He was liberal and enlightened in his general rule.
With Maria Theresa (1740-1780) began the age of enlightened despotism.
These writings, mainly collections of articles and lectures intended for the general public, display enlightened views and wide information.
Popular sketches of the history, enlightened by special knowledge and a wide outlook, are given by J.
I need only suggest what kind of sermons are still listened to in the most enlightened countries.
This enlightened policy was not continued by the successors of Joseph II.
The early foundation of the Leipzig fairs, and the enlightened policy of the rulers of the country, have also done much to develop its commercial and industrial resources.
1878), an honest and enlightened statesman, who did all in his power to retrieve the country from the financial difficulty into which it had been brought by the reckless policy of his predecessor, but the conditions were not capable of solution.
Or I could refer you to Ireland, which is marked as one of the white or enlightened spots on the map.
Within recent years, however, some efforts have been made both by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the more enlightened of the zemstvos to improve the education of the peasantry, but the progress achieved has been small.
He was able, active and enlightened, but he was a visionary rather than a man of affairs or sound judgment.
He was also well known as a sanitary reformer, and during the last ten years of his life he did much useful work in inculcating more enlightened ideas on the subject both in Edinburgh and other places.
A certain amount of local self-government was entrusted to the nobles and the burghers, and the judicial administration was thoroughly reorganized in an enlightened and humane spirit.
A Plan of English Commerce, containing very enlightened views on export trade, appeared in 1728.
Scholars, like Colet, read the New Testament in Greek and lectured on justification by faith before they knew of Luther, and More included among the institutions of Utopia a rather more liberal and enlightened religion than that which he observed around him.
He was, too, ever the friend of religious freedom and of an enlightened policy in all trade questions.
This latter is absolute misery, and to cure it the Unconscious evokes its Reason and with its aid creates the best of all possible worlds, which contains the promise of its redemption from actual existence by the emancipation of the Reason from its subjugation to the Will in the conscious reason of the enlightened pessimist.
Yet even in the enlightened 18th century popular fanaticism made of sacrilege the most heinous offence.
Hiero's rule was kindly and enlightened, combining good order with a fair share of liberty and self-government.
The failure of Joseph's " enlightened " policy in Hungary was inevitable in any case; it was hastened by the disastrous Turkish war of 1787-92, which withdrew Joseph altogether from domestic affairs; and on his death-bed (Feb.
the culture of men who were either Greeks or "semi-Graeci" by birth and education, and the protection and favour bestowed upon them by the more enlightened members of the Roman aristocracy.
While several displayed commanding abilities, and some possessed many virtues, one alone attempted to conduct an administration in an enlightened manner, and he died prematurely.
All these undertakings, in which the humane, liberal-minded autocrat received the sympathy, support and co-operation of the more enlightened of his subjects, were successfully accomplished.
(1780-1790) was as true to the principles of enlightened despotism and family politics as his mother; but II.
1837), who succeeded his father in 1869, was distinguished for the enlightened character of his administration, especially in the matter of establishing schools and internal communications.
In 1632 Thomas Wentworth, Earl Strafford, was appointed first lord deputy of Ireland, and Belfast soon shared largely in the benefits of his enlightened policy, receiving, among other favours, certain fiscal rights which his lordship had purchased from the corporation of Carrickfergus.
With the physiocrats, he believed in an enlightened absolutism, and looked to the king to carry through all reforms. As to the parlements, he opposed all interference on their part in legislation, considering that they had no competency outside the sphere of justice.
Clement thus looks entirely at the enlightened moral elevation to which Christianity raises man.
Taking no account of the real forces of the time, he aimed at an ideal form of society in which the clergy should confine themselves to their spiritual duties, and the king, after being enlightened by open communication with the Scottish nation, should maintain law and order without respect of persons.
They were all Puritans, but not all Independents - indeed, at first only the men from Leiden were, and they were throughout more enlightened and tolerant than the men of the other settlements.
This change of masters brought some relief to the unfortunate Cretans, who at least exchanged the licence of local misrule for the oppression of an organized despotism; and the government of Mustafa Pasha, an Albanian like Mehemet Ali, the ruler of the island for a considerable period (1832-1852), was more enlightened and intelligent than that of most Turkish governors.
Since then Vienna has benefited largely by the enlightened efforts of its citizens and the exceptional opportunities afforded by the removal of the fortifications.
His letters show that he had a very sincere love for, and an enlightened appreciation of, good literature.
Turning to the Arabs in the West we find the same enlightened spirit; Cordova, the capital of the Moorish empire in Spain, was as much a centre of learning as Bagdad.
2Ethelma r and his father ZEthelweard were both enlightened patrons of learning, and became Ã†thic's faithful friends.
Thenceforth he violently attacked whatever was considered modern and enlightened, and while he delighted society with his numerous sensational pamphlets, he aroused the fear and hatred of his opponents by his stinging wit.
Poggio, like Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini (Pius II.), was a great traveller, and wherever he went he brought enlightened powers of observation trained in liberal studies to bear upon the manners of the countries he visited.
The college meets with strong support from the enlightened portion of the Mussulman community, whose aim is to raise it to the status of a university, with the power of conferring degrees.
