We speak English here.
Fred said as coffee and English muffins were served.
More people are learning English in China than there are people who speak it in the United States.
There were thousands of English soldiers in Boston.
Shakespeare was undoubtedly the greatest master the English language has ever known and, quite probably, will ever know.
These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
It was nice to hear English spoken without a Spanish accent.
I read an English caper about that happening one time.
Her English vocabulary was growing a word at a time—mostly terms like dust, vacuum, linens, dishes and other domestic terminologies.
Although this "much-abused prelate," as Lecky calls him, was a firm supporter of the English government in Ireland, he was far from being a man of tyrannical or intolerant disposition.
They spoke in broken English, but they appeared to understand what she wanted.
The Deans met Maria's betrothed, Emilio, who spoke halting English and was as polite as his fiancée.
"The English! the English!" said the young men.
The condition of the operatives is becoming every day more like that of the English; and it cannot be wondered at, since, as far as I have heard or observed, the principal object is, not that mankind may be well and honestly clad, but, unquestionably, that corporations may be enriched.
The two German women sharing her room ceased talking when she entered and looked her over before one said in halting English, "You're American."
There is in this town, with a very few exceptions, no taste for the best or for very good books even in English literature, whose words all can read and spell.
In using the phrase, "Necessitous men are not free men," Roosevelt was actually quoting from a decision in a well-known 1762 English legal case.
"Capital!" said Prince Hippolyte in English, and began slapping his knee with the palm of his hand.
The forests are under an English official.
And the fete at the English ambassador's?
The English will come off badly, you know, if Napoleon gets across the Channel.
"English?" she asked hopefully.
Further discussion of the question of Douglas's alleged Humanism will be found in Courthope's History of English Poetry, i.
Edith is, as them English novels say, 'in seclusion'—probably plotting how to wrap up Donald and take him home.
Such was the way in which the first true English poem was written.
In 1664 he was chosen one of the directors of the imperial army raised to fight the Turk; and after the peace which followed the Christian victory at St Gotthard in August 1664, he aided the English king Charles II.
Everyone in the future will learn English because it will be the language of the Internet and thus the language of the world and commerce.
American English is taught in schools and American slang is practiced in bars everywhere.
Speaking in English, he displayed an eloquence and command of the language scarcely excelled by the greatest orators in their own tongue.
He was the last English king who reigned in Northumbria.
It was called "Ivy Green" because the house and the surrounding trees and fences were covered with beautiful English ivy.
My studies for the first year were English history, English literature, German, Latin, arithmetic, Latin composition and occasional themes.
Mr. Gilman instructed me part of the year in English literature.
For once, she hadn't corrected his English, only nodded once more and held out her arm for the bracelet.
Jen, the valedictorian of her class, was to attend Ryder College in New Jersey and major in English Literature.
Anatole kept on refilling Pierre's glass while explaining that Dolokhov was betting with Stevens, an English naval officer, that he would drink a bottle of rum sitting on the outer ledge of the third floor window with his legs hanging out.
SAMUEL BAMFORD (1788-1872), English labour politician, was born at Miston, near Middleton, Lancashire, on the 28th of February 5788.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
The best English account will be found in H.
But English seems to have taken hold, thanks to the Internet.
In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
My studies the first year were French, German, history, English composition and English literature.
"Is it Old French or English?" another asked.
Gneist, Englische Verfassungsgeschichte, English translation by P. A.
She was a considerable linguist and knew English, Italian and some Latin, though she never tackled Greek.
It is true that I was familiar with all literary braille in common use in this country--English, American, and New York Point; but the various signs and symbols in geometry and algebra in the three systems are very different, and I had used only the English braille in my algebra.
This is about as much as the college-bred generally do or aspire to do, and they take an English paper for the purpose.
After the Emperor had left Moscow, life flowed on there in its usual course, and its course was so very usual that it was difficult to remember the recent days of patriotic elation and ardor, hard to believe that Russia was really in danger and that the members of the English Club were also sons of the Fatherland ready to sacrifice everything for it.
HENRY CHICHELEY (1364-1443), English archbishop, founder of All Souls College, Oxford, was born at Higham Ferrers, Northamptonshire, in 1363 or 1364.
To be successful in the world, for a while both English and one's native tongue will be requirements.
And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
In Montana, where 10 percent of residents spoke German and another 10 percent were of German descent, ministers weren't allowed to preach in German to congregants who understood no English, and one town publicly burned German textbooks, the Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported.
The cruciform church of St Mary, with a central tower and short spire, is in great part Early English, with Perpendicular additions; but considerable traces of a Norman building were revealed during a modern restoration.
Hutton took charge of the literary side of the paper, and by degrees his own articles became and remained up to the last one of the best-known features of serious and thoughtful English journalism.
From the free out-door life at Nohant she passed at thirteen to the convent of the English Augustinians at Paris, where for the first two years she never went outside the walls.
Douglas's longest, last, and in some respects most important work is his translation of the Aeneid, the first version of a great classic poet in any English dialect.
Last year, my second year at Radcliffe, I studied English composition, the Bible as English composition, the governments of America and Europe, the Odes of Horace, and Latin comedy.
I read La Fontaine's "Fables" first in an English translation, and enjoyed them only after a half-hearted fashion.
Great poetry, whether written in Greek or in English, needs no other interpreter than a responsive heart.
A few days ago I received a little box of English violets from Lady Meath.
You are studying English history, aren't you.
Green's "Short History of the English People" is in six large volumes.
One who has just come from reading perhaps one of the best English books will find how many with whom he can converse about it?
Sometimes I saw him at his work in the woods, felling trees, and he would greet me with a laugh of inexpressible satisfaction, and a salutation in Canadian French, though he spoke English as well.
If the name was not derived from that of some English locality--Saffron Walden, for instance--one might suppose that it was called originally Walled-in Pond.
Almost every New England boy among my contemporaries shouldered a fowling-piece between the ages of ten and fourteen; and his hunting and fishing grounds were not limited, like the preserves of an English nobleman, but were more boundless even than those of a savage.
