In early times the war of the Epigoni was a favourite subject of epic poetry.
His bond to Katie tempered what was otherwise a disaster of epic proportions.
'LIVIUS ANDRONICUS (c. 284-204 B.C.), the founder of Roman epic poetry and drama.
The period we have briefly traversed was immortalized by Dante in an epic which from one point of view might be called the poem of the Guelphs and Ghibellines.
According to the epic legend, Vishtaspa was.
194 B.C.), Latin epic poet and dramatist.
Amongst these may be mentioned Virgil, the epic poet Ponticus, Bassus (probably the iambic poet of the name), and at a later period Ovid.
In its final form, the outcome of an extended and complicated literary process, the Gilgamesh Epic covered twelve tablets, each tablet devoted to one adventure in which the hero plays a direct or indirect part, and the whole covering according to the most plausible estimate about 3000 lines.
A separate stratum in the Gilgamesh epic is formed by the story of Eabani - introduced as the friend of Gilgamesh, who joins him in his adventures.
Between 1283 and 1290, a Bavarian disciple of Wolfram's 2 adopted the story and developed it into an epic poem of nearly 8000 lines, incorporating episodes of Lohengrin's prowess in tournament, his wars with Henry I.
Another still later myth, which occurs in the epic poems, makes Brahma be born from a lotus which grew out of the navel of the god Vishnu whilst floating on the primordial waters.
Like the Odyssey, Gudrun is an epic of the sea, a story of adventure; it does not turn solely round the conflict of human passions; nor is it built up round one all-absorbing, all-dominating idea like the Nibelungenlied.
Of a more general character, and combining the merits of the above schools, are the works of the authors who constituted the socalled "Debreczen Class," which boasts the names of the naturalist and philologist John Foldi, compiler of a considerable part of the Debreczeni magyar grammatica; Michael Fazekas, author of Ludas Matyi (Vienna, 1817), an epic poem, in 4 cantos; and Joseph Kovacs.
Herodotus makes him a principal figure in epic dialogues: he warns Darius not to attack the Scythians (iv.
There are many translations of the epic into modern German, the best known being that of K.
This adventure against Khumbaba belongs to the Eabani stratum of the epic, into which Gilgamesh is artificially introduced.
The epic falls into three easily distinguishable parts - the adventures of King Hagen of Ireland, the romance of Hettel, king of the Hegelingen, who woos and wins Hagen's daughter Hilde, and lastly, the more or less parallel story of how Herwig, king of Seeland, wins, in opposition to her father's wishes, Gudrun, the daughter of Hettel and Hilde.
But all along, they believed they would ultimately prevail—and not just win the war, but also do something epic that would change the course of history for all time.
The imitation of Greek comedy, tragedy and epic poetry, which produced great results in the hands of Naevius, Plautus, Ennius and their successors, received its first impulse from him.
The serio-comic epic of Peder Paars, the earliest of the great classics of the Danish language, appeared in 1719.
But he was a profoundly interested observer of affairs at home and among 1 The Assyrian term abubu is used of the great primeval deluge (in the Gilgamesh epic), and also of the local floods common in the country.
The goddess Irnina (a form of Ishtar, q.v.) in revenge kills Eabani, and the balance of the epic is taken up with Gilgamesh's lament for his friend, his wanderings in quest of a remote ancestor, Ut-Napishtim, from whom he hopes to learn how he may escape the fate of Eabani, and his finally learning from his friend of the sad fate in store for all mortals except the favourites of the god, like Ut-Napishtim, to whom immortal life is vouchsafed as a special boon.
The lyric and epic poems of Stephen GyongyOsi, who sang the deeds of Maria Szechy, the heroine of Murany, Murdnyi Venus (Kassa, 1664), are samples rather of a general improvement in the style than of the purity of the language.
Firdousi had been always strongly attracted by the ancient Pahlavi records, and had begun at an early age to turn them into Persian epic verse.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.
In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but he plays a leading part in the Couronnement Looys, describing the formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements.
SALEIUS BASSUS, Roman epic poet, a contemporary of Valerius Flaccus, in the reign of Vespasian.
- The complete edition of the Gilgamesh Epic by Paul Haupt under the title Das babylonische Nimrodepos (Leipzig, 1884-1891), with the 12th tablet in the Beitrage zur Assyriologie, i.
EPIC OF GILGAMESH, the title given to one of the most important literary products of Babylonia, from the name of the chief personage in the series of tales of which it is composed.
That the astro-theological system is also introduced into the epic is clear from the division into twelve tablets, which correspond to the yearly course of the sun, while throughout there are indications that all the adventures of Gilgamesh and Eabani, including those which have an historical background, have been submitted to the influence of this system and projected on to the heavens.
Equally certain is a second observation of a general character that the epic originating as the greater portion of the literature in Assur-bani-pal's collection in Babylonia is a composite product, that is to say, it consists of a number of independent stories or myths originating at different times, and united to form a continuous narrative with Gilgamesh as the central figure.
Abu '1 Kasim Mansur (or Hasan), who took the nom de plume of Firdousi, author of the epic poem the Shahnama, or "Book of Kings," a complete history of Persia in nearly 60,000 verses, was born at Shadab, a suburb of Tus, about the year 329 of the Hegira (941 A.D.), or earlier.
The cycle of Guillaume has more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic MSS.
Nature myths have been entwined with other episodes in the epic and finally the theologians took up the combined stories and made them the medium for illustrating the truth and force of certain doctrines of the Babylonian religion.
The epic of Gudrun is not unworthy to stand beside the greater Nibelungenlied, and it has been aptly compared with it as the Odyssey to the Iliad.
The following description of the band of Cathbu's Druids occurs in the epic tale, the Cattle-spoiling of Cualnge (Cooley): "The attendant raises his eyes towards heaven and observes the clouds and answers the band around him.
Though the Gilgamesh Epic is known to us chiefly from the fragments found in the royal collection of tablets made by Assur-bani-pal, the king of Assyria (668-626 B.C.) 'for his palace at Nineveh, internal evidence points to the high antiquity of at least some portions of it, and the discovery of a fragment of the epic in the older form of the Babylonian script, which can be dated as 2000 B.C., confirms this view.
Why and how he came to be a popular hero in Babylonia cannot with our present material be determined, but the epic indicates that he came as a conqueror and established himself at Erech.
He was not only the oldest native dramatist, but the first author of an epic poem (Bellum Punicum) - which, by combining the representation of actual contemporary history with a mythical background, may be said to have created the Roman type of epic poetry.
Le Couronnement Looys, already mentioned, Le Charroi de Nimes (12th century) in which Guillaume, who had been forgotten in the distribution of fiefs, enumerates his services to the terrified Louis, and Aliscans (r2th century), with the earlier Chanrun, are among the finest of the French epic poems. The figure of Vivien is among the most heroic elaborated by the trouveres, and the giant Rainouart has more than a touch of Rabelaisian humour.
Eabani, whose name signifies "Ea creates," pointing to the tradition which made the god Ea the creator of mankind, is represented in the epic as the type of the primeval man.
He is at home alike in the epic and the lyric, the tragic and the comic poets, and his knowledge of the prose writers is very extensive.
The finest parts of the epic are those in which Gudrun, a prisoner in the Norman castle, refuses to become the wife of her captor, and is condemned to do the most menial work of the household.
The next step in the development of epic narrative was the single lay of an episodic character, sung by a single individual, who was frequently a member of a distinguished family, not merely a professional minstrel.
There can be no doubt that Eabani, who symbolizes primeval man, was a figure originally entirely independent of Gilgamesh, but his story was incorporated into the epic by that natural process to be observed in the national epics of other peoples, which tends to connect the favourite hero with all kinds of tales that for one reason or the other become embedded in the popular mind.
This anachronism arises from the fusion of the epic Guillaume with the champion of Louis IV., and from the fact that he was the military and civil chief of Louis the Pious, who was titular king of Aquitaine under his father from the time when he was three years old.
The inconsistencies between the real and the epic Guillaume are often left standing in the poems. The personages associated with Guillaume in his Spanish wars belong to Provence, and have names common in the south.
The most distinguished of the native scholars was John Cesinge, alias Janus Pannonius, who composed Latin epigrams, panegyrics and epic poems. The best edition of his works was published by Count S.
