EPHTHALITES, or White Huns.
Our earliest information about the Ephthalites comes from the Chinese chronicles, in which it is stated that they were originally a tribe of the great Yue-Chi, living to the north of the Great Wall, and in subjection to the Jwen-Jwen, as were also the Turks at one time.
(Kobad), being driven out of Persia, took refuge with the Ephthalites, and recovered his throne with the assistance of their khan, whose daughter he had married, but subsequently he engaged in prolonged hostilities with them.
The Persians were not quit of the Ephthalites until 557 when Chosroes Anushirwan destroyed their power with the assistance of the Turks, who now make their first appearance in western Asia.
About a year after this he died (c. 540), and shortly afterwards the Ephthalites collapsed under the attacks of the Turks.
Greek writers give a more flattering account of the Ephthalites, which may perhaps be due to the fact that they were useful to the East Roman empire as enemies of Persia and also not dangerously near.
For the possible connexion between the Ephthalites and the European Huns see Huns.
This may, however, be due to the fact that their contact with civilization was so short; the Yue-Chi and Turks had had some commerce with more advanced races before they played any part in political history, but the Ephthalites appear as raw barbarians, and were annihilated as a nation in little more than a hundred years.
Franke, Beitrage aus chinesischen Quellen zur Kenntnis der Tiirkvolker and Skythen (1904); Ujfalvy, Memoire sur les Huns Blancs (1898); Drouin, Memoire sur les Huns Ephthalites (1895); and various articles by Vincent Smith, Specht, Drouin, and E.
He rebelled against his brother Homizd III., and in 459 defeated and killed him with the help of the Ephthalites, or White Huns, who had invaded Bactria.
With the Romans he maintained peace, but he tried to keep down the Ephthalites, who began to conquer eastern Iran.
The Ephthalites invaded and plundered Persia for two years, till at last a noble Persian from the old family of Karen, Zarmihr (or Sokhra), restored some degree of order.
They appear in European history as White Huns (Ephthalites), White Ugrians (Sar-ogours), White Bulgarians.
They beat down all opposition, wrested even Bosporus in the Crimea from the empire, and by the annihilation of the Ephthalites completed the ruin of the White Race of the plains from the Oxus to the Don.
In the 5th century a new people came from the east, the Ephthalites or "white Huns," who subjected Bactria (about 450); and they were followed by the Turks, who first appear in history about A.D.
In 571 the Haiathalah (Ephthalites, q.v.) of the Oxus, who are supposed to be descendants of the Yue-chi, were shattered by an invasion of the Turkish khakan; and in the following century the Chinese pilgrim Hsuen Tsang found the former empire of the Haiathalah broken up into a great number of small states, all acknowledging the supremacy of the Turkish khakan, and several having names identical with those which still exist.
The later Guptas were overwhelmed (c. 470) by the White Huns, or Ephthalites, who after breaking the power of Persia and assailing the Kushan kingdom of Kabul, had poured into India, conquered Sind, and established their rule as far south as the Nerbudda.
(3) The White Huns (AEwcoi Oiivvoc or Ephthalites), who troubled the Persian empire from about 420 to 557 and were known to the Byzantines.
Neither can it be proved that the Huns and Magyars belonged either physically or linguistically to the same section as the lianas and Ephthalites.
They appear in Europe towards the end of the 4th century and the Ephthalites and Hunas in western Asia about fifty years later.
The language of the Magyars is FinnoUgric and most nearly allied to the speech of the Ostiaks now found on the east of the Ural, but we have no warrant for assuming that the Huns, and still less that the Ephthalites and Hunas, spoke the same language.
For the literature on the White Huns see EPHTHALITES.
They comprise the Sakas, the Yue-Chi or Kushans and the Ephthalites or Hunas.
Here a new foe soon arose in the shape of the Ephthalites (Haitab), also known as the White Runs, a barbaric tribe The Bphtha- which shortly after A.D.
As the external and internal distress still continued he was dethroned and imprisoned, but took refuge among the Ephthalites and was restored in 499 by their assistancelike Kavadhi so many Arsacids by the arms of the Dahae and Sacae.
Chosroes concluded an alliance with them against the Ephthalites and so conquered Bactria south of the Oxus, with its capital Balkh.
Passing by the present Tashkend, and by Samarkand, then inhabited by fire worshippers, he reached the basin of the Upper Oxus, which had recently been the seat of the powerful dominion of the Haiathelah, Ephthalites or White Huns, known in earlier days to the Greeks as Tochari, and to Honan Tsang (by the same name) as Tuholo or Tukhara.
The history of the century and a half that follows is very obscure; short-lived Saka dynasties succeeded one another until, about 388, the country was conquered by the Guptas of Magadha, who kept a precarious tenure of it till about 470, when their empire was destroyed by the White Huns, or Ephthalites, who, after breaking the power of Persia and assailing the Kushan kingdom of Kabul, poured into India, conquered Sind, and established their dominion as far south as the Nerbudda.
By the end of the 5th century the western parts fell under the sway of the "White Huns" (Ephthalites, or Tochari), while the eastern parts were under Tangut (Thygun) dominion.
The accounts of the Ephthalites, especially those of the Indian Hunas, dwell on their ferocity and cruelty.
When Skandagupta came to the throne in 455, India was threatened with an irruption of the White Huns, on whom he inflicted a severe defeat, thus saving his kingdom for a time; but about 470 the White Huns (see Ephthalites) returned to the attack, and the empire was gradually destroyed by their repeated inroads.
320) and founded the famous Gupta empire (see Gupta), which survived till it was overthrown by the Ephthalites, or White Huns, at the close of the 5th century.
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