At length, in the war of 1812, her dwelling was set on fire by English soldiers, prisoners on parole, when she was away, and her cat and dog and hens were all burned up together.
The races, the English Club, sprees with Denisov, and visits to a certain house--that was another matter and quite the thing for a dashing young hussar!
At the beginning of March, old Count Ilya Rostov was very busy arranging a dinner in honor of Prince Bagration at the English Club.
Next day, the third of March, soon after one o'clock, two hundred and fifty members of the English Club and fifty guests were awaiting the guest of honor and hero of the Austrian campaign, Prince Bagration, to dinner.
It pulls out and has a secret English drawer, you know!
In a top fermentation - typical of English breweries - the yeast rises, in a bottom fermentation, as the phrase implies, it settles in the vessel.
Bonaparte and Professor Schlegel (1850), though it excludes many birds which an English writer would call "grosbeaks."
The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
I can hardly wait patiently for the time to come when I shall see my dear English friends, and their beautiful island home.
In the very nature of things, articulation is an unsatisfactory means of education; while the use of the manual alphabet quickens and invigorates mental activity, since through it the deaf child is brought into close contact with the English language, and the highest and most abstract ideas may be conveyed to the mind readily and accurately.
The crop of English hay is carefully weighed, the moisture calculated, the silicates and the potash; but in all dells and pond-holes in the woods and pastures and swamps grows a rich and various crop only unreaped by man.
He explained how an army, ninety thousand strong, was to threaten Prussia so as to bring her out of her neutrality and draw her into the war; how part of that army was to join some Swedish forces at Stralsund; how two hundred and twenty thousand Austrians, with a hundred thousand Russians, were to operate in Italy and on the Rhine; how fifty thousand Russians and as many English were to land at Naples, and how a total force of five hundred thousand men was to attack the French from different sides.
The cock, in his plumage of yellowish-green and yellow is one of the most finely coloured of common English birds, but he is rather heavily built, and his song is hardly commended.
After a short stay first at Alen90n and then in Bourges, he passed over to England, where he found refuge in London with Ugo Foscolo, and made a few English friends.
It will be English, although not really the English we speak today.
More people speak some English than any other language.
The marriage of this youth to James IV.'s widow on the 6th of August 1514 did much to identify the Douglases with the English party in Scotland, as against the French party led by Albany, and incidentally to determine the political career of his uncle Gavin.
- the exact distance in English miles by the modern railway!
The service has since been extended to certain other English provincial towns; and the Anglo-Belgian telephone service has similarly been extended.
It was the spirit of the age; and England, English and Holland and France were fired by it.
No doubt there was a class that knew only English; there may have been a much smaller class that knew only French; any man who pretended to high cultivation would speak all as a matter of course; Bishop Gilbert Foliot, for instance, was eloquent in all three.
John Locke, the real father of English philosophy, took the field against what he regarded as Descartes's impossible programme of " Innate Ideas."
Long before English became the lingua franca of the Internet age, the world has wanted a common language.
Of course you have read about the "Gordon Memorial College," which the English people are to erect at Khartoum.
Among them are "Henry Esmond," "Bacon's Essays" and extracts from "English Literature."
The courses at Radcliffe are elective, only certain courses in English are prescribed.
I passed off my English and advanced French before I entered college, and I choose the courses I like best.
The most convenient print for the blind is braille, which has several variations, too many, indeed--English, American, New York Point.
Most educated blind people know several, but it would save trouble if, as Miss Keller suggests, English braille were universally adopted.
Of course, in the beginning it was necessary that the things described should be familiar and interesting, and the English pure and simple.
I am convinced that Helen's use of English is due largely to her familiarity with books.
Another friend, who is as familiar with French as with English, finds her French much more intelligible than her English.
The only way is to hear it, especially in a language like English which is so full of unspellable, suppressed vowels and quasi-vowels.
If Miss Sullivan wrote fine English, the beauty of Helen Keller's style would, in part, be explicable at once.
Her service as a teacher of English is not to be measured by her own skill in composition.
There is, moreover, a reason why Helen Keller writes good English, which lies in the very absence of sight and hearing.
The way to write good English is to read it and hear it.
Thus it is that any child may be taught to use correct English by not being allowed to read or hear any other kind.
The style of the Bible is everywhere in Miss Keller's work, just as it is in the style of most great English writers.
On that third of March, all the rooms in the English Club were filled with a hum of conversation, like the hum of bees swarming in springtime.
The grandee's well-known mansion on the English Quay glittered with innumerable lights.
The men remained at table over their port--English fashion.
But instead of all that--here he was, the wealthy husband of an unfaithful wife, a retired gentleman-in-waiting, fond of eating and drinking and, as he unbuttoned his waistcoat, of abusing the government a bit, a member of the Moscow English Club, and a universal favorite in Moscow society.
Grass had already begun to grow on the garden paths, and horses and calves were straying in the English park.
And the memory of the dinner at the English Club when he had challenged Dolokhov flashed through Pierre's mind, and then he remembered his benefactor at Torzhok.
It was taking place at the English Club and someone near and dear to him sat at the end of the table.
Nicholas was a plain farmer: he did not like innovations, especially the English ones then coming into vogue.
Gammer Gurton's Needle is the second extant English comedy, properly so called.
I have read that the English and Americans are cousins; but I am sure it would be much truer to say that we are brothers and sisters.
I am eager to cross the ocean, for I want to see my English friends and their good and wise queen.
The subjects I offered were elementary and advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman History.
TO MR. WILLIAM WADE Cambridge, February 2, 1901. ...By the way, have you any specimens of English braille especially printed for those who have lost their sight late in life or have fingers hardened by long toil, so that their touch is less sensitive than that of other blind people?
A child of the muses cannot write fine English unless fine English has been its nourishment.
Grow wild according to thy nature, like these sedges and brakes, which will never become English bay.
If his family had lived in the United States for centuries, why didn't they learn to speak proper English?
All this time I thought the company was interested in him because he could speak both Spanish and English.
You explain it... in English.
Kiera sought an explanation, recalling he was not familiar with most slang despite his mastery of English.
First of all, he can speak English.
Would it be read in Spanish or English?