After their dispersion the Jews were constrained to have recourse to the astronomical rules and cycles of the more enlightened heathen, in order that their religious festivals might be observed on the same days in all the countries through which they were scattered.
In the opinion of enlightened men this will mitigate the censures that must be passed on him for his laxity in matters financial.
Throughout his life he was an enlightened patron of letters and art, and it was at his orders that the chateau of Gaillon near Rouen was built.
In him the Boers, not only in the Free State but in the whole of South Africa, lost one of the most enlightened and most upright rulers and leaders they have ever had.
a republic. The one prominent member of the volksraad who, inherited the traditions and enlightened views of President Brand was Mr (Afterwards Sir) John G.
Natives and Anglo-Indians alike venerate his name, the former as their first beneficent administrator, the latter as the most able and the most enlightened of their own class.
The province of Buenos Aires was recognized as an independent state, and under the enlightened administration of Doctor Obligado made rapid strides in commercial prosperity.
He was out-voted by his council on the question of commutation of tithes, and his enlightened zeal for reforming the "wicked and abominable" sentences of the criminal law met with complete failure.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
The avarice with which both Tacitus and Suetonius stigmatize Vespasian seems really to have been an enlightened economy, which, in the disordered state of the Roman finances, was an absolute necessity.
Less fortunate than his great exemplar, Charlemagne, Stephen had to depend entirely upon foreigners - men like the Saxon Asztrik 1 (c. 976-1010), the first Hungarian primate; the Lombard St Gellert (c. 977-1046); the Bosomanns, a German family, better known under the Magyarized form of their name Pazmany, and many others who came to Hungary in the suite of his enlightened consort Gisela of Bavaria.
If he failed in his wider schemes of reform, this was only one more illustration of a truth of which other " enlightened " sovereigns besides himself had experienced the force, namely, that it is impossible to impose any system, however admirable, from above on a people whose deepest convictions and prejudices it offends.
Under the house of Lorraine, or more correctly during the reign of that enlightened reformer the grand duke Peter Leopold (1765-1790), Pisa shared in the general prosperity of Tuscany, and its population constantly increased.
This constitution appears to have been modelled on terms a great deal too liberal and enlightened to please Mr Kruger, whose one idea was to have at his command the armed forces of the Free State when he should require them, and who pressed for an offensive and defensive affiance.
1613), a mild divine, who had written a treatise on persuasion in religion, urging that as to it "men could be led, not driven"; Lambert Danaeus, who deserves remembrance as the first to discuss Christian ethics scientifically, apart from dogmatics; Johannes Drusius, the Orientalist, one of the most enlightened and advanced scholars of his day, settled later at Franeker; Johann Kolmann the younger, best known by his saying that high Calvinism made God "both a tyrant and an executioner."
The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.
After a careful survey of Mr Gladstone's life, enlightened by personal observation, it is inevitable to attempt some analysis.
Meanwhile, and throughout his long episcopate of thirty-two years, he foreshadowed the zeal and the enlightened policy later to be displayed in the prolonged period of his pontificate, building and restoring many churches, striving to elevate the intellectual as well as the spiritual tone of his clergy, and showing in his pastoral letters an unusual regard for learning and for social reform.
Locke's retirement in 1700 removed any chance of the board of ' trade advocating more enlightened opinions on commercial subjects than those generally held.
B.) enlightened despotism preserved to the Bohemian people at one stroke an astonishing number of distinguished and progressive spirits."
The queen opened her first parliament in person, and in a well-written speech, which she read with much feeling, adverted to her youth and to the necessity which existed for her being guided by enlightened advisers.
The sovereign, Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut, was a very accomplished man, an enlightened reformer and devoted to science; his death, indeed, was caused by fatigue and exposure while observing an eclipse.
His orders (or "classes") were founded to some extent on a correct idea of the affinities of plants, and he far outstripped his contemporaries in his enlightened views of arrangement.
He crushed the rebellion and won the affection of the natives by his just and enlightened administration, which had no parallel in the annals of Portuguese rule in the archipelago.
He was generous and enlightened, a good soldier and a clever diplomatist.
Deputies from the towns took part in the election of John Albert (1492), and the burgesses of Cracow, the most enlightened economists in the kingdom, supplied Sigismund I.
There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.
When the most enlightened statesmen of the Republic could seriously believe in the benevolent intentions of Russia the end was not far off.
The mild rule of Ferdinand, his solicitude for the welfare of his subjects, his enlightened patronage of art and science, his encouragement of commerce, and his toleration render him an honourable exception to the generality of Italian princes.
The restraints of religion were to be replaced by an education developing an enlightened self-interest.
The Rigs were as pious and enlightened as they were rich.
What I want is an enlightened, firm and vigilant administrator; and that is why I have chosen you.
Enlightened as he was, he fully recognized the intellectual inferiority of Russia as compared with the West, and did his utmost to bring about a better state of things.
It suffered severely from the earthquake of the 16th-17th of January 188g, It is a prosperous place with an enlightened Greek element in its population (hence the numerous families called "Spartali" in Levantine towns); and it is, in fact, the chief inland colony of Hellenism in Anatolia.