The most noteworthy follower of Dugonics was Adam Horvath, author of the epic poems Hunniasz (Gyor, 1787) and Rudolphiasz (Vienna, 1817).
GUDRUN (KuDxuN), a Middle High German epic, written probably in the early years of the 13th century, not long after the Nibelungenlied, the influence of which may be traced upon it.
Stop by the snack shack for a hot dog---or two---after an epic surf session.
Being presented to the seven poets who were then engaged on the projected epic, Abu 'I Kasim was admitted to their meetings, and on one occasion improvised a verse, at Mahmud's request, in praise of his favourite Ayaz, with such success that the sultan bestowed upon him the name of Firdousi, saying that he had converted his assemblies into paradise (Firdous).
Several of the already mentioned lyric and epic poets were occasional writers also for the drama.
In epic poetry Josef Kiss's Jehova is the most popular work.
The two narrative poems which succeeded the early lyrics, Jocelyn and the Chute d'un ange, were, according to Lamartine's original plan, parts of a vast "Epic of the Ages," some further fragments of which survive.
The rise of speculative philosophy in Greece was coincident with the beginning of prose composition, and many of the earliest philosophers wrote in the prose of the Ionic dialect; others, however, and especially the writers of the Greek colonies in Italy and Sicily, expounded their systems in continuous poems composed in the epic hexameter.
The original story was probably contained in an old epic poem called Mcvuas 7roeiats, the authorship of which was ascribed to Prodicus of Phocaea.
One of the most famous of these was the Epic of Gilgamesh, in twelve books, composed by a certain Sin-liqi-unninni, and arranged upon an astronomical principle.
According to Suidas, he was the author of an historical drama named Sphinx, of an epic, Anthomeros, in 24 books (both lost) and a Strange History.
In many passages his work gives the impression of being not so much an imitation of the ancient Germanic epic, as a genuine example of it, though concerned with the deeds of other heroes than those of Germanic tradition.
In the Heliand the Saviour and His Apostles are conceived as a king and his faithful warriors, and the use of the traditional epic phrases appears to be not, as with Cynewulf or the author of Andreas, a mere following of accepted models, but the spontaneous mode of expression of one accustomed to sing of heroic themes.
As has been said above, the tone of many portions of the Heliand is that of a man who was no mere imitator of the ancient epic, but who had himself been accustomed to sing of heroic themes.
In the epic of Firdousi Khazar is the representative name for all the northern foes of Persia, and legendary invasions long before the Christian era are vaguely attributed to them.
Hence the battle has been explained as the necklace myth in epic form.
The chief remains of the Spanish heroic epic are some poems on the Cid, on the seven Infantes of Lara, and on Fernán Gonzalez, count of Castile.
Although the Finns are not Sla y s, on topographical grounds mention may here be made of Wainamoinen, the great magician and hero of the Finnish epic Kalevala (" land of heroes ").
P. Ker, Epic and Romance (2nd ed., 1908).
5) and an epic poem on the exploits of Germanicus.
Although the whole conception of the work implies that confusion of the provinces of poetry and history which was perpetuated by later writers, and especially by Lucan and Silius Italicus, yet it was a true instinct of genius to discern in the idea of the national destiny the only possible motive of a Roman epic. The execution of the poem (to judge from the fragments, amounting to about six hundred lines), although rough, unequal and often prosaic, seems to have combined the realistic fidelity and freshness of feeling of a contemporary chronicle with the vivifying and idealizing power of genius.
Considered as a " prose epic," or a vivid utterance of the thought of the period, it has a permanent and unique value.
While the consultation of authorities had been no less thorough, his style had become more free and less self-conscious; and the epic qualities of the theme were such as to call forth in the highest degree his powers of picturesque narration.
It 's an arrogant sound, near epic in construction, and clearly steeped in mythology of early 80's scouse pop.
The guide is broken down into the different chapters in this epic role-playing game, as well as into several segments within each individual chapter.
Even so, it adds a nice feature that may aid you in your epic journey.
His Homer and the Epic appeared in 1893; a new prose translation of The Homeric Hymns in 1899, with essays literary and mythological, in which parallels to the Greek myths are given from the traditions of savage races; and his Homer and his Age in 1906.
VOlundr's sword, Mimung, with which he won this victory, was one of the famous weapons in German epic poetry.
12) were numerous both in prose and in verse: besides the /1XXot, he is said to have written epic poems, tragedies, comedies and satyric dramas.
Foremost among epic poets, though not equally successful as a dramatist, was Mihaly Vorbsmarty (q.v.), who, belonging also to the close of the last period, combines great power of imagination with elegance of language.
The laborious John Garay in his Szent Ldszlo shows considerable ability as an epic poet, but his greatestmerit was rather as a romancist and ballad writer, as shown by the, " Pen Sketches " or Tollrajzok (1845), and his legendary series Arpddok (1847).
Joseph Kiss in 1876 brought out a few lyric and epic poems of considerable merit.
Of the epic fragments, the more important are those in which he attacks the "anthropomorphic and anthropopathic polytheism" of his contemporaries.
Tennyson was already writing copiously - "an epic of 6000 lines" at twelve, a drama in blank verse at fourteen, and so on: these exercises have, very properly, not been printed, but the poet said of them at the close of his life, "It seems to me, I wrote them all in perfect metre."
In 1848, while making a tour in Cornwall, Tennyson met Robert Stephen Hawker of Morwenstow, with whom he seems - but the evidence is uncertain - to have talked about King Arthur, and to have resumed his intention of writing an epic on that theme.
These were fragments of the epic of the fall of King Arthur and the Table Round which Tennyson was so long preparing, and which he can hardly be said to have ever completed, although nearly thirty years later he closed it.
It was not perceived at the time that the four idyls were parts of a great historical or mystical poem, and they were welcomed as four polished studies of typical women: it must be confessed that in this light their even perfection of workmanship appeared to greater advantage than it eventually did in the general texture of the so-called "epic."
The noble poem Lucretius, one of the greatest of Tennyson's versified monographs, appeared in May 1868, and in this year The Holy Grail was at last finished; it was published in 1869, together with three other idyls belonging to the Arthurian epic, and various miscellaneous lyrics, besides Lucretius.
Her work was a prose epic of real life, the life of her hero, Genji.
In 1798 he published a long and worthless so-called epic on the conquest of Mexico.
On the Persian campaigns: the epic of George Pisides (ed.
9-11), and (as we know from the Babylonian epic) the " firmament " or " platform " of the heaven were to appear.
On the whole, the Hebrew statement of the successive stages of creation corresponds so nearly to that in the Babylonian epic that we are bound to assume that one has been influenced by the other.
Among his best known works are: Demiurgos (3 vols., 1852-1854), a "Mysterium," in which he attempted to deal with the problems of human existence, but the work found little favour; Nibelunge, an epic poem in alliterative verse, in two parts, (1) Sigfriedsage (1867-1868; 13th ed.
These had their origin in the same impulse which ultimately found its full gratification in Roman history, Roman epic poetry, and that form of Roman oratory known as laudationes, and in some of the Odes of Horace.
They may have contributed to the formation of the style of comedy which appears at the very outset much more mature than that of serious poetry, tragic or epic. They gave the name and some of the characteristics to that special literary product of the Roman soil, the satura, addressed to readers, not to spectators, which ultimately was developed into pure poetic satire in Lucilius, Horace, Persius and Juvenal, into the prose and verse miscellany of Varro, and into something approaching the prose novel in Petronius.
He was, however, the first to familiarize the Romans with the forms of the Greek drama and the Greek epic, and thus to determine the main lines which Latin literature followed for more than a century afterwards.
Still more important service was rendered by him in his long Saturnian poem on the first Punic war, in which he not only told the story of contemporary events but gave shape to the legend of the settlement of Aeneas in Latium, - the theme ultimately adopted for the great national epic of Rome.
His greatest work, which made the Romans regard him as the father of their literature, was his epic poem, in eighteen books, the Annales, in which the record of the whole career of Rome was unrolled with idealizing enthusiasm and realistic detail.
The idea which inspired Ennius was ultimately realized in both the national epic of Virgil and the national history of Livy.
The fittest metrical vehicle for epic, didactic, and satiric poetry had been discovered, but its movement was as yet rude and inharmonious.
The epic of national life, vividly conceived but rudely executed by Ennius, was perfected in the years that followed the decisive victory at Actium.