Of the numerous churches in the city the most interesting are the Stiftskirche, with two towers, a fine specimen of 15th-century Gothic; the Leonhardskirche, also a Gothic building of the 15th century; the Hospitalkirche, restored in 1841, the cloisters of which contain the tomb of Johann Reuchlin; the fine modern Gothic church of St John; the new Roman Catholic church of St Nicholas; the Friedenskirche; and the English church.
(1899), and The English Church in the 16th Century (1902); J.
In 1811 he founded at the mouth of the Columbia river a settlement named after him Astoria, which was intended to serve as the central depot; but two years later the settlement was seized and occupied by the English.
He greatly increased his political information, and also acquired, from the study of the Bible and Shakespeare, a wonderful knowledge of English.
See Lord Acton, English Historical Review, i.
Of the inhabitants born in the United States 61,508 were natives of Virginia, 40,301 of Ohio, 28,927 of Pennsylvania and 10,867 of Kentucky; and of the foreign-born there were 6J37 Germans, 334 2 Irish, 2921 Italians and 2622 English.
In the wars against the English in the 14th and 15th centuries and the religious wars of the 16th century the town had its full participation; and in 1665 it acquired a terrible notoriety by the trial and execution of many members of the nobility of Auvergne who had tyrannized over the neighbouring districts.
The church of St John the Baptist, though largely altered by modern restoration, retains Early English to Perpendicular portions, and some early monuments and brasses.
This Robert Livingston, founder of the American family, became in 1675 secretary of the important Board of Indian Commissioners; he was a member of the New York Assembly in1711-1715and 1716-1727 and its speaker in 1718-1725, and in 1701 made the proposal that all the English colonies in America should be grouped for administrative purposes "into three distinct governments."
The place of the praetor was occupied in English jurisprudence.
The real beginning of English equity is to be found in the custom of handing over to that officer, for adjudication, the complaints which were addressed to the king, praying for remedies beyond the reach of the common law.
English equity has one marked historical peculiarity, viz.
Another was the jealousy prevailing in England against the principles of the Roman law on which English equity to a large extent was founded.
The following translations into English verse are known: G.
By his translation (from the English) of the Sakuntala of Kalidasa (1791), he first awakened German interest in Indian literature.
The best testimony for the behaviour of Orleans during this summer is the testimony of an English lady, Mrs Grace Dalrymple Elliott, who shared his heart with the comtesse de Buffon, and from which it is absolutely certain that at the time of the riot of the 12th of July he was on a fishing excursion, and was rudely treated by the king on the next day when going to offer him his services.
In English churches these stairs generally run up in a small turret in the wall at the west end of the chancel; often this also leads out on to the roof.
" Rood stairs " remain in many English churches where the rood loft has been destroyed.
The rivalry between the English and the French, which had already convulsed the south, did not penetrate to Bengal.
When that passionate young prince, in revenge for a fancied wrong, resolved to drive the English out of Bengal, his first step was to occupy the fortified factory at Cossimbazar, and make prisoners of Hastings and his companions.
Hastings was soon released at the intercession of the Dutch resident, and made use of his position at Murshidabad to open negotiations with the English fugitives at Falta, the site of a Dutch factory near the mouth of the Hugli.
After a while he found it necessary to fly from the Mahommedan court and join the main body of the English at Falta.
The entire duties of administration were suffered to remain in the hands of the nawab, while a few irresponsible English traders had drawn to themselves all real power.
The English common law, with all the absurdities and rigours of that day, was arbitrarily extended to an alien system of society.
Trotter, Warren Hastings (" Rulers of India" series) (1890); Sir Alfred Lyall, Warren Hastings (" English Men of Action" series) (1889); F.
Five miles from Norfolk and with Norfolk as its headquarters was held from the 26th of April to the 30th of November 1907 the Jamestown Ter-Centennial Exposition, celebrating the first permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown, Virginia.
Though the bishop's see was removed to Christiansand in 1685, the Romanesque cathedral church of St Swithun, founded by the English bishop Reinald in the end of the 11th century, and rebuilt after being burned down in 1272, remains, and, next to the cathedral of Trondhjem, is the most interesting stone church in Norway.
The last of the direct descendants of Simon Grynaeus was his namesake Simon (1725-1799), translator into German of French and English anti-deistical works, and author of a version of the Bible in modern German (1776).
Their mother, loving the latter most, avenged his death by murdering her son, and the people, horrified at her act, revolted and murdered both her and King Gorboduc. This legend was the subject of the earliest regular English tragedy which in 1561 was played before Queen Elizabeth in the Inner Temple hall.
In the old town of Bridlington the church of St Mary and St Nicholas consists of the fine Decorated and Perpendicular nave, with Early English portions, of the priory church of an Augustinian foundation of the time of Henry I.
SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE (1788-1861), English historian, was the son of Meyer Cohen, a Jewish stockbroker, and was born in London in July 1788.
THEOPHILUS EATON (c. 1590-1658), English colonial governor in America, was born at Stony Stratford, Buckinghamshire, about 1590.
For English readers the selection in G.
Just outside the south wall is a Roman necropolis, with massive tombs in masonry, and a Christian catacomb, and a little farther south a tomb in two stories, a mixture of Doric and Ionic architecture, belonging probably to the 2nd century B.C., though groundlessly called Dimensions in English feet.
The English micrometer still retains the essential features of Troughton's original construction above described.
The later English artists have somewhat changed the mode of communicating motion to the slides, by attaching the screws pdrmanently to the micrometer head and tapping each micrometer screw into its slide.
Dawes, who employed a micrometer of the English type (figs.
An English translation of this paper is given in the Astrophysical Journal, xxiv.
Gibbs in 1868 for the Early English Text Society.
An English prose romance, Helyas Knight of the Swan, translated by Robert Copland, and printed by W.
JEREMY COLLIER (1650-1726), English nonjuring divine, was born at Stow-with-Quy, Cambridgeshire, on the 23rd of September 1650.
In 1698 Collier produced his famous Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage...
In 1718 was published a new Communion Office taken partly from Primitive Liturgies and partly from the first English Reformed Common Prayer Book,..
