Eocene sentence example

eocene
  • In this valley were laid down, either in Eocene or Oligocene times, a great series of lake beds and thick accumulations of brown coal.
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  • Outer columns of upper molars similar, the hinder ones not flattened; ridges of lower molars oblique or directly transverse, a third ridge to the last molar in the earlier forms. The Lophiodontidae, which date from the Eocene, come very close to Hyracotherium in the horse-line; and it is solely on the authority of American palaeontologists that the division of these early forms into equoids and tapiroids is attempted.
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  • Serpentines, peridotites and diabases are interstratified with the Eocene deposits.
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  • The granite, which is intruded through the Eocene beds, is associated with a pegmatite containing tourmaline and cassiterite.
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  • It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift.
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  • The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.
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  • Starkie Gardner has argued with much plausibility that the Tertiary floras which have been found in the far north must have been of Eocene age.
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  • While the tropics preserve for us what remains of the preTertiary or, at the latest, Eocene vegetation of the earth, which formerly had a much wider extension, the flora of the North Temperate region is often described as the survival of the Miocene.
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  • In Lower Eocene times its flora appears to have been distinctly related to the existing one.
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  • It is no exaggeration to say that the genus, often even the species, can be determined from almost any recent bone, but in the case of Miocene, and still more, of Eocene fossils, we have often to deal with strange families, which either represent an extinct side branch, or which connect several recent groups with each other.
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  • The lower Eocene has furnished a greater number of bird bones.
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  • The upper Eocene has yielded many birds, most of which are at least close forerunners of recent genera, the differentiation into the leading orders and families being already well marked, e.g.
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  • Instead of the age of lower Eocene, as had been stated originally, these beds are not older than mid-Miocene, and not a few of the bones are of a much younger, even latest Tertiary date.
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  • Brontornis, and remind us of the Eocene Gastornis of Europe.
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  • To the Ratitae belong possibly also the imperfectly known Diatryma, Eocene of New Mexico, Gastornis and Dasornis, Eocene of Europe, Genyornis, Pleistocene of Australia.
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  • The Ratitae branched off, probably during the Eocene period, from that still indifferent stock which gave rise to the Tinami+Galli+Gruiformes, when the members of this stock were still in possession of those archaic characters which distinguish Ratitae from Carinatae.
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  • In all probability the western projection of Africa was connected by a land bridge with the opposite land of Brazil as late as the Eocene period of the Tertiary epoch.
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  • The Eocene covers wide tracts from Lithuania to Tsaritsyn, and is represented in the Crimea and Caucasus by thick deposits belonging to the same ocean which left its deposits on the Alps and the Himalayas.
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  • The structure is further complicated by a great thrust-plane which has brought the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous beds upon the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene beds.
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  • The intervening depression, which seems to be bounded on the west by a fault, is filled to a large extent by sandstones and marls of Eocene age.
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  • Marine Tertiary beds occur in Burma; in the Himalayas and in south Tibet there is a nearly complete series of marine deposits from the Carboniferous to the Eocene; in Afghanistan the Mesozoic beds are in part marine and in part fluviatile.
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  • The Eocene sea, however, cannot have been much inferior in extent.
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  • It was after the Eocene period that the main part of the elevation of the Himalayas took place, as is shown by the occurrence of nummulitic limestone at a height of 20,000 ft.
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  • Towards the Caspian, especially between Petrovsk and the river Sulak, the Cretaceous system is well represented, and upon its rocks rest marls, shales, and sandstones of the Eocene period.
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  • Nummulitic limestone (Eocene) overlies the Cretaceous in Philistia, and north of Lebanon Eocene and Miocene deposits cover the greater part of the country.
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  • The typical Phenacodus primaevus, of the Lower or Wasatch Eocene of North America, was a relatively small ungulate, of slight build, with straight limbs each terminating in five complete toes, and walking in the digitigrade fashion of the modern tapir.
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  • In the Puerco, or Lowest Eocene of North America the place of the above species was taken by Euprotogonia puercensis, an animal only half the size of Phenacodus primaevus, with the terminal joints of the limbs intermediate between hoofs and claws, and the first and fifth toes taking their full share in the support of the weight of the body.