And, though he cannot unroll before us the page of heroic action with the power and majesty of Homer, yet by the sympathy with which he realizes the idea of Rome, and by the power with which he has used the details of tradition, of local scenes, of religious usage, to embody it, he has built up in the form of an epic poem the most enduring and the most artistically constructed monument of national grandeur.
He had not only become reconciled to the new order of things, but was moved by his intimate friendship with Maecenas to aid in raising the world to sympathy with the imperial rule through the medium of his lyrical inspiration, as Virgil had through the glory of his epic art.
The national love of works of large compass shows itself in the production of long epic poems, both of the historic and of the imitative Alexandrian type.
The legend of a Dorian invasion appears first in Tyrtaeus, a 7thcentury poet, in the service of Sparta, who brings the Spartan Heracleids to Peloponnese from Erineon in the northern Doris; and the lost Epic of Aegimius, of about the same date, seems to have presupposed the same story.
Charlemagne's wars in Italy, Spain and Saxony formed part of the common epic material, and there are references to his wars against the Sla y s; but especially he remained in the popular mind as the great champion of Christianity against the creed of Mahomet, and even his Norman and Saxon enemies became Saracens in current legend.
Charlemagne was endowed with the good and bad qualities of the epic king, and as in the case of Agamemnon and Arthur, his exploits paled beside those of his chief warriors.
Gradually most of the chansons de geste were attached to the name of Charlemagne, whose poetical history falls into three cycles: - the geste du roi, relating his wars and the personal history of himself and his family; the southern cycle, of which Guillaume de Toulouse is the central figure; and the feudal epic, dealing with the revolts of the barons against the emperor, the rebels being invariably connected by the trouveres with the family of Doon de Mayence.
He seems to have commenced his poetical career by ridiculing and parodying the conventional language of epic and tragic poetry, and to have used the language commonly employed in the social intercourse of educated men.
In these he made those criticisms on the older tragic and epic poets of which Horace and other ancient writers speak.
Epic of Gilgamesh >>
The forms of poetical composition chiefly cultivated by the Alexandrians were epic and lyric, or elegiac. Great epics are wanting; but in their place, as might almost have been expected, are found the historical and the didactic or expository epics.
' A considerable fragment of his epic Hecate has been discovered in the Rainer papyrus.
he distinguished himself by feats of arms which the epic poets were quick to celebrate.
He had a brother Theodore, and an uncle or cousin Panyasis, the epic poet, a personage of so much importance that the tyrant Lygdamis, suspecting him of treasonable projects, put him to death.
He is acquainted with the poems of the epic cycle, the Cypria, the Epigoni, &c. He quotes or otherwise shows familiarity with the writings of Hesiod, Olen, Musaeus, Bacis, Lysistratus, Archilochus of Paros, Alcaeus, Sappho, Solon, Aesop, Aristeas of Proconnesus, Simonides of Ceos, Phrynichus, Aeschylus and Pindar.
Cicero, who frequently quotes from him with great admiration, appears (De optimo genere oratorum, i.) to rank him first among the Roman tragic poets, as Ennius among the epic, and Caecilius among the comic poets.
Although not vigorous enough to excel in the historical epic or in the serious work of the Roman satura, Varro yet possessed in considerable measure the lighter gifts which we admire in Catullus.
His chief poem of the later period was the Argonautae, closely modelled on the epic of Apollonius Rhodius.
Downward the eagle and his burden fell, and in the epic of Gilgamesh we find Etana in the nether world.
The second siege is one of the most famous in Indo-Portuguese history, and is the subject of an epic by Jeronymo Corte Real.
He wrote an epic, Charlemagne, ou l'Eglise delivree (2 vols., 1814), also La Verite sur les Cent _Tours and Memoirs, which were not completed.
The Argonautica is an epic in eight books on the Quest of the Golden Fleece.
From one point of view they shadow out the great epic of the destinies of the human race; again, the universal solar myth claims a share in them; hoary traditions were brought into ex post facto connexion with them; or they served to commemorate simple meteorological and astronomical facts.
10 The wooing of Ishtar by the hero of the epic falls under Virgo, and his encounter with two scorpion men, guardians of the rising and the setting sun, under Scorpio.
QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS, Greek epic poet, probably flourished in the latter part of the 4th century A.D.
His epic in fourteen books, known as Ta µe6' "Oµrjpov or Posthomerica, takes up the tale of Troy at the point where Homer's Iliad breaks off (the death of Hector), and carries it down to the capture of the city by the Greeks.
The former was now mixed with Latin and classical expressions; much of the literature consists of fulsome panegyric, verses written on the marriages and funerals of nobles, with conceits and fantastic ideas, devoid of all taste, drawn from their coats of arms. The poets of this period are, as may be imagined, in most cases mere rhymesters; there are, however, a few whose names are worth recapitulating, such as Waclaw Potocki (c. 1622 - c. 1696), now known to have been the author of the Wojna Chocimska, or "War of Khotin," the same campaign which afterwards formed the subject of the epic of Krasicki.
The epic, which remained in manuscript till 1850, is a genuine representation of Polish life; no picture so faithful appeared till the Pan Tadeusz of Mickiewicz.
Hieronymus Vespasian Kohcowski (1633-1699) was a soldier-poet, who went through the campaigns against the Swedes and Cossacks; he has left several books of lyrics full of vivacity, a Christian epic and a Polish psalmody.
Krasicki wrote an epic on the war of Khotin - the same as had furnished the subject of the poem of Potocki, of which Krasicki in all probability had never heard, and also that of the Dalmatian Gundulich.
Morawski (1783-1861) published some excellent Fables (1800) in the manner of Krasicki, and in 1851 an epic entitled My Grandfather's Farm.
She was the subject of a tragedy by Euripides and an epic by Colluthus.
He also drew up select lists of epic and lyric poets.
Soon afterwards a classified catalogue of dramatists, epic and lyric poets, legislators, philosophers, historians, orators and rhetoricians, and miscellaneous writers, with a brief biography of each, was produced by the scholar and poet Callimachus (fl.
The Alexandrian canon of the Greek classics, which probably had its origin in the lists drawn up by Callimachus, Aristophanes of Byzantium and Aristarchus, included the following authors: Epic poets (5): Homer, Hesiod, Peisander, Panyasis, Antimachus.
The latest name in the above list is that of Polybius, who died about 123 B.C. Apollonius Rhodius, Aratus and Theocritus were subsequently added to the " epic " poets.
In the 12th century England claims at least seven Latin poets, one of these being her only Latin epic poet, Joseph of Exeter (d.
The authors he recommends include " Aesop " and Sallust, the tragedies of Seneca and the epic poets, especially Virgil, whom he interprets in an allegorical sense.
His story was the subject of an old epic and of several tragedies, but none of these has been preserved.
He wrote histories of Greece and of Philip, and an epic on Alexander (fragments in Miller, Scriptores Rerum Alexandri Magni).
Arany sent in his work, and shortly afterwards was awarded the 25-gulden prize (7th of February 1846) by the society, which then advertised another prize for the best Magyar epic poem.
He also attempted to write another epic poem, but the time was not favourable for such an undertaking.
What Petofi had done for lyrical he did for epic poetry.
As a lyric poet Petofi naturally gave expression to present moods and feelings; as an epic poet Arany plunged into the past.
Among his lost works may be mentioned: Aetolica, a prose history of Aetolia; Heteroeumena, a mythological epic, used by Ovid in the Metamorphoses and epitomized by Antoninus Liberalis; Georgica and Melissourgica, of which considerable fragments are preserved, said to have been imitated by Virgil (Quintilian x.
He wrote Caste in Ancient India (1881); Manu's Lawbook (1884); Religions of India (1895); The Great Epic of India (1901); and India Old and New (1901).
CALLIOPE, the muse of epic poetry, so named from the sweetness of her vioce (Gr.
In 1887 La Legende D'Un People Became The Acknowledged Epic Of A Race.
Poetry is the art of producing representations; (I) in words, rhythm and harmony (apyovia, " harmony " in the original sense); (2) of men like ourselves, or better as in tragedy, or worse as in comedy; (3) by means of narrative as in epic, or by action as in the drama.
Comedy is representation of men inferior in being ludicrous: epic is like tragedy a representation of superior men, but by means of narrative and unlimited in time: tragedy is a representation of an action superior and complete, in a day if possible, by means of action, and accomplishing by pity and fear the purgation of such passions (Poetics, 1449 b 24).
