can be directed to any point in the sky, and which derives its appellation from its being mounted on an axis parallel to that of the earth.
in diameter; he substituted equatorial for zodiacal armillae, thus definitively establishing the system of measurements in right ascension and declination; and improved the graduation of circular arcs by adopting the method of " transversals."
14,600,000 Diameter (earth's equatorial diameter as I).
The region was claimed as part of the Egyptian Sudan, but it was not until the arrival of Sir Samuel Baker at Gondokoro in 1870 as governor of the equatorial provinces, that any effective control of the slave traders was attempted.
In 1878 Emin Pasha became governor of the Equatorial Province, a term henceforth confined to the region adjoining the main Nile above the Sobat confluence, and the region south of the Bahr-el-Ghazal province.
Flowing first south, it afterwards turns north through Lake Mweru and descends to the forest-clad basin of west equatorial Africa.
Within the equatorial zone certain areas, especially on the shores of the Gulf of Guinea and in the upper Nile basin, have an intensified rainfall, but this rarely approaches that of the rainiest regions of the world.
The two distinct rainy seasons of the equatorial zone, where the sun is vertical at half-yearly intervals, become gradually merged into one in the direction of the tropics, where the sun is overhead but once.
(The ravages of this disease, which also attacks Europeans, reached alarming proportions between 1893 and 1907, and in the last-named year an international conference was held in London to consider measures to combat it.) When removed to colder regions natives of the equatorial districts suffer greatly from chest complaints.
The more humid regions have a richer vegetation - dense forest where the rainfall is greatest and variations of temperature least, conditions found chiefly on the tropical coasts, and in the west African equatorial basin with its extension towards the upper Nile; and savanna interspersed with trees on the greater part of the plateaus, passing as the desert regions are appNoached into a scrub vegetation consisting of thorny acacias, &c. Forests also occur on the humid slopes of mountain ranges up to a certain elevation.
During the Tertiary era the geographical configuration of the globe was steadily approaching that of the present day; but in the earlier part of the time there still existed the great equatorial ocean "Tethys," and there is evidence that East India and Africa, Australia and Asia, north Europe and North America were probably severally united by land connexions.
These appearances he referred with great acuteness to the slight inclination of the sun's axis of rotation to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, when the earth finds herself in the plane of the sun's equator, which occurs at two opposite points of her orbit, the spots, travelling in circles parallel with that plane, necessarily appear to describe right lines; but when the earth is above or below the equatorial level, the paths of the spots open out into curves turned downwards or upwards, according to the direction in which they are seen.
(I) by the maritime countries of the west coast of Africa, (2) by the basin of the Congo, and (3) by the equatorial lakes, and E.
As thus constituted the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan forms a compact territory which, being joined southwards by the Uganda Protectorate, brings the whole of the Nile valley from the equatorial lakes to the Mediterranean under the control of Great Britain.
At the same time that Ismail annexed the seaboard he was extending his sway along the Nile valley to the equatorial lakes, and conceived the idea of annexing all the country between the Nile and the Indian Ocean.
3 In October 1876 Gordon left the Equatorial Provinces and gave up his appointment.
was, given the governorship of the whole of the Egyptian territories outside Egypt; namely, the Sudan provinces proper, the Equatorial Provinces, Darfur, and the Red Sea and Somali coasts.
At this time the high European officials in the Sudan, besides Gessi, included Emin Pasha - then a bey only - governor of the Equatorial Province since 1878, and Slatin Pasha - then also a bey - governor of Darfur.
The attempts to subdue the Equatorial Provinces were but partly successful.
P. tholloni, Bouvier, (Equatorial West Africa [Gaboon]), shows some neotropical features; there are 24 to 25 pairs of legs, the genital opening is between the penultimate legs, and though there are only three spinous pads the nephridial openings of the 4th and 5th legs are proximal to the 3rd pad, coxal organs are present, and the jaws are of the neotropical type; the oviducts have receptacula seminis.