Its adherents feel themselves to be the isolated, the few, the free and the enlightened, as opposed to the sluggish and inert masses of mankind degraded into matter, or the initiated as opposed to the uninitiated, the Gnostics as opposed to the " Hylici " (Wiwi); at most in the later and more moderate schools a middle place was given to the adherents of the Church as Psychici (1/vXtKoi).
But Livingstone, who was not only a missionary but also an enlightened traveller, stated that a considerable amount of benefit had been conferred upon the native races by missionary teaching.
Like his brother, he was educated by an English tutor, and his administration carried on the enlightened traditions of his predecessor.
When Christian Louis died George William succeeded him in Luneburg-Celle; but the duchy was also claimed by a younger brother, John Frederick, a cultured and enlightened prince who had forsaken the Lutheran faith of his family and had become a Roman Catholic. Soon, however, by an arrangement John Frederick received Calenberg and Grubenhagen, which he ruled in absolute fashion, creating a standing army and modelling his court after that of Louis XIV., and which came on his death in 1679 to his youngest brother, Ernest Augustus (1630-1698), the Protestant bishop of Osnabruck.
Yet the most enlightened of Peter's contemporaries approved of and applauded his violence; some of them firmly believed that his most energetic measures were not violent enough.
In many of the states, especially those with an enlightened public spirit, such as most of the New England states and many of the North-Western, the elections are fairly conducted, there being no intimidation at all, little or no bribery, and an honest count.
It contains a vindication of the study of Greek, and of the desirability of printing the text of the Greek Testament - views which at that date required an enlightened understanding to enter into, and which were condemned by the party to which More afterwards attached himself.
Christ, who had enlightened me, gave me His light to believe in; He gave me hope which He himself revealed in me; and He gave me His spirit and grace, which I found sufficient in the deeps and in weakness."
In common with all enlightened opinion, he complained bitterly of the excessive multiplication of exemptions, of the exaggerated extension of appeals to Rome, of the luxury of the Roman court, of the venality of the cardinals, and of the injury done to the traditional hierarchy by the very extent of the papal power, which was calculated to turn the strongest head.
If ecclesiastical authority fostered what was commonly regarded as intolerant obscurantism, to be enlightened meant to be prepared in spirit for that reform which soon developed into the Revolution.
The Tibetan regent, with his enlightened and kindly spirit, is painted by Huc in most attractive colours, and Markham expressed the opinion that the native authorities were then willing to receive strangers, while the jealousy that excluded them was Chinese only.
William VI., who came of age in 1650, was an enlightened patron of learning and the arts.
The Gnostics rejected this eschatology as in their view the enlightened spirit already possessed immortality.
Having for some time learnt to be aggressive, she girded herself for the difficult work of teaching the nations a higher faith than a savage form of nature-worship, and of fitting them to become members of an enlightened Christendom.
For the rest, the enlightened internal policy of his predecessor was.
Maximilian himself was an "enlightened" prince of the 18th-century type, whose tolerant principles had already grievously offended his clerical subjects; Montgelas was a firm believer in drastic reform "from above," and, in 1803, had discussed with the rump of the old estates the question of reforms. But the revolutionary changes introduced by the constitution proclaimed on the 1st of May 1808 were due to the direct influence of Napoleon.
On the 13th of October 1825, he was succeeded by his son, Louis I, an enlightened patron of the arts and sciences, who transferred the university of Landshut to Munich, which, by his magnificent taste in building, he transformed into one of the most beautiful cities of the continent.
A final blow was dealt it when, in 1777, the enlightened archbishop Maximilian Frederick (d.
The government, under the direction of such enlightened ministers as Bernstorff, Reventlow and others, held the mean between Struensee's extravagant cosmopolitanism and Guldberg's stiff conservatism.
Johnson, not content with turning filthy savages, ignorant of their letters, and gorged with raw steaks cut from living cows, into philosophers as eloquent and enlightened as himself or his friend Burke, and into ladies as highly accomplished as Mrs Lennox or Mrs Sheridan, transferred the whole domestic system of England to Egypt.
The most enlightened Scotsmen, with Lord Mansfield at their head, were well pleased.
That this system works without friction is due to the German habit of discipline; that it is, on the whole, singularly effective is a result of the peculiarly enlightened and progressive views of the German bureaucracy.
As king of Bohemia Charles was an enlightened and capable ruler, but he was indifferent towards Germany, although this country never stood in more urgent needof a strong and beneficent sovereign.
Charles Augustus, the enlightened grand duke of Weimar, set the example, from the best of motives.
of an enlightened and liberal ruler; but meanwhile " Josephinism " had not been justified by its results, and the progress of the Revolution in France was beginning to scare even enlightened princes into reaction.
Such a state of things could live on only under an enlightened despotism; the discordant elements could not join to work out really free and national institutions.
With the exception of two or three of the most enlightened courts, the criminal powers of these courts were restricted, but in civil actions they had full scope.
The Mokattam represents the views of the more enlightened and conservative section of the native population.