In epic poetry Hephaestus is rather a comic figure, and his limping gait provokes "Homeric laughter" among the gods.
These books contain the great national epic of Judaism relating the deliverance of the people from bondage in Egypt, the overthrow of the pursuing Pharaoh and his army, the divinely guided wanderings through the wilderness and the final entry into the promised land.
The French epic came over to England at an early date.
Although the diffusion of epic poetry in England did not actually inspire any new chansons de geste, it developed the taste for this class of literature, and the epic style in which the tales of Horn, of Bovon de Hampton, of Guy of Warwick (still unpublished), of Waldef (still unpublished), and of Fulk Fitz Warine are treated, is certainly partly due to this circumstance.
The interinfluence of French and English literature can be studied in the Breton romances and the romans d'aventure even better than in the epic poetry of the period.
Saxo Poeta and the Quedlinburg chronicle) it was her father whom she revenged; but when the treacherous overthrow of the Burgundians by Attila had become a theme for epic poets, she figured as a Burgundian princess, and her act as done in revenge for her brothers.
Aemilius Macer must be distinguished from the Macer called Iliacus in the Ovidian catalogue of poets, the author of an epic poem on the events preceding the opening of the Iliad.
The Kesar Epic, which has been translated by A.
A long story book, called the Djiung yi (Sgrungs gyi gsungs ?), and regarded as the national epic in Kham, has been partly seen by Desgodins and Baber.
Another Tibetan epic in Khaur, the Gyaldrung, praises Dagyolong, a famous warrior who subdued the savage men of Kham.
In 1761 he announced the discovery of an epic on the subject of Fingal, and in December he published Fingal, an Ancient Epic Poem in Six Books, together with Several Other Poems composed by Ossian, the Son of Fingal, translated from the Gaelic Language, written in the musical measured prose of which he had made use in his earlier volume.
32) states that they were mentioned in Hesiod and in the Epigoni, an epic of the Theban cycle.
Quinet published a prose epic on the subject in 1833, and Eugene Sue, in his best-known work, Le Juif errant (1844), introduces the Wandering Jew in the prologues of its different sections and associates him with the legend of Herodias.
He wrote a number of short love-poems in epic metre, called Daphniaca.
The original Digenes epic is lost, but four poems are extant, in which the different incidents of the legend have been worked up by different hands.
He displayed the heroic, epic value of American history, its unity with the great central stream, and dispelled for ever the extravagant conceptions of a sentimental world just emerging from the visionary philosophy of the 18th century.
2 At the beginning of this year he wrote and published in Paris a letter on the nature and conditions of poetry, chiefly epic, in answer to an appeal to his judgment made in the preface to Sir W.
8), Livy (Epic. 95-97), and the fragments of the Histories of Sallust, whose account seems to have been full and graphic.
His colleagues in the librarianship were Alexander of Aetolia and Lycophron of Chalcis, to whom were allotted the tragic and comic writers respectively, Homer and other epic poets being assigned to Zenodotus.
He is further called an epic poet by Suidas, and three epigrams in the Greek Anthology are assigned to him.
It is immortalized in the Nibelungenlied in the person of "Volker von Alzeie," the warrior who in the last part of the epic plays a part second only to that of Hagen, and who "was called the minstrel (spilman) because he could fiddle."
Murray, Rise of the Greek Epic 0907), chap. ii.; Andrew Lang, Homer and his Age (1906); G.
Beside the other canonical books of the Old Testament, translated in many cases with modifications or additions, it included translations of other Hebrew books (Ecclesiasticus, Judith, &c.), works composed originally in Greek but imitating to some extent the Hebraic style (like Wisdom), works modelled more closely on the Greek literary tradition, either historical, like 2 Maccabees, or philosophical, like the productions of the Alexandrian school, represented for us by Aristobulus and Philo, in which style and thought are almost wholly Greek and the reference to the Old Testament a mere pretext; or Greek poems on Jewish subjects, like the epic of the elder Philo and Ezechiel's tragedy, Exagoge.
It included also a number of forgeries, circulated under the names of famous Greek authors, verses fathered upon Aeschylus or Sophocles, or books like the false Hecataeus, or above all the pretended prophecies of ancient Sibyls in epic verse.
It has already been noticed how vehement and abrupt they are where they ought to be characterized by epic repose.
They are written in the Doric dialect, with epic licences; the metre is dactylico-trochaic. Brief as they are, they show us what Longinus meant by calling Stesichorus "most like Homer"; they are full of epic grandeur, and have a stately sublimity that reminds us of Pindar.
1, 62) means by saying that he "sustained the burden of epic poetry with the lyre."
In the last book of his epic poem, in which he seems to have given various details of his personal history, he mentions that he was in his 67th year at the date of its composition.
Till the appearance of Ennius, Roman literature, although it had produced the epic poem of Naevius and some adaptations of Greek tragedy, had been most successful in comedy.
This character of the offended wife was borrowed by later poets from the Greek epic; but it belongs to literature rather than to cult, in which the dignity and power of the goddess is naturally more emphasized.
The five mathnawis, from the Makhzan to the Haft Paikar, form Nizami's so-called "Quintuple" (Khamsa) or "Five Treasures" (Panj Ganj), and have been taken as pattern by all the later epic poets in the Persian, Turkish, Chaghatai and Hindustani languages.
It was Schiller, too, who induced him to undertake those studies on the nature of epic and dramatic poetry which resulted in the epic of Hermann and Dorothea and the fragment of the Achilleis; without the friendship there would have been no Xenien and no ballads, and it was his younger friend's encouragement which induced Goethe to betake himself once more to the "misty path" of Faust, and bring the first part of that drama to a conclusion.
He is a great figure in Servian poetry, and his deeds are also told in the epic poems of the Rumanians and the Bulgarians.
A collection of oracles, a theogony, an epic poem on the Argonautic expedition, prose works on purifications and sacrifices, and a cosmogony, were attributed to him.
Christian era with the events detailed in the great epic of the Mahabharata; but by the sober historian these can only be regarded as legends.
The destruction of Worms and the Burgundian kingdom by the Huns in 436 was the subject of heroic legends afterwards incorporated in the Nibelungenlied (q.v.) and the Rosengarten (an epic probably of the late 13th century).
Though essentially a soldier, he took considerable interest in literature, wrote epic poems, tragedies and annals, and translated plays of Sophocles.
A fragment of one such version belongs to the period of the First Dynasty of Babylon, 2 and part of a still earlier Semitic version of another portion of the Gilgamesh Epic has also been recovered.
The epic of Beowulf, the most precious relic of Old English, and, indeed, of all early Germanic literature, has come down to us in a single MS., written about A.D.
However detrimental these redundancies may be to the poetic beauty of the epic, they add enormously to its interest for students of Germanic history or legend.
The criticism of the Old English epic has therefore for nearly a century been justly regarded as indispensable to the investigation of Germanic antiquities.
If Beowulf, the champion of the Gautar, had already become a theme of epic song, the resemblance of name might easily suggest the idea of enriching history by adding to it the achievements of Beaw.
On the one hand, it is possible that the English epic, which unquestionably derived its historical elements from Scandinavian song, may be indebted to the same source for its general plan, including the blending of history and myth.
The conjecture that most naturally presents itself to those who have made no special study of the question, is that an English epic treating of the deeds of a Scandinavian hero on Scandinavian ground must have been composed in the days of Norse or Danish dominion in England.
Of course an entire epic could not be recited on a single occasion; nor can we suppose that it would be thought out from beginning to end before any part of it was presented to an audience.
The epic of Beowulf was not the only one that was reduced to writing: a fragment of the song about Finn, king of the Frisians, still survives, and possibly several other heroic poems were written down about the same time.
If P is in the circumference of bbb, that path becomes an epic ycloid.
HOMER' ("Oj,cnpos), the great epic poet of Greece.
Many of the works once attributed to him are lost; those which remain are the two great epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, thirty-three Hymns, a mock epic (the Battle of the Frogs and Mice), and some pieces of a few lines each (the so-called Epigrams).
The recitation of epic poetry was called in historical times "rhapsody."
In the Iliad even the epic " singer " is not met with.
Nor is it necessary to suppose that epic poetry, at the time to which the picture in the Odyssey belongs, was confined to the one type represented.