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  • As ancestors of the Artiodactyle section of the Ungulata, we may look to forms more or less closely related to the North American Lower Eocene genera Mioclaenus and Pantolestes, respectively typifying the families Mioclaenidae and Pantolestidae.
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  • A third type of Condylarthra from the North American Lower Eocene is represented by the family Meniscotheriidae, including the genera Meniscotherium and Hyracops.
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  • In North America the earliest representative of the group is Systemodon of the Lower Eocene, in which all the upper premolars are quite simple; while the molars are of a type which would readily develop into that of the modern tapirs, both outer columns being conical and of equal size.
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  • Lophiodochoerus apparently represents this stage in the European Lower Eocene; Isectolophus, of the American Middle Eocene, represents a distinct advance, the last upper premolar becoming molar-like, while a second species from the Upper Eocene is still more advanced; the third lobe is, however, retained in the last lower molar.
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  • In America the family is represented by Heptodon, of the Middle Eocene, which differs from the early members of the tapir-stock in having a long gap between the lower canine and first premolar; the dentition is complete, and the upper premolars are simple.
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  • The next stage is Helaletes, also of Middle Eocene age, in which the first lower premolar has disappeared, and the last two upper premolars have become molar-like.
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  • The genus is especially characteristic of the Middle and Upper Eocene, and some of the species attained the size of a rhinoceros.
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  • In the Amynodontidae, represented by the North American Middle Eocene Amynodon and Metamynodon, the premolars may be either 4 or g, making the total number of teeth either 44 or 40.
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  • Although the chain was completed in Palaeozoic times, a second folding took place along its south-east margin at the close of the Eocene period.
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  • The flat summit is formed by a succession of limestones - all deposited in shallow water - from the Eocene (or Oligocene) up to recent deposits in the above-mentioned atoll with islands on its reef.
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  • The whole series was evidently deposited in shallow water on the summit of a submarine volcano standing in its present isolation, and round which the ocean floor has probably altered but a few hundred feet since the Eocene age.
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  • Eocene nummulitic beds occur, but the deposits are mostly of Miocene age.
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  • There is an axial zone of Cretaceous and Lower Eocene, and this is flanked on each side by the Upper Eocene and the Miocene, while the valley of the Irrawaddy is occupied chiefly by the Pliocene.
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  • The Cretaceous beds have not yet been separated from the overlying Eocene, and the identification of the system rests on the discovery of a single Cenomanian ammonite.
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  • The Eocene beds are marine and contain nummulites.
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  • The geological formation of the soil belongs to the Quaternary and Pliocene period in its upper strata, and to the Eocene and Cretaceous in the lower.
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  • Jukes-Browne and Harrison ascribe the Scotland beds to the Eocene or Oligocene period, the Oceanic series to the Miocene, the Bissex Hill marls to the Pliocene, and the coral limestones partly to the Pliocene and partly to the Pleistocene.
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  • Phosphatic deposits are well developed among the Lower Eocene rocks.
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  • The Middle Eocene is characterized by the presence of Ostrea bogharensis and the Upper Eocene by highly fossiliferous sandstones and marls.
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  • These rocks, which include some highly siliceous lavas, form part of the Eocene series that is so conspicuously displayed above Carlingford in Co.
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  • The outbursts began in the later part of the Eocene period, and continued into the Pliocene, outlasting the period of folding.
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  • They are confined to the Eocene period, and occur both in North America and Europe.
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  • The most generalized type is Coryphodon, representing the family Goryphodontidae, from the lower Eocene of Europe and North America, in which there were 44 teeth, and no horn-like excrescences on the long skull, while the femur had a third trochanter.
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  • In the middle Eocene formations of North America occurs the more specialized Uintatherium (or Dinoceras), typifying the family Uintatheriidae, which also contains species sometimes Restored skeleton of Uintatherium (Dinoceras) mirabile.
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  • In the basal Eocene of North America the Amblypoda were represented by extremely primitive, five-toed, small ungulates such as Periptychus and Pantolambda, each of these typifying a family.
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  • Artiodactyla date from the Eocene period, when they appear to have been less numerous than the Perissodactyla, although at the present day they are immeasurably ahead of that group, and form indeed the dominant ungulates.