The island remained a Spanish province until the War of the Spanish Succession, when in 1708 Cagliari capitulated to an English fleet, and the island became Austrian; the status quo was confirmed by the peace of Utrecht in 1713.
After her death he married Eadgyfu (Odgiva), daughter of Edward the Elder, king of the English, who was the mother of Louis IV.
He also contributed largely to the Internationale theologische Zeitschrift, a review started in 1893 by the Old Catholics to promote the union of National Churches on the basis of the councils of the Undivided Church, and admitting articles in German, French and English.
He published works on Leibnitz, empiricism and scepticism in Hume's philosophy, modern pessimism, Kantic criticism, English philosophy, Heraclitus of Ephesus and many other subjects.
What makes him memorable in English history is that he opposed the establishment of a special kind of political organization.
Finally, in his monograph (1886) in the series of "English Worthies," H.
As a scholar he devoted his attention almost entirely to Plato; and his Phaedrus (1868) and Gorgias (1871), with especially valuable introductions, still remain the standard English editions of these two dialogues.
ABRAHAM TUCKER (1705-1774), English moralist, was born in London, of a Somerset family, on the 2nd of September 1705, son of a wealthy city merchant.
See James Mackintosh, Dissertation on the Progress of Ethical Philosophy (Edinburgh, 1832); and specially Sir Leslie Stephen, English Thought in the 18th Century, iii.
Beginning in 1867 with the publication of Jacob ben Chajim's Introduction to the Rabbinic Bible, Hebrew and English, with notices, and the Massoreth HaMassoreth of Elias Levita, in Hebrew, with translation and commentary, Dr Ginsburg took rank as an eminent Hebrew scholar.
In 1870 he was appointed one of the first members of the committee for the revision of the English version of the Old Testament.
His manual on Graphical Statics and his Elements of Projective Geometry (translated by C. Leudesdorf), have been published in English by the Clarendon Press.
The English and French governments made representations to the Vatican, but Pius IX., through the medium of the Civiltd Cattolica, maintained that the question at issue was a spiritual one, outside his temporal jurisdiction.
When a boy he visited England, and he had an English tutor for some time in Cairo.
The rivalry between the French and English factions in Scotland was complicated by private feuds of the Hamiltons and Douglases, the respective heads of which houses, Arran and Angus, were contending for the supreme power in the absence of Albany in France, where at the instance of Henry VIII.
During these years there was constant warfare between the English and the Scots on the border, but in May 1524 Albany was obliged to retire to France.
Ellis, Original Letters Illustrative of English History (London, 1825-1846).
After a period of vacillation he deserted Louis and joined the Holy League, which had been formed to expel the French from Italy; but unable to raise troops, he served with the English forces as a volunteer and shared in the victory gained over the French at the battle of the Spurs near Therouanne on the 16th of August 1513.
They became well known to English readers from J.
From a sick-bed, from which he never rose, he conducted this work with surprising energy, and there composed those poems, too few in number, but immortal in the English language, such as the "Song of the Shirt" (which appeared anonymously in the Christmas number of Punch, 1843), the "Bridge of Sighs" and the "Song of the Labourer," which seized the deep human interests of the time, and transported them from the ground of social philosophy into the loftier domain of the imagination.
At the Council of Salisbury in 1116 the English king ordered Thurstan to submit, but instead he resigned his archbishopric, although this did not take effect.
According to the New English Dictionary, although the origin of the word "cat" is unknown, yet the name is found in various languages as far back as they can be traced.
In the English criminal law, where corporal punishment is ordered by the court for certain criminal offences, the "cat" is used only where the prisoner is over sixteen years of age.
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
In the spring of 1625 1 It was only published after the author's death; and of it, besides the French version, there exists an English translation " by a Person of Quality."
Rohault's version of the Cartesian physics was translated into English; and Malebranche found an ardent follower in John Norris (1667-171 I).
There are English translations by J.
The Abbe Migne published a very useful edition of the Summa Theologiae, in four 8vo vols., as an appendix to his Patrologiae Cursus Cornpletus; English editions, J.
THE CRYSTAL PALACE, a well-known English resort, standing high up in grounds just outside the southern boundary of the county of London, in the neighbourhood of Sydenham.
There is also fine sea-bathing at English Bay on the outskirts of the city.
The term is used in this general sense in certain rubrics of the English Book of Common Prayer, in which it is applied equally to rectors and vicars as to perpetual curates.
high, is employed instead of a jack, - recalling, in this respect, the old English form of the game already mentioned.
Then in rapid succession came several independent bodies - the Midland Counties (1895), the London and Southern Counties (1896), the Imperial (1899), the English (1903) and the Irish and Welsh (1904).
In Edinburgh, Glasgow, and elsewhere in Scotland, and in London (through the county council), Newcastle and other English towns, the corporations have laid down greens in public parks and open spaces.
On all good greens the game is played in rinks of four a side, there being, however, on the part of many English clubs still an adherence to the old-fashioned method of two and three a side rinks.
In English practice the leader is entitled to a second throw if he fail to roll a On Scottish greens the game of points is frequently played, but it is rarely seen on English greens.
A "toucher" bowl is a characteristic of the Scottish game to which great exception is taken by many English clubs.
On most English greens it is a "dead" jack and the end void.
OSWIO (c. 612-670), king of Northumbria, son of .Ã†thelfrith and brother of Oswald, whom he succeeded in Bernicia in 642 after the battle of Maserfeld, was the seventh of the great English kings enumerated by Bede.
Two lines of steamers, an English and a Turkish, furnish an inadequate service between Basra and Bagdad, but there is no steam navigation on the river above the latter city.
It is said that the terms Whig and Tory were first applied to English political parties in consequence of this dispute.
These were each about 51 English m.
The English, under Sir Thomas Graham, afterwards Lord Lynedoch, in March 1814 made an attempt to take it by a coup de main, but were driven back with great loss by the French, who surrendered the place, however, by the treaty of peace in the following May.
ADOLPHUS WILLIAM WARD (1837-), English historian and man of letters, was born at Hampstead, London, on the 2nd of December 1837, and was educated in Germany and at the university of Cambridge.