The highly theatrical manner of recitation which was fostered by the spirit of competition, and by the example of the stage, cannot have done justice to the even movement of the epic style.
We can only suppose that the lyre in the hands of the epic poet or reciter was in reality a piece of convention, a " survival " from the stage in which narrative poetry had a lyrical character.
The analogy of the French epic, the Chanson de Roland, favours the belief that there was some nucleus of fact.
The Epic of Homer was doubtless formed originally from a spoken variety of Greek, but became literary and conventional with time.
The use of that dialect (instead of Aeolic) by the Boeotian poet Hesiod, in a kind of poetry which was not of the Homeric type, tends to the conclusion that the literary ascendancy of the epic dialect was anterior to the Iliad and Odyssey, and independent of the influence exercised by these poems.
If the same cannot be said of the ancient epic poems, that is because of the extreme scantiness of the existing fragments.
Much, however, is to be gathered from the arguments of the Trojan part of the Epic Cycle (preserved in the Codex Venetus of the Iliad, a full discussion of which will be found in the Journal of Hellenic Studies, 1884, pp. 1-40).
The next writers on Homer of the " grammatical " type were Stesimbrotus of Thasos (contemporary with Cimon) and Antimachus of Colophon, himself an epic poet of mark.
They must therefore have been, as Bentley had said, " a sequel of songs and rhapsodies," " loose songs not collected together in the form of an epic poem till about 50o years after."
These epics had meanwhile been made the subject of a work which for exhaustive learning and delicacy of artistic perception has few rivals in the history of philology, the Epic Cycle of F.
Wolf had argued that if the cyclic writers had known the Iliad and Odyssey which we possess, they would have imitated the unity of structure which distinguishes these two poems. The result of Welcker's labours was to show that the Homeric poems had influenced both the form and the substance of epic poetry.
Such is the " action " (7rpa cs) which in Aristotle's opinion showed the superiority of Homer to all later epic poets.
Consequently the type of epic poem which would be produced by an aggregation of shorter lays is not the type which we have in the Iliad.
Rather the Iliad is itself a single lay which has grown with the growth of poetical art to the dimensions of an epic.
Rapidity or ease of movement, plainness of expression and plainness of thought, these are not the distinguishing qualities of the great epic poets - Virgil, Dante, Milton.
It is his noble and powerful style, sustained through every change of idea and subject, that finally separates Homer from all forms of " ballad-poetry " and " popular epic."
But between these lays and Homer we must place the cultivation of epic poetry as an art.2 The pre-Homeric lays doubtless furnished the elements of such a poetry - the alphabet, so to speak, of the art; but they must have been refined and transmuted before they formed poems like the Iliad and Odyssey.
The development of epic poetry (properly so called) out of the oral songs or ballads of a country is a process which in the nature of things can seldom be observed.
Narrative poetry of great interest is found in several countries (such as Spain and Servia), in which it has never attained to the epic stage.
In Scandinavia, in Lithuania, in Russia, according to Gaston Paris (Histoire poetique de Charlemagne, p. 9), the national songs have been arrested in a form which may be called intermediate between contemporary poetry and the epic. The true epics are those of India, Persia, Greece, Germany, Britain and France.
They are epic in character, and were recited by professional jongleurs (who may be compared to the aouSoi of Homer).
" Our first epic poets," he says, " did not actually and materially patch together pre-existent cantilenes.
In fact, Brahma, having performed his legitimate part in the mundane evolution by his original creation of the universe, has retired into the background, being, as it were, looked upon as functus officio, like a venerable figure of a former generation, whence in epic poetry he is commonly styled pitamaha, " the grandsire."
The literary documents, both in Sanskrit and Pali, dating from about the time of Buddha onwards - particularly the two epic poems, the Mahabharata and Ramayana - still show us in the main the personnel of the old pantheon; but the character of the gods has changed; they have become anthropomorphized and almost purely mythological figures.
Seeing that the epic poems, as repeated by professional reciters, either in their original Sanskrit text, or in their vernacular versions, as well as dramatic compositions based on them, form to this day the chief source of intellectual enjoyment for most Hindus, the legendary matter contained in these heroic poems, however marvellous and incredible it may appear, still enters largely into the religious convictions of the people."
In the epic poems which may be assumed to have taken their final shape in the early centuries before and after the Christian era, their popular character, so strikingly illustrated by their inclusion in the Brahmanical triad, appears in full force; whilst their cult is likewise attested by the coins and inscriptions of the early centuries of our era.
As regards Vishnu, the epic poems, including the supplement to the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, supply practically the entire framework of legendary matter on which the later Vaishnava creeds are based.
wish-milker), already appearing in the Atharvaveda, and in epic times assigned to Indra, or identified with Surabhi," the fragrant,"the sacred cow of the sage Vasishtha.
Possibly the growth of the legend of Krishna - his being reared at Go-kula (cow-station); his tender relations to the gopis, or cowherdesses, of Vrindavana; his epithets Gopala," the cowherd,"and Govinda," cow-finder,"actually explained as" recoverer of the earth "in the great epic, and the go-loka, or" cow-world,"assigned to him as his heavenly abode - may have some connexion with the sacred character ascribed to the cow from early times.
those of Rama (or Ramachandra) and Krishna, the favourite heroes of epic romance.
And accordingly it is exactly in connexion with these two incarnations of Vishnu, especially that of Krishna, that a new spirit was infused into the religious life of the people by the sentiment of fervent devotion to the deity, as it found expression in certain portions of the epic poems, especially the Bhagavadgita, and in the Bhagavatapurana (as against the more orthodox Vaishnava works of this class such as the Vishnupurana), and was formulated into a regular doctrine of faith in the Sandilya-sutra, and ultimately translated into practice by the Vaishnava reformers.
Dante showed both in his epic poem and in his lyrics that he had not abandoned the sphere of contemporary thought.
Camoens, in the Lusiad, if we may here group Portugal with Spain, was the first modern poet to compose an epic on a purely modern theme, vying with Virgil, but not bending to pedantic rules, and breathing the spirit of the age of heroic adventures and almost fabulous discoveries into his melodious numbers.
It was under these conditions that Spenser gave his romantic epic to the world, a poem which derived its allegory from the middle ages, its decorative richness from the Italian Renaissance, its sweetness, purity, harmony and imaginative splendour from the most poetic nation of the modern world.
BRAN, in Celtic legend, the name of (1) the hero of the Welsh Mabinogi of Branwen, who dies in the attempt to avenge his sister's wrongs; he is the son of Llyr (= the Irish sea-god Ler), identified with the Irish Bran mac Allait, Allait being a synonym of Ler; (2) the son of Febal, known only through the 8th-century Irish epic, The Voyage of Bran (to the world below); (3) the dog of Ossian's Fingal.
It is full of martial spirit, yet makes no use of the phrases of the heathen epic, which Cynewulf and other Christian poets were accustomed to borrow freely, often with little appropriateness.
being a reprint of the epic poem published in 1610 by Villagra, a companion of Of - late in his expedition to New Mexico.
The sudden flash which disclosed to the eyes of Hebal the whole epic of humanity cannot be reproduced in language trammelled by time and space.
Cinna's chief work was a mythological epic poem called Smyrna, the subject of which was the incestuous love of Smyrna (or Myrrha) for her father Cinyras, treated after the manner of the Alexandrian poets.
He was also author of prose Lucubrationes and perhaps of an epic poem on Caesar's Gallic wars (Pragmatia Belli Gallici).
The beautiful little epic of Musaeus has been frequently translated, and is expanded in the Hero and Leander of C. Marlowe and G.
the books of the Pentateuch, and the Babylonian Epic of Creation (a far older example).
" this Hebrew metre may be recognized in the Babylonian epic of Gilgamesh, written at least a thousand years earlier:- Ea-bdini ibri kutdni I Nimru sha Geri, " Eabani, my friend, my little brother !
These, which bear an unmistakable family likeness to those of the great Finnish epic of the Kalevala, were collected as the Kalevi Poeg, and edited by Kreutswald (1857), and translated into German by Reinthal (1857-1859) and Bertram (1861) and by Lowe (190o).
Haquin Spegel (1645-1714), the famous archbishop of Upsala, wrote a long didactic epic in alexandrines, God's Labour and Rest, with an introductory ode to the Deity in rhymed hexameters.
His great epic, Swedish Freedom (1742) was written in alexandrines of far greater smoothness and vigour than had previously been attempted.
