Equator sentence example
Of the parallels of latitude, the equator only is a great circle.
Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely hot...
In the islands under the equator the heaviest fall is between October and February.
Among the islands of the Malay Archipelago the force of the monsoons is much interrupted, and the position of this region on the equator otherwise modifies the directions of the prevailing winds.
The zones of surface temperature are arranged roughly parallel to the equator, especially in the southern hemisphere.Advertisement
Since the difference between the acceleration of gravity at the pole and at the equator is about 2%, the correction for latitude will be quite sensible in an instrument which might be used at various times in high and low latitudes.
Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
The trade-wind regions correspond pretty closely with westward-flowing currents, while in the equatorial calm belts there are eastward-running countercurrents, these lying north of the equator in the Atlantic and Pacific, but south of the equator in the Indian Ocean.
Trenches of great size also occur south of the equator.
Ambriz was, previously to 1884, the northernmost point of Africa south of the equator acknowledged as Portuguese territory.Advertisement
The first of these features is determined by the intermediate position of the United States between the equator and the north pole; the second by the equatorial-polar temperature contrast and the eastward rotation of the planet.
The chief conclusions of astronomers concerning the .spherical figure and dimensions of the earth, its relation to the heavenly bodies, and the great circles of the globe - the equator, the ecliptic and the tropics - were considered as well established.
He went on a tour round the world, partly to make money by lecturing and partly to get material for another book of travels, published in 1897, and called in America Following the Equator, and in England More Tramps Abroad.
At the moment of crossing the equator towards the north the sun is said to be at the first point of Aries; some thirty days later it enters Taurus, and so on through Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricornus, Aquarius and Pisces.
As a result, the isotherms of July are strongly convex poleward as they cross the United States, the isotherm of 70 Sweeping up to the northern boundary in the north-west, and the heat equator leaping to the overheated deserts of the south-west, where the July mean is over 90.Advertisement
Indeed the contrast between the moderate temperatures of the Pacific coast and the overheated areas of the next interior deserts is so great that the isotherms trend almost parallel to the coast, and are even overturned somewhat in southern California, where the most rapid increase of temperatures in July is found not by moving southward over the ocean toward the equator, but north-eastward over the land to the deserts of Nevada and Arizona.
In astronomy, the "celestial equator" is the name given to the great circle in which the plane of the terrestrial equator intersects the celestial sphere; it is consequently equidistant from the celestial poles.
The "magnetic equator" is an imaginary line encircling the earth, along which the vertical component of the earth's magnetic force is zero; it nearly coincides with the terrestrial equator.
As throughout the whole of the Malayan Archipelago, so in Sumatra, which lies about equally balanced on both sides of the equator, the temperature stands at a high level subject to but slight variations.
On the more barren islands, and on those more distant from the equator, they show more energy.Advertisement
The Australian flora has extensions at high levels in the tropics; such exists on Kinabalu in Borneo under the equator.
Academy as part of an investigation with the object of ascertaining the length of the degree near the equator and near the pole respectively so as to determine the figure of the earth.
Indeed, some of the chief contrasts of the two continents arise not so much from geological unlikeness as from their unsymmetrical situation with respect to the equator, whereby the northern one lies mostly in the temperate zone, while the southern one lies mostly in the torrid zone.
In the north the pine tree (Pinus Merkusii) has advanced almost to the equator, and in the south are a variety of species characteristic of the Australian region.
Starting from the equator and travelling northwards we find in the extreme south of Spain an average of only one aurora in ten years.Advertisement
The southern winds of-the summer months which occur in the low latitudes north of the equator are not felt much north of Khartum.
There is no land-area from the poles to the equator, where plant-life is possible, upon which Angiosperms are not found.
According to their results the star-density increases continuously from 109 per square degree at the poles to 2019 along the galactic equator.
As is to be anticipated, having regard to its insular position and to the fact that the equator passes through the very middle of the island, the climate is at once hot and very damp. In the hills and in the interior regions are found which may almost be described as temperate, but on the coasts the atmosphere is dense, humid and oppressive.