His intentions, as exhibited to his famous Landelove (National Code), were progressive and enlightened to an eminent degree; so much so, indeed, that they mystified the people as much as they alienated the patricians; but his actions were often of revolting brutality, and his whole career was vitiated by an incurable double-mindedness which provoked general distrust.
All these men were aided by the generous and enlightened patronage 5 See Fr.
Of Christianity he always spoke in the mocking tone of the "enlightened" philosophers, regarding it as the invention of priests; but it is noteworthy that after the Seven Years' War, the trials of which steadied his character, he sought to strengthen the church for the sake of its elevating moral influence.
He was rescued at last from this monkish idleness by his inborn genius, which, not being able to give free vent to its poetical inspirations under the crushing weight of bigotry, claimed a greater share in the legitimate enjoyments of life and the appreciation of the beauties of nature, as well as a more enlightened faith of tolerance, benevolence, and liberality.
His interests were secular and he was certainly proud and ambitious; but Stubbs has pictured the fairer side of his character when he observes that Beaufort "was merciful in his political enmities, enlightened in his foreign policy; that he was devotedly faithful, and ready to sacrifice his wealth and labour for the king; that from the moment of his death everything began to go wrong, and 'went worse and worse until all was lost."
Enlightened bishops and princes prohibited it altogether: so, for instance, Joseph II.
In its general ethical code Proverbs represents the best standard of the times; the sages are at one with the more enlightened moralists of the Western world.
It is from Suleiman's time that historians date the rise of that occult influence of the harem which has so often thwarted the best efforts of Turkey's most enlightened statesmen.
Goethe, the cosmopolitan Weltbierger of the 18th century, had himself no very intense feelings of patriotism, and, having seen Germany flourish as a group of small states under enlightened despotisms, he had little confidence in the dreamers of 1813 who hoped to see the glories of Barbarossa's empire revived.
The Europe of his later years was very different from the idyllic and enlightened autocracy of the 18th century, in which he had spent his best years and to which he had devoted his energies; yet Goethe was at home in it.
The enlightened opinion of the three kingdoms for the most part approved the Catholic claims, and as certainly it condemned repeal.
His Jewish friends, first Jason and then Menelaus, had been enlightened enough to throw off their prejudices, and, so far as he could know, they represented the majority of the Jews.
He himself was moderate and enlightened in his views on this matter, and it was through his influence that the harshness of the anti-Catholic policy was relaxed in 1607.
As a ruler of Saxony Augustus was economical and enlightened.
The enlightened mind of Warren Hastings did indeed anticipate his age by founding the Calcutta madrasa for Mahom medan teaching, and by affording steady patronage alike to Hindu pundits and European students.
Labourdonnais also promoted the planting of cotton and indigo, and is remembered as the most enlightened and best of all the French governors.
The course on moral philosophy embraced, besides ethics proper, lectures on political philosophy or the theory of government, and from 1800 onwards a separate course of lectures was delivered on political economy, then almost unknown as a science to the general public. Stewart's enlightened political teaching was sufficient, in the times of reaction succeeding the French Revolution, to draw upon him the undeserved suspicion of disaffection to the constitution.
Millbank, as a new and most enlightened undertaking in prison affairs, was opened with much eclat.
Hospitals, orphanages, schools and an admirable college in Seoul have been founded, along with tri-lingual (Chinese, Korean and English) printing-presses; religious, historical and scientific works and much of the Bible have been translated into En-mun, and periodicals of an enlightened nature in the Korean script are also circulated.
Those cities, on the other hand, where the mercantile community remained in power, like Nuremberg and the seaboard towns, on the whole followed a more enlightened policy, although even they could not quite keep clear of the ever-growing.
The inherent viciousness of these expedients had, however, not as yet been revealed by their inevitable results, and Mehemet Ali in the eyes of the world was at once the most enlightened and the most powerful of the sultan's valis.
Mehemet Ali's power in Syria had collapsed like a pricked bubble; and with it had gone for ever the myth of his humane and enlightened rule.
Men thought they were witnessing the dawn of a new era in the East; Mehemet Ali was hailed as the most beneficent and enlightened of princes; and political philosophers like Jeremy Bentham, who sent him elaborate letters of good advice, thought to find in him the means for developing their theories in virgin soil.
The clergyman is primarily the preacher, renewed by God's power and enlightened by the Spirit, so that he speaks with divine authority.
Moreover, the temper of these more enlightened men was itself opposed to Italian indifference and immorality; it was pugnacious and polemical, eager to beat down the arrogance of monks and theologians rather than to pursue an ideal of aesthetical self-culture.
The more enlightened Ilarranians, however, adopted a religious philosophy strongly tinged with Neoplatonic and Christian elements.
In this dispute, which made a great sensation in the country, the popular party successfully defended Leslie, and thus obtained the sympathy of the enlightened portion of the community.
It is, he says, the procedure from one experiment to another, and it is not a science but an art or learned sagacity (resembling in this Aristotle's lyxivoca), which may, however, be enlightened by the precepts of the Interpretatio.
This enlightened prince died in 1196, and as at his death the house of Dynevor ceased to be of any further political importance, the overlordship of all Wales became vested indisputably in the house of Gwynedd, which from this point onwards may be considered as representing in itself alone the independent principality of Wales.
