The word seems to be used in this sense in the epistle of Jude 12: "These are they who are hidden rocks in your lovefeasts when they banquet with you."
There was nothing unusual in the final epistle to indicate why the correspondence abruptly ended.
Some consider the Epistle of James to be the New Testament version of the book of Proverbs.
The Jewish expectations are adopted for example, by Papias, by the writer of the epistle of Barnabas, and by Justin.
The relationship, both literary and theological, between the epistle to the Ephesians and that to the Colossians is very close.
In the intervening body of the epistle the writer also follows the regular form of a letter.
If the latter epistle could be finally established as genuine, or its date fixed, it would give important evidence with regard to Ephesians; but in the present state of discussion we must confine ourselves to pointing out the fact.
Paul's epistle to the Colossians is one of my favorite pieces of Biblical literature.
Now that she's away at college, Sheila's mom writes her a lengthy epistle each week.
To the evidence given above may be added the use of Ephesians in the First Epistle of Peter.
The gospel and epistle are still read from the ambo in the Ambrosian rite at Milan.
The fundamental theme of the epistle is The Unity of Mankind in Christ, and hence the Unity and Divinity of the Church of Christ.
Notes in Latin on the first epistle of Peter, the epistle of Jude, and the first two of John have come down to us; but whether they are the translation of Cassiodorus, or indeed a translation of Clement's work at all, is a matter of dispute.
The influence of its language is probably to be seen in Ignatius, Polycarp and Hermas, less certainly in the epistle of Barnabas.
4 2 seq.), to the kingly priesthood of Jesus, as that idea is worked out at length in the Epistle to the Hebrews.
In 1617 Napier published his Rabdologia, 4 a duodecimo of one hundred and fifty-four pages; there is prefixed to it as preface a dedicatory epistle to the high chancellor of Scotland.
Among his later writings, besides numerous pamphlets on what was known as "the Apocrypha controversy," are a treatise On the Inspiration of Scripture (1828), which has passed through many editions, and a later Exposition of the Epistle to the Romans (1835), which has been frequently reprinted, and has been translated into French and German.
The Church of England has reverted to early custom in so far as only "Easter Even" is distinguished by a special collect, gospel and epistle.
The former came from Paul's pen, but it did not belong originally to this epistle.
Epistle to the Romans >>
The second stage was for the sub-deacon who read the epistle (facing the altar); and the third for the subordinate clergy who read other parts of scripture.
The inconvenience of having a single ambo led to the substitution of two separate ambones, between which these various functions were divided, one on the south side of the chancel being for the reading of the gospel, and one on the north for reading the epistle.
Some early ambones are found in Ravenna, and in the south of Italy are many fine examples; the epistle ambo in the cathedral at Ravello (1130), which is perhaps the earliest, shows a Scandinavian influence in the design of its mosaic inlay, an influence which is found in Sicilian work and may be a Norman importation.
In the epistle ambo at Salerno and the gospel ambones at Cava and San Giovanni del Toro in Ravello, the columns support segmental arches carrying the ambones; the epistle ambo at Ravello and all those in Rome are raised on solid marble bases.
These are the Epistles of James and Jude, 2 Peter, 2 and 3 John, the Apocalypse of John, and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
In 1730 he entered the Mazarin College under the Jansenists, who soon perceived his exceptional talent, and, prompted perhaps by a commentary on the Epistle to the Romans which he produced in the first year of his philosophical course, sought to direct it to theology.
12) the epistle from Pontus (Ex Ponto, iv.
So Basil of Cappadocia (Epistle 93), about the year 350, records that in Egypt the laity, as a rule, celebrated the communion in their own houses, and partook of the sacrament by themselves whenever they chose.
Epistle to the Hebrews >>
But be this as it may, he had no sooner adopted his new creed than he resolved to profess it; " a momentary glow of enthusiasm " had raised him above all temporal considerations, and accordingly, on June 8, 1753, he records that having " privately abjured the heresies" of his childhood before a Catholic priest of the name of Baker, a Jesuit, in London, he announced the same to his father in an elaborate controversial epistle which his spiritual adviser much approved, and which he himself afterwards described to Lord Sheffield as having been " written with all the pomp, the dignity, and self-satisfaction of a martyr."
graduale or gradale) is used of a service book or antiphonal of the Roman Catholic Church containing certain antiphons, called "graduals," sung at the service of the Mass after the reading or singing of the Epistle.
No doubt of the Pauline authorship was expressed in ancient times; nor is there any lack of early use by writers who make no direct quotation, to raise doubts as to the genuineness of the epistle.
De Wette first (1826) doubted, then (1843) denied that the epistle was by Paul.
On the other hand, the epistle has been defended by Bleek, Neander, Reuss, B.
But these cases, when properly understood and calmly viewed, do not carry conviction against the epistle.
But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.
That the epistle implies as already existent a developed system of Gnostic thought such as only came into being in the 2nd century is not true, and such a date is excluded by the external evidence.
Moreover, if Colossians be accepted as Pauline (and among other strong reasons the unquestionable genuineness of the epistle to Philemon renders it extremely difficult not to accept it), the chief matters of this more advanced Christian thought are fully legitimated for Paul.
On the other hand, the characteristics of the thought in Ephesians give some strong evidence confirmatory of the epistle's own claim to be by Paul.
(b) The centre in all the theology of the epistle is the idea of redemption.
(c) The epistle shows the same panoramic, pictorial, dramatic conception of Christian truth which is everywhere characteristic of Paul.
The balance of evidence seems to lie on the side of the genuineness of the Epistle.
"Ephesians, Epistle to," in Hastings's Dictionary of the Bible, the various works of Holtzmann above referred to, and T.
society meeting in Aldersgate Street where Luther's Preface to the Epistle to the Romans was being read.
The preface to the prose life of Cuthbert proves that he had stayed at Lindisfarne prior to 721, while the Epistle to Egbert shows that he had visited him at York in 733.
The Epistle to Egbert, though not historical in form, may be mentioned here, because of the valuable information which it contains as to the state of the Northumbrian Church, on which the disorders and revolutions of the Northumbrian kingdom had told with disastrous effect.
It is a monument of learning and scholarship. The most recent edition is that with notes and introduction by the present writer, u.s. It includes also the History of the Abbots, and the Epistle to Egbert.
saw the prestige of his see involved in this slighting of Chalcedon and his predecessor Leo's epistle.
It was a short commentary on all the books of Scripture, including some of the apocryphal works, such as the Epistle of Barnabas and the Revelation of Peter.
He is equally full in his quotations from the New Testament, for he quotes from all the books except the epistle to Philemon, the second epistle of St Peter, and the epistle of St James, and he quotes from The Shepherd of Hermas, and the epistles of Clemens Romanus and of Barnabas, as inspired.
- Apart from the Letter and Epistle mentioned above our chief sources of information with regard to the life of St Patrick are contained in the Book of Armagh.
For general reflections on the subject see the appendix to Jowett's edition of the Epistle to the Romans (London, 1855).
The Apocrypha Proper, or the apocrypha of the Old Testament as used by English-speaking Protestants, consists of the following books: 1 Esdras, 2 Esdras, Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther, Wisdom of Solomon, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, Epistle of Jeremy, Additions to Daniel (Song of the Three Holy Children, History of Susannah, and Bel and the Dragon), Prayer of Manasses, i Maccabees, 2 Maccabees.
DOM, Book Of.) Epistle of Jeremy.
Epistle of Barnabas.
" Clement's " 2nd Epistle of the Corinthians.
Epistle of Polycarp.
