from 469); he degrades Ephialtes into a tool of Pericles.
In his home policy Pericles carried out more fully Ephialtes' project of making the Athenian people truly self-governing.
Further, it was a blow to the fair-play of party politics; the defeated party, having no leader, was reduced to desperate measures, such as the assassination of Ephialtes.
By cancelling the political power of the Areopagus and multiplying the functions of the popular law-courts, Ephialtes abolished the last checks upon the sovereignty of the commons.
It was at this time that Cimon, who had striven to maintain a balance between Sparta, the chief military, and Athens, the chief naval power, was successfully attacked by Ephialtes and Pericles.
Otus and Ephialtes, in ancient Greek legend, the twin-sons of Poseidon by Iphimedeia, wife of Aloeus.
Its prestige was seriously undermined by the conduct of individual members, whose corrupt use of power was exposed and punished by Ephialtes, the democratic leader.
Following up this advantage, Ephialtes (462 B.C.), and less prominently Archestratus and Pericles, proposed and carried measures for the transfer of most of its functions to the Council of Five Hundred, the Ecclesia, and the popular courts of law (Arist.
After the surrender of Athens and the appointment of the Thirty, the repeal of the laws of Ephialtes and Archestratus prepared the way for the rehabilitation of the council as guardian of the constitution by the restored democracy (Arist.
Furthermore it is not till 457 that even a Zeugite archon is known, according to the Constitution of Athens (c. 26), which dates the change as five years after the death of Ephialtes and does not connect it with Aristides.
The Aristotelian Constitution of Athens shows conclusively that Pericles was not the leader of this campaign, for it expressly attributes the bulk of the reforms to Ephialtes (ch.
25), and mentions Ephialtes and Archestratus as the authors of the laws which the reactionaries of 404 sought to repeal (ch.
35): moreover, it was Ephialtes, 2 not Pericles, on whom the Conservatives took revenge as the author of their discomfiture.
To Ephialtes likewise we must ascribe the renunciation of the Spartan alliance and the new league with Argos and Thessaly (461).
Though Themistocles soon lost his influence, his party eventually found a new leader in Ephialtes and after the failure of Cimon's foreign policy (see Cimon) triumphed over the conservatives.
Not long after, however, when Ephialtes fell by the dagger, Pericles undoubtedly assumed the leading position in the state.
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