His epic Taget Ofver Bait (" The Expedition across the Belt ") (1785) is an imitation, in twelve books, of Voltaire's Henriade, and deals with the prowess of Charles X.
His first publication was the epic of Vladimir the Great (1817); to this succeeded the romantic poem Blanda.
He is described as the patron (if a somewhat ungenerous one) of literature; it was under his auspices that Firdousi collected the ancient myths of Persia and produced the great epic Sha/inama (Book of the Kings).
ghazal or ode (a love-ditty, wine-song or religious hymn), the rubai or quatrain (our epigram, for which the Persians invented a new metre in addition to those adopted from the Arabs), and the mathnawi or double-rhymed poem (the legitimate form for epic and didactic poetry).
First of all, the old popular traditions, so far as they had not yet been exhausted by Firdousi, were ransacked for new epic themes, and a regular cycle of national epopees gathered round the Book of Kings, drawn almost exclusively from the archives of the princes of Sejistan, the family of Firdousis greatest hero, Rustam.
Where some slight historical records of the heroic age were still obtainable poetical imagination seized upon them at once; where no traditions at all were forthcoming fiction pure and simple asserted its right; and thus the national epopee gave way to the epic story, andsubstituting prose for verseto the novel and the fairy tale.
Of this description are the Anbiyanama, or history of the pre-Mahommedan prophets, by IIasanI Shabistarl Ayani (before the 8th century of the Hegira); Ibn 1-Iusams Khawartzama (1427; 830 A.11.), of the deeds of All; Badhils ~Iamla-i-Jjaidari, which was completed by Najaf (1723; 1135 A.H.), or the life of Mahommed and the first four caliphs; Ka~ims Fara~~inama-i-Fa4ima, the book of joy of Fatima, Mahomets daughter (1737; 1150 A.H.)all four in the epic metre of the Shahnama; and the prose stories of ~Iatim Tai, the famous model of liberality and generosity in preIslamitic times; of Am-Zr ~Iamzah, the uncle of Mahomet; and of the Mu~jizat-i-Ms?sa~wi, or the miraculous deeds of Moses, by MuIn-almiskin (died about 1501; 907 A.I-L).
1521; 927 A.H.) with his Timurnama; the stormy epoch of the first Safawid rulers, who succeeded at last in reuniting for some time the various provinces of the old Persian realm into one great monarchy, furnished T~Iasimi (died after 1560; 967 A.H.) with the materials of his Shahnma, a poetical history of Shah IsmaIl and Shah Tahmasp. Another Sha/inama, celebrating Shah Abbas the Great, was written by Kamali of Sabzevar; and even the cruelties of Nadir Shah were duly chronicled in a pompous epic style in Ishratis SM/mama-i- Ndir (i~49; 1162 A.H.).
In India this kind of epic versifica tion has flourished since the beginning of Humayuns reign (1530I556);e.g.
It represents the oldest poetical treatment of the Biblical story of Joseph, which has proved so attractive to the epic poets of Persia, among others to Amak of Bokhara (d.
Five extensive diwans testify to his versatility in all branches of lyric poetry, and nine large inathnawIs to his mastership in the epic line.
Epic poetry >>
121) and pours contempt on the serious epic writing of the day (i.
There is extant a Latin epic poem, consisting of about 1000 hexameters, called Orestes Tragoedia, which has been ascribed to.
a place beside his more illustrious disciple, Epic tetus.
The Lusiads may be called at once the most successful epic cast in the classical mould, and the most national of poems, and the great historical monuments and books of travel of the 16th and 17th centuries are worthy of a nation of explorers who carried the banner of the Quinas to the ends of the earth.
Epic poetry in Portugal developed much later than lyric, but the signal victory of the united Christian hosts over the Moors at the battle of the Salado in 1340 gave occasion to an epic by Alphonso Giraldes of which some fragments remain.
The epic achievements of the Portuguese in that century, the discoveries and the wars in Africa, hardly find an echo, even in the verses of those who had taken part in them.
Camoens (q.v.) is, as Schlegel remarked, an entire literature in himself, and some critics rate him even higher as a lyric than as an epic poet.
His Lusiads, cast in the Virgilian mould, celebrates the combination of faith and patriotism which led to the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese, and though the Epic voyage of Vasco da Gama occasioned its composition and formed the skeleton round which it grew, its true subject is the peito illustre lusitano.
While Mendes Pinto and his book are typically Portuguese of that age, the Historia tragicomaritima, sometimes designated the prose epic of saudade, is equally characteristic of the race of seamen which produced it.
gallery of epic poets is a large one, but most of their productions are little more than rhymed chronicles and have almost passed into oblivion.
The leaders in the movement were Anthero de Quental and Dr Theophilo Braga, the first a student of German philosophy and poetry, the second a disciple of Comte and author of an epic of humanity, Visao dos tempos, whose immense work in the spheres of poetry, criticism and literary history, marred by contradictions, but abounding in life, cannot be judged at present.
i., and Oldest Irish Epic; Ripley, The Races of Europe; Sergi, The Mediterranean Race.
The story of Aeneas, as a sequel to the legend of Troy, formed the subject of several epic romances in the middle ages.
Where possible, he substitutes human for divine intervention, and ignores the idea of the glorification of Rome and Augustus, which dominates the Virgilian epic. On this work were founded the Eneide or Eneit (between i180 and 1190) of Heinrich von Veldeke, written in Flemish and now only extant in a version in the Thuringian dialect, and the Eneydos, written by William Caxton in 1490.
Several ancient epic fragments have also been preserved, such as the Alexandreis and Tandarias a Floribella.
Perhaps the most valuable of his many works is his philosophical epic entitled Kosmicke basne (cosmic poems).
His epic poem entitled Vysehrad, which celebrates the ancient glory of the acropolis of Prague, has great value, and of his many novels Jan Maria Plojhar has had the greatest success.
The neighbouring village of Indarpat preserves the name of Indraprashta, the semi-mythical city founded, according to the Sanscrit epic Mlahabharata, by Yudisthira and his brothers, the five Pandavas.
At the same time they are not treated as mere tales for children, for Livy never forgets the dignity that belongs to them as the prelude to the great epic of Rome, and as consecrated by the faith of generations.
Here he spent his time partly among books, meditating on Roman history, and preparing himself for the Latin epic of Africa.
His eclogues and epistles and the epic of Africa, on which he set such store, exhibit a comparatively limited command of Latin metre.
Among his Latin poems Africa, an epic on Scipio Africanus, takes the first place.
Then came L'Assommoir (1878?), the epic of drink, and the author's fortune was made.
Therefore, although much of the past has been handed down to us in epic, in ballad and in the legends of folk-lore, we must turn from them to what became history in the narrower sense.
a i, "battle"), the "Battle of Frogs and Mice," a comic epic or parody on the Iliad, definitely attributed to Homer by the Romans, but according to Plutarch (De 529 Herodoti Malignitate, 43) the work of Pigres of Halicarnassus, the brother (or son) of Artemisia, queen of Caria and ally of Xerxes.
They wrote in the Ionic dialect, in what was called the unperiodic style, and preserved the poetic character of their epic model.
In 1854 hejresigned his professorship. In the following year he gave to the world the Indian Edda, The Song of Hiawatha, a conscious imitation, both in subject and metre, of the Finnish epic, the Kalevala, with which he had become acquainted during his second visit to Europe.
His mode of treatment is subjective and lyric. No matter what form his works assume, whether the epic, as in Evangeline, The Courtship of Miles Standish and Hiawatha, the dramatic, as in The Spanish Student, The Golden Legend and The Mask of Pandora, or the didactic, as in The Psalm of Life and many of the minor poems; they are all subjective.
130 f oll., a passage belonging to the latest period of epic), as " raging," an epithet that indicates that in those comparatively early times the orgiastic character of his worship was recognized.
Alexander Beldiman describes in a rhymed epic, Eteria (1821), the first battles, between the Greeks and the Turks in Moldavia.
The epic of Vincenzo Cornaro was translated into prose alternating with verse, first under the name of Erotocrit and then slightly changed as Filerot si Antusa.
The lyrical and epic poetry of the time follows somewhat the same lines, but with certain notable differences.
The Delphian poetess Boeo attributed to him the introducion of the cult of Apollo and the invention of the epic metre.