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  • The family is represented in the Lower, or Wasatch, Eocene by Trigonolestes, in the Middle (Bridger) Eocene by Homacodon (Pantolestes), and in the Upper (Uinta) Eocene by Bunomeryx.
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  • In the Old World a large number of fossil forms are known, of which the earliest is the Egyptian Eocene Geniohyus.
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  • In Ancodon (Hyopotamus) the cusps on the molars are taller, so that the dentition is more decidedly selenodont; the distribution of this genus includes not only Europe, Asia and North Africa, but also Egypt where it occurs in Upper Eocene beds in company with the European genus Rhagatherium, which is nearer Anthracotherium.
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  • The phosphate beds contain Eocene fossils derived from the underlying strata and many fragments of Pleistocene vertebrata such as mastodon, elephant, stag, horse, pig, &c. The phosphate occurs as lumps varying greatly in size, scattered through a sand or clay; they often contain phosphatized Eocene fossils (Mollusca, &c.).
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  • The deposits belong to the Lower Eocene, where it rests unconformably upon the Cretaceous.
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  • Denudation in earliest Eocene times has produced flint gravels above the chalk, and an ancient stream deposit of chalk pebbles occurs at Ballycastle.
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  • In a quiet interval, the Lower Eocene plant-beds of Glenarm and Ballypalady were formed in lakes, where iron-ores also accumulated.
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  • The Eocene beds are nummulitic. There is a lacustrine group which has usually been placed in the Lower Eocene, but the discovery of Anthracotherium magnum in the interbedded lignites proves it to be Oligocene, in part at least.
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  • The Lower Eocene rocks contain the chief phosphatic deposits of Algeria, those of the Tebessa region being the best known.
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  • Certain species of nummulites, which are very common, distinguish the various subdivisions of the Eocene.
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  • It has been discovered that at the beginning of the Eocene the lake of Rilly occupied a vast area east of the present site of Paris; a water-course fell there in cascades, and Munier-Chalinas has reconstructed all the details of that singular locality; plants which loved moist places, such as Marchantia, Asplenium, the covered banks overshadowed by lindens, laurels, magnolias and palms; there also were found the vine and the ivy; mosses (Fontinalis) and Chara sheltered the crayfish (Astacus); insects and even flowers have left their delicate impressions in the travertine which formed the borders of this lake.
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  • Early trained as a comparative anatomist, the discovery of Upper Eocene mammals in the gypsum quarries of Montmartre found him fully prepared (1798), and in 1812 appeared his Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, brilliantly written and constituting the foundation of the modern study of the extinct vertebrates.
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  • To these divisions Lyell gave in 1833, the names Eocene, Miocene and Pliocene.
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  • Especially noteworthy was the discovery of birds with teeth both in Europe (Archaeopteryx) and in North America (Hesperornis), of Eocene stages in the history of the horse, and of the giant dinosauria of the Jurassic and Cretaceous in North America.
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  • This series of feet represents the evolutionary succession from the Eocene Hypohippus (I) to the modern Equus (6) seen in front and in side view.
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  • It is true that a great variety of evidence is afforded by the composition of the rocks, that glaciers have left their traces in glacial scratchings and transported boulders, also that proofs of arid or semiarid conditions are found in the reddish colour of rocks in certain portions of the Palaeozoic, Trias and Eocene; but fossils afford the most precise and conclusive evidence as to the past history of climate, because of the fact that adaptations to temperature have remained constant for millions of years.
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  • Thus the collective fauna of ancient South America mimics the independently evolved collective fauna of North America, the collective fauna of modern Australia mimics the collective fauna of the Lower Eocene of North America.
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  • As instances of such combinations, some of the (probably herbivorous) Eocene monkeys with arboreal limbs have teeth so difficult to distinguish from those of the herbivorous ground-living Eocene horses with cursorial limbs that at first in France and also in America they were both classed with the hoofed animals.
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  • The eruptions are said to have begun with the ejection of syenites, diorites and diabases, which probably took place at the close of the Cretaceous or the beginning of the Eocene period.