(b) Apocryphal 3rd Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians and Epistle from the Corinthians to Paul.
founded on a Jewish and probably pre-Christian document, which forms the basis also of the Epistle of Barnabas.
- The special object of this epistle was to guard its readers against the danger of relapsing into Judaism.
- The object of this epistle is the restoration of harmony to the church of Corinth, which had been vexed by internal discussions.
The epistle may be safely ascribed to the years 95-96.
The genuineness of this epistle stands or falls with that of the Ignatian epistles.
Such an epistle is mentioned in the Muratorian canon.
For the Third Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians, and Epistle from the Corinthians to Paul, see under " Acts of Paul " above.
The only positive piece of evidence produced is the passage from Thomas Nash's "Epistle to the Gentlemen of the Two Universities," prefixed to Greene's Arcadia, 1859, in which he upbraids somebody (not known to be Shakespeare) with having left the "trade of Noverint" and busied himself with "whole Hamlets" and "handfuls of tragical speeches."
It is plainly Gnostic and may perhaps have been composed by Bardaisan or his son Harmonius.0 Among recent editions of Apocrypha in Syriac may be mentioned those of the Apocalypse of Baruch, the Epistle of Baruch, ' For the later Monophysite versions, none of which attained much popularity, see Wright's Syr.
There is a touching epistle (Medea to Jason) in the Heroides of Ovid.
author of the epistle to the Hebrews; its use was foreign to the synagogue services on which, and not on those of the temple, the worship of the primitive Christians is well known to have been originally modelled; and its associations with heathen solemnities, and with the evil repute of those who were known as "thurificati," would still further militate against its employment.
The writer is more versed than any other New Testament writer except the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and very much more than most of them, in the literary Greek of the period of the rise of Christianity; and he has, also, like other writers, his favourite words, turns of expression and thoughts.
EPISTLE TO PHILEMON, a scripture of the New Testament.
xvi.), this is the only letter in the New Testament addressed, even in part, to a woman, unless the second epistle of John be taken as meant for an individual.
Thus some have made him out to be the Hermas to whom salutation is sent at the end of the Epistle to the Romans, others that he was the brother of Pius, bishop of Rome in the middle of the 2nd century, and others that he was a contemporary of Clement, bishop of Rome at the close of the 1st century.
831; new ed., with an epistle to Charles the Bald, 844), which was not only the first systematic and thorough treatise on the sacrament of the eucharist, but is the first clear dogmatic statement of transubstantiation, and as such opened an unending controversy.
Martin Luther regarded Apollos as the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and many scholars since have shared his view.
the ascription to him of the Alexandrine Epistle of Barnabas).
7; the early Actus Petri Vercellenses; and the late Cypriot Encomium), especially if we might trust the Western ascription to him of the epistle of the Hebrews, which begins with Tertullian (De Pud.
Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas, pp. xlvii.-lxii.; O.
THE Epistle Of Barnabas is one of the apocryphal books of the New Testament.
At the end of the Codex Sinaiticus of the 4th century, as a sort of appendix to the New Testament, there stands an "Epistle of Barnabas."
The modifications, however, are all in a more spiritual direction, in keeping with the genuinely evangelic spirit which underlies and pervades even the allegorical ingenuities of the epistle.
This being so, the epistle was probably written, not to Alexandria, but rather by a "teacher" of the Alexandrine Church to some body of Christians in Lower Egypt among whom he had recently been visiting.
This would explain the absence of specific address, so that it appears as in form a "general epistle," as Origen styles it.
Thus this epistle is the earliest of the Apostolic Fathers, and as such of special interest.
Cunningham, Epistle of Barnabas (1877); sections in J.
EPISTLE TO THE PHILIPPIANS, a book of the New Testament.
At any rate the extant epistle is the answer to one received from the Philippian Christians, who had evidently desired information about the apostle's health and prospects (i.
2-9), 4 and the epistle closes with some personal details (iv.
5 But the whole tone of the epistle suggests that Paul expected a speedy end to his case.
A further examination of the epistle shows that it must have been written towards the close of the B&erla An of Acts xxviii.
Upon the whole, the internal evidence of the epistle strongly favours its position as the last of the captivity epistles.
6 More significance attaches to the view that the epistle is made up of two separate notes, written to Philippi at different times.
1, and evidence is led from supposed inconsistencies between the earlier and the latter parts of the epistle.
The exegesis does not absolutely necessitate a partition of the epistle, which (so Heinrichs and Paulus) would make iii.
The exegetical arguments are, in short, the final court of appeal, and their verdict tells rather in favour of the epistle's integrity.
The earlier work on the epistle is adequately summarized by B.
Smith (The Epistle of St.
The religious ideas of the epistle are best stated in English by Principal Rainy (Philippians, Expositor's Bible) and H.
There are in the town many memorials of John Kyrle, the Man of Ross, who died here in 1724, and is eulogized by Pope in his third Moral Epistle (1732).
Further illustrations of these views were given in two works published about the same time as the lectures, one a treatise On the Sonship and Brotherhood of Believers, and the other an exposition of the first epistle of St John.
The discovery that the poet had printed secretly 1500 copies of The Patriot King caused him to publish a correct version in 1749, and stirred up a further altercation with Warburton, who defended his friend against Bolingbroke's bitter aspersions, the latter, whose conduct was generally reprehended, publishing a Familiar Epistle to the most Impudent Man Living.
In prose the old forms - oratory, history, the epistle, treatises or dialogues on ethical and literary questions - continue to be cultivated.
Eustace Conway, or the Brother and Sister, a novel (1834); The Kingdom of Christ (1842); Christmas Day and Other Sermons (1843); TheUnity of the New Testament (1844); The Epistle to the Hebrews (1846);.
The epistle to Rufinus (3rd in Vallarsi's enumeration) tells us the route.
THE GENERAL EPISTLE OF JUDE, a book of the New Testament.
As with the epistle of James, the problems of the writing centre " upon the superscription, which addresses in Pauline phraseology (1 Thess.
But even if we date the rise of heresies in the reign of Domitian instead of Trajan, 2 the attributing of this epistle against 2 O n this point (date of the outbreak of heresy) there is some inconsistency in the reported fragments of Hegesippus.
24 seq.) show that Jude was composed from the start as an " epistle."
The history of the reception of the epistle into church canons is similar to that of James, beginning with a quotation of it as the work of Jude by Clement of Alexandria (Paed.
3), and a more or less hesitant endorsement by Origen (" if one might adduce the epistle of Jude," In Matt.
He also wrote Lectures on the Philosophy of History (1856), in which he applied to history the doctrine of organic evolution; Discourses and Essays (1856); A Manual of Church History (2 vols., 1857), a translation of Guericke; A History of Christian Doctrine (2 vols., 1863); Theological Essays (1877); Literary Essays (1878); Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1879); The Doctrine of Endless Punishment (1885); and he edited Coleridge's Complete Works (7 vols., New York, 1894).
Controversy centres round a very long and singular undated epistle called "The Glasgow Letter" or "Letter II."
108, &c.); in Rome by its inclusion in the Muratorian canon, and in Gaul by its use in the Epistle of the churches of Vienne and Lyons (Eus.
In earlier times the church had strongly impressed the duty of loyalty to Rome, as we see from the Epistle to the Romans and 1 Peter.
Again, while the Gospel and the Epistle of John show marks of agreement which suggest a common authorship, the Apocalypse differs widely from both in its ideas and in its way of expressing them; we miss in it the frequent references to ` life,' ` light,' ` truth,' ` grace ' and ` love ' which are characteristic of the Apostle and find ourselves in a totally different region of thought..