By the end of 1882 the whole of the Sudan south of Khartum was in rebellion, with the exception of the Bahr-elGhazal and the Equatorial Provinces.
A study of the figure will show that the centrifugal force round the axis RR will act on the equatorial protuberance of the rotating earth so as to make it tend in the direction of the arrows.
In Monocotyledons, as in grasses, there is often only one, while in Dicotyledons they number from three upwards; when numerous, the pores are either scattered irregularly, or in a regular order, frequently forming a circle round the equatorial surface.
It was to succeed Baker as governor of the equatorial regions that the khedive asked for Gordon's services, having come to the conclusion that the latter was the most likely person to bring the affair to a satisfactory conclusion.
Gordon remained in the equatorial provinces until October 1876, and then returned to Cairo.
On arriving in Cairo Gordon informed the khedive of his reasons for not wishing to return to the Sudan, but did not definitely resign the appointment of governor of the equatorial provinces.
After some discussion the khedive agreed, and made him governor-general of the Sudan, inclusive of Darfur and the equatorial provinces.
While there are higher mountains, by virtue of the equatorial bulge, Chimborazo summit is the point on earth nearest the sun.
By the end of metaphase, the sister chromatids have become aligned along the cell's equatorial plane.
The routine sla_PLANET produces heliocentric position and velocity in the form of equatorial for the mean equator and equinox of J2000.
Celestron's well-respected 14 " SCT on the new computer controlled equatorial mount.
Bakos et al. calculated the equatorial coordinates for epoch and equinox 2000.0 using their astrometry and proper motion measurements.
The CCD and flip mirror is too long to clear the mount, which makes me wish for a german equatorial mount!
The highest global temperature was recorded in 1998 during the latter stages of El NiÃ±o activity in the eastern equatorial Pacific.
Trade winds and the equatorial upwelling maintain warm sea surface temperatures at the western equatorial Pacific and cold surface temperatures in the east.
Bresser Skylux 70mm equatorial Refractor - £ 89.99 The New Bresser Skylux offers sharp high quality optics on a sturdy equatorial mount.
equatorial bulge is readily visible in small telescopes.
equatorial sundial, with Greek letters marking the hours.
equatorial rainforest on the other side of the world.
Ecliptic and equatorial co-ordinates are referred to the mean equinox of a given epoch.
gnomonic projection in the equatorial system at Julian epoch 2000.0.
AMT sampling covers almost the entire gradient of oceanic productivity from oligotrophic ocean gyres to seasonally high productive high latitude and equatorial upwelling waters.
interpenetrateo separate interpenetrating networks, linked through the four equatorial water molecules in the hexamers.
The Observatory is the premier scientific facility in the world for studying the equatorial ionosphere.
mesoderm forms in the equatorial region of the embryo, a result of signals generated by neighboring endodermal cells (1 ).
We were drenched by rainstorms, burnt by the strong equatorial sunshine and Lenik nearly got swept down one of the rivers.
reflector telescope with equatorial mount.
The continental arrangement, with its equatorial seaway, was partially responsible, in that it limited the oceanic circulation.
semiannual variation of the amplitude of ionospheric equatorial anomaly through fountain effect.
topside sounder satellites was the equatorial anomaly.
The mutual distances of the intersecting wires he determined by counting, with the aid of a pendulum clock, the number of seconds required by an equatorial star to pass from web to web, while the telescope was adjusted so that the star ran parallel to the wires at right angles to those under investigation.
2 For the corrections applicable to measures of position-angle in different hour angles, on account of errors of the equatorial instrument and of refraction, see Chauvenet's Practical and Spherical Astronomy, ii.
At his request the university determined to erect a fine equatorial telescope for the instruction of his class and for purposes of research, a scheme which, in consequence of Warren de la Rue's munificent gift of instruments from his private observatory at Cranford, expanded into the establishment of the new university observatory.
