The former, however, is based upon the account of victories by the Ephraimite Joshua over confederations of petty kings to the south and north of central Palestine, apparently the specific traditions of the people of Ephraim describing from their standpoint the entire conquest of Palestine.
Williamstown village is best known as the seat of Williams College, chartered in 1793 as a successor to a "free school" in Williamstown (chartered in 1785 and endowed by a bequest of Colonel Ephraim Williams).
Two of the lots were immediately purchased by Captain Ephraim Williams (1715-1755), who was at the time commander of Fort Massachusetts in the vicinity; several other lots were bought by soldiers under him; and in 1 753 the proprietors organized a township government.
the Old Gate and the Gate of Ephraim, 400 cubits from the corner.'
Gotthold Ephraim Lessing >>
Naphtali and Dan are "brothers," perhaps partly on geographical grounds, but Dan also had a seat in the south (south-west of Ephraim), and the name of the "mother" Bilhah is apparently connected with Bilhan, an Edomite and also a Benjamite name (Gen.
Eli, the head priest at Shiloh in the early youth of Samuel, held an important position in what was then the chief religious and political centre of Ephraim; and the office passed by inheritance to the sons in ordinary cases.
In the younger contemporary prophet of Ephraim, Hosea, the stress is laid on the relation of love (hesed) between Yahweh, the divine husband, and Israel, the faithless spouse.
Though Yahweh's chastisements on Ephraim and Judah would continue to fall till scarcely a remnant was left (Isa.
(a) The first, that of the two rival kingdoms: Israel (Ephraim or Samaria) in the northern half of Palestine, and Judah in the south.
4 The Samaritans, for their part, claimed the traditions of their land and called themselves the posterity of Joseph, Ephraim and Manasseh.
and Omri (which period the present closely resembles), and it was only after perpetrating nameless cruelties at Tappuah l on the border of Ephraim and Mannasseh that the counter revolt of Shallum, son of Jabesh (perhaps a Gileadite), was suppressed.
Now it is true that those who take their view of the history from Chronicles, where the kingdom of Ephraim is always treated as a sect outside the true religion, can reconcile this fact with an early date.
It was the birthplace of Colonel Ephraim Elmer Ellsworth (1837-1861), the first Federal officer to lose his life in the Civil War.
Ephraim's Quotations from the Gospel (Cambridge, 1901); Evangelion da-mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904), and the above cited Lecture.
The two most important 4th-century writers - Aphraates and Ephraim - are dealt with in separate articles.
The position and character of Ephraim are very different.
His favourite metre was the pentasyllabic. Cyrillona composed a poem on the invasion of the Huns in 395, 9 and is by some regarded as identical with Ephraim's nephew Abhsamya, who in 403-404 " composed hymns and discourses on the invasion of the Roman empire by the Huns."
8 It is in Ephraim's favourite metre, the heptasyllabic, and all the MSS.
GEZER (the Kazir of Tethmosis [Thothmesj III.'s list of Palestinian cities and the Gazri of the Amarna tablets), a royal Canaanite city on the boundary of Ephraim, in the maritime plain (Josh.
(1) Yahweh's word is accomplished on Syria-Phoenicia and Philistia; and then the Messianic kingdom begins in Zion, and the Israelites detained among the heathen, Judah and Ephraim combined, receive a part in it.
were ascribed to a contemporary of Amos and Hosea, about the middle of the 8th century B.C., because Ephraim is mentioned as well as Judah, and Assyria along with Egypt (x.
From Jerusalem to Mount Ephraim there are two main routes.
12, 13) 4 are a prediction of judgment on the sins of Judah and Ephraim.
R.*) Micah, in the Bible, a man of the hill-country of Ephraim whose history enters into that of the foundation of the Israelite sanctuary at Dan (Judges xvii.
The Bee, or Universal Weekly Pamphlet (1733-1735) of the unfortunate Eustace Budgell, and the Literary Magazine (1735-1736), with which Ephraim Chambers had much to do, were short-lived.
He was the great-grandson of Colonel Ephraim Blaine (1741-1804), who during the War of Independence served in the American army, from 1778 to 1782 as commissary-general of the Northern Department.