The Gospel and the First Epistle are written in correct and flowing Greek, and there is not a barbarism, a solecism, or a provincialism in them; whereas the Greek of the Apocalypse is inaccurate, disfigured by unusual or foreign words and even at times by solecisms."
But the address and the expression in the italicized passage just quoted (which evidently alludes to the vaunting epistle of 1165) hardly leave room for doubt that the pope supposed himself to be addressing the author of that letter.
Moreover, we know that the Ethiopic Church did long possess a chapel and altar in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and, though we have been unable to find travellers' testimony to this older than about 1497, it is quite possible that the appropriation may have originated much earlier.(fn 5) We know from Marco Polo that about a century after the date of Pope Alexander's epistle a mission was sent by the king of Abyssinia to Jerusalem to make offerings on his part at the Church of the Sepulchre.
The sources from which we derive our knowledge of the life and activity of Polycarp are: (1) a few notices in the writings of Irenaeus, (2) the Epistle of Polycarp to the Church at Philippi, (3) the Epistle of Ignatius to Polycarp, (4) the Epistle of the Church at Smyrna to the Church at Philomelium, giving an account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. Since these authorities have all been more or less called in question and some of them entirely rejected by recent criticism, it is necessary to say a few words about each.
1 The main attack is directed against the Epistle to Florinus, doubtless because of its importance.
The epistle is quoted by Eusebius 1 Ency.
The Epistle of Polycarp. - Though Irenaeus states that Polycarp wrote many "letters to the neighbouring churches or to certain of the brethren" 4 only one has been preserved, viz.
The epistle is largely involved in the Ignatian controversy (see Ignatius).
The testimony which it affords to the Ignatian Epistles is so striking that those scholars who regard these letters as spurious are bound to reject the Epistle of Polycarp altogether, or at any rate to look upon it as largely interpolated.
36) quotes extracts from the epistle, and some of the extracts contain the very passages which the critics have marked as interpolations, and Jerome (De Vir.
xvii.) testifies that in his time the epistle was publicly read in the Asiatic churches.
There is absolutely no motive for a forgery in the contents of the epistle.
It shows a fine combination of mildness with severity; the language is simple but powerful, and, while there is undoubtedly a lack of original ideas, the author shows remarkable skill in weaving together pregnant sentences and impressive warnings selected from the apostolic epistles and the first Epistle of Clement.
In these circumstances it would never have occurred to any one to doubt the genuineness of the epistle or to suppose that it had been interpolated, but for the fact that in several passages reference is made to Ignatius and his epistles."
The date of the epistle depends upon the date of the Ignatian letters and is now generally fixed between 112 and 118.
Eusebius has preserved the greater part of this epistle (iv.
The epistle gives a minute description of the persecution in Smyrna, of the last days of Polycarp and of his trial and martyrdom; and as it contains many instructive details and professes to have been written not long after the events to which it refers, it has always been regarded as one of the most precious remains of the 2nd century.
Lipsius brings' the date of the epistle down to about 260, though he admits many of the statements as trustworthy.
We find him in his epistle (ch.
Cotterill, "The Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians," Journ.
It was a legitimate development of an indigenous dramatic entertainment, popular among the Romans before the first introduction of the forms of Greek art among them; and it seems largely also to have employed the form of the familiar epistle.
They contend even that extreme unction was so instituted, and that St James in his Epistle did but promulgate it.
It is to this that Lord Byron alludes in his Epistle to Augusta:- " A strange doom is thy father's son's, and past Recalling as it lies beyond redress, Reversed for him our grandsire's fate of yore, He had no rest at sea, nor I on shore."
In 1882 a critical reconstruction of this book was made by Adam Krawutzcky with marvellous accuracy, as was shown when in the very next year the Greek bishop and metropolitan, Philotheus Bryennius, published The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles from the same manuscript from which he had previously published the complete form of the Epistle of Clement.'
No part of this matter is to be found in the following documents, which present us in varying degrees of accuracy with The Two Ways: (i.) the Epistle of Barnabas, chaps.
The ministry of enthusiasm which they represent is about to give way to the ministry of office, a transition which is reflected in the New Testament in the 3rd Epistle of John.
While the first part must be dated before the Epistle of Barnabas, i.e.
With few and early exceptions, such as we may note in the Epistle of Barnabas, chap. i., they confine the word to doctrine.
Writing of the unity of the church as set forth by Paul in Ephesians, Dr Hort (The Christian Ecclesia, p. 168) says: " Not a word in the epistle exhibits the One Ecclesia as made up of many Ecclesiae.
As to the external evidence for the book's early date, we must remember that the Epistle to the Hebrews and the Book of Revelation, though admittedly earlier, are of the same school, and, with the great Pauline.
The first tract by "Martin Marprelate," known as the Epistle, appeared at Molesey in November 1588.
The Epistle attracted considerable notice, and a reply was written by Thomas Cooper, bishop of Winchester, under the title An Admonition to the People of England, but this was too long and too dull to appeal to the same class of readers as the Marprelate pamphlets, and produced little effect.
Thus the Oratorian Andrea Gallandi (1709-1779), in re-issuing Cotelier's collection in his Bibliotheca Veterum Patrum (1765-1781), included the fragments of Papias and the Epistle to Diognetus, to which recent editors have added the citations from the "Elders" of Papias's day found in Irenaeus, and, since 1883, the Didache.
Clement's epistle, indeed, conforms more to the elaborate and treatise-like form of the Epistle to the Hebrews, on which it draws so largely; and the same is true of "Barnabas."
Nor is this pre-literary and vital quality really absent even from the writing which is least entitled to a place among "Apostolic Fathers," the Epistle to Diognetus.
Deissmann, Bible Studies, pp. 1-60, for this distinction between the genuine "letter" and the literary "epistle," as applied to the New Testament in particular.
epistle is in any case an "open letter" of an essentially literary type.
If thus related to the Apologists of the middle of the 2nd century, the Epistle to Diognetus has also points of contact with one of the most practical and least literary writings found among our Apostolic Fathers, viz.
the homily originally known as the Second Epistle of Clement (for this ascription, as for other details, see Clementine Literature).
Its opening section, recalling to its hearers the passing of the mists of idolatry before the revelation in Jesus Christ, is markedly similar in tone and tenor to passages in the Epistle to Diognetus.
In Hermas there is special affinity to the language and thought of the epistle of James, and in the homilist to those of Paul.
Lightfoot, indeed, dwells on the all-round "comprehensiveness" with which Clement, as the mouthpiece of the early Roman Church, utters in succession phrases or ideas borrowed impartially from Peter and Paul and James and the Epistle to Hebrews.
The leading varieties of teaching, the Sayings of Jesus, Paul, the Johannine writings, the Epistle to the Hebrews, connect the atonement with Christ especially with His death, and associate it with faith in Him and with repentance and amendment of life.12 These ideas are also common to Christian teaching generally.
He was delayed, and used the interval to spend two or three months at Oxford, where he found John Colet lecturing on the Epistle to the Romans.
This precipitated a very serious conflict, of which we learn something from the Epistle to the Galatians and the Book of Acts (xv.
20, and the epistle to Diognetus, c. 5), and the principles and laws by which they strove to govern themselves were from above.
In the Epistle to the Ephesians the Christian Church is spoken of as the body of Christ (iv.
his Epistle to the Ephesians 4, 1 5; Trall.
The latter tendency appeared first in Paul, afterwards in the Gospel and First Epistle of John, in Ignatius of Antioch and in the Gnostics.