Since the sun moves in the ecliptic, it is in the last-named sense the point of intersection of the ecliptic and the celestial equator.
There are two such points, opposite each other, at one of which the sun crosses the equator toward the north and at the other toward the south.
The habit of forming mycorhizas is found more frequently in warm climates than cold; indeed, the percentage of the flora exhibiting this peculiarity seems to increase with a certain regularity from the Arctic Circle to the equator.
The formula for the obliquity of the ecliptic, as derived from the laws of motion of it and of the equator, may be developed in a series.
The country lies wholly within the tropics, but its nearness to the equator is counterbalanced by the elevation of the land.
The greater part of Africa north of the equator is without any representatives of the conifers; Juniperus procera flourishes in Somaliland and on the mountains of Abyssinia; a species of Podocarpus occurs on the Cameroon mountains, and P. milanjiana is widely distributed in east tropical Africa.
His travels covered one-third of the continent, extending from the Cape to near the equator, and from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean.
The large extent of ocean is primarily responsible for the lower temperature of the air in places south of the tropics compared with that experienced in countries in the same latitude north of the equator.
Karstens gives the area as 48,182,413 square kilometres, or 14,001,000 geographical square miles; of these 10,842,000 square kilometres, or 3,150,000 geographical square miles, about 22% of the whole, lie north of the equator.
North of the equator the surface circulation is under the control of the monsoons, and changes with them, the currents consisting chiefly of north-east and south-west drifts in the open sea, and induced streams following the coasts.
From the north it is joined by the river Coca, having its sources in the gorges of Cayambe on the equator, and also a powerful river, the Aguarico, having its headwaters between Cayambe and the Colombian frontier.
Several years before this appointment he had made himself a name by an elegant solution of the problem to find the sun's equator and determine the period of its rotation by observation of the spots on its surface.
These suggestions took practical shape by a decree of the National Assembly in 1790 appointing a committee to consider the suitability of adopting either the length of the seconds pendulum, a fraction of the length of the equator or a fraction of the quadrant of the terrestrial meridian..
The obliquity continually increases until the observer reaches the equator.
His zenith is then in the equator and the celestial poles are in the North and South horizon respectively.
In other words the equator would be drawn into coincidence with the ecliptic. Here, however, the same action comes into play, which keeps a rotating top from falling over.
If a planet rotates on its axis so rapidly as to have a considerable ellipticity, and if it has satellites revolving very near the plane of the equator, the combined actions of the sun and of the equatorial protuberances may be such that the whole system will rotate almost as if the planes of revolution of the satellites were solidly fixed to the plane of the equator.
The action of the sun alone would completely throw them out of these planes as each satellite orbit would rotate independently; but the effect of the mutual action is to keep all of the planes in close coincidence with the plane of the planet's equator.
From of old, in China, circles were divided into 3654 parts, so that the sun described daily one Chinese degree; and the equator began to be employed as a line of reference, concurrently with the ecliptic, probably in the second century B.C. Both circles, too, were marked by star-groups more or less clearly designated and defined.
Eighteen observatories scattered north and south of the equator divided the sky among them; and the outcome of their combined operations aimed at the production of a catalogue of at least 2,000,000 strictly determined stars, together with a colossal map in 22,000 sheets, showing stars to the fourteenth magnitude, in numbers difficult to estimate.
This excess is, however, subject to wide variation, owing to the obliquity of the ecliptic and of the lunar orbit to the equator, and therefore to the horizon.
It is found that the direction of the moon's equator remains nearly invariable with respect to the plane of the orbit, and therefore revolves with that plane in a nodal period of 18.6 years.
The best marked of the basins so formed (the Congo basin) occupies a circular area bisected by the equator, once probably the site of an inland sea.
The upper Nile receives its chief supplies from the mountainous region adjoining the Central African trough in the neighbourhood of the equator.
An extremely interesting section of the population not hitherto mentioned is constituted by the Pygmy tribes inhabiting the densely forested regions along the equator from Uganda to the Gabun and living the life of nomadic hunters.