In 1866 he was appointed professor of history and English literature in Owens College, Manchester, and was principal from 1890 to 1897, when he retired.
His most important work is his standard History of English Dramatic Literature to the Age of Queen Anne (1875), re-edited after a thorough revision in three volumes in 1899.
Waller edited the Cambridge History of English Literature (1907, &c.).
The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.
The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century.
There are two considerable fragments of an English alliterative romance on the subject written in the west midland dialect, and dating from the second half of the 14th century.
Wallis Budge (1896, 2 vols., with English translation); the Syriac text of pseudo-Callisthenes by Budge (Cambridge, 1889); cp. K.
Besides the English editions quoted in the text, the alliterative English poems were partially edited by J.
1714 Seville Cathedral.1785-1790Old English tuning-fork' c. 1715 Imperial Russian Court Church Band..
He burned the town and slew the English sheriff William Hezelrig.
The Life of Theodosius has been translated into English by F.
justiciarius or justitiarius, a judge), in English history, the title of the chief minister of the Norman and earlier Angevin kings.
A picturesque avenue leads to the church of St Mary, principally Early English and Perpendicular, with remains of Norman work, having a lofty tower surmounted by a spire, and containing several fine monuments, tombs and brasses.
On this account, the custom of both the French and English people of the country was for years before and for several years after 1870 to pronounce it Man-I-CO-ba, and even in some cases to spell it " Manitobah."
000 English Miles ao 20 30 an 5 c+ ?
JOHN LYDGATE (c. 1370 - c. 1451), English poet, was born at the village of Lydgate, some 6 or 7 m.
The second edition in English appeared at Edinburgh in 1611, and in the preface to it Napier states he intended to have published an edition in Latin soon after the original publication in 1593, but that, as the work had now been made public by the French and Dutch translations, besides the English editions, and as he was "advertised that our papistical adversaries wer to write larglie against the said editions that are alreadie set out," he defers the Latin edition "till having first seene the adversaries objections, I may insert in the Latin edition an apologie of that which is rightly done, and an amends of whatsoever is amisse."
The former translated the work into English, but he died in 1615, and the translation was published by his son Samuel Wright in 1616.
It may, however, be mentioned here that an English translation of the Constructio of 1619 was published by W.
Macdonald at Edinburgh in 1889, and that there is appended to this edition a complete catalogue of all Napier's writings, and their various editions and translations, English and foreign, all the works being carefully collated, and references being added to the various public libraries in which they are to be found.
The nave passes from Norman to Early English in the course of its eight bays from east to west and also from the arcade through the triforium to the clerestory.
BENJAMIN JOWETT (1817-1893), English scholar and theologian, master of Balliol College, Oxford, was born in Camberwell on the 15th of April 1817.
Of the 25,301 foreign-born in 1900, 5114 were Germans; 3485, Irish; 337 6, Swedes; 3344, English; 2623, English-Canadian; 1338, Russians; and 1033, Scots.
JOHN MILL (c. 1645-1707), English theologian, was born about 1645 at Shap in Westmorland, entered Queen's College, Oxford, as a servitor in 166r, and took his master's degree in 1669 in which year he spoke the "Oratio Panegyrica" at the opening of the Sheldonian Theatre.
It is an English work.
As compared with Scotland, English Presbyterianism had more of the lay element.
Then with the Restoration came Episcopacy, and the persecution of all who were not Episcopalians; and the dream and vision of a truly Reformed English Church practically passed away.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
To English people, therefore, the Presbyterian is still the "Scotch Church," and they are as a whole slow to connect themselves with it.
Efforts have been made to counteract this feeling by making the Church more distinctly English.
The danger in this direction is that when Presbyterianism has been modified far enough to suit the English taste it may be found less acceptable to its more stalwart supporters from beyond the Tweed.
It was opened in 1899 with the view of securing a home-bred ministry more conversant with English academic life and thought.
This, except historically, is a misnomer, for, though descended from the old English Presbyterians, they retain nothing of their distinctive doctrine of polity - nothing of Presbyterianism, indeed, but the name.
English Puritans emigrated under the auspices of the Virginia Company to the Bermudas in 1612; and in 1617 a Presbyterian Church, governed by ministers and four elders, was established there by Lewis Hughes, who used the liturgy of the isles of Guernsey and Jersey.
Beginning with 1620, New England was colonized by English Presbyterians of the two types which developed from the discussions of the Westminster Assembly (1643-1648) into Presbyterianism and Congregationalism.
At Charleston a mixed congregation of Scotch Presbyterians and English Puritans was organized in 1690.
In the war of 1665 the Dutch under Admiral Opdam were defeated off Lowestoft by the English fleet commanded by the duke of York.
On his liberation he visited England once more, where he succeeded well at first; but was ultimately outwitted by some English lawyers, and confined for a while in the Fleet prison.
He then made the acquaintance of Aaron Solomon Gumperz, who taught him the elements of French and English.
The Phddon was an immediate success, and besides being often reprinted in German was speedily translated into nearly all the European languages, including English.
Much interesting material on the Mendelssohn family is given in Hensel's Die Familie Mendelssohn (translated into English, 1881).
The members accidentally discovered that the fear of it had a great influence over the lawless but superstitious blacks, and soon the club expanded into a great federation of regulators, absorbing numerous local bodies that had been formed in the absence of civil law and partaking of the nature of the old English neighbourhood police and the ante-bellum slave patrol.
Buenos Aires was blockaded by the combined English and French fleets, September 1845, which landed a force to open the passage up the Parana to Paraguay, which had been declared closed to foreigners by Rosas.
Numerous small archipelagoes and islands, of which the chief are Belle Tie, Groix and Ushant, fringe the Breton coast.- North of the Bay of St Michel the peninsula of Cotentin, terminating in the promontories of Hague and Barfleur, juts north into the English Channel and closes the bay of the Seine on the -west.
Early potatoes and other vegetables (primeurs) are largely cultivated in the districts bordering the English Channel.