He was an enlightened pontiff and collaborated with Cassiodorus in founding at Rome a library of ecclesiastical authors.
His reputation as an enlightened ruler stood so high that when Justinian, in 529, closed the school of Athens, the last Neoplatonists bent their steps to him in hopes of finding in him the true philosopher-king.
Shah Rukh, the fourth son of Timur, reigned for thirty-eight years, and appears to have been a brave, generous, and enlightened monarch.
The establishment of internal tranquillity, the expulsion of interlopers and marauders like Turks and Uzbegs, the introduction of salutary laws and the promotion of public works of utilitythese alone would render remarkable his two-score years of enlightened government.
On the first occasion only he extended his journey to England, and was then attended by his sadr azim, or prime minister, Mirza Husain Khan, an able and enlightened adviser, and a Grand Cross of the Star of India.
It remained, however, a strong nationalist organization, which in practice was inimical not so much to the British connexion as to the British section of the population and to the development of the country on enlightened lines.
For three years petitions and deputations, public meetings and newspaper articles, the efforts of the enlightened South African party at Johannesburg and Pretoria, were all addressed to the endeavour to induce President Kruger and his government to give some measure of recognition to the steadily increasing Uitlander population.
Scaevola, following Panaetius, explained that the prudence of statesmen had established this public institution in the service of order midway between the errors of popular superstition and the barren truths of enlightened philosophy.
The agents of the " New Christians " in Rome long contrived, by lavish bribery and with the support of many enlightened Portuguese, to delay the preliminary negotiations; but in 1536 the Holy Office was established in Lisbon, where the first auto-da fe was held in 1540, and in 1560 its operations were extended to India.
His partisans in the press hailed the advent of a second Pombal, and their enthusiasm was shared by many enlightened Portuguese, who had previously held aloof from politics but now rallied to the support of an honest dictator.
In no other has public money been expended with such enlightened discretion, and in no other has the municipal system kept pace with such rapid growth and displayed greater resource in emergencies.
But the more civilized portion had already, under enlightened native rulers, attained to a certain degree of prosperity and order.
At this time Lyons was the centre and to a great extent the headquarters of an unusually enlightened society, and indirectly it is clear that Rabelais became intimate with this society.
Hirsch, whose enlightened orthodoxy was for a time very attractive to Graetz.
The house of Spartocus was well known as a line of enlightened and wise princes; although Greek opinion could not deny that they were, strictly speaking, tyrants, they are always described as dynasts.
This blending of the two systems of education produced the happy result of fitting this Moslem chief in an eminent degree both for the sacerdotal functions which appertain to his spiritual position, and for those social duties of a great and enlightened leader which he was called upon to discharge by virtue of that position.
Inhuman as he could be in his wrath, in principle he was as much a humanist as any of his most enlightened contemporaries.
Not only in Great Britain and America did the agitation against the administration of the Congo State gain ground, but in Belgium and France reform associations enlightened public opinion.
Into this chaos enter from time to time broad rays of sunshine, the efforts of a few enlightened monarchs to evolve order from disorder, and to supply to their people the blessings of peace and civilization.
The town, which is well laid out, with parks and gardens, and pleasantly situated in a hollow among hills, rapidly increased in population under the enlightened administration of the raja, Sir Sudhal Rao, K.C.I.E.
Enlightened self-interest was doubtless combined with honest conviction in ranking him among the followers of Pitt.
1, 2, &c.), but is careful to enforce enlightened views regarding them (xlv.
To this task he brought a mind singularly enlightened and a sincere belief in the best traditions of English liberty.
Radovici or Dinu din Golesti, an enlightened Walachian boyar, who was one of the first Rumanians to describe a journey in Western Europe, is also the author of a collection of maxims and parables, Adunare de pilde bisericesti filosofesti (Budapest, 1824); he left a larger collection in MS. partly edited by Zane in his Proverbele Romdnilor, vols.
Seward, Salmon P. Chase, and Abraham Lincoln, that slavery was to be overthrown under the constitution and in the Union, by forbidding its growth and trusting to an awakened conscience, enforced by an enlightened self-interest.
Enlightened, - and then he could return to them not only as husband and father, but as teacher and saviour.
He had attained to Nirvana, had become clear in his mind, a Buddha, an Enlightened One.
those referring to the administration of justice, the honour of the people, &c.; such clauses as these, however, were meaningless in view of the enlightened government which obtained in Cape Colony, and for the true " inwardness " of this document it is necessary to note Article 3, which distinctly speaks of the promotion of South Africa's independence (Zelfstandigheid).
If the Bond aroused disloyalty and mistaken aspirations in one section of the Cape inhabitants, it is equally certain that it caused a great wave of loyal and patriotic enthusiasm to pass through another and more enlightened section.
Sir Thomas Fuller, a Cape Town representative, though he remained outside office, gave staunch support to every enlightened liberal and progressive measure which was brought forward.
Father Sirmond was a most industrious scholar, and his criticisms were as enlightened as was possible for a man living in those times.
Their preservation was due to the enlightened energy of the principal at the time of the Reformation, who armed his folk to save the building from the barons of the Mearns after they had robbed St Machar's of its bells and lead.