Southern Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, for instance, although they correspond in latitude to Labrador, are made habitable and an excellent sheep-grazing country by the southerly equatorial current along the continental coast.
Water drifting into the North Atlantic from the equatorial stream has a relatively high salinity (from 36Ã‚°/oo to 36.5Ã‚°/00) and a high temperature (from 15Ã‚°C. to 20Ã‚°C.), and when the distribution of salinity from season to season is studied it is seen that the area of dense water (salinity 36Ã‚°/00) extends farther to the N.
He proposed to apply the same principles to the calculation of the disturbances produced in the rotation of the planets by external action on their equatorial protuberances, but was anticipated by Poisson, who gave formulae for the variation of the elements of rotation strictly corresponding with those found by Lagrange for the variation of the elements of revolution.
The Brazilian Basin has also a large area lying at a depth greater than 2500 fathoms and culminates in the Romanche Deep close to the Equatorial Ridge in oÃ‚° rr' S., 18Ã‚° 15' W.
The west-wind drifts on the poleward side carry back part of the water southward to reunite with the equatorial current, and thus there is set up an anticyclonic circulation of water between io and 40Ã‚° in each hemisphere, the movement of the water corresponding very closely with that of the wind.
Between these two areas, almost on the equator, a strip of globigerina ooze was found, corresponding to the zone of globigerina in the equatorial region of the Atlantic. Globigerina ooze covers considerable areas in the intermediate depths of the west and south Pacific - west of New Zealand, and along the parallel of 40Ã‚° S., between 80Ã‚°-98Ã‚° W.
The Equatorial CounterCurrent flowing eastwards is largely assisted during the latter half of the year by the south-west monsoon, and from July to October the south-west winds prevailing east of 150Ã‚° E.
(See River -HoG.) The recently discovered Hylochoerus of the equatorial forestdistricts of Africa comes nearest to the under-mentioned warthogs, but the skull is of a much less specialized type, while the upper tusks are much smaller although they have the same general curvature and direction, and the cheek-teeth lack the peculiar characteristics of those of Phacochoerus, although they present a certain approximation thereto.
But after the discontinuance of this firm that of Repsold again came to the front, not only in the construction of transit circles, but also of equatorial mountings and more especially of heliometers (see Micrometer) .
Some of these birds have lived thus exposed for many years, enduring the English cold easterly winds, rain, hail and snow, all through the winter - a marvellous contrast to the equable equatorial temperature (hardly ever less than 70Ã‚°) to which many of them had been accustomed for the first year or years of their existence.
Other places of importance are Luluaburg, on the Lulua river; Lusambo, the capital of the Lualaba-Kasai district, on the Sankuru river; Coquilhatville, the capital of the equatorial district, at the mouth of the Ruki; Stanleyville, the principal station of Stanley Falls district; New Antwerp, a thriving little town, the capital of the Bangala district, situated on the right bank of the Congo close to 19Ã‚° E.; Banzyville, the capital of the Ubangi district, on the river of that name; and Basoko, at the junction of the Aruwimi and the Congo.
Along the line of the equator the Indian counter-current flows eastwards all the year round, acting as compensation to the great Equatorial current flowing westwards between the parallels of 7Ã‚° and 20Ã‚° S.
The receiver head mounts into a Russian 4 1/2 reflector telescope with equatorial mount.
This causes the semiannual variation of the amplitude of ionospheric equatorial anomaly through fountain effect.
Its scientific, botanical name is dracaena sanderiana, and it is a type of water lily native to the equatorial and tropical regions of Africa.
A subspecies of chimpanzees native to west equatorial Africa were identified as the original source of the virus.
Yaws, which also affects the skin and bones, occurs in the humid equatorial countries, while pinta, which only affects the skin, is common among the native peoples of Mexico, Central America, and South America.
Beaches that run along the equatorial regions will experience the hottest, most brutal amounts of ultra-violet rays.
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