Railways.The first important line in France, from Paris to Rouen, was constructed through the instrumentality of Sir Edward Blount (1809-1905), an English banker in Paris, who was afterwards for thirty years chairman of the Ouest railway.
The contract for building the railway was put in the hands of Thomas Brassey; English navvies were largely employed on the work, and a number of English engine-drivers were employed when traffic was begun in 1843.
Subdivisions may be, and often are, named according to the particular duties to which they are assigned, as la police politique, police des mceurs, police sanitaire, &c. The officers of the judicial police comprise the juge de paix (equivalent to the English police magistrate), the maire, the commissaire de police, the gendarmerie and, in rural districts, the gardes champtres and the gardes forestiers.
Gardiens de la pair (sometimes called sergents de yule, gardes de yule or agents de police) are not to be confounded with the gendarmerie, being a branch of the administrative police and corresponding more or less nearly with the English equivalent police constables, which the gendarmerie do not, although both perform police duty.
WILLIAM MURRAY MANSFIELD, 1ST Earl Of (1705-1793), English judge, was born at Scone in Perthshire, on the 2nd of March 1705.
His English practice had as yet been scanty, but in 1737 a single speech in a jury trial of note placed him at the head of the bar, and from this time he had all he could attend to.
been recognized as the founder of English mercantile law.
A similar influence was exerted by him in other branches of the common law; and although, after his retirement, a reaction took place, and he was regarded for a while as one who had corrupted the ancient principles of English law, these prejudices passed rapidly away, and the value of his work in bringing the older law into harmony with the needs of modern society has long been fully recognized.
In the midst of Charles's debauched and licentious court, she lived neglected and retired, often deprived of her due allowance, having no ambitions and taking no part in English politics, but keeping up rather her interest in her native country.
SIR THOMAS SMITH (1513-1577), English scholar and diplomatist, was born at Saffron Walden in Essex on the 23rd of December 1513.
This last word is the regular French for "knight," and is chiefly used in English for a member of certain foreign military or other orders, particularly of the Legion of Honour.
Cavalier in English was early applied in a contemptuous sense to an overbearing swashbuckler - a roisterer or swaggering gallant.
The English names of the individual islands were probably given by buccaneers, for whom the group formed a convenient retreat.
(18042 English ft.), for which it runs due E.
After his accession to the throne William spent some time at the court of the English king, Henry II.; then, quarrelling with Henry, he arranged in 1168 the first definite treaty of alliance between France and Scotland, and with Louis VII.
In return for this aid the younger Henry granted to William the earldom of Northumberland, a possession which the latter had vainly sought from the English king, and which was possibly the cause of their first estrangement.
In 1188 William secured a papal bull which declared that the Church of Scotland was directly subject only to the see of Rome, thus rejecting the claims to supremacy put forward by the English archbishop. This step was followed by the temporal independence of Scotland, which was one result of the continual poverty of Richard I.
He left one son, his successor Alexander II., and two daughters, Margaret and Isabella, who were sent to England after the treaty of 1209, and who both married English nobles, Margaret becoming the wife of Hubert de Burgh.He also left some illegitimate children.
Excavations were made on its site in 1811 by Baron Haller von Hallerstein and the English architect C. R.
The sea-front, overlooking the English Channel, stretches nearly 4 m.
Educational establishments are numerous, and include Brighton College, which ranks high among English public schools.
The single species, which is a native of western and southern Australia, is about the size of an English squirrel, to which its long bushy tail gives it some resemblance; but it lives entirely on the ground, especially in sterile sandy districts, feeding on ants.
Of the Old World forms, the family Triconodontidae is typified by the genus Triconodon, from the English Purbeck, in which the cheek-teeth carry three cutting cusps arranged longitudinally.
As regards the affinities of the creatures to which these jaws belonged, Professor Osborn has referred the Triconodontidae and Amphitheriidae, together with the Curtodontidae (as represented by the English Purbeck Curtodon), to a primitive group of marsupials, while he has assigned the Amblotheriidae and Stylacodontidae to an ancestral assemblage of Insectivora.
It may be added that a few traces of mammals have been obtained from the English Wealden, among which an incisor tooth foreshadows the rodent type.
JOHN WILLIAM STRUTT RAYLEIGH, 3rd baron (1842-), English physicist, was born in Essex on the 12th of November 1842, being the son of the 2nd baron.'
He encouraged learning to the extent of admitting Sir Thomas More into his household, and writing a Latin history of Richard III., which More translated into English.
The first English navigator to sight the Australian continent was William Dampier, who made a visit to these shores in 1688, as supercargo of the " Cygnet," a trader whose crew had turned buccaneers.
From a shipwrecked English sailor he met with, who had lived with the savages, he heard of the river Brisbane.
In 1827 and 1829, an English company endeavoured to plant a settlement at the Swan river, and this, added to a small military station established in 1825 at King George Sound, constituted Western Australia.
That strike had been liberally helped by the Australian unions, and it was confidently predicted that, as the Australian workers were more effectively organized than the English unions, a corresponding success would result from their course of action.
The church (Early English) contains some carved woodwork and ancient brasses.
HENRY JOHN STEPHEN SMITH (1826-1883), English mathematician, was born in Dublin on the 2nd of November 1826, and was the fourth child of his parents.
(English translation, i.
The English translations (Time and Free Will, Matter and Memory and Creative Evolution) all belong to 1910-1.
BERCHTA (English Bertha), a fairy in South German mythology.
His ancestors, it is believed, came from Scotland, and settled at Bayonne when that region was occupied by the English.
Woolwich remained the chief dockyard of the English navy until the introduction of iron ship building, but the dockyard was closed in 1869.
SIR JAMES STANSFELD (1820-1898), English politician, was born at Moorlands, Halifax, on the 5th of October 1820, the son of James Stansfeld, a county-court judge.
GEORGE BOOLE (1815-1864), English logician and mathematician, was born in Lincoln on the 2nd of November 1815.
GEORGE PEACOCK (1791-1858), English mathematician, was born at Thornton Hall, Denton, near Darlington, on the 9th of April 1791.
The geographical features of the countries formerly known collectively as the Netherlands or Low Countries are dealt with under the modern English names of Holland and Belgium.