The cause of the downfall of the dynasty, splendid and enlightened as any of its predecessors, was the system of governing by means of great feudatories, which also proved fatal to the Solanki rajas of Anhilvada.
To the enlightened views of the ministries of Guizot and Thiers under the citizen-king, and to the zeal and ability of Cousin in the work of organization, France owes what is best in her system of primary education, - a national interest which had been neglected under the Revolution, the Empire and the Restoration (see Exposé, p. 17).
The clauses dealing with the general governance of the realm are also as enlightened as could be expected from the character of the committee which drafted the charter.
But the leading men among the baronage were undoubtedly swayed by ambition and resentment, by family ties and family feuds, far more than by enlightened statesmanship or zeal for the king or the commonweal.
He was an enlightened patron of the new learning, and was inclined to take vigorous measures in hand for the pruning away of the abuses of the church.
Though he administered the affairs of his kingdom with enlightened liberality Saxony did not escape the political storms which broke upon Germany in 1848.
That system placed the government of the country in the hands of a territorial oligarchy, composed of a few families of large possessions, fairly enlightened principles, and shrewd political sense.
George Grenville and the less enlightened section of the Whigs took his place.
Madhava Rao, formerly diwan of Travancore, one of the ablest and most enlightened of Indian statesmen.
It would be absurd, however, to dismiss all the legislative work of the Convention as merely partisan or eccentric. Much of it was enlightened and skilful, the product of the best minds in the assembly.
There was no real political freedom, yet none of the ease or security which enlightened despotism can bestow.
A youth at his father's death (1645), he was committed to the care of the boyarin Boris Ivanovich Morozov, a shrewd and sensible guardian, sufficiently enlightened to recognize the needs of his country, and by no means inaccessible to Western ideas.
We have seen that in the latter's system the " moral sense " is not absolutely required, or at least is necessary only as a substitute for enlightened self-regard; since if the harmony between prudence and virtue, self-regarding and social impulses, is complete, mere self-interest will prompt a duly enlightened mind to maintain precisely that " balance " of affections in which goodness consists.
We may regard morality as a kind of supplementary legislation, supported by public opinion, which we may expect the public, when duly enlightened, to frame in accordance with the public interest.
Though the people of Geneva had cast off the obedience of Rome, it was largely a political revolt against the duke of Savoy, and they were still (says Beza) "but very imperfectly enlightened in divine knowledge; they had as yet hardly emerged from the filth of the papacy."
Yet some enlightened men strove to fuse the two nations together, and the native Irish, or that section which bordered on the settlements and suffered great oppression, offered 8000 marks to Edward I.
Yet this great king cannot be credited with any specially enlightened views as to Ireland.
The former, on the other hand, has an enlightened conception of Elohim; the Deity, though grand, is a lifeless figure; several antique ideas are nevertheless preserved.
The eclipse of the great idea of the balance of power in Europe was no sudden affair; the most flourishing years of the reign were still enlightened by it: witness the repurchase of Dunkirk from Charles II.
Power had passed from the hands of the burghers of Amsterdam into those of William of Orange, who on the 30th peace ~ of August 1673, profiting by the arrest of the army Ni/rn- brought about by the inundation and by the fears of wegen, Europe, joined in a coalition with the emperor, the ~ king of Spain, the duke of Lorraine, many of the princes of the Empire, and with England, now at last enlightened as to the projects of Catholic restoration which Louis XIV.
Her refusal of the sacraments to those who would not accept the bull Unigenitus (1746) was exploited in the eyes of the masses, as in those of more enlightened people was her selfish and short-sighted resistance to the financial plans of Machault.
Turgot, the most notable of these latter, was well fitted to play his great part as an enlightened minister, as much from the principle of hard work and domestic economy ot, traditional in his family, as from a maturity of mind 1776.
to reason enlightened and controlled by the divine law), that he attributes lordship over the passions.
The new sovereign was one of the most sincere, and the most successful, of the enlightened despots of the 18th century.
was assisted, in addition to Squillacci and Aranda, by Campomanes (q.v.), who succeeded Aranda as minister of finance in 1787, and by Floridablanca (q.v.), who ruled the country in the spirit of enlightened bureaucracy.
The father, though enlightened, had been a thorough despot; the son was sluggish and stupid to the verge of imbecility, but the despotism remained.
Though ruling in the spirit of an enlightened despotism rather than in that of a constitutional government, Seor Maura had succeeded in doing a notable work for Spain.
The enlightened system of administration formed during the rule of the thakor sahib maharaja Sir Takhtsinghji Jaswatsinghji, G.C.S.I., was continued with admirable results under the personal supervision of his son, the maharaja Bhausinghji, K.C.S.I.
The word was not defined but it essentially meant scientific and moral advance on the Western model, based on the enlightened conscience.
The ruling helped engender optimism that stronger, more enlightened policies could soon emerge in the Olympic movement.
capitulated to pressure in the cause of flexibility and so called enlightened experts.
In 1792, Gustavus III, a patron of the arts who had become an enlightened despot, was shot.