The earliest expression of this genuinely official principle is found in Clement's Epistle to the Corinthians, ch.
The first forms the text of the principal argument in the Epistle to the Hebrews, in which the author easily demonstrates the inadequacy of the mediation and atoning rites of the Old Testament, and builds upon this demonstration the doctrine of the effectual high-priesthood of Christ, who, in his sacrifice of himself, truly " led His people to God," not leaving them outside as He entered the heavenly sanctuary, but taking them with Him into spiritual nearness to the throne of grace.
It was probably known to the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
The first Epistle hits exactly the prominent features in the situation, when it reminds the Thessalonians how they had " turned unto God from idols, to serve a living and true God, and to wait for his Son from heaven," who would deliver them from the wrath to come (1 Thess.
In this we may take the epistle as typical of the state of the whole Church at the time.
And there is another important passage which shows why, in spite of its natural and occasional character, the epistle exhibits the germs of that essential quality which caused all the books of the New Testament to be so highly estimated.
The epistle is taken up with matters of this kind; either the apostle is reproving disorders and abuses actually existing in the Church, and almost sure to exist in a young community that had just adopted a novel method of life and had as yet no settled understanding of the principles involved in it; or else he is replying to definite questions put to him by his converts.
In all this the epistle is still a genuine letter, and not a treatise.
No epistle sheds more light on St Paul's character as a man - so mobile, so tactful, so tender and affectionate, and yet so statesmanlike and so commanding.
He knew that he could only do this at the 1 The date of this epistle is rather uncertain.
The epistle may be placed conjecturally early in the stay at Ephesus (c. A.D.
The Epistle to the Hebrews is an epistolary treatise of uncertain date, on the Pauline model, and by a disciple of St Paul or at least a writer strongly influenced by him, though influenced also in no small degree by the Jewish school of Alexandria represented by Philo.
It is not probable that the epistle was addressed to the mother church at Jerusalem.
It is a mark of the improved methods now current in Germany that, whereas in 1886 this epistle was rejected by a scholar as able and sober as Weizsacker, Julicher now pronounces it " among the most assured possessions of the apostle " (Einl.
2 and 3 John are exceptions, but probably came in under the wing of the larger epistle, which is strictly " catholic."
The Epistle of James (also, if genuine) must be placed late in the lifetime of the brother of the Lord.
The Epistle of Jude cannot be either dated or localized with any certainty.
This epistle was questioned from the first, and only gained its place with much hesitation, and rather through slackness of opposition than any conclusiveness of proof.
Nor does it appear to us that the objections to this theory brought by Dr Chase in his excellent article on the epistle in Hastings' Dictionary are really so fatal as he supposes.
The epistle is more the work of a companion of St Paul of long standing than of one who, with quite different and independent antecedents, had only been influenced by the perusal of one or two of St Paul's letters.
In the Epistle of James we have a really distinct type; and it seems to us that the degree to which the epistle misses its mark as a polemic may be easily and naturally accounted for in more ways than one.
Most nearly on the lines of the New Testament are the so-called Apostolic (really Sub-Apostolic) Fathers (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, Didache, Barnabas, the letters of Ignatius and the single letter of Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, the homily commonly known as the Second Epistle of Clement).
are not inferior in real religious value to the Epistle of Jude.
At present, both in N and B, Hebrews is placed after 2 Thess., but in B there is also a continuous numeration of sections throughout the epistles, according to which I to 58 cover Romans to Galatians, but Ephesians, the next epistle, begins with 70 instead of 59, and the omitted section numbers are found in Hebrews.
indications given in the Acts; (ii.) on the evidence of the Epistle to the Galatians, which, though in appearance more precise, can be and is interpreted in very different ways.
(ii.) A nearer attempt to date at least the chronology of St Paul's earlier years as a Christian could be made by the help of the Galatian Epistle if we could be sure from what point and to what point its reckonings are made.
Weber, Die Abfassung des Galaterbriefs vor dem Apostelkonzil, Ravensburg, 1900) that the epistle was actually written just before the council, i.e.
The new view clears away some manifest difficulties in the reconciliation of the Epistle and the Acts, and the early date for Galatians in relation to the other Pauline epistles is not so improbable as it may seem; but the chronology still appears more satisfactory on the older view, which enables the conversion to be placed at least three years later than on the alternative theory.
The former is based on the Epistle to the Romans, and deals with the religious life as (I) Repentance, (2) Faith, (3) Love.
" 2 It is highly probable that the printer of Coverdale's Bible was 1 Epistle to the Reader in the New Testament of 1526, reprinted by G.
Dr Rutherford stated the case briefly and pointedly in the preface to his translation of the Epistle to the Romans (London, 1900).
The phrase " when ye shall be stripped and not be ashamed " contains an idea which has some affinity with two passages found respectively in the Gospel according to the Egyptians and the so-called Second Epistle of Clement.
Thus he paves the way for his tardy rebuke of present disorders, which he reserves until two-thirds of his epistle is completed.
Clement is exceedingly discursive, and his letter reaches twice the length of the Epistle to the Hebrews.
Many of his general exhortations are but very indirectly connected with the practical issue to which the epistle is directed, and it is very probable that he was drawing largely upon the homiletical material with which he was accustomed to edify his fellow-Christians at Rome.
The most permanent interest of the epistle lies in the conception of the grounds on which the Christian ministry rests according to the view of a prominent teacher before the 1st century has closed.
7) that the church at Rome, though suffering persecution, was firmly held together by faith and love, and was exhibiting its unity in an orderly worship. The epistle was publicly read from time to time at Corinth, and by the 4th century this usage had spread to other churches.
The epistle was published in 1633 by Patrick Young from Cod.
Its evidence is used in a small edition of the epistle by R.
In 1559 du Bellay published at Poitiers La Nouvelle Maniere de faire son profit des lettres, a satirical epistle translated from the Latin of Adrien Turnebe, and with it Le Poete courtisan, which introduced the formal satire into French poetry.
The question whether the "Churches of Galatia," to which St Paul addressed his Epistle, were situated in the northern or southern part of the province has been much discussed, and in England Prof. Sir W.
Galater (1897); Perrot, De Galatia 1 In the unsettled state of this controversy, weight naturally attaches to the opinion of experts on either side; and the above statement, while opposed to the view taken in the following article on the epistle, must be taken on its merits.
Epistle to the Galatians >>
The same epistle (x.
Bishops and deacons hold a subordinate place in this document; but the contemporary Epistle of Clement of Rome attests that these bishops " had offered the gifts without blame and holily."
In the Epistle to Diognetus, formerly assigned to Justin Martyr, we read (v.
But Paul, while he saw this much in it, saw much more; or he could not in the same epistle, x.
SECOND EPISTLE TO.
A note of personal matters concludes the epistle (iv.
The last verse, with its two-fold greeting (6 14:nos, uera Tou 7rveuµar6s co y, 7) x6.pcs AO' upL ' v), shows unconsciously but plainly that, while the epistle professes to be a private letter to Timothy, it is in reality addressed to a wider circle, like 1 Tim.
Various schemes of analysis have been proposed to account for this and other passages of the same nature in the epistle, e.g.
"To a writer of this period, it would seem as legitimate an artifice to compose a letter as to compose a speech in the 1 Bahnsen gives an ingenious analysis of this section in the epistle.
But this is as artificial as Otto's attempt to classify the contents of the epistle under the three notes of the Iry 13 a in i.
" If the epistle was an integral as we have it, its genuineness could scarcely be maintained "(Laughlin, p. 26).