These appearances he referred with great acuteness to the slight inclination of the sun's axis of rotation to the plane of the ecliptic. Thus, when the earth finds herself in the plane of the sun's equator, which occurs at two opposite points of her orbit, the spots, travelling in circles parallel with that plane, necessarily appear to describe right lines; but when the earth is above or below the equatorial level, the paths of the spots open out into curves turned downwards or upwards, according to the direction in which they are seen.
It seems not unlikely that the final conclusion will be that instead of the reflecting matter being composed of solid particles it is an exceedingly tenuous gaseous envelope surrounding the sun and revolving on an axis the mean position of which is between that of the sun's equator and that of the invariable plane of the solar system.
Winter north of the equator can be a dreary time.
The Pencil Nebula is almost exactly on the galactic equator.
The contours so obtained showed a peak in n i at, or slightly South of, the geomagnetic equator.
The Van Allen belts span only about forty degrees of earth's latitude -- twenty degrees above and below the magnetic equator.
The routine sla_PLANET produces heliocentric position and velocity in the form of equatorial for the mean equator and equinox of J2000.
The orbits are tilted to the earth's equator by 55 degrees to ensure coverage of polar regions.
The upper atmosphere is structured into characteristic ' belts ' and ' zones ' running parallel to the planet's equator.
We choose a fixed point on the celestial equator, called the vernal equinox, or the First Point of Aries.
This is one of the most heavily glaciated mountain masses near the equator.
The Maldives is an enchanted paradise on the equator a necklace of tiny palm studded coral islands, surrounded by sparkling lagoons.
This, incidentally, is the angle (called the obliquity) the equator makes with the plane of the Earth's orbit.
They separate the Indian and pacific oceans along the Equator.
The shape of the planet is a markedly oblate spheroid with a polar diameter some 10% smaller than that at the equator.
En route to the mountain you could have a brief stopover at the equator crossing.
Air from the lower atmosphere enters the stratosphere near the equator, where solar heating is maximum.
As the sunspot cycle progresses, more sunspots appear closer to the Sun's equator.
The yin earth has the most yin energy near the equator, and yang heaven has the most yang energy near the equator.
Now direct the telescope to a star near the equator and so that the star's image in its diurnal motion shall pass across the intersection of the two webs which mark the axis of rotation of the micrometer box.
Though the islands are under the equator, the climate is not intensely hot, as it is tempered by cold currents from the Antarctic sea, which, having followed the coast of Peru as far as Cape; Blanco, bear off to the N.W.
If the surface of the globe had been symmetrically divided into sea and land, and these had been distributed in bands bounded by parallels of latitude, the character of vegetation would depend on temperature alone; and as regards its aggregate mass, we should find it attaining its maximum at the equator and sinking to its minimum at the poles.
This takes account of - (I) the ArcticAlpine zone, including all the vegetation of the region bordering on perpetual snow; (2) the Boreal zone, including the temperate lands of North America, Europe and Asia, all of which are substantially alike in botanical character; (3) the Tropical zone, divided sharply into (a) the tropical zone of the New World, and (b) the tropical zone of the Old World, the forms of which differ in a significant degree; (4) the Austral zone, comprising all continental land south of the equator, and sharply divided into three regions the floras of which are strikingly distinct - (a) South American, (b) South African and (c) Australian; (5) the Oceanic, comprising all oceanic islands, the flora of which consists exclusively of forms whose seeds could be drifted undestroyed by ocean currents or carried by birds.
South of the equator, Arab slave-dealers penetrated from Zanzibar to the great lakes and the Congo during the second and third quarters of the 19th century, but their power, though formidable, has disappeared without leaving any permanent traces.
Nevertheless, it should be observed that our globes take no account of the oblateness of our sphere; but as the difference in length between the circumference of the equator and the perimeter of a meridian ellipse only amounts to o 16%, it could be shown only on a globe of unusual size.
If we assign to a column of water at the equator the density S-7-= 1.02 2 at the surface and 1.028 at l000 fathoms, or an average of 1.025, and to a column of water at the polar circle a mean density of i 028, there would result a difference of level equal to (1.028 - 1.025) X moo = 3 fathoms in a distance from the equator to the polar circle of some 4600 m.