In literature the chief glory of Chios was the school of epic poets called Homeridae, who helped to create a received text of Homer and gave the island the reputation of being the poet's birthplace.
The naval epic of the period is Hakluyts Navigations, re-edited in 12 vols.
After yet another three years' space the author of La Legende des siecles reappeared as the author of Les Miserables, the greatest epic and dramatic work of fiction ever created or conceived: the epic of a soul transfigured and redeemed, purified by heroism and glorified through suffering; the tragedy and the comedy of life at its darkest and its brightest, of humanity at its best and at its worst.
It was undertaken with the simple design of furnishing a preface to his younger son's translation of Shakespeare; a monument of perfect scholarship, of indefatigable devotion, and of literary genius, which eclipses even Urquhart's Rabelais - its only possible competitor; and to which the translator's father prefixed a brief and admirable note of introduction in the year after the publication of the volume which had grown under his hand into the bulk and the magnificence of an epic poem in prose.
225); he speaks also of a personal Pelasgus as father of Lycaon, the culture-hero of Arcadia; and a later epic poet, Asius, describes Pelasgus as the first man, whom the earth threw up that there might be a race of men.
In this process the older Bel was deliberately set aside, and the climax was reached when the conquest of the monster Tiamat, symbolizing the chaos prevailing in primeval days, was ascribed to Marduk instead of, as in the older form of the epic, to Bel.
The epic reciting his wonderful deed in despatching the monster Tiamat and in establishing law and Order in the world in the place of chaos was recited in his temple at Babylon known as E-Saggila, "the lofty house," and there are some reasons for believing that the recital was accompanied by a dramatical representation of the epic.
These travels must have profited him greatly, and we have our share of the advantage; not so much, however, in The Wondrous Tale of Alroy or Tancred, or the "Revolutionary Epic" which he was inspired to write on "the windy plains of Troy," but in the letters he sent home to his sister.
The epic, begun in great hope and confidence, was ended in less, though its author was to the last unwilling that it should be forgotten.
But there is no trace of Artemis as such in the epic period, and the Homeric hymn knows nothing of her identification with Selene.
Carlyle's famous work, published in 1837, is more of a prose epic than a history, omitting all detail which would not heighten the imaginative effect and tinged by all the favourite ideas of the author.
Iceland has always borne a high renown for song, but has never produced a poet of the highest order, the qualities which in other lands were most sought for and admired in poetry being in Iceland lavished on the saga, a prose epic, while Icelandic poetry is to be rated very high for the one quality which its authors have ever aimed at - melody of sound.
In form all these poems belong to two or three classes: - kvioa, an epic " cantilena "; tal, a genealogical poem; drapa, songs of praise, &c., written in modifications of the old Teutonic metre which we know in Beowulf; galdr and lokkr, spell and charm songs in a more lyric measure; and mal, a dialogue poem, and liod, a lay, in elegiac measure suited to the subject.
Of later poets, down to more recent times, perhaps the best was Sigurd of Broadfirth, many of whose prettiest poems were composed in Greenland like those of Jon Biarnisson before him, c. 1750; John Thorlaksson's translation of Milton's great epic into Eddic verse is praiseworthy in intention, but, as may be imagined, falls far short of its aim.
It bears the strongest likeness to the epic in all save its unversified form; in both are found, as fixed essentials, simplicity of plot, chronological order of events, set phrases used even in describing the restless play of emotion or the changeful fortunes of a fight or a storm, while in both the absence of digression, comment or intrusion of the narrator's person is invariably maintained.
The saga has already been shown in two forms, its original epic shape and its later development applied to the lives of Norwegian and Danish kings and earls, as heroic but deeper and broader subjects than before.
On the death of Filippo Maria Visconti, Filelfo, after a short hesitation, transferred his allegiance to Francesco Sforza, the new duke of Milan; and in order to curry favour with this parvenu, he began his ponderous epic, the Sforziad, of which 12,800 lines'were written, but which was never published.
In German legend Ermanaric became the typical cruel tyrant, and references to his crimes abound in German epic and in Anglo-Saxon poetry.
Of prime importance for the earlier period are the stories known collectively as the Ulster cycle, among which the lengthy epic the Thin Bo Cualnge takes first place.
It would seem as if Ptolemy's description of Ireland answered in some measure to the state of affairs which we find obtaining in the older Ulster epic cycle.
No trace of such a state of affairs is to be found in the Ulster epic. In the Tain Bó Cuainge we find Ireland divided into fifths, each ruled over by its own king.
This reform may have helped to foster the cultivation of the native literature, and it is possible that we owe to it the preservation of the Ulster epic. But the Irish were unfortunately incapable of rising above the saga, consisting of a mixture of prose and verse.
Bearing in mind how largely the Finn cycle is modelled on the older Ulster epic, works of originality composed between 1000 and 1600 are with one or two exceptions conspicuously absent.
From the wind as a person the Bhinyas in India (Dalton, p. zoo) claim descent, and in Indian epic tradition the leader of the ape army was the son of the wind.
But it is probable that the local myths of various cities and temples, of the " sacred chapters " which were told by the priests to travellers and in the mysteries to the initiated, were older in form than the epic and national myths.
Familiar examples are the stories of Perseus, Odysseus, Sigurd, the Indian epic stories, the adventures of Ilmarinen and Wainamoinen in the Kalewala, and so forth.
Heracles, Odysseus, Wainamoinen in the Kalewala, are the best-known examples in epic literature.
When they passed away there arosg in their places such writers as the younger Seneca, the epic poet Lucan, the epigrammatist Martial, the literary critic Quintilian, besides a host of lesser names.
His character as sketched in the great epic is of the noblest kind.
He is the central figure of that portion of the epic known as the Bhagwad-gita, where he is represented as horrified at the impending slaughter of a battle and as being comforted by Krishna.
The poem is a rehandling of the great theme of Valmiki, but is in no sense a translation of the Sanskrit epic. The succession of events is of course generally the same, but the treatment is entirely different.
239), almost the only source of information regarding the epic cycle; on the question of authorship, see Christ § 637, and Sandys, p. 379; also D.
He composed odes, elegies, epigrams, dramatic pieces and an unfinished epic, the Theodoriceis.
NIBELUNGENLIED, or DER Nibelunge Not, an heroic epic written in a Middle High German dialect.
The 16th Aventiure, describing this hunt and the murder of Siegfried, is perhaps the most powerful scene in all medieval epic. To heighten the effect of the tragic climax the poet begins with a description of the hunting, and describes the high spirits of Siegfried, who captures a wild boar, rides back with it to camp, and there lets it loose to the great discomfiture of the cooks.
I knew something epic happened the first time it occurred.
Bill must survive against the elements in an epic adventure behind enemy lines.
The violence is thrown in more liberally, much like in Takashi Miike's later gangster epic agitator.
Traditionally ascribed to Vyasa, it is the longest literary epic poem in the world.
The Nine Sisters and the axis Mundi New ideas on the axis mundi in northern epic tales by Alby Stone.
bards of the time could recite, or chant, long epic poems.
As armies clash in epic battles, the actions of a handful of bold heroes can turn the tide of war.
The choice of EPIC operation mode depends primarily on the target's X-ray brightness.
chorale at the end of what is intended to be an epic work for harpsichord?
But why an organ chorale at the end of what is intended to be an epic work for harpsichord?
This 256-page hardback book takes the Players further along the road to the epic climax of the series.
From its famously commanding opening to its adrenalin-pumping conclusion, there's no doubting the epic status of this great romantic concerto.
cotton-picking fingers and moonshine whiskey was evoked in the final rockinÃ¢ dueling guitar epic with EWBÃ¢s passionate vocal.
Epic battlefield moments including D-day, the Russian charge at Stalingrad and the battle for Berlin.
embarks on an epic adventure to return to normality.
embark upon an epic adventure that will take them on a journey spanning 500 years.
epic written all over it, the choice is yours.
epic in both scope and in the themes that they explored.
epic in scale, they range from Mozart to MoliÃ¨re.
In this wonderfully sprawling epic again and again he manages to bring a scene, a person, a conversation dramatically to life.
sweeping historical epic set in England, Scotland and France.
Prime among these is Meyers ' mistaking quality for quantity: crime or western epic, yes; romantic comedy epic, no.