A permanent memorial of it remains in the famous Order of the Golden Fleece, which was instituted by the duke at Bruges in 1430 on the occasion of his marriage with Isabel of Portugal, a descendant of John of Gaunt, and was so named from the English wool, the raw material used in the Flemish looms, for which Bruges was the chief mart.
Hertz's scientific papers were translated into English by Professor D.
Franck, in his preface, says the original was in English; elsewhere he says it was in Latin; the theory that his German was really the original is unwarrantable.
ix.) English Knights Riding Into The Lists.
In the early 16th century Tournai was an English possession for a few years and Henry VIII.
In England materialism has been endemic, so to speak, from Hobbes to the present time, and English materialism is more important perhaps than that of any other country.
alp 1 Dindings Medan Scale, t:R.000,000 English Miles oto 50 too 150 Railways «.*+ British Possessions...-...
EYRE EVANS CROWE (1799-1868), English journalist and historian, was born about the year 1 799.
A large element of the population is of German descent or German birth, and two newspapers are published in German, besides three dailies, three weeklies and a semi-weekly in English.
Of the foreign-born, 14,924 were French Canadians, 10,616 were English Canadians and 7453 were Irish.
The first English settlement was probably made at Chimney Point, in Addison township, in 1690 by a party from Albany.
He seems, however, to have pleased his patron, Cromwell, and perhaps Henry, by his energy in seeing the king's "Great" Bible in English through the press in Paris.
Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the English residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, British consul in 1580.
A numerous British colony resides at Mustapha, where there is an English club.
The ships of Greece and Turkey are largely built of it, but it has not always proved satisfactory in English dockyards.
Robur than any other species, forming a thick trunk with spreading base and, when growing in glades or other open places, huge spreading boughs, less twisted and gnarled than those of the English oak, and covered with a whitish bark that gives a marked character to the tree.
The principal buildings are: the Roman Catholic church, which was completed in 1851; the English church, the theatre, the Kurhaus, built in 1901, and several bathing establishments and hospitals.
He then marched north into Scotland, following the forces of Monro, and established a new government of the Argyle faction at Edinburgh; replying to the Independents who disapp-oved of his mild treatment of the Presbyterians, that he desired "union and right understanding between the godly people, Scots, English, Jews, Gentiles, Presbyterians, Anabaptists and all; ...
In Ireland In Ormonde had succeeded in uniting the English and the Ireland.
The law was ably and justly administered, and Irish trade was admitted to the same privileges as English, enjoying the same rights in foreign and colonial trade; and no attempt was made to subordinate the interests of the former to the latter, which was the policy adopted both before and after Cromwell's time, while the union of Irish and English interests was further recognized by the Irish representation at Westminster in the parliaments of 1654, 1656 and 16J9.
These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.
of about one-third of the estates to the royalists - survived, and added to the difficulties with which the English government was afterwards confronted in Ireland.
In foreign policy Cromwell's chief aims appear to have been to support and extend the Protestant faith, to promote English trade, and to prevent a Stuart restoration by foreign policy.
In 1651 the Dutch completed a treaty with Denmark to injure English trade in the Baltic; to which England replied the same year by the Navigation Act, which suppressed the Dutch trade with the English colonies and the Dutch fish trade with England, and struck at the Dutch carrying trade.
The Dutch acknowledged the supremacyof the English flag in the British seas, which Tromp had before refused; they accepted the Navigation Act, and undertook privately to exclude the princes of Orange from the command of their forces.
The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies.
In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.
Cromwell furnished 6000 men with a fleet to join in the attack upon Spain in Flanders, and obtained as reward Mardyke and Dunkirk, the former being captured and handed over on the 3rd of October 1657, and the latter after the battle of the Dunes on the 4th of June 1658, when Cromwell's Ironsides were once more pitted against English royalists fighting for the Spaniards.
These were not to be employed for the advancement of English interests alone.
The Protector, however, did not live to witness the final triumph of his undertaking, which gave to England, as he had wished," the mastery of those seas,"ensuring the English colonies against Spanish attacks, and being maintained and followed up at the Restoration.
The swift, unhesitating charge was more than unusual in the wars of the time, and was possible only because of the peculiar earnestness of the men who fought the English war.
The professional soldiers of the Continent could rarely be brought to force a decision; but the English, contending for a cause, were imbued with the spirit of the modern "nation in arms"; and having taken up arms wished to decide the quarrel by arms. This feeling was not less conspicuous in the far-ranging rides, or raids, of the Cromwellian cavalry.
Not even Sheridan's horsemen in 1864-65 did their work more effectively than did the English squadrons in the Preston campaign.
At a time when throughout the rest of Europe armies were manoeuvring against one another with no more than a formal result, the English and Scots were fighting decisive battles; and Cromwell's battles were more decisive than those of any other leader.
Oppenheim (1896); History of the English Church during the Civil Wars, by W.
When Commodore Perry arrived in 1853, there were on Peel Island thirty-one inhabitants, four being English, four American, one Portuguese and the rest natives of the Sandwich Islands, the Ladrones, &c.; and when Mr Russell Robertson visited the place in 1875, the colony had grown to sixty-nine, of whom only five were pure whites.
English was the language of the settlers, and they regarded themselves as a British colony.
Its period is mainly Transitional Norman and Early English, and though considerably altered by restoration it contains some good details, with many monuments and brasses.
An English clergyman named William Jackson, a man of infamous notoriety who had long lived in France, where he had imbibed revolutionary opinions, came to Ireland to nogotiate between the French committee of public safety and the United Irishmen.
CLAUDIUS JAMES RICH (1787-1821), English traveller and scholar, was born near Dijon on the 28th of March 1787.