C. Biot to the date II II B.C. Measured from the winter solstice of that epoch, they corresponded, in conformity with the Chinese method of observation by intervals of what we now call righ t ascension, to equal portions of the celestial equator.
An egg has an equator which is smaller than that of a sphere with the same polar radius.
As the sunspot cycle progresses, more sunspots appear closer to the Sun 's equator.
Heaven 's yang energy is also most active around the equator.
The area directly around the equator is heated more than any other place on earth.
Coral reefs are a delicate eco-system found in the warm waters near the equator.
The Galapagos archipelago is located on the equator west of Ecuador's mainland.
According to the story, the Pentagon held meetings with the world's leading scientists and concluded that once the magnetic pole aligned with the true North, it would continue moving to the equator, causing the earth to shift upon its axis.
On the 21st of December 2012, the Earth will be at the Galactic Equator.
While the changing of the clocks is widespread, it is less common in countries that are near the equator.
This is because these counties experience less of a difference in the number of daylight hours than countries that are farther away from the equator.
The North Atlantic being altogether cut off from the Arctic regions, and the vertical circulation being active, this movement is here practically non-existent; but in the South Atlantic, where communication with the Southern Ocean is perfectly open, Antarctic water can be traced to the equator and even beyond.
The Gabun, in reality an estuary of the sea, lies immediately north of the equator.
The occurrence of commercially valuable petroleum is, however, comparatively limited, hitherto exploited deposits being confined to rocks younger than the Cambrian and older than the Quaternary, while the majority of developed oilfields have been discovered north of the equator.
Formerly map makers contented themselves with placing upon their maps a linear scale of miles, deduced from the central meridian or the equator.
The parallels or climata 2 drawn through places, of which the longest day is of equal length and the decimation (distance) from the equator is the same, he maintained, ought to have been inserted at equal intervals, say of half an hour, and the meridians inserted on a like principle.
The water sinks below the surface and continues to flow along the sea bottom back towards the equator.
In the polar areas the melting of sea-ice and of ice formed by precipitation lowers the density of the seawater and causes a difference of level which sets up streaming movements towards the equator.
This surface drifting water is cold and as it enters into intermediate zones it remains colder than the water in situ there and is therefore denser; it sinks below the surface and continues to flow along the bottom either back to the polar regions or towards the equator.
The angle which the magnetic axis makes with the plane of the horizon is called the inclination or Along an irregular line encircling the earth in the neighbourhood of the geographical equator the needle takes up a horizontal position, and the dip is zero.
The Brazilian Guiana plateau, lying immediately north of the equator, is in great part a hot, stony desert.
The ner of 600 and the sar of 3600 were formed from the soss or unit of 60, which corresponded with a degree of the equator.
After taking part in a scientific expedition in the Levant (1731), he became a member with Louis Godin and Pierre Bouguer of the expedition sent to Peru in 1735 to determine the length of a degree of the meridian in the neighbourhood of the equator.
A gradient like this, only 1 in 1,350,000, could give rise only to an extremely feeble surface current polewards and an extremely feeble deep current towards the equator.
The Coal Measures which form part of the Palaeozoic or oldest of the three great geological divisions are mainly confined to the countries north of the equator.
Puket and Chantabun, being both on a lee shore, in this season experience rough weather and a heavy rainfall; the latter, being farther from the equator, is the worse off in this respect.
It includes the Sunda Islands, the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the Philippine Islands, but excludes the Andaman-Nicobar group. The equator passes through the middle of the archipelago; it successively cuts Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes and Halmahera, four of the most important islands.
The north to south distance from Bering Strait to the Antarctic circle is 9300 m., and the Pacific attains its greatest breadth, 10,000 m., at the equator.
In all these cases the beginning of the day varies with the seasons at all places not under the equator.
In astronomy the "mean sun" is a fictitious sun which moves uniformly in the celestial equator and has its right ascension always equal to the sun's mean longitude.