EPHRAIM, a tribe of Israel, called after the younger son of Joseph, who in his benediction exalted Ephraim over the elder brother Manasseh (Gen.
21, 4 and Ephraim's proud and ambitious character is indicated in its demands as narrated in Josh.
Northwards, Ephraim lost itself in Manasseh, even if it did not actually include it (Judg.
A careful discussion of the Biblical data referring to Ephraim is given by H.
On the characteristic narratives which appear to have originated in Ephraim (viz.
3, 15 sqq.); conflicts between Ephraim and Judah (2 Chron.
In the divided state of the nation, indeed, this sanctuary was hardly visited from beyond Mt Ephraim; and every man or tribe that cared to provide the necessary apparatus (ephod, teraphim, &c.) and hire a priest might have a temple and oracle of his own at which to consult Jehovah (Judges xvii., xviii.); but there was hardly another sanctuary of equal dignity.
Ephraim's quotations from the Gospel " (Texts and Studies, vii.
Rendel Harris, Fragments of the Commentary of Ephraim the Syrian (London, 1895); F.
To Hosea, at least in his later prophecies, the fate of Judah does not appear separable from that of the northern realm - when Israel and Ephraim fall by their iniquity Judah must fall with them (Hos.
Ephraim Webster, who built a trading-post near the mouth of Onondaga Creek in 1786, was the first white settler.
Among the Joseph-tribes (Ephraim and Manasseh), the most important of Israelite divisions, the traditions of an ancestor who had lived and died in Egypt would be a cherished possession, but although most writers agree that not all the tribes were in Egypt, it is impossible to determine their number with any certainty.
Such was the theory of the kingship in Ephraim as well as in Judah (Deut.
4) expressly associated a similar prediction with the condemnation of the kingship of Ephraim as illegitimate.
A word, however, is necessary as to the Rabbinical doctrine of the Messiah who suffers and dies for Israel, the Messiah son of Joseph or son of Ephraim, who in Jewish theology is distinguished from and subordinate to the victorious son of David.
Aram-Damascus, which means, the Damascus portion of the Aramaic domain; and har-Ephraim, which means, the Ephraim portion of the (Israelitish) highlands - EV "Mount Ephraim."
GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM LESSING (1729-1781), German critic and dramatist, was born at Kamenz in Upper Lusatia (Oberlausitz), Saxony, on the 22nd of January 1729.
Ehud (q.v.) of Benjamin or Ephraim freed Israel from the Moabite oppression.
In October 1818, when he was in his fourteenth year, he was made more than content by being indentured to Ephraim W.
There were teraphim in David's house, and the worship of Yahweh under the image of a calf was the'state religion of the kingdom of Ephraim.
By the inclusion of the Philistines among the oppressors, and of Judah, Benjamin and Ephraim among the oppressed (x.
The older parts are preserved in xix.: the account of the Levite of Mt Ephraim whose concubine from Bethlehem in Judah was outraged, not by the non-Israelite Jebusites of Jerusalem, but by the Benjamites of Gibeah; there are traces of another source in vv.
EPHRAEM SYRUS (Ephraim the Syrian), a saint who lived in Mesopotamia during the first three quarters of the 4th century A.D.
An anonymous life of Ephraim was written not long after his death in 373.
The following is a probable outline of the main facts of Ephraim's life.
2 During his boyhood Ephraim showed a repugnance towards heathen worship, and was eventually driven by his father from the home.
At his hands Ephraim seems to have received baptism at the age of 18 or of 28 (the two recensions differ on this point), and remained at Nisibis till its surrender to the Persians by Jovian in 363.
The surrender of the city in 363 to the Persians resulted in a general exodus of the Christians, and Ephraim left with the rest.
Perhaps, as has been surmised, there may be confusion with another Ephraim.
The statement in his Life that Ephraim miraculously learned Coptic falls to the ground with the narrative of his Egyptian visit: and the story of his suddenly learning to speak Greek through the prayer of St Basil is equally unworthy of credence.