The song is structured with tranquil quiet verses and an upbeat chorus that combine to make a very Genesis like mini epic.
epic tale that favors the bizarre.
epic journey to becoming the Perfect Agent finally touches down on Xbox 360.
epic pn sensitivity limits for a point source with an = 0.7 power law spectrum, for different energy bands, see Table 5.
NANCY; You're a scary being in a mask from a sci-fi epic during a major war.
This is a superb " prog epic " with its changes of mood and pace.
I first began to write as a teenager, when I first had the idea for a sprawling science fiction and fantasy epic.
The centerpiece of the record is the 9 minute epic ' Temples of the Sea ' .
An epic fantasy can range up to 300,000 words or more.
The adventures he encountered would justify several epic movies He had many close encounters with death but remained fearless.
Nor did they; not one papyrus fragment from a cyclic epic poem survives.
gangster epic Agitator.
In 2000 Joaquin appeared in the Roman epic gladiator opposite Russell Crowe.
goblin detector, the scene is set for an epic shadow between our heroes and the insidious beasts.
The epic grandeur of Amplifier comes to an end tho, and we get Open Hand.
Alerted to a new danger by the murder of a fellow immortal, Sam begins an epic quest to find the mysterious Pandora Keys.
Thankfully The Cadets have oodles of get-up-and-go, guitars, a kitbag full of epic indie tunes and youthful exuberance on their side.
It is a gripping epic, set in a wonderfully intriguing world (or rather worlds ).
Now you must embark on an epic journey to save your king and country and lift the shadow of the evil jester 's curse!
The first mention of this epic journey appears in the Gospel of St. Matthew where he tells of The Magi bearing gifts.
They read excerpts from the annals of the Assyrian kings, the Laws of Hammurapi and the Epic of Gilgamesh.
The action and charm of the story is the epic battle between Santiago and a giant marlin and his rigorous journey back home.
This is the subject of Tolkien's epic masterpiece Lord of the Rings.
minuet In hell is an epic production, which is without doubt one of the best that Big Finish have produced.
moonshine whiskey was evoked in the final rockinÃ¢ dueling guitar epic with EWBÃ¢s passionate vocal.
In which case, the second book in this very occasional series is Homer's epic poem of the Trojan War, The Iliad.
The epic of Gilgamesh - the oldest surviving epic poem and greatest paean to friendship in literature containing the pre-biblical sources of The Flood.
Series of EPIC MOS model spectra of a Mekal thermal plasma with a temperature of 0.1 keV.
Harold is in some respects like an epic poem.
Darwin credited her with inventing a poetic form, the epic elegy and she is clearly a major contributor to romantic poetry.
John Dryden (1631-1700) also wrote epic poetry, on classical and biblical subjects.
A production powerhouse Epic is a production powerhouse, creating more e-learning content than any other organization in the UK.
prog epic is found within the almost six minutes of ' Parade ' .
In this darkly funny play the intellectual rivalries in a small university town take on epic proportions.
purgatory of suicides, a political epic in ten books, written in Spenserian stanzas.
John Walsh goes on an epic quest Looking for the perfect picnic white, or a fresh summer rosÃ©?
Lesley Blanch vividly recounts the epic story of their heroic and bloody struggle and the life of a man still legendary in the Caucasus.
red carpet for a new epic film.
It's rather like The Red Shoes transformed into an epic saga.
But despite such a rich canvas of intertextuality, this novel stubbornly refuses to be anything but an old-fashioned yarn on an epic scale.
sci-fi epic during a major war.
If you like epic sci-fi with aliens, big concepts and bigger weapons, then you'll like both of these books.
The game keeps the epic scope of Age of Empires ' game play while evolving the combat and economic features.
Epic's Donald Clark is taking part in a debate with fellow scot James Naughtie, presenter of BBC Radio 4's Today program.
Epic similes are more extended similes, which might involve multiple points of correspondence between tenor and vehicle.
An epic, extravagant - and perhaps vaguely sinister - turning point in the genre.
Lush The original Star Wars had ground breaking special effects, but these were merely a backdrop to an epic space opera.
The people of this village once endured an epic struggle.
An epic fantasy swordplay adventure from the filmmaking tradition that brought you Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon.
Back to top 5. What is the ticker symbol or EPIC code?
Troy is a movie written by David Benioff, and loosely based on Homer's epic tale.
Try the EPIC too - they have lost of stuff including free swimming sessions tel.
The RGAs are mounted in the light path of the two X-ray telescopes with EPIC MOS cameras in their primary focus.
tepid response received by the last title, UT 2003, Epic had to rethink their approach when developing UT 2004.
After the rather tepid response received by the last title, UT 2003, Epic had to rethink their approach when developing UT 2004.
timesaving benefits, EPIC said.
It is also what makes this final installment of Peter Jackson's epic trilogy a landmark in cinematic achievement.
unfolding drama, epic quality, individual character on display.
But itÃ¢s just as impressive as ever, constructed around atmospheric guitar riffs, haunting vocals and a generally epic style.
His nephew, James Clark Ross, was with him on this epic voyage.
wanderings of Odysseus in the Homeric epic.
zombie trilogy... the Dead was nothing short of epic.
Ilacav, epic Ilaeatwv), in Homer (Il.
The epic of Lohengrin is put by the anonymous writer into the mouth of Wolfram, who is made to relate it during the Contest of the Singers at the Wartburg in proof of his superiority in knowledge of sacred things over Klingsor the magician, and the poem is thus linked on to German 'i.e.
His "epic canto" on the destruction of his ships by Cortes (Las Naves de Cortes destruidas) failed to win a prize offered by the Academy in 1777, and was published posthumously (1785).
He was the author of a collection of epigrams called Cicuta (" hemlock") 1 from their bitter sarcasm, and of a beautiful epitaph on the death of Tibullus; of elegiac poems, probably of an erotic character; of an epic poem Amazonis; and of a prose work on wit (De urbanitate).
The Shahnama of Firdousi (see also Persia: Literature) is perhaps the only example of a poem produced by a single author which at once took its place as the national epic of the people.
EABANI, the name of the friend of Gilgamesh, the hero in the Babylonian epic (see GILGAMESH, EPIC OF).
In so far we have embodied in the first part of the epic dim recollections of actual events, but we soon leave the solid ground of fact and find ourselves soaring to the heights of genuine myth.
Gilgamesh becomes a god, and in certain portions of the epic clearly plays the part of the sungod of the spring-time, taking the place apparently of Tammuz or Adonis, the youthful sun-god, though the story shows traits that differentiate it from the ordinary Tammuz myths.
With this description, in which care of the dead is inculcated as the only means of making their existence in Aralu, where the dead are gathered, bearable, the epic, so far as we have it, closes.
Probably his latest composition was the epitaph already referred to, written like the epic in Saturnian verse "Immortales mortales si foret fas Here, Flerent divae Camenae Naevium poetam; Itaque postquam est Orci traditus thesauro Obliti sunt Romai loquier lingua Latina."
An historical poem of a somewhat philosophical nature was produced in 1814 by Andreas Horvath under the title of Zircz emlekezete (Reminiscence of Zircz); but his Arpdd, in 12 books, finished in 1830, and published at Pest in the following year, is a great national epic. Among other poets of this period were Alois Szentmiklossy, George Gaal, Emil Buczy, Joseph SzÃ¡sz, Ladislaus Toth and Joseph Katona, author of the much-extolled historical drama Bank Ban.'
Among lyricists were: Coloman Toth, who is also the author of several epic and dramatic pieces; John Vajda, whose Kisebb Koltemenyek (Minor Poems), published by the Kisfaludy society in 1872, are partly written in the mode of Heine, and are of a pleasing but melancholy character; Joseph Levay, known also as the translator of Shakespeare's Titus Andronicus, Taming of the Shrew and Henry I V.; and Paul Gyulai, who, not only as a faultless lyric and epic poet, but as an impartial critical writer, is highly esteemed, and whose Romhdnyi is justly prized as one of the best Magyar poems that has appeared in modern times.
The feeble school of descriptive writers, epic poets of the extreme decadence, fabulists and miscellaneous verse-makers, which the Empire had nourished could satisfy no one.
In accordance with this model he has given to his own poem the form of a personal address, he has developed his argument systematically, and has applied the sustained impetus of epic poetry to the treatment of some of the driest and abstrusest topics.
(See Gilgamesh, Epic oF.) Another epic was that of the Creation, the object of which was to glorify Bel-Merodach by