They are also more hardy and industrious than those living nearer the equator.
As they lie near or under the equator, the monsoons blowing over them are less regular, and the rainfall, of large volume throughout the year, is dependent on the height and direction of the chains.
The effect of centrifugal force at the equator is to make the weight of a body there about .35% less than the value it would have if due to gravitation alone.
This represents about two-thirds of the total variation of Galileo's acceleration between the equator and the poles, the balance being due to the ellipticity of the figure of the earth.
The outstanding problem of African missions at least north of the Equator (south there is the Ethiopian question) is not the degradation of the black races, nor the demoralizing influences of heathen Christians, nor even the slave dealer, though all these obstacles are present and powerful.
The proportion of sodium chloride in the water of the ocean, where it is mixed with small quantities of other salts, is on the average about 3.33%, ranging from 2.9% for the polar seas to 3.55% or more at the equator.
Cayambe, or Cayembi, the second highest peak of the Ecuadorean Andes, has the noteworthy distinction of standing very nearly on the equator.
The French academician Bouger, who was chief of the scientific commission sent to Ecuador in 1736 to measure a degree of the meridian on the equator, made a trigonometrical measurement of Iliniza, and Wagner ascended to within 800 ft.
Although the equator crosses the northern part of the republic, only 15 m.
In this way, then, Africa would have an irregular coast-line, prolonged greatly south of the equator into the Indian Ocean, and running up with an advance upon the present line until it reached its northwest limit outside and south of Sokotra.
On the voyage he noticed the retardation of the pendulum in approaching the equator; and during his stay on the island he observed, on the 7th of November 1677, a transit of Mercury, which suggested to him the important idea of employing similar phenomena for determining the sun's distance.
If a mirror is mounted on a truly adjusted polar axis, the plane of the mirror being parallel to that axis, the normal to that mirror will always be directed to some point on the celestial equator through whatever angle the axis is turned.
The problem is greatly complicated by the fact that the equator and equinox, to which the observed positions of the stars must be referred, are not stationary in space, and in fact the movements of these planes of reference can only be determined by a discussion of the observations of stars.
On these the belt of greatest density can be easily traced, and it follows very closely the course of the Milky Way; but, whereas the latter is a belt having rather sharply defined boundaries, the star-density decreases gradually and continuously from the galactic equator to the galactic poles.
Three other smaller species of the genus are known, and each is more widely distributed than those just mentioned, but the home of all is in the more northern parts of the earth, though in winter two of them go very far south, and, crossing the equator, show themselves on the seas that wash the Cape of Good Hope, Australia, New Zealand and Peru.
The general characteristics of the climate are determined more by the physical conformation of the land than its proximity to the equator.
Independently of the enormous variety of topographical conformation contained in the Himalayan system, the vast altitude of the mountains alone is sufficient to cause modifications of climate in ascending over their slopes such as are not surpassed by those observed in moving from the equator to the poles.
Imagine an observer starting from the North Pole to travel towards the equator, carrying his zenith with him.
Lying almost entirely within the tropics, and equally to north and south of the equator, Africa does not show excessive variations of temperature.
It is therefore greatest of all near the equator, where the sun is twice vertical, and less in the direction of both tropics.
The latitude of a point on the earth's surface is its angular distance from the equator, measured on the curved surface of the earth.
As thus determined it is the angle between the direction of the plumb-line at the place and the plane of the equator.
This is identical with the angle between the horizontal planes at the place and at the equator, and also with the elevation of the celestial pole above the horizon (see Astronomy).
The geocentric latitude of a place is the angle which the line from the earth's centre to the place makes with the plane of the equator.
Geographical latitude, which is used in mapping, is based on the supposition that the earth is an elliptic spheroid of known compression, and is the angle which the normal to this spheroid makes with the equator.
The latitude of a point on the earth's surface, as above defined, is measured from the equator.
For example, a deposit of snow in Siberia would bring the equator of figure of the earth a little nearer to Siberia and throw the pole a little way from it, while a deposit on the American continent would have the opposite effect.
