In 168 B.C. Antiochus Epiphanes captured Jerusalem, destroyed the walls, and devastated the Temple, reducing the city to a worse position than it had occupied since the time of the captivity.
Other writers again have placed the Acra on the eastern side of the hill upon which the church of the Holy Sepulchre now stands, but as this point was probably quite outside the city at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, and is at too great a distance from the Temple, it can hardly be accepted.
With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
The express declaration of these antinomian principles is said to have been given by Epiphanes.
Epiphanes, who at the end of his reign restored once more the authority of the empire in Babylonia, Susiana and Persis; perhaps a battle, in which the satrap Numenius of Mesene (southern Babylonia) defeated the Persians on the shore of Carmania on sea and land (Plin.
The Pentateuch (or Hexateuch) was finally completed in its present form at some time before 400 B.C. The latest parts of the Old Testament are the books of Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah (c. 330 B.C.), Ecclesiastes and Esther (3rd century) and Daniel, composed either in the 3rd century or according to some views as late as the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (c. 168 B.C.).
Epiphanes (165 B.C.),enabled Mithradates I.
His successors, the Diadochi, carried on his work, but Antiochus Epiphanes was the first who deliberately took in hand to deal with the Jews.
And out of one of them came forth a little horn (Antiochus Epiphanes) which waxed exceeding great towards the south (Egypt) and towards the East (Babylon) and towards the beauteous land (the land of Israel)."
The siege was raised, more probably in consequence of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes than because Judas had gained any real victory.
There they held out for three months, succumbing finally because in obedience to the Law (as interpreted since the time of Antiochus Epiphanes) they would only defend themselves from actual assault upon the sabbath day.
Epiphanes succeeded to the Egyptian throne, and Antiochus concluded a secret pact with Philip of Macedonia for the partition of the Ptolemaic possessions.
An impostor, who claimed to be a son of Antiochus Epiphanes, Alexander Balas (reigned 150-145), was installed as king by Ptolemy Philometor and given Ptolemy's daughter Cleopatra to wife, but Alexander proved to be dissolute and incapable, and when Demetrius, the son of Demetrius I., was brought back to Syria by Cretan condottieri, Ptolemy transferred his support and Cleopatra to the rightful heir.
Epiphanes Philadelpiius (reigned during 95), Philip I.
Dionysus Epiphanes (reigned 86?-85?), and lastly Philip II., the son of Philip I., who appears momentarily on the stage in the last days of confusion.
The son of the last king, Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus, was Roman consul for A.D.
For the chronology of the end of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes and the Maccabaean revolt, see a paper by J.
Epiphanes (163) he conquered Media, where he refounded the town"of Rhagae (Rai near Teheran) under the name of Arsacia; and about 141 he invaded Babylonia.
(164 B.C.), or Ptolemy V., Epiphanes (204 B.C.), but the reference is too general to be decisive.
The two personages - the "old and foolish king" and the "poor and wise youth" - have been supposed (by Winckler) to be Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) and Demetrius (162-150 B.C.), or (by Haupt) Antiochus and the impostor Alexander Balas (150-146 B.C.), or (by others) Demetrius and Alexander; in favour of Alexander as the "youth" it may be said that he was of obscure origin, was at first popular, and was later abandoned by his friends.
Epiphanes, king of Syria, by the Roman architect Cossutius in the interval between 174 B.C. and 164 B.C., the date of the death of Antiochus.
The conspicuous monument which crowns the Museum Hill was erected as the mausoleum of Antiochus Philopappus of Commagene, grandson of Antiochus Epiphanes, in A.D.
Sometimes the joint-king is merely titular, an infant of tender years, as for instance Antiochus Eupator, the son of Antiochus Epiphanes, or Ptolemy Eupator, the son of Ptolemy Philometor.
The prominent part taken by the women of the royal house was a Macedonian characteristic. The history of these kingdoms furnishes a long list of queens and princesses who were ambitious ' Antiochus Epiphanes was an extreme case.
Some had doubtless a religious colour, Theos, Epiphanes, Soter; others a dynastic, Philopator, Philometor, Philadelphus.
Of its seven books, the first two survey the history of the Jews from the capture of Jerusalem by Antiochus Epiphanes to the outbreak of war in 67, and here Josephus relies upon some such general history as that of Nicolaus of Damascus.
Both include psalms which are most naturally understood as referring to the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes and to the Maccabaean victories, and cannot therefore be separated by a long interval of time.