It was primarily as a sacred poet that Ephraim impressed himself on his fellow-countrymen.
is of the simplest, consisting only in the arrangement of the discourse in lines of uniform length - usually heptasyllabic (Ephraim's favourite metre) or pentasyllabic. A more complicated arrangement is found in other poems, such as the Carmina Nisibena: these are made up of strophes, each consisting of lines of different lengths according to a settled scheme, with a recurring refrain.
Lamy has estimated that, in this class of poems, there are as many as 66 different varieties of metres to be found in the works of Ephraim.
According to Ephraim's biographer, his main motive for providing these hymns set to music was his desire to counteract the baneful effects produced by the heretical hymns of Bardaisan and his son Harmonius, which had enjoyed popularity and been sung among the Edessenes for a century and a half.
The subject-matter of Ephraim's poems covers all departments of theology.
It must be confessed that, judged by Western standards, the poems of Ephraim are prolix and wearisome in the extreme, and are distinguished by few striking poetic beauties.
On the other hand, it is fair to remember that the taste of Ephraim's countrymen in poetry was very different from ours.
Of Ephraim as a commentator on Scripture we have only imperfect means of judging.
The Syriac original is lost: but the ancient Armenian version survives, and was published at Venice in 1836 along with Ephraim's commentary on the Pauline epistles (also only extant in Armenian) and some other works.
Although, as Harris points out, it is unlikely that the original text of the Diatessaron had come down unchanged through the two centuries to Ephraim's day, the text on which he comments was in the main unaffected by the revision which produced the Peshitta.
C. Burkitt's 2 careful examination of the quotations from the Gospels in the other works of Ephraim; he shows conclusively that in all the undoubtedly genuine works the quotations are from a pre-Peshitta text.
As a theologian, Ephraim shows himself a stout defender of Nicaean orthodoxy, with no leanings in the direction of either the Nestorian or the Monophysite heresies which arose after his time.
Ephraim's Quotations from the Gospel," in Texts and Studies, vol.
To the modern historian Ephraim's main contribution is in the material supplied by the 72 hymns 3 known as Carmina Nisibena and published by G.
Of the many editions of Ephraim's works a full list is given by Nestle in Realenk.
For modern students the most important are: (I) the great folio edition in 6 volumes (3 of works in Greek and 3 in Syriac), in which the text is throughout accompanied by a Latin version (Rome, 1732-1746); on the unsatisfactory character of this edition (which includes many works that are not Ephraim's) and especially of the Latin version, see Burkitt, Ephraim's Quotations, pp. 4 sqq.; (2) Carmina Nisibena, edited with a Latin translation by G.
Of the two recensions of Ephraim's biography, one was edited in part by J.
The long poem on the history of Joseph, twice edited by Bedjan (Paris, 1887 and 1891) and by him attributed to Ephraim, is more probably the work of Balai.
On entering Palestine it is allotted a portion encompassed by the districts of Ephraim, Dan and Judah.
Its neutral position between Judah and Ephraim gave it an importance which was religious as well as political.
The introduction of the " Concord " grape, first produced here by Ephraim Bull in 1853, is said to have marked the beginning of the profitable commercial cultivation of table grapes in the United States.
Ephraim's Quotations from the Gospel (Cambridge, 1901), p. 57 f.; Evangelion du-Mepharreshe (Cambridge, 1904), ii.
In McDowell Park there is a monument to the memory of Dr Ephraim McDowell (1771-1830), who after 1795 lived in Danville, and is famous for having performed in 1809 the first entirely successful operation for the removal of an ovarian tumour.
1 Generally identified with Ramathaim-Zophim, the city of Elkanah in the hilly district of Ephraim (I Sam.
There is a state commission which promotes the establishment of free libraries and gymnasiums. The Mormons control Brigham Young University (1876) at Provo, Brigham Young College (1878) at Logan, the Latterday Saints University (1887) at Salt Lake City, and academies at Ogden, Ephraim, Castle Dale, Beaver and Vernal.
He then (according to his highly fabulous narrative) visited the territory of Issachar, in the mountains of Media and Persia; he also describes the abodes of Zabulon, on the "other side" of the Paran Mountains, extending to Armenia and the Euphrates; of Reuben, on another side of the same mountains; of Ephraim and Half Manasseh, in Arabia, not far from Mecca; and of Simeon and the other Half of Manasseh, in Chorazin, six months' journey from Jerusalem.