The most common form of grain is ellipsoidal, more or less narrow at the extremities, which are called its poles, in contradistinction to a line equidistant from the extremities, which is its equator.
The most northerly limit of the penguins' range in the Atlantic is Tristan d'Acunha, and in the Indian Ocean Amsterdam Island, but they also occur off the Cape of Good Hope and along the coast of Australia, as well as on the south and east of New Zealand, while in the Pacific one species at least extends along the west coast of South America and to the Galapagos; but north of the equator none are found.
The western, which reaches an altitude of about io,000 ft., then ceases to exist as a continuous chain, there remaining only a short, high ridge, called by Edward Whymper the " Pacific range of the equator," and between this ridge and the crystalline Andean axis, the " avenue of volcanoes," to use his words, arises amidst majestic scenery.
Sangay (17,380 ft.), under the equator, according to Wolff, appears to be the most active volcano in the world.
In Colombia the three principal chains are continuations of those under the equator, and show very slight traces of volcanic action, In the western chain, which is remarkable for its regularity, the highest peak is 11,150 ft., and the lowest pass 6725 ft.
To the south, near the equator, are Mounts Arapul (13,360 ft.) and Chumbul (1 5,7 20 ft.).
The eastern chain begins north of the equator at 6000 ft., gradually rises to the height of Nevado (14,146 ft.), Pan de Azucar (12,140 ft.), and in the Sierra Nevada de Cochi attains to peaks of 16,70o ft.
It was from this Glossopteris flora that several types gradually migrated across the equator, where they formed part of the vegetation of more northern regions.
Unfortunately, our knowledge of the later floras in the southern hemisphere is very incomplete, but a similar transformation appears to have characterized the vegetation south of the equator.
The rainfall in the northern peninsula (north of the equator) differs from that of the southern; the former has rains (not caused by the monsoon), and of smaller amount, 102 in.
My understanding was limited to knowing zero degrees latitude began at the equator and increased to ninety degrees at the poles.
The conspicuous absence of barn owls from regions far north & south of the Equator is probably due to its poor adaptation to cold.
The conspicuous absence of Barn Owls from regions far North & South of the Equator is probably due to its poor adaptation to cold.
South of the equator, these are signs of short ascension.
It is so hot now we've passed the Equator, I wear only a muslin camisole under my dressing gown.
Equinox The two points at which the Sun crosses the celestial equator in its yearly path in the sky.
The equinoxes are the two points on the celestial sphere where the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator.
His prime objective was to measure a degree on the equator to calculate the circumference of the Earth.
At other times the path is either concave or convex to the solar equator.
The Galapagos Islands straddle the equator 600 miles west of Ecuador.
Today we crossed the equator in the Indian Ocean our Long being 79 East.
You have a large ball of string, and walk round the equator, laying down a taut trail of string.
As you approach the equator and the water warms up shark attacks increase proportionately.
The altitude of the celestial equator at a meridian is a function of the latitude of the observer.
It extends from the 8th to the 37th degree of north latitude, that is to say, from the hottest regions of the equator to far within the temperate The spelling throughout all the articles dealing with India is that adopted by the government of India, modified in special instances with deference to long-established usage.
The south-westerly winds which prevail north of the equator during the hot half of the year, to which navigators have given the name of the south-west monsoon (the latter word being a corruption of the Indian name for season), arise from the great diminution of atmospheric pressure over Asia, which begins to be strongly marked with the great rise of temperature in April and May, and the simultaneous relatively higher pressure over the equator and the regions south of it.
Following Hipparchus he divided the equator into 360 drawing his prime meridian through the Fortunate Islands (Canaries).
Thus in 1857 he went to Peru in order to determine the magnetic equator; in1861-1862and 1864, he studied telluric absorption in the solar spectrum in Italy and Switzerland; in 1867 he carried out optical and magnetic experiments at the Azores; he successfully observed both transits of Venus, that of 1874 in Japan, that of 1882 at Oran in Algeria; and he took part in a long series of solar eclipse-expeditions, e.g.