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  • They occur in the Lower Chalk formations, and in Tertiary times were widely diffused; the genus is represented in the Eocene flora of Great Britain, and in the succeeding Miocene period was widely distributed in Europe and western Asia.
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  • Then comes the East Texas timber belt, broad in the north-east, narrowing to a point before reaching the Rio Grande, a low and thoroughly dissected cuesta of sandy Eocene strata; and this is followed by the Coast Prairie, a very young plain, with a seaward slope of less than 2 ft.
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  • A wonderful series of these forms occurs in southern Utah, where in passing northward from the Carboniferous platform one ascends in succession the Vermilion Cliffs (Triassic sandstones), the ViThite Cliffs (Jurassic sandstones, of remarkably cross-bedded structure, interpreted the dunes of an ancient desert), and finally the Pink Cliffs (Eocene strata of fluviatile and lacustrine origin) of the high, forested plateaus.
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  • The Eocene beds are unconformable, generally, upon the Cretaceous, and unconformable beneath the Miocene.
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  • In the Gulf region the Eocene system contains not a little non-marine material.
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  • Thus the lower Eocene has some lignite in the eastern Gulf region, while in Teias lignite and saliferous and gypsiferous sediments are found, though most of the system is marine and of shallow water origin.
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  • The Eocene of the western Gulf region is continued nor,h as far as Arkansas.
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  • On the Pacific coast the marine Eocene lies west of the Sierras, and between it and the Cretaceous there is a general, and often a great, unconformity.
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  • In \Vashington the Eocene is represented by the Puget series of brackish water beds, with an estimated thickness exceeding that of the marine formations of Oregon.
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  • The Miocene system, generally speaking, has a distribution similar to that of the Eocene.
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  • The terrestrial Miocene formations of the western part of the country are similar in kind, and, in a general way, in distribution, to the Eocene of the same region.
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  • The Pliocene system stands in much the same stratigraphic relation to the Miocene as the Miocene does to the Eocene.
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  • In origin and character, and to some extent in distribution, they are comparable with the Eocene and Miocene formations of the same region, and still more closely comparable with deposits now making.
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  • Under these conditions sediments from the high lands were washed out and distributed widely over the plains, giving rise to a thin but widespread formation of ill-assorted sediment, without marine fossils, and, for the most part, without fossils of any kind, and resting unconformably on Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene formations.
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  • Curiously enough a selenodont type is, however, apparent in those of the imperfectly known Egyptian Geniohyus of the Upper Eocene, the earliest species which can be included in the family.
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  • The several ranges of the Cordillera show very different types of structure and were formed at different ages, the Selkirks with their core of pre-Cambrian granite, gneiss and schists coming first, then the Coast Ranges, which seem to have been elevated in Cretaceous times, formed mainly by a great upwelling of granite and diorite as batholiths along the margin of the continent and sedimentary rocks lying as remnants on their flanks; and finally the Rocky Mountains in the Laramie or early Eocene, after the close of the Cretaceous.
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  • The Plecoptera are world-wide in their range and fossils referable to them have been described from rocks of Eocene, Miocene and Jurassic age, while C. Brongniart states that allied forms lived in the Carboniferous Period.
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  • As to the ancestral stock of the order, it has been suggested that this is represented by certain Lower Eocene European and North American mammals, at one time regarded as primitive Primates.
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  • Whatever may be the true affinity of these problematical mammals, undoubted rodents are known from the Lower Eocene of both Europe and North America.
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  • Osbcrn, "American Eocene Primates, and the Supposed Rodent Family Mixodectidae," Bull.
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  • The next representatives of the group occur in the Upper Eocene beds of the Fayum district of Egypt, where the genera Saghatherium and Megalohyrax occur.
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  • That the group originated in Africa there can be no reasonable doubt; and it is remarkable that so early as the Upper Eocene the types in existence differed comparatively little in structure from the modern forms. In fact the hyraxes were then almost as distinct from other mammals as they are at the present day.
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  • This genus is especially abundant in Eocene Limestones, which attain great thickness around the Mediterranean basin; the Pyramids of Egypt are built of it.
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  • The Molasse, in the neighbourhood of the mountains, consists chiefly of conglomerates and sandstones, and the Flysch consists of sandstones and shales; but the Molasse is of Miocene and Oligocene age, while the Flysch is mainly Eocene.
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  • Eocene beds, indeed, penetrate farther within the chain, but these are limestones with nummulites or lignite-bearing shales and have nothing in common with the Flysch.
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  • In the west it seems to be entirely Eocene, but towards the east intercalated beds with Inoceramus, &c., indicate that it is partly of Cretaceous age.
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  • But at times, within or on the border of the northern Eocene trough, the continuity of the folds is suddenly broken by mountain masses of quite different constitution.
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  • The Eocene has altogether w Alps.
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  • The Ombilin, issuing out of the lake on the east side and flowing through a plateau of Eocene sandstone, has on its banks the coalfields of Sungei Durian, &c., but is not serviceable as a waterway for that part of Sumatra.
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  • The most valuable coal occurs in the Eocene beds.
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  • At the close of the Eocene period great eruptions of augite-andesite took place from two fissures which ran along the west coast.
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  • The Eocene, consisting chiefly of sands and marls, occupies the whole of the west of the country.
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  • The Eocene and Oligocene form a broad belt along the northern coast, very much more continuous than the Mesozoic band, and from this belt a branch extends southwards to Sciacca.
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  • In many instances the Tertiary formation, which occurs betweeii Esna and Cairo, unconformably overlies the Cretaceous, the Lower Eocene being absent.
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  • The fluvio-marine deposits of the Upper Eocene and Oligocene formations contain an interesting mammalian fauna, proving that the African continent formed a centre of radiation for the mammalia in early Tertiary times.
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  • A second group is typified by Palaeosyops, of the Bridger Eocene of North America; P. paludosus being an animal about the size of a tapir.
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  • In the lower, or Wasatch, Eocene the group was represented by the still more primitive Lambdotherium.
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  • On the other hand, Palaeosyops is connected with Titanotherium by means of Telmatotherium of the upper Bridger and Washakia Eocene, a larger animal, with a longer and flatter skull, showing rudiments of horn-cores, only two pairs of lower incisors, and a general approximation in dental character to Titanotherium.
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  • Another of these titanotheroid forms is Diplacodon, from the Upper or Uinta Eocene; an animal the size of a rhinoceros, with the last two upper premolars molar-like.
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  • In the south, the older beds disappear and the whole chain is formed chiefly of Cretaceous beds, though Eocene and probably Jurassic rocks are Medit Er R Anean Plutonic Rocks Volcanic Rocks o Active Volcanoes present.
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  • In North America, apart from certain still older and more primitive mammals, with teeth of the tubercular type, the earliest known form which can definitely be included in the camel-series is Protylopus, of the Uinta or Upper Eocene.
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  • The family ranges in North America from the Upper Eocene to the Lower Miocene, but Oreodon (or Merycoidodon), which is typified by an animal of the size of a sheep, is Oligocene.
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  • The Eocene beds are folded with the Cretaceous, and in many places the two formations have not yet been separately distinguished.
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  • It is formed of raised beaches and sea-beds, ranging from the Pliocene period downwards, and resting on Upper Eocene sandstone.
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  • It is overlaid towards the west by similar limestones, which contain nummulites and belong to the Eocene period; and these are followed near the coast by the calcareous sandstone of Philistia, which is referred by Hull to the Upper Eocene.
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  • Eocene beds have not yet been proved to exist; but this is probably owing to the imperfect knowledge of the country, for the formation is known in Persia, Baluchistan and the Suliman Hills.
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  • These are probably of Eocene or of late Cretaceous age.
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  • The greater part of the Himalayan region lay beneath the sea from early Palaeozoic times to the Eocene period, and the deposits are accordingly marine; the Peninsula, on the other hand, has been land since the Permian period at least - there is, indeed, no evidence that it was ever beneath the sea - only on its margins are any marine deposits to be found.
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  • The great volcanic outbursts which produced this trap commenced in the Cretaceous period and lasted on into the Eocene period.
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  • In some of the islands nummulitic limestone (Eocene) occurs.
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  • In Luzon trachytic tuffs are sometimes interstratified with nummulitic limestone, thus showing that the eruptions had already begun in the Eocene period.
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  • The Tertiary system includes conglomerates, sandstones, limestones and marls, which appear to be of Eocene, Oligocene and Miocene age.
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  • Limestones of Eocene or Cretaceous age form a large part of the Taurus, but the interior zone probably includes rocks of earlier periods.
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  • The folding of the Anti-Taurus affects the Eocene but not the Miocene, while in the Taurus the Miocene beds have been elevated, but without much folding, to great heights.
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  • Marine Eocene beds occur near the Dardanelles, but the Tertiary deposits of this part of Asia Minor are mostly freshwater and belong to the upper part of the system.
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  • On both sides the range is flanked by sandstones and shales (the Kythraean series), supposed to be of Upper Eocene age; and similar rocks occur around the southern mountain mass.
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  • Where this intervening band is not covered by recent gravel deposits, it exhibits beds of limestone, clays and sandstone with fossils, which, in age, range from the Lower Eocene to the Miocene.
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  • In the Himalaya the geological sequence, from the Ordovician to the Eocene, is almost entirely marine; there are indeed occasional breaks in the series, but during nearly the whole of this long period the Iimalayan region, or at least its northern part, must have been beneath the sea - the Central Mediterranean Sea of Neumayr or Tethys of Suess.
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  • The Spiti shales are succeeded conformably by Cretaceous beds (Gieumal sandstone below and Chikkim limestone above), and these are followed without a break by Nummulitic beds of Eocene age, much disturbed and altered by intrusions of gabbro and syenite.
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  • Thus, in the Spiti area at least, there appears to have been continuous deposition of marine beds from the Permian Productus shales to the Eocene Nummulitic formation.
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  • Traces of Eocene deposits have not been discovered on Novaya Zemlya.
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  • Again, in the Hampshire Basin and Isle of Wight, Eocene and Oligocene formations rest upon the Chalk.
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  • By the beginning of the Eocene period we find the sea limited to the S.E.
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  • Fournier north are nearly horizontal but on the south are in part included the folds - the Eocene and Miocene being folded, while the later beds, though sometimes elevated, are not affected by the folding.
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  • In 1854 he proposed the term Oligocene for certain Tertiary strata intermediate between the Eocene and Miocene; and the term is now generally adopted.
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  • The embayment region is of 'Tertiary origin, containing deposits of both neocene and eocene periods.
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  • The type is, moreover, common among the mammals of the early Eocene, and still more so in those of the Jurassic epoch; this forming one of the strongest arguments in favour of the tritubercular theory.
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  • It is not till the early Eocene that mammals become a dominant type in the northern hemisphere.
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  • As we recede in time we find the extinct representatives of many of these orders approximating more and more closely to a common generalized type, so that in a large number of early Eocene forms it is often difficult to decide to which group they should be assigned.
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  • If, however, the so-called Proglires of the lower Eocene are really ancestral rodents, the order is brought into comparatively close connexion with the early generalized types of clawed, or unguiculate mammals.
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  • The Carnivora, as represented by the (mainly) Eocene Creodonta, are evidently an ancient and generalized type.
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  • The latter is represented by the Eocene Condylarthra, which undoubtedly gave rise to the Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla, and probably to most, if not all, of the other groups.
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  • But that in Tertiary times there was a high interior zone of crystalline rocks is indicated by the character of the Eocene beds in the southern Apennines.
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  • Be this as it may, the Apennines, excepting in Calabria, are formed chiefly of Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Eocene and Miocene beds.
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  • In the south the deposits, from the Trias to the middle Eocene, consist mainly of limestones, and were laid down, with a few slight interruptions, upon a quietly subsiding sea-floor.
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  • In the later part of the Eocene period began the folding which gave rise to the existing chain.
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  • The two most important points of contrast between the geology of Ireland and that of England are, firstly, the great exposure of `Carboniferous rocks in Ireland, Mesozoic strata being almost absent; and, secondly, the presence of volcanic rocks in place of the marine Eocene of England.
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  • The Senonian chalk, or " White Limestone," is hard, with numerous bands of flint, and suffered from denudation in early Eocene times.
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  • Probably its original thickness Lough Neagh Tertiary Clays Eocene Basalt and Dolerite Cretaceous Trias, sometimes surmounted by Lower Jurassic Upper Carboniferous Carboniferous was not more than 150 ft., while now only from 40 to loo ft.
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  • The plantremains associated with these beds form the only clue to the postCretaceous period in which the volcanic epoch opened, and they have been placed by Mr Starkie Gardner in recent years as early Eocene.
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  • Volcanic activity may have extended into Miocene times; but the only fossiliferous relics of Cainozoic periods later than the Eocene are the pale clays and silicified lignites on the south shore of Lough Neagh, and the shelly gravels of pre-glacial age in county Wexford.
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  • In northern Africa they are well developed and of much interest._ They contain the well-known nummulitic limestone of Eocene age, which has been traced from Egypt across Asia to China.
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  • The Upper Eocene rocks of Egypt have also yielded primeval types of the Proboscidea and other mammalia.
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  • Evidences for the greater extension of the Eocene seas than was formerly considered to be the case have been discovered around Sokoto.
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  • In northern Africa a continuous sequence of volcanic events has taken place from Eocene times to latest Tertiary; but in South Africa it is doubtful if there have been any intrusions later then Cretaceous.
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  • Beyrich introduced the Oligocene period, and some geologists recognize a Palaeocene or early Eocene period.
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  • On the French side the central zone is followed by (1) the zone of Ariege, consisting of Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic beds, together with granitic masses; (2) the zone of the Petites Pyrenees, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; and (3) the zone of the Corbieres, consisting of Eocene and Primary rocks.
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  • On the Spanish side, from north to south, are (1) the zone of Mont Perdu, Upper Cretaceous and Eocene; (2) the zone of Aragon, Eocene; and (3) the zone of the Sierras, Trias, Cretaceous and Eocene.
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  • The zone of the Corbieres has no equivalent in Spain, while in France there is no definite zone of Eocene like that of Aragon.
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  • The earth movements which raised the Pyrenees appear to have begun in the Eocene period, but it was in Oligocene times that the principal folding took place.
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  • The marine Tertiary accumulations commence with those that are referable to the Eocene series, consisting of nummulitic limestones, marls and siliceous sandstones.
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  • The closure of the orbit behind distinguishes the skull of the horse from that of its allies the rhinoceros and tapir, and also from all of the perissodactyles of the Eocene period.
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  • This fracture was caused after the end of the Eocene period by the earth-movement which resulted in the raising of the whole region out of the sea.
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  • The Tertiary formations have been assigned to six periods; these are termed - Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and each has its own botanical peculiarities.
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  • The British Eocene and Oligocene strata yield so large a flora, and contain plant-beds belonging to so many different stages, that it is unfortunate we have still no monograph on the subject, the one commenced by Ettingshausen and Gardner in 1879 having reached no farther than gocene 79 g Oli of Great the Ferns and Gymnosperms. This deficiency makes it impossible to deal adequately with the British Eocene plants, most of the material being either unpublished or needing re-examination.
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  • In the earliest Eocene plant-beds, in the Woolwich and Reading series, a small but interesting flora is found, which suggests a temperate climate less warm than that of earlier or of later periods.
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  • The higher Eocene strata of England - those above the Bournemouth Beds - are of marine origin, and yield only drifted fruits, principally fir-cones.
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  • These also, like the lignites of Bovey Tracey, have been referred to the Miocene period, on the supposed evidence of the plants; but more recent discoveries by Gardner tend tb throw doubt on this allocation, and suggest that, though of various ages, the first-formed of these deposits may date back to early Eocene times.
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  • The absence cf the so-called cinnamon-leaves and the Smilaceae, which always enter into the composition of Middle Eocene and Oligocene floras, is noticeable.
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  • The lignite deposits and pipe-clays of Bovey Tracey in Devon, referred by Heer and Pengelly to the Miocene period, were considered by Gardner to be of the same age as the Bournemouth beds (Middle Eocene).
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  • For this study it will be most convenient to take next south and central France, for in that area can be found a series of plant-bearing strata in which is preserved a nearly continuous history of the vegetation from Upper Eocene down to Pliocene.
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  • The gypsum-deposit of Upper Eocene date at Aix in Provence commences this series, and is remarkable for the variety and perfect preservation of its organic remains.
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  • The succeeding Oligocene flora appears to be more characterized by a gradual replacement of the Eocene species by allied fcrms, than by any marked change in the assemblage or in the climatic conditions.
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  • Saporta considers that in central and southern Europe the alternate dry and moist heat of the Eocene period gave place to a climate more equally and more universally humid, and that these conditions continued without material change into the succeeding Miocene stage.
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  • Though we do not propose to deal with the other European localities for Eocene and Oligocene plants, there is one district to which attention should be drawn, on account of the exceptional state of preservation of the specimens.
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  • From Europe it will be convenient to pass to a distant region of similar latitude, so that we may see to what extent botanical provinces existed in Eocene and Oligocene times.
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  • In America the contrast between the Eocene forests and those now living is much less striking, and this fact has led to the wrong assumption that the present American flora had its origin in the American continent.
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  • Geographical provinces are certainly indicated by the Eocene flora of Europe and America, but these are less marked than those now existing.
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  • If we turn to a more isolated region, like Australia, we find a Lower Eocene flora distinctly related to the existing flora of Australia and not to that of other continents.
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  • Australasia had then as now a peculiar flora of its own, though the former wide dispersal of the Proteaceae and Myrtaceae, and also the large number of Amentaceae then found in Australia, make the Eocene plants of Europe and Australia much less unlike than are the present floras.
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  • At present the evidence is scarcely sufficient to decide the question, for if this view is right, we ought to find within the Arctic circle truly Arctic floras equivalent to the cool Lower Eocene and Miocene periods; but these have not yet been met with.
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  • Fossil remains are few in the Upper Eocene and Miocene of Europe and the Upper Cretaceous of North America.
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  • Apart from a few unsatisfactory remains from the Eocene of Wyoming, fossil tailless batrachians are otherwise only known from the Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene of Europe and India.
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  • The Eocene includes a series of sandstones and marls with lignite, and these are overlaid by nummulite limestones.
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  • Mesohippus and Miohippus are connected with the earliest and most primitive mammal which it is possible to include in the family Equidae by means of Epihippus of the Uinta or Upper Eocene of North America, and Pachynolophus, or Orohippus, of the Middle and Lower Eocene of both halves of the northern hemisphere.
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  • The final stage, or rather the initial stage, in the series is presented by Hyracotherium (Protorohippus), a mammal no larger than a fox, common to the Lower Eocene of Europe and North America.
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  • From Hyracotherium, which is closely related to the Eocene representatives of the ancestral stocks of the other three branches of the Perissodactyla, the transition is easy to Phenacodus, the representative of the common ancestor of all the Ungulata.
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  • Yield of fine sand from erosion of the Eocene cliffs has created a wide sandy intertidal foreshore.
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  • Such features could provide additional small sources of " fresh " flints, together with some input from the eroding Eocene sandstones.
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  • This may provide a locally significant input of clay, sand and gravel derived from Eocene bedrock and overlying drift sediment.
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  • The palaeotheres, which range in size from that of a pig to that of a small rhinoceros, are now regarded as representing a family, Palaeotheriidae, nearly related to the horsetribe, and having, in fact, probably originated from the same ancestral stock, namely, Hyracotherium of the Lower Eocene (see Equidae).
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  • To the evidence advanced by a great number of authors comes the clinching testimony of the existence of a number of varieties of Australian marsupials in Patagonia, as originally discovered by Ameghino and more exactly described by members of the Princeton Patagonian expedition staff; while the fossil shells of the Eocene of Patagonia as analysed by Ortmann give evidence of the existence of a continuous shoreline, or at least of shallow-water areas, between Australia, New Zealand and South America.
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  • The earliest representatives of the Tylopoda according to Professor Scott is the Middle Eocene genus Homacodon, typifying the family Homacodontidae, which is regarded as the common ancestor of both Camelidae and Oreodontidae, with resemblances to the European Oligocene genus Dichobune (see Artiodactyla).
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  • Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
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  • The next geological formation which is represented is the Eocene, consisting of nummulitic limestone, sandstone and schist.
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