Many would argue that it is an enlightened despotism.
enlightened mind into world politics.
enlightened the audience on how to become a successful director.
enlightened by the spirit?
enlightened by faith to develop moral arguments.
In his novel a comet hits the Earth and everyone becomes more spiritually enlightened.
Now let us look at two historical figures who were truly enlightened.
once enlightened you will no longer be forever seeking to change, deny, defend, or deify your experience of reality.
Tamara Jones Unfortunately, you appear to be dealing with building control officers that are not particularly enlightened with regard to conservation issues.
enlightened enough to sponsor a Certificate course for guidance teachers.
You are actually fully enlightened, fully awake, fully realized NOW.
enlightened what these entail?
There are a few isolated pockets of enlightened officers and members but they can hardly be recognized amidst the vast nothingness which prevails.
Sabbatical in order to pursue qualifications or undertake voluntary work is another option that enlightened employers can consider.
In fact, " enlightened self-interest " is, I would argue, the goal to which modern British foreign policy must be directed.
Down's enlightened views changed the care of the mentally subnormal.
I was suddenly and rudely enlightened when I heard the twang of the bow, and saw the arrow flying straight toward me.
In other words, even enlightened utilitarians should stop being motivated by it.
wast enlightened with the virtues of virginity, O godly Audrey.
He became an Italian in taste and sympathy, entering with enthusiasm into the humanistic ardour of the earlier Renaissance, encouraging men of letters at his court, administering his kingdom on the principles of an enlightened despotism, and lending his authority to establish that equilibrium in the peninsula upon which the politicians of his age believed, not without reason, that Italian independence might be secured.
criticism; and a layman, the great Lessing) took the form of " rationalism " within the church - interpreting Bible texts by main force in a way which the age thought " enlightened " (H.
Ivan regarded these events as a punishment from Heaven for the neglect of his duties, and he began to attend to public affairs under the influence of an enlightened priest called Sylvester and an official of humble origin called Adashev.
Russia must adopt, it was said, those enlightened principles and liberal institutions which made the Western nations superior to her not only in the arts of peace but even in the art of war; only by imitating her rivals could she hope to overtake and surpass them in the race of progress.
The six books pass in review (1) the doctrine of the soul, in which Gersonides defends the theory of impersonal reason as mediating between God and man, and explains the formation of the higher reason (or acquired intellect, as it was called) in humanity, - his view being thoroughly realist and resembling that of Avicebron; (2) prophecy; (3) and (4) God's knowledge of facts and providence, in which is advanced the curious theory that God does not know individual facts, and that, while there is general providence for all, special providence only extends to those whose reason has been enlightened; (5) celestial substances, treating of the strange spiritual hierarchy which the Jewish philosophers of the middle ages accepted from the Neoplatonists and the pseudo-Dionysius, and also giving, along with astronomical details, much of astrological theory; (6) creation and miracles, in respect to which Gerson deviates widely from the position of Maimonides.
His refusal to countenance torture as an instrument of judicial investigation, on the ground that "confessions so extorted give no sure criteria for forming a judgment," showed him to be more humane as well as more enlightened than the majority of his council, which had defended the contrary opinion.
When the greater part of the Will in existence is so far enlightened by reason as to perceive the inevitable misery of existence, a collective effort to will non-existence will be made, and the world will relapse into nothingness, the Unconscious into quiescence.
VALDEMAR I., king of Denmark (1131-1182), the son of the chivalrous and popular Canute Lavard and the Russian princess Ingeborg, was born a week after his father's murder, and was carefully brought up in the religious and relatively enlightened household of Asser Rig, whose sons Absalon and EsbjSrn Snare, or "the Swift," were his playmates.
2Ethelma r and his father ZEthelweard were both enlightened patrons of learning, and became Ãƒâ€ thic's faithful friends.
These teachers, genuinely touched with a sense of the scantiness of our knowledge, of our confidence in abstract terms, of the insecurity of our alleged "facts," case-histories and observations, alienated from traditional dogmatisms and disgusted by meddlesome polypharmacy - enlightened, moreover, by the issue of cases treated by means such as the homoeopathic, which were practically "expectant" - urged that the only course open to the physician, duly conscious of his own ignorance and of the mystery of nature, is to put his patient under diet and nursing, and, relying on the tendency of all equilibriums to recover themselves under perturbation, to await events (Vis medicatrix naturae).
Very soon, however, the enlightened makers of modern Japan appreciated the importance of journalism, and in 1871 the Shim bun Zasshi (News Periodical) was started under the auspices of the illustrious Kido.
Herat gradually recovered under the enlightened Ghorid kings, who were indeed natives of the province, though they preferred to hold their court amid their ancestral fortresses in the mountains of Ghor, so that at the time of Jenghiz Khan's invasion it equalled or even exceeded in populousness and wealth its sister capitals of Balkh, Mery and Nishapur, the united strength of the four cities being estimated at three millions of inhabitants.
The spirit of courage and endurance which had enabled the Czechoslovaks to achieve their independence was now to inspire a further work of no mean significance - the consolidation of a free, democratic and enlightened republic in the heart of Europe, the most westerly outpost of the great Slavonic world stretching from the banks of the Elbe and the Danube to the Pacific Ocean, and at the same time a nation bound by ties of gratitude and common interest to the Anglo-Saxon and Latin races.