The districts are Banana, Boma, Matadi, Falls, Stanley Pool, Kwango Oriental, Ubangi, Lualaba-Kasai, Lake Leopold II., Equator, Aruwimi, Bangala and Welle.
The obliquity of the ecliptic is the angle which its plane makes with that of the equator.
The laws of motion of the ecliptic and equator are stated in the article Precession Of The Equinoxes.
The fundamental plane perpendicular to it is the plane of the equator.
This plane intersects the earth's surface in the terrestrial equator.
The fundamental axis, instead of being the earth's axis itself, is then a line parallel to it, and the fundamental plane is the plane passing through the point, and parallel to the plane of the equator.
The shell thus formed is then cut along the line of the intended equator into two hemispheres, they are then again glued together and made to revolve round an axis the ends of which passed through the poles and entered a metal meridian circle.
The correct relations in the length of degrees of latitude and longitude are maintained in the first case along the latitude of Thule and the equator, in the second along the parallel of Agisymba, the equator and the parallels of Meroe, Syene and Thule.
In January 1815 Portuguese subjects were prohibited from prosecuting the trade north of the equator, and the term after which the traffic should be everywhere unlawful was fixed to end on the 21st of January 1823, but was afterwards extended to February 1830; England paid £300,000 as a compensation to the Portuguese.
The bottom water is relatively rich in these substances as well as in decaying organic matter, and would become progressively richer but for the slow drift towards the equator and the welling-up of bottom water to the surface in these latitudes.
This diminution of pressure, which continues as the heat increases till it reaches its maximum in July soon after the solstice, is followed by the corresponding development of the south-west monsoon; and as the barometric pressure is gradually restored, and becomes equalized within the tropics soon after the equinox in October, with the general fall of temperature north of the equator, the south-west winds fall off, and are succeeded by a north-east monsoon, which is developed during the winter months by the relatively greater atmospheric pressure which then occurs over Asia, as compared with the equatorial region.
In its simplest form, consisting of a ring fixed in the plane of the equator, the armilla is one of the most ancient of astronomical instruments.
If the two places are upon the same meridian or upon the equator the exact distance separating them is to be found by reference to a table giving the lengths of arcs of a meridian and of the equator.
At places north of this line, which is called the magnetic equator, the north end of the needle points downwards, the inclination generally becoming greater with increased distance from the equator.
The cold south-westerly winds are felt when the sun is north of the equator, and are most severe, for a few days, in the month of May, when a tempo da friagem (cold period) causes much discomfort throughout the upper Amazon region.
Laplace treated the subject from the point of view of the gradual aggregation and cooling of a mass of matter, and demonstrated that the form which such a mass would ultimately assume must be an ellipsoid of revolution whose equator was determined by the primitive plane of maximum areas.
The southerly summer winds of the Asiatic seas between the equator and the tropic do not extend to the coasts of Java, and the southeasterly trade winds are there developed in the usual manner.
The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.
In the tropical and subtropical belts of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans south of the equator the salinity diminishes rapidly from the surface downwards, and at 500 fathoms reaches a minimum of 34.3 or 34.4 p e r mille; after that it increases again to 800 fathoms, where it is almost 34.7 or 34.8, and this salinity holds good to the bottom, even to the greatest depths, as was first shown by the " Gauss " and afterwards by the " Planet " between Durban and Ceylon.
This deflecting force is directly proportional to the velocity and the mass of the particle and also to the sine of the latitude; hence it is zero at the equator and comes to a maximum at the poles.
After the division and cleavage of the chromosomes of the original nucleus have taken place they pass from the equator to the poles of the spindle, rearranging themselves close to the separated centrosomes to form daughter nuclei.
Legendre, in 1783, extended Maclaurin's theorem concerning ellipsoids of revolution to the case of any spheroid of revolution where the attracted point, instead of being limited to the axis or equator, occupied any position in space; and Laplace, in his treatise Theorie du mouvement et de la figure elliptique des planetes (published in 1784), effected a still further generalization by proving, what had been suspected by Legendre, that the theorem was equally true for any confocal ellipsoids.