It was the belief of Professor Robertson Smith that the second (Elohistic) collection of psalms originated in a time of persecution earlier than the time of Antiochus Epiphanes which he referred to the reign of Artaxerxes III.
It was instituted in 165 B.C. in commemoration of, and thanksgiving for, the purification of the temple at Jerusalem on this day by Judas Maccabaeus after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria, who in 168 B.C. set up a pagan altar to Zeus Olympius.
persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes, 168-165 B.C. Chs.
The most remarkable of these was made outside the Church - a significant indication of the adverse effect of the conditions within; the Neo-platonist philosopher Porphyry 2 in the 3rd century A.D., untrammelled by church tradition and methods, anticipated one of the clearest and most important conclusions of modern criticism: he detected the incorrectness of the traditional ascription of Daniel to the Jewish captivity in Babylon and discerned that the real period of its composition was that of Antiochus Epiphanes, four centuries later.
Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria (Dan.
Epiphanes was made king by Caligula, who deposed him almost immediately.
Epiphanes in 164 B.C., revolts and adventurers made their appearance in many parts of Syria, heralding the collapse of the kingdom of the Seleucids.
The evacuation of Egypt by Antiochus Epiphanes at the bidding of the Roman ambassadors suits the warning addressed to "Greece" (732-740) against overweening ambition and any attempt upon the Holy City, which is somewhat strangely enforced by the famous Greek oracle, "Let Camarina be, 'tis best unstirred."
For a short period in the reign of Epiphanes, when Upper Egypt was in rebellion against the Ptolemaic rule, Thebes was the capital of independent native.
Epiphanes (175-164), a fresh impulse was given to Syrian Hellenism.
Epiphanes (176-165) the Hellenistic aristocracy contrived to get Jerusalem converted into a Greek city; the gymnasium appeared, and Greek dress became fashionable with the young men.
This tablet was inscribed with three versions, in hieroglyphic, demotic and Greek, of a long decree of the Egyptian priests in honor of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes and his wife Cleopatra.
They had learned to read God's will in the events of history, and deduced (for example) the doctrine of the resurrection of the dead from the death of the martyrs under Antiochus Epiphanes and Alcimus.
Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.); and thenceforth Antioch was known as Tetrapolis.
Epiphanes, the persecutor of the Jews, and he has impressed indelible traits upon the conception.
It was different when the Jews who wished to be men of the world took their Hellenism from the Seleucid court and courted the favour of Antiochus Epiphanes.
Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.) succeeded to the throne, Jason - whose name betrays a leaning towards Antio- Hellenism - the brother of Onias, offered the king chus IV.
More, he identified himself - Epiphanes, God Manifest - with Zeus, when he magnified himself above all other gods (Dan.
Like Antiochus Epiphanes, who also had spent his youth as a hostage in Rome, he was inclined to listen to the Hellenizing Jews, whom he found assembled in full force at Antioch, and to support them against Judas, who was now supreme in Judaea.
In attempting to dethrone his brother, Philip Epiphanes, he was defeated by the Arabs and Parthians, was taken prisoner, and kept in confinement in Parthia by King Mithradates until his death in 88 B.C.
After the Macedonian conquest of Syria Hamath was called Epiphania by the Greeks in honour of Antiochus IV., Epiphanes, and in the early Byzantine period it was known by both its Hebrew and its Greek name.
Accordingly some have insisted that the story must have been composed at some period when Jewish dead were left unburied, either in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. v.
About 153 B.C. Alexander Balas, son of Antiochus Epiphanes, contesting the Syrian crown with Demetrius, seized the city, which opened its gates to him.
Epiphanes led to a war with Rome in which the power of the Seleucid Empire was shattered (190 B.C.), Decayofthe Asia Minor lost, and the king compelled to pay a Seleucid heavy contribution to Rome for a long term of years.
Epiphanes (176163) restored once more the Eastern dominion, defeated Artaxias of Armenia (Appian, Syr.
Then follow the surnames Epiphanes the revealed god, Dicaeus the just, Euergetes the benefactor, all of them essentially Greek in their reference, and also regularly borne by all the kings.
Idolatry is plainly incompatible with the law of Moses: so were Greek caps; but the Jews who conformed to Hellenism in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes acquired much that was conserved and utilized in that great attempt to convert the Greek world to Judaism, whose best monument is the works of Philo.
With the approval of Antiochus Epiphanes, the Sadducean section embraced the outward forms of Hellenism, and out of the persecution of the orthodox which followed was born the hope of a future life which was in the circumstances the necessary corollary of God's righteousness and was discovered to be latent in Scripture.