Among modern editions of separate plays with commentaries the following are probably the most useful: Amphitruo by Palmer, 1890,1890, and Havet, 1895; Asinaria by Gray, 1894; Aulularia by Wagner, 1866 and 1876; Captivi by Brix, 6th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1910; an English edition of this work by Sonnenschein (with introduction on prosody), 1880; same play by Lindsay (with metrical introduction), 1900; Epidicus by Gray, 1893; Menaechmi by Brix, 4th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1891; Miles gloriosus by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1886; by Brix, 3rd ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1901; by Tyrrell, 3rd ed., 1894; Mostellaria by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1883; by Sonnenschein, 2nd ed., 1907; Pseudolus by Lorenz, 1876; Rudens by Sonnenschein, 1891, editio minor (with a metrical appendix), 1901; Trinummus (with a metrical introduction) by Brix, 5th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1907; by Gray, 1897; Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund, 1898.
Of English plays, the interlude called Jack Juggler (between 1547 and 1553) was based on the Amphitruo, and the lost play called the Historie of Error (acted in 1577) was probably based on the Menae-chmi; Nicholas Udall's Ralph Royster Doyster, the first English comedy (acted before 1551, first printed 1566), is founded on the Miles gloriosus; Shakespeare's Comedy of Errors (about 1591) is an adaptation of the Menaechmi; and his Falstaff may be regarded as an idealized reproduction or development of the braggart soldier of Plautus and Terence - a type of character which reappears in other forms not only in English literature (e.g.
Thomas Heywood adapted the Amphitruo in his Silver Age (1613), the Rudens in his Captives (licensed 1624), and the Mostellaria in his English Traveller (1633).
There was no English translation, strictly so called, of any play of Plautus in the 16th or 17th century, except that of the Menaechmi by W.
WILLIAM CAVE (1637-1713), English divine, was born at Pickwell in Leicestershire.
The twelve senior thegns of the hundred play a part, the nature of which is rather doubtful, in the development of the English system of justice.
Holdsworth, History of English Law, vol.
Pidgin English is the common language along the coast.
There is direct steamship communication between Togoland and Hamburg, and the steamers of three French and two English lines call at Togoland ports.
After the death of the English king, William III., in 1702, it passed to Frederick I., king of Prussia, and in 1815 the lower county was transferred to Hanover, only to be united again with Prussia in 1866.
The same reason that made him depreciate Hegel made him praise Krause (panentheism) and Schleiermacher, and speak respectfully of English philosophy.
RICHARD WATSON (1737-1816), English divine, was born in August 1737 at Heversham in Westmorland.
He does not seem to have found any English trumpeters capable of playing as high parts as those of the German Clarin-Bldser, and his plan seems generally to get as many oboes and bassoons as could be procured to double the top and bottom of his string-band.
With this apparatus some of Marconi's earliest successes, such as telegraphing across the English Channel, were achieved, and telegraphic communication at the rate of fifteen words or so a minute established between the East Goodwin lightship and the South Foreland lighthouse, also between the Isle of Wight and the Lizard in Cornwall.
Marconi's success in bridging the English Channel at Easter in 1899 with electric waves and establishing practical wireless telegraphy between ships and the shore by this means drew public attention to the value of the new means of communication.
In 1585 it was sacked by an English fleet under Sir Francis Drake.
TEIGNMOUTH, a seaport and market town in the Ashburton parliamentary division of Devonshire, England, at the mouth of the river Teign, on the English Channel, 15 m.
6 The English reader may consult - Jour.
This enthusiastic love of poverty is certainly the keynote of St Francis's spirit; and so one of his disciples in an allegorical poem (translated into English as The Lady of Poverty by Montgomery Carmichael, 1901), and Giotto in one of the frescoes at Assisi, celebrated the "holy nuptials of Francis with Lady Poverty."
Of lives of St Francis in English may be mentioned those by Mrs Oliphant (2nd ed., 1871) and by Canon Knox Little (1897).
The Venetian version of the quarrel with the pope was written by Sarpi (subsequently translated into English, London, 1626); see also Cornet, Paolo V.
Although in some industrial centres the working-class movement has assumed an importance equal to that of other countries, there is no general working-class organization comparable to the English trade unions.
A reform of late years is the cond~anna condizionale, equivalent to the English being bound over to appear for judgment if called upon, applied in 94,489 cases in 1907.
Mercenary troops are said to have been first levied from disbanded Germans, together with Breton and English adventurers, whom the Visconti and Castruccio took into their pay.
But the memory of the benefits conferred by the English constitution remained fresh and green amidst the arid waste of repression which followed.
For English readers Countess F.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
A French attempt to purchase the line was upset in the English courts, and the railway was finally secured by Italy at a price more than eight times its real value.
He was also to sound the Lutheran princes with a view to an alliance, and to obtain the removal of some restrictions on English trade.
Its most important feature on the theological as distinct from the political side was the endeavour to promote the circulation of the Bible in the vernacular, by encouraging translation and procuring an order in 1538 that a copy of the Bible in English should be set up in every church in a convenient place for reading.
In June 1545 was issued his Litany, which was substantially the same as that now in use, and shows his mastery of a rhythmical English style.
into English by M.
(I) It appears for the first time in 18th-century English as an occasional synonym for " deism " (q.v.), and therefore as applying to those who believed in God but not in Christianity.
Later criticism, orthodox and heterodox, upon the English deists inclines to charge them with the conception of a divine absentee, who wound up the machine of nature and left it to run untended.
" Deist," or sometimes " theist " in sense (I), or Naturalist, is a term of reprobation with English 18th-century apologists, but not " Natural Religion."
The English thinkers influenced by Hegel are inclined to assert mechanism unconditionally, as the very expression of reason - the only thinkable form of order.
MAGNA CARTA, or the Great Charter, the name of the famous charter of liberties granted at Runnimede in June 1215 by King John to the English people.
This feeling was fostered by its many confirmations, and in subsequent ages, especially during the time of the struggle between the Stewart kings and the parliament, it was regarded as something sacrosanct, embodying the very ideal of English liberties, which to some extent had been lost, but which must be regained.
The causes which led to the grant of Magna Carta are described in the article on English History.
Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.
Capturing Rochester castle, John met with some other successes, and the disheartened barons invited Louis, son of Philip Augustus of France and afterwards king as Louis VIII., to take the English crown.
declares that the English church shall be free and shall enjoy freedom of election.
provided for the removal' of kydells, or weirs, from all English rivers.
is more important and the English rendering of it may be given in full.