The special prominence given to Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh) in vv.
20-62), and continues with the two Joseph tribes, Ephraim (xvi.
The people are then dismissed, and the book closes in ordinary narrative style with the death of Joshua and his burial in his inheritance at Timnath-serah in Mt Ephraim (cf.
Ephraim and Manasseh).
3-7; and the tribes of Ephraim and Manasseh do not scruple to claim ancestry from Joseph and the daughter of an Egyptian priest at the seat of the worship of the sun-god (xli.
Jacob is otherwise known as Israel and becomes the father of the tribes of Israel; Joseph is the father of Ephraim and Manasseh, and incidents in the life of Judah lead to the birth of Perez and Zerah, Judaean clans.
1 seq., where the birthright (after Reuben was degraded) is explicitly conferred upon Joseph (Ephraim and Manasseh).
are independent of the Exodus; Ephraim's children raid Gath, his daughter founds certain cities, and Manasseh has an Aramaean concubine who becomes the mother of Machir (1 Chron.
and LXX.), he was an Ephraimite who for his ability was placed over the forced levy of Ephraim and Manasseh.
11 In translating from the Greek; also in Ephraim (Duval, Hist.
Far from prophesying the Advent of the Quran, Isaiah is simply referring to the Assyrian takeover of Ephraim.
Jeroboam fortified Shechem in the hill country of Ephraim and lived there.
prophesying the advent of the Quran, Isaiah is simply referring to the Assyrian takeover of Ephraim.
To this early standard of life and practice Ephraim was faithless in the days of the prophet Hosea (see his oracles passim - especially chaps.
The inhabitants of Babylonia and other regions whom the Assyrian kings had settled in Ephraim after 721 B.C. (cf.
The cause of his leaving Amid was probably either the great pestilence which broke out there in 534 or the furious persecution directed against the Monophysites by Ephraim (patriarch of Antioch 529-544) and Abraham (bishop of Am id c. 520-541).
7) and was occupied by the Kohathite Levites in the tribe of Ephraim (xxi.
Thoughout, Ephraim played a distinctive and prominent part; it probably excelled Manasseh in numerical strength, and the name became a synonym for the northern kingdom of Israel.
Ephraim's strength lay in the possession of famous sites: Shechem, with the tomb of the tribal ancestor, also one of the capitals; Shiloh, at one period the home of the ark; TimnathSerah (or Heres), the burial-place of Joshua; and Samaria, whose name was afterwards extended to the whole district (see Samaria) .
For the 3rd, and especially the 4th and following centuries, the writers are much more numerous; for instance, in the East, Origen and his disciples, and later Eusebius of Caesarea, Athanasius, Apollinaris, Basil and the two Gregories, Cyril of Jerusalem, Epiphanius, Chrysostom, Ephraim the Syrian, Cyril of Alexandria, Pseudo-Dionysius; in the West, Novatian, Cyprian, Commodian, Arnobius, Lactantius, Hilary, Ambrose, Rufinus, Jerome, Augustine, Prosper, Leo the Great, Cassian, Vincent of Lerins, Faustus, Gennadius, Ennodius, Avitus, Caesarius, Fulgentius and many others.
5 - i I), he dwelt with his sons in the land of Goshen, and as his death drew near pronounced a formal benediction upon the two sons of Joseph (Manasseh and Ephraim), intentionally exalting the younger.
But with all necessary deductions the biography is valuable as witnessing to the immense reputation for sanctity and for theological acumen which Ephraim had gained in his lifetime, or at least soon after he died.
If the genealogies associated it with Joseph the father of Ephraim and Manasseh, its fortunes were for a time bound up with the northern kingdom (see David).
According to one view (Stade, Wellhausen, Guthe, &c.) only the Joseph tribes were in Egypt, and separate tribal movements (see JuDAH) have been incorporated in the growth of the tradition; the probability that the specific traditions of the Joseph tribes have been excised or subordinated finds support in the manner in which the Judaean P has abridged and confused the tribal lists of Ephraim and Manasseh.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.