Epiphanes (2 Macc. v.
CLEOPATRA, the regular name of the queens of Egypt in the Ptolemaic dynasty after Cleopatra, daughter of the Seleucid Antiochus the Great, wife of Ptolemy V., Epiphanes.
It is quite apparent that the predictions in the Book of Daniel centre on the period of Antiochus Epiphanes (175-164 B.C.), when that Syrian prince was endeavouring to suppress the worship of Yarweh and substitute for it the Greek religion.
It is now generally recognized that the king symbolized by the Little Horn, of whom it is said that he shall come of one of four kingdoms which shall be formed from the Greek empire after the death of its first king (Alexander), can be none other than Antiochus Epiphanes, and in like manner the references in ix.
- xii., relating to future events, become inaccurate as soon as the author finishes the section describing the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes.
The Book of Daniel loses none of its beauty and force because we are bound, in the light of modern criticism, to consider it as a production of the reign of Antiochus Epiphanes, nor should conservative Bible-readers lament because the historical accuracy of the work is thus destroyed.
The work, which is certainly not a forgery, but only a consolatory political pamphlet, is just as powerful, viewed according to the author's evident intention, as a consolation to God's people in their dire distress at the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, as if it were, what an ancient but mistaken tradition had made it, really an accurate account of events which took place at the close of the Babylonian period.'
Epiphanes and heir to the Syrian throne.
Epiphanes reigned 204-181), son of Philopator and Arsinoe, was not more than five years old when he came to the throne, and under a series of regents the kingdom was paralysed.
Antiochus after this concluded peace, giving his own daughter Cleopatra to Epiphanes to wife (193-192).
Epiphanes in manhood was chiefly remarkable as a passionate sportsman; he excelled in athletic exercises and the chase.
Epiphanes invaded Egypt (170) and captured Philometor.
The incense altar in the second temple was removed by Antiochus Epiphanes (r Macc. i.
ASSIDEANS (the Anglicized form, derived through the Greek, of the Hebrew Hasidim, " the pious"), the name of a party or sect which stood out against the Hellenization of the Jews in the 2nd century B.C. After the massacre of those who fled from the forces of Antiochus Epiphanes and would not resist on the sabbath, Mattathias (or Judas) decided to set aside the law and was joined by a company of Assideans, brave men of Israel every one, who offered themselves willingly for the law (1 Macc. ii.
(Epiphanes) and even to the embassy of Popillius Laenas in 168 B.C. when that haughty Roman humiliated the Syrian king by drawing a circle round him with his cane, and daring him to step out of it till he had given him an answer.
It probably dates from about the beginning of the first century B.c .2 As it supplies a detailed and accurate record of the forty years from the accession of Antiochus Epiphanes to the death of Simon (175-135 B.C.), without doubt the most stirring chapter in Jewish history, the book is one of the most precious historical sources we possess.
Epiphanes by the priest Eleazar, the seven brothers and their mother - all of whom chose torture and death rather than apostatize from the faith.
that Seleucus was succeeded by his son Antiochus Epiphanes, iv.
In 181, together with his father, Lycortas and the younger Aratus, he was appointed, in spite of his youth, a member of the embassy which was to visit Ptolemy Epiphanes, king of Egypt, a mission, however, which the sudden death of Ptolemy brought to a premature end (xxv.
Epiphanes with the legend " Antioch on the Callirrhoe " may imply that he rebuilt and renamed the place (so Ed.
EPIPHANES NICATOR (reigned 96-95), Antiochus Xi.
Epiphanes till his death in 164 (see Persis).
sq.), and the recognition that national costume, custom and morality were inseparable underlay the objection to the Greek cap (the7rTavos) introduced among the Jews under Antiochus Epiphanes (2 Macc. iv.
Epiphanes (176-164 B.C.) who tried to suppress Judaism by persecution (see Seleucid Dynasty) .
of the Ptolemies and the Seleucidae, to Antiochus Epiphanes, dwelling in particular on the persecuting measures adopted by Antiochus against the Jews, and promising the tyrant's speedy fall (see e.g.
An appendix contends against Whiston that the book of Daniel was forged in the time of Antiochus Epiphanes (see DEisM).
(Epiphanes), king of Syria (175-164 B.C.), to force Hellenism upon Judaea (see Seleucid Dynasty; Hellenism).
He invaded Cappadocia, and married his daughter to the young king, Ariarathes Epiphanes; bought the succession from the last king of Paphlagonia, and obtained a kind of protectorate over Galatia.
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