4 Bacon (Story of St Paul, p. 198) and Clemen both assign part of the epistle to the Caesarean imprisonment, the former disentangling iv.
The Second Epistle to Timothy carries on this line of advice.
- Special monographs on this epistle by Leo (1850)(1850) and Bahnsen (Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe, I., der 2 Tim., 1876) are to be noted.
A Manichaean epistle, addressed to one Marcellus, has, however, been preserved for us in the Acta Archelai.
Zittwitz assumes that this epistle was in its original form of much larger extent, and that the author of the Acts took out of it the matter for the speeches which he makes Mani deliver during his disputation with Bishop Archelaus.
The celebrated passage about the three heavenly witnesses inserted in the Epistle of St John (v.
Dionysius of Halicarnassus, in his Epistle on Demosthenes and Aristotle (chap. 5), gives the following sketch of his life: - Aristotle ('ApeaToTE ujs) was the son of Nicomachus, who traced back his descent and his art to Machaon,son of Aesculapius; his mother being Phaestis, a descendant of one of those who carried the colony from Chalcis to Stagira.
After a dedicatory epistle to Alexander (chap. I) the opening of the treatise itself (chap. 2) is as follows: - " There are three genera of political speeches; one deliberative, one declamatory, one forensic: their species are seven; hortative, dissuasive, laudatory, vituperative, accusatory, defensive, critical."
It is possible then that Aristotle may have written the dedication to Alexander about 34 0 and treated him as if he were king in the dedicatory epistle.
At the same time, as such prefaces are often forgeries, not prejudicing the body of the treatise, it does not really matter whether Aristotle actually dedicated his work to Alexander in that epistle about that year or not.
His Commentaries on St John's Gospel (1881), on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889) and the Epistles of St John (1883) resulted from his public lectures.
The following is a bibliography of Westcott's more important writings, giving the date of the first editions: - Elements of the Gospel Harmony (1851); History of the Canon of First Four Centuries (1853); Characteristics of Gospel Miracles (1859); Introduction to the Study of the Gospels (1860); The Bible in the Church (1864); The Gospel of the Resurrection (1866); Christian Life Manifold and One (1869); Some Points in the Religious Life of the Universities (1873); Paragraph Psalter for the Use of Choirs (1879); Commentary on the Gospel of St John (1881); Commentary on the Epistles of St John (1883); Revelation of the Risen Lord (1882); Revelation of the Father (1884); Some Thoughts from the Ordinal (1884); Christus Consummator (1886); Social Aspects of Christianity (1887); The Victory of the Cross: Sermons in Holy Week (1888); Commentary on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889); From Strength to Strength (1890); Gospel of Life (1892); The Incarnation and Common Life (1893); Some Lessons of the Revised Version of the New Testament (1897); Christian Aspects of Life (1897); Lessons from Work (1901).
It was to him that Southwell addressed his Epistle of Comfort.
The prayer in the burial service, as in the Communion service, contained distinct intercessions for the departed; and a form of Holy Communion was provided for use at funerals with proper introit, collect, epistle and gospel.
The exception is in the little treatise commonly called the Epistle of Barnabas, probably composed about A.D.
in 1552, and was made vicar of Sunningwell, and public orator of the university, in which capacity he had to compose a congratulatory epistle to Mary on her accession.
Epistle to the Colossians >>
EPISTLE TO THE HEBREWS, one of the books of the New Testament.
Probably, then, the original and limited address, or rather salutation, was never copied when this treatise in letter form, like the epistle to the Romans, passed into the wider circulation which its contents merited.
In any case the Roman Church, where the first traces of the epistle occur, about A.D.
14), who sought to explain why Paul did not name himself as usual at the head of the epistle.
Clement himself, taking it for granted that an epistle to Hebrews must have beeen written in Hebrew, supposes that Luke translated it for the Greeks.
Still from the time of Origen the opinion that Paul wrote the epistle became prevalent in the East.
The earliest African tradition, on the other hand, preserved by Tertullian l (De pudicitia, c. 20), but certainly not invented by him, ascribed the epistle to Barnabas.
Yet it was perhaps, like those named by Origen, only an inference from the epistle itself, as if a "word of exhortation" (xiii.
that our epistle was not by Paul, but by one of his associates.
The vacillation of tradition and the dissimilarity of the epistle from those of Paul were brought out with great force by Erasmus.
Yet the epistle has manifest Pauline affinities, and can hardly have originated beyond the Pauline circle, to which it is referred not only by the author's friendship with Timothy (xiii.
But, for a generation or so, it has been denied that this can be inferred simply from the fact that the epistle approaches all Christian truth through Old Testament forms. This, it is said, was the common method of proof, since the Jewish scriptures were the Word of God to all Christians alike.
The whole Hellenistic culture of the epistle (let alone its language), and the personal references in it, notably that to Timothy in xiii.
Such was the general situation of the readers of this epistle, men who rested partly on the Gospel and partly on Judaism.
The following plan of the epistle may help to make apparent the writer's theory of Christianity as distinct from Judaism, which is related to it as "shadow" to reality: Thesis: The finality of the form of religion mediated in God's Son, i.
In trying further to define the readers addressed in the epistle, one must note the stress laid on suffering as part of the divinely appointed discipline of sonship (ii.
Many attempts have been made to identify the home of the Hellenistic Christians addressed in this epistle.
5); and Harnack has gone so far as to suggest that they, and especially Prisca, actually wrote our epistle.
Nor does early currency in Rome prove that the epistle was written to Rome, any more than do the words "they of Italy salute you."
On the chronology adopted in the article Paul, this would yield as probable date for the epistle A.D.
Be this as it may, the epistle is of great historical importance, as reflecting a crisis inevitable in the development of the JewishChristian consciousness,when a definite choice between the old and the new form of Israel's religion had to be made, both for internal and external reasons.
Milligan, The Theology of the Epistle of the Hebrews (1899), a useful summary of all bearing on the epistle, and in the large New Testament Introductions and Biblical Theologies.
So far as concerns the Epistle of St James this interpretation would probably be correct.
The first part of the epistle deals generally with magnetic attractions and repulsions, with the polarity of the stone, and with the supposed influence of the poles of the heavens upon the poles of the stone.
The Christian community at Rome, founded, apparently, in the time of the emperor Claudius (41-54),), at once assumed great importance, as is clearly attested by the Epistle to the Romans (58).
Seneca (Epistle 9) shows how closely allied Stilpo was to the Stoics.
Almost the earliest document revealing anything of the inner organization and condition of the Armenian church in the Nicene age is the epistle of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem, to the Armenian bishop Verthanes, written between 325 and 335 and preserved in Armenian.
With Open Face (Lond., 1896); The Epistle to the Hebrews (Edin., 1899); The Providential Order of the World, and the Moral Order of the World in Ancient and Modern Thought (Gifford Lectures, 1896-1897; Lond., 18 97, 1899).
Epistle to Diognetus >>
THE EPISTLE TO TITUS, in the New Testament, an epistle which purports to have been written by Paul to Titus (i.
12-13), and, with some final exhortations, the epistle ends.
The other features noted in the epistle, their turbulence, drunkenness and greed, all happen to be verified in the pages of ancient writers like Polybius.
Attempts have been made to find a setting for the epistle within the apostle's life previous to his Roman imprisonment (as recorded in Acts), but by common consent s it is now held that the epistle (if written by the apostle) must fall later, during the period of missionary enterprise which is supposed to have followed his release from the first captivity.
Like the epistles to Timothy, the Epistle to Titus thus belongs to a phase of the apostle's life for which we possess no other contemporary evidence.
The internal criticism of the epistle starts from i.
12-13 is indubitably a Pauline fragment, and the problem for the critic is to determine whether in the epistle as a whole we have a redacted and interpolated edition of what was originally a note from the hand of Paul, or whether the epistle drew upon some Pauline tradition '(connecting Titus with Crete) and material, and was afterwards interpolated at i.
Thus, in the present epistle, a passage like iii.
12-13, as well as for the tradition which forms the setting of the epistle, is probably to be sought in the neighbourhood of Acts xx.
The method resembles that of the First Epistle of John, for although the errorists attacked in the latter manifesto are not those of the pastorals, and although the one writer eschews entirely the inner authority of the Spirit which the other posits, the same anti-gnostic emphasis on practical religion and stereotyped doctrine is felt in both.
Commonly, however, the epistle has been edited and criticized along with the epistles of Timothy.
the attribution to him of the Alexandrine Epistle of Barnabas).
the Epistle to the Hebrews (Spanheim, Op. miscell.
240), the Epistle of Jude (cf.
The city was twice visited by St Paul, whose Epistle to the Philippians was addressed to his converts here.
Epistle to the Philippians >>
Instead of the epistle, sundry passages from Hosea, Habakkuk, Exodus and the Psalms are read.
Branches of palm, olive or sprouting willow (hence in England known as "palm") having been placed before the altar, or at the Epistle side, after Terce and the sprinkling of holy water, the priest, either in a purple cope or an alb without chasuble, proceeds to bless them.
5) and the special collect, Epistle (Phil.
Although Wimborne (Wimburn) has been identified with the Vindogladia of the Antonine Itinerary, the first undoubted evidence of settlement is the entry of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, under the date 718, that Cuthburh, sister of King Ine, founded the abbey here and became the first abbess; the house is also mentioned in a somewhat doubtful epistle of St Aldhelm in 705.
Harnack's theory is based upon the following arguments: (a) The silence of the genuine Epistles of St Paul and the Epistle to the Hebrews.
the Epistle of James, the first Epistle of Peter, the Acts of the Apostles and the Pastoral Epistles belong to a later age and reflect the customs of their own day rather than those of the primitive Church.
If this possibility in regard to I Peter is granted, it is fatal to the theory, because at the time when the epistle was written official presbyters were so well established that abuse and degeneration had already begun to creep in and some of the elders were already guilty of "lording it over their heritage" and making a profit out of their office (I Pet.
23, that Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the churches of South Galatia, is more open to objection perhaps, owing to the silence of the Epistle to the Galatians.
Scholars of such opposite schools of thought as Schmiedel 3 and Lindsay 4 maintain that the epistle contains the most explicit references to presbyters of the official type.
I), Corinth (Epistle of Clement) and Crete (Titus).
The third council of Carthage in 397 forbade anything but Holy Scripture to be read in church; this rule has been adhered to so far as the liturgical epistle and gospel, and occasional additional lessons in the Roman missal are concerned, but in the divine office, on feasts when nine lessons are read at matins, only the first three lessons are taken from Holy Scripture, the next three being taken from the sermons of ecclesiastical writers, and the last three from expositions of the day's gospel; but sometimes the lives or Passions of the saints, or of some particular saints, were substituted for any or all of these breviary lessons.
The best known of these poems is The Friendly Epistle addressed to King Udayana.
But it happened that Hobbes had allowed a French acquaintance to have a private translation of his reply made by a young Englishman, who secretly took a copy of the original for himself; and now it was this unnamed purloiner who, in 1654, when Hobbes had become famous and feared, gave it to the world of his own motion, with an extravagantly laudatory epistle to the reader in its front.
Harvey (not Bacon) is the only Englishman he mentions in the dedicatory epistle prefixed to the De corpore, among the founders, before himself, of the new natural philosophy.
Consequently his commentary on the epistle to the Romans, mentioned by the historian Socrates, and his epistles, mentioned by Philostorgius and Photius, are no longer extant.
This vacillation may then have been one of the causes which led up to the council, which may have been held before, not, as is usually thought, after the sending of the Epistle to the Galatians.
If so, and if the epistle be genuine, this is conclusive evidence that Peter was in Rome.
Even if the epistle be not genuine it is evidence of the same tradition.
His name is associated with that of Paul in the opening salutations of both epistles to the Thessalonians, the second epistle to the Corinthians, and those to the Philippians and Colossians.
First Epistle to Timothy >>
But while in all cases the suggestion of Clement's authorship came ultimately from his prestige as writer of the genuine Epistle of Clement (see Clement I.), both (3) and (4) were due to this idea as operative on Syrian soil; (5) is a secondary formation based on (3) as known to the West.
Probably these epistles did not originally bear Clement's name at all, but formed a single epistle addressed to ascetics among an actual circle of churches.
(3) [a] The Epistle of Clement to James (the Lord's brother).
(a) The Circuits of Peter, as defined on the one hand by the epistle of Clement to James originally prefixed to it and by patristic evidence, and on the other by the common element in our Homilies and Recognitions, may be conceived as follows.
Such a work seems implied by the epistle of Peter to James and its appended adjuration, prefixed in our MSS.
to the Homilies along with the epistle of Clement to James.
1890, &c.), Proverbs (1873), Epistle to the Hebrews (1857, Eng.
It was used by the Gnostic Heracleon and probably by the unknown writer of the epistle to Diognetus.
So too the early Christian church in Rome, to which St Paul addressed his epistle, was Greek-speaking, and continued to be till far into the 3rd century.
He began to lecture on Homer and the Epistle to Titus, and in connexion with the former he announced that, like Solomon, he sought Tyrian brass and gems for the adornment of God's Temple.
In the epistle with which his name is associated he is represented (Titus i.
Tradition, obviously resting on the Epistle to Titus, has it that he died in Crete as bishop at an advanced age; another line connects him with Venice.
The Epistle To Titus >>
The Anabaptists were great readers of Revelation and of the Epistle of James, the latter perhaps by way of counteracting Luther's one-sided teaching of justification by faith alone.
Luther feebly rejected this scripture as " a right strawy epistle."
of the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians.
4 It is not necessary to decide whether the epistle is by St Paul or by a pupil of Paul, although the former seems to the present writer to be by far the more probable, in spite of the brilliant attack on the genuineness of the epistle by Wrede in Texte and Ubersetzungen, N.F.
In this then consists the significant turn given by St Paul in the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians to the whole conception, namely, in the substitution for the tyrant of the latter time who should persecute the Jewish people, of a pseudo-Messianic figure, who, establishing himself in the temple of God, should find credence and a following precisely among the Jews.
See, for the progress of the idea in Jewish and New Testament times, the modern commentaries on Revelation and the 2nd Epistle to the Thessalonians; Bousset, Antichrist (1895), and the article "Antichrist" in the Encyclop. Biblica; R.
Olshausen's commentary, himself writing the volumes on the Epistle to the Hebrews, the Johannine Epistles, and Revelation.
The first piece of Christian literature which has an independent existence and to which we can fix a date is St Paul's first Epistle to the Thessalonians.
Thomas Wilson, in the epistle prefixed to his translation of the Olynthiacs of Demosthenes (1570), has a long and most interesting eulogy of Cheke; and Thomas Nash, in To the Gentlemen Students, prefixed to Robert Greene's Menaphon (1589), calls him "the Exchequer of eloquence, Sir Ihon Cheke, a man of men, supernaturally traded in all tongues."
He is supposed to be the Cretan prophet alluded to in the epistle to Titus (i.
Cato labours to express himself in an awkward and laconic epistle, apologizing for its length.
Warner as The Epistle of Othea to Hector, or the Boke of Knyghthode.
In St Paul we find the beginnings of explanation, indeed of two explanations, and in the Epistle to the Hebrews the whole sacrificial system is found to culminate in Christ, of whom all priests and sacrifices are symbols, so that they are abolished with the coming of the great reality.
Of the Latin variants, Iberio is the form found in the most ancient Irish MSS., such as the Confession of St Patrick, and the same saint's Epistle to Coroticus.
These preceptors included the German priest Bruno, the Czech priest Radla, and an Italian knight, Theodate of San Severino, who taught him arms and letters (a holograph epistle by Stephen existed in the Vatican Library as late as 1513).
Dionysius Alexandrinus also, in his canonical epistle (260 A.D.), refers to the six fasting days (E Twv Pr YTECwv iijApac) in a manner which implies that the observance of them had already become an established usage in his time.
His Commentary on the Epistle to the Philippians (1618, reprinted 1864) is a specimen of his preaching before his college, and of his fiery denunciation of popery and his fearless enunciation of that Calvinism which Oxford in common with all England then prized.
His character as a man, preacher, divine, and as an important ruler in the university, will be found portrayed in the Epistle by John Potter, prefixed to the Commentary.
The subject of each poem is generally suggested by some part of the lessons or the gospel or the epistle for the day.
After his commentaries (on Romans, the Gospel of John, the Sermon on the Mount and the Epistle to the Hebrews) and several volumes of sermons, his best-known books are Stunden christlicher Andacht (1839; 8th ed., 1870), intended to take the place of J.
Earlier still the Book of Tobit is quoted, though not by name, in the Epistle of Polycarp to the Philippians (x.
This pupil (probably Albert Burgh, who afterwards joined the Church of Rome and penned a foolishly insolent epistle to his former teacher) was the occasion of Spinoza's first publication - the only publication indeed to which his name was attached.
EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS, one of the books of the New Testament.
have naturally determined, from time to time, the conception of the epistle's aim and date.
The Christians to whom the epistle was addressed were thus inhabitants, for the most part (iv.
So far as any trustworthy evidence is available, such Hellenic notions as are presupposed in this epistle might well have been intelligible to the Galatians of the northern provinces.
Recht im Galaterbrief, 1 89P, not merely that Paul must have acquired such knowledge in Italy but that he wrote the epistle there.
The epistle can hardly have been written therefore until after the period described in Acts xviii.
The epistle was not written until Paul had visited Thessalonica, 2 The historical and geographical facts concerning Galatia, which lead other writers to support the south Galatian theory, are stated in the preceding article on Galatia; and the question is still a matter of controversy, the division of opinion being to some extent dependent on whether it is approached from the point of view of the archaeologist or the Biblical critic. The ablest re-statements of the north Galatian theory, in the light of recent pleas for south Galatia as the destination of this epistle, may be found by the English reader in P. W.
The tendency among adherents of the south Galatian theory is to put the epistle as early as possible, making it contemporaneous with, if not prior to, 1 Thessalonians.
So Douglass Round in The Date of St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians (1906).
It was not too late to arrest the Galatians on their downward plane, and the apostle, unable or unwilling to re-visit them, despatched this epistle.
The tone of surprise which marks the opening of the epistle tells in favour of the latter theory.
sections in the epistle (i.
11-21) reiterates, in a handful of abrupt, emphatic sentences, the main points of the epistle.
The earliest allusion to the epistle 11 is the notice of its inclusion in Marcion's canon, but almost verbal echoes of iii.
I I lies in the size of the letters, Paul cannot have contemplated copies of the epistle being made.
The general style of the epistle is vigorous and unpremeditated, "one continuous rush, a veritable torrent of genuine and inimitable Paulinism, like a mountain stream in full flood, such as may often have been seen by his Galatians" (J.
Lipsius (2nd ed., Hand.-Commentar, 1892), and Zockler (2nd ed., 1894) may still be consulted with advantage, while Hilgenfeld's commentary (1852) discusses acutely the historical problems of the epistle from the standpoint of Baur's criticism.
The religious thought of the epistle I Compare the minute analysis of the whole epistle in F.
Wood (Studies in St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, 1887) criticizes Lightfoot.
General studies of the epistle will be found in all biographies of Paul and histories of the apostolic age, as well as in works like Sabatier's The Apostle Paul (pp. 187 f.), B.
EPISTLE, in its primary sense any letter addressed to an absent person; from the Greek word E7rcaroXi, a thing sent on a particular occasion.
Strictly speaking, any such communication is an epistle, but at the present day the term has become archaic, and is used only for letters of an ancient time, or for elaborate literary productions which take an epistolary form, that is to say, are, or affect to be, written to a person at a distance.
- The student of literary history soon discovers that a broad distinction exists between the letter and the epistle.
The epistle, on the other hand, rather takes the place of a public speech, it is written with an audience in view, it is a literary form, a distinctly artistic effort aiming at permanence; and it bears much the same relation to a letter as a Platonic dialogue does to a private talk between two friends.
The first epistle of John he calls less a letter or an epistle than a religious tract.
Such writings have affinities with both the letter and the epistle, and they may further be compared with the "edicts and rescripts by which Roman law grew, documents arising out of special circumstances but treating them on general principles."
Most of the literature of the sub-apostolic age is epistolary, and we have a particularly interesting form of epistle in the communications between churches (as distinct from individuals) known as the First Epistle of Clement (Rome to Corinth), the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Smyrna to Philomelium), and the Letters of the Churches of Vienne andLyons (to the congregations of Asia Minor and Phrygia) describing the Gallican martyrdoms of A.D.
- A branch of poetry bears the name of the Epistle, and is modelled on those pieces of Horace which are almost essays (sermones) on moral or philosophical subjects, and are chiefly distinguished from other poems by being addressed to particular patrons or friends.
The epistle of Horace to his agent (or villicus) is of a more familiar order, and is at once a masterpiece and a model of what an epistle should be.
The graceful precision and dignified familiarity of the epistle are particularly attractive to the temperament of France.
Clement Marot, in the 16th century, first made the epistle popular in France, with his brief and spirited specimens.
Gresset, Bernis, Sedaine, Dorat, Gen di - Bernard, all excelled in the epistle.
It was Daniel's deliberate intention to introduce the Epistle into English poetry, "after the manner of Horace."
Habington's Epistle to a Friend is one of his most finished pieces.
Henry Vaughan (1622-1695) addressed a fine epistle in verse to the French romance-writer Gombauld (1570-1666).
During the age of Anne various Augustan poets in whom the lyrical faculty was slight, from Congreve and Richard Duke down to Ambrose Philips and William Somerville, essayed the epistle with more or less success, and it was employed by Gay for several exercises in his elegant persiflage.
His "Eloisa to Abelard" (1717) is carefully modelled on the form of Ovid's "Heroides," while in his Moral Essays he adopts the Horatian formula for the epistle.
The "Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot" has not been surpassed, if it has been equalled, in Latin or French poetry of the same class.
But Pope excelled, not only in the voluptuous and in the didactic epistle, but in that of compliment as well, and there is no more graceful example of this in literature than is afforded by the letter about the poems of Parnell addressed, in 1721, to Robert, earl of Oxford.
After the day of Pope the epistle again fell into desuetude, or occasional use, in England.
At the close of the century Samuel Rogers endeavoured to resuscitate the neglected form in his "Epistle to a Friend" (1798).
The formality and conventional grace of the epistle were elements with which the leaders of romantic revival were out of sympathy, and it was not cultivated to any important degree in the 19th century.
It is, however, to be noted that Shelley's "Letter to Maria Gisborne" (1820), Keats's "Epistle to Charles Clarke" (1816), and Landor's "To Julius Hare" (1836), in spite of their romantic colouring, are genuine Horatian epistles and of the pure Augustan type.
It is sometimes not easy to distinguish the epistle from the elegy and from the dedication.
FIRST EPISTLE TO.
1-2), the epistle recurs to the errorists (vi.
But his keen criticism of Hesse and Knoke is more successful than his positive explanation of the textual phenomena, and a more thorough-going process of literary criticism is necessary in order to solve the problems of the epistle.
Pauline particles like apa, Sc6, Sam, E7recra, Iise and Moo 1 When the literary integrity of the epistle is maintained this allusion naturally drops to the ground, since the use of the epistle by Polycarp rules the earlier conjectures of Baur and others (who made the pastorals anti-Marcionite) out of court; besides, passages like i.
The epistle is not a compilation from the two others (as Schleiermacher thought), but it seems to denote a slightly later stage.
I Tim., like Ephesians, is a writing whose lack of greetings and general tone point to the functions of an encyclical or Catholic epistle.
Second Epistle to Timothy >>
1881-1884); as far as the Epistle to Romans.
He wrote also a Koran commentary, now apparently lost, and a hortatory epistle to Harlan al-Rashid.
He introduced and practised the forms of the sonnet, canzon, ode, epistle in oitava rim y and in tercets, and the epigram, and raised the whole tone of poetry.
In 1639, in the epistle to the reader of his most noticeable book historically, his Triall of our Church-Forsakers, he tells us, "I have lived now, by God's gratious dispensation, above fifty years, and in the place of my allotment two and twenty full."
This forms the leading theme of the epistle.
i.), is " in some sense the governing word of the Epistle to the Romans."
Certainly what Paul has in mind throughout the epistle is not a Judaizing tendency among the Jewish Christians at Rome, but the general and perplexing question of Judaism in relation to the new faith.
23, are sufficiently strange; they suggest that the epistle must have passed through a certain process of editing, during the 2nd century, previous to its final incorporation in the canon of the epistles.
3 It may further be conjectured that the epistle does not lie before the modern reader in the precise shape in which it left Paul and his amanuensis at Corinth.
3-16 as designed for Paul's friends outside Rome, to introduce the bearers of the larger epistle.
The uncertainty as to the literary structure of the epistle naturally renders it hazardous to infer the character of the Christians who are addressed, but it may be said that the results of the long debate on this point are converging upon the belief that the predominant class in the local church or churches were Gentile Christians, while proselytes must have swelled the ranks to no inconsiderable degree.
taken as the kernel of the epistle, its obvious motive is to be found in the need of explaining to Gentile Christians the reasons for Israel's apparent rejection, and passages like i.
Paul, lxiii-lxxv), find different editions in the canonical epistle, one meant for Thessalonica (i.-xiv.
23), the later being, like Ephesians, a circular epistle.
' The epistle was so systematic in treatment and wide in scope that it lent itself readily to this " catholicizing " manipulation; thus the fact that xv.-xvi.
But the question of course arises, May not the epistle, in whole or in part, have originally been more of a treatise in epistolary form than at first sight appears?
The epistle dates itself.
Paul probably despatched the epistle from Corinth.
regarded as an integral part of the original epistle, since in that case Timothy and Sosipater (xvi.
Phoebe of Cenchreae, the seaport of Corinth, would also be the bearer of the epistle (xvi.
xvi., the tone of the epistle (especially of xv.
It is just possible, of course, that the epistle was written from some other town, perhaps in Illyricum (so H.
" It has been customary to explain this feature of the epistle by the fact of its having been written to a church with which Paul had no personal relations, and this may count for something.
But there is a deeper and a worthier reason for the contrast in tone between this epistle and those written to the Galatian and Corinthian churches.
On Marcion's text of the epistle cf.
pp. 515-521; on the early reception of the epistle in the church, Gregory's Canon and Text of the N.T.
which have come down to us and which date from the period of Ostrogothic rule in Italy (489-555) contain the Second Epistle to the Corinthians complete, together with more or less considerable fragments of the four Gospels and of all the other Pauline Epistles.
His chief works were a Commentary on i Corinthians (1885), the Epistle to the Hebrews (" Expositor's Bible" series, 1888), and The God-Man (" Davies Lecture," 1895).
Besides his articles in the Princeton Review, he published a Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans (1835, abridged 1836, rewritten and enlarged 1864, new ed.
Accordingly, we find him journeying again in 1351 to Vaucluse, again refusing the office of papal secretary, again planning visionary reforms for the Roman people, and beginning that 'curious fragment of an autobiography which is known as the Epistle to Posterity.
These are divided into Familiar Correspondence, Correspondence in Old Age, Divers Letters and Letters without a Title; to which may be added the curious autobiographical fragment entitled the Epistle to Posterity.
In the Epistle of Clement to James prefixed to the Homilies Peter is spoken of as the light of the West, and as having met with a violent death in Rome; and in Homilies i.
EPISTLE OF JAMES, a book of the New Testament.
The interpretation which takes the expression "the twelve tribes" literally, and conceives the brother of the Lord as sending an epistle written in the Greek language throughout the Christian world, but as addressing Jewish Christians only (so e.g.
Whatever the currency in classical circles of the epistle as a literary form, it is irrational to put first in the development of Christian literature a general epistle, couched in fluent, even rhetorical, Greek, and afterwards the Pauline letters, which both as to origin and subsequent circulation were a product of urgent conditions.
" James, Epistle of" in Hasting's Diet.
The history of the epistle's reception into the canon is not opposed to this; for, once it was attributed to James, Syria would be more likely to take it up, while the West, more sceptical, if not better informed as to its origin, held back; just as happened in the case of Hebrews.
The most important commentaries on the epistle are those of Matt.
Among Heber's works are: Palestine: a Poem, to which is added the Passage of the Red Sea (1809); Europe: Lines on the Present War (1809); a volume of poems in 1812; The Personality and Office of the Christian Comforter asserted and explained (being the Bampton Lectures for 1815); The Whole Works of Bishop Jeremy Taylor, with a Life of the Author, and a Critical Examination of his Writings (1822); Hymns written and adapted to the Weekly Church Service of the Year, principally by Bishop Heber (1827); A Journey through India (1828); Sermons preached in England, and Sermons preached in India (1829); Sermons on the Lessons, the Gospel, or the Epistle for every Sunday in the Year (1837).
Epistle of Jeremy >>
Southey has a very complimentary reference to Cats in his "Epistle to Allan Cunningham."
Thus it is quoted by name as a genuine production of Enoch in the Epistle of Jude, 14 sq., and it lies at the base of Matt.
The authors of the Ascension of Isaiah, the Apoc. of Baruch and the Epistle of Barnabas were probably acquainted with it.
There are other books in the New Testament that bear the same impress, the epistles to the Ephesians and the Colossians, and to a much greater degree the epistle to the Hebrews.
They include the History of Adam and Eve, the Legend of the Cross, The Apocalypse of Abraham, the History of the Sibyl, the Legends of Solomon; numerous New Testament apocryphal tales, starting with legends of St John the Baptist; a very remarkable version of the Gospel of Nicodemus; and the Epistle of Pilate.