They were shrewd enough to guess that the royal triumph might prejudice their influence, and for the next five years they deliberately thwarted the enlightened and far-reaching projects of the king for creating a navy and increasing the revenue without burdening the estates, by a system of tolls levied on the trade of the Baltic ports (see Wladislaus Iv.), even going so far as to refuse for nine years to refund the expenses of the Muscovite War, which he had defrayed out of his privy purse.
What I want is an enlightened, firm and vigilant administrator; and that is why I have chosen you."
On the other hand Lowth's Lectures on Hebrew Poetry, and the same author's Commentary on Isaiah (1778), show the beginnings of a tendency to look mainly at the aesthetic aspects of the prophetical books, and to view the prophets as enlightened religious poets.
He was thus affected by two different and incongruous systems of thought - one setting out from an imaginary code of nature intended for the benefit of man, and leading to an optimistic view of the economic constitution founded on enlightened selfinterest; the other following inductive processes, and seeking to explain the several states in which the human societies are found existing, as results of circumstances or institutions which have been in actual operation.
In spite of his intolerant attitude towards religious dissent, he proved himself an enlightened patron of learning.
He maintained all the forms of government established by his father, but ruled in a far more enlightened spirit; he tolerated every form of religious opinion, abolished the use of torture, was most careful to secure an exact and impartial administration of justice, and, while keeping the reins of government strictly in his own hands, allowed every one with a genuine grievance free access to his presence.
He tried by every means to develop and encourage commerce; he had the land accurately measured for the purpose of rightly adjusting taxation; he gave the strictest instructions to prevent extortion on the part of the taxgatherers, and in many other respects displayed an enlightened and equitable policy.
At the Pressburg diet in 1840 Dessewffy was already the leading orator of the more enlightened and progressive Conservatives, but incurred great unpopularity for not going far enough, with the result that he was twice defeated at the polls.
Doing excellent things continually through all the 'seventies, when he was in late middle age - gaining scope in colour, having now so many notes - faithful no longer wholly to his amazing range of subtle greys, now blithe and silvery, now nobly deep - sending to the Salon great canvases, and to the few enlightened people who would buy them of him the toile or panel of most moderate size on which he best of all expressed himself - Boudin was yet not acceptable to the public or to the fashionable dealer.
To the enlightened views of the ministries of Guizot and Thiers under the citizen-king, and to the zeal and ability of Cousin in the work of organization, France owes what is best in her system of primary education, - a national interest which had been neglected under the Revolution, the Empire and the Restoration (see ExposÃ©, p. 17).
But Pitt's prodigious egoism, stimulated by the mischievous counsels of men of the stamp of Lord Shelburne, prevented the fusion of the only two sections of the Whig party that were at once able, enlightened and disinterested enough to carry on the government efficiently, to check the arbitrary temper of the king, and to command the confidence of the nation.
The generous and enlightened policy of the imperial administration asked nothing of the people of Gaul but military service and the payment of the tax; in return it freed individuals from patronal domination, the people from oligarchic greed or Druidic excommunication, and every one in general from material anxiety.
Giving staff a sabbatical in order to pursue qualifications or undertake voluntary work is another option that enlightened employers can consider.
Down 's enlightened views changed the care of the mentally subnormal.
Thou wast enlightened with the virtues of virginity, O godly Audrey.
Even today in our enlightened world, some adoption agencies still prefer to place a child in a two parent home.
Fortunately, we live in an enlightened modern world that has come to understand some of the deeper issues surrounding children of divorced families.
Living in a modern world means that adults are more enlightened about the possible damage a bitter divorce can inflict on young minds.
The paint industry is market driven and paint manufacturers must stay on the cutting edge of interior design to meet the needs of enlightened consumers.
Fortunately, more enlightened minds have prevailed and the majority of pet owners wish to protect and preserve their dog's health and welfare.
Your new organic skin care custom product formulation may be just what you've always dreamed of, but to make sure that there aren't any unexpected surprises, take the time to be an enlightened consumer.
The yin yang symbol represents the philosophy that is an enlightened state of being.
She may want an enlightened sexual experience she couldn't get from over-eager men her own age; older men may be more likely to wait for her to make the first move and then show off what he's learned over the years.
Buddhism also incorporates references to achieving astral projection in enlightened states.
Many Hindus believe that once enlightened, a soul can experience the power or "siddhis" of spiritual travel.
Achieving a true balance of all eight steps of yoga is what will lead to a truly enlightened yoga practice.
Whether it is overtly through its lyrics (church hymns) or through its message (positive, enlightened, humbled), this form of expression is one that was recorded in biblical times, during the birth of Christianity.
Flowing effortlessly from the British voice of the author, the innocence of childhood antics intertwine with spots of a more enlightened humor.
One aspect the major eastern religions share is that to become enlightened, one must divest oneself of earthly attachments, which interfere with the process of enlightenment, keeping one too firmly attached to the every day routine.
The Italian rate is highest in the more enlightened and industrial north, and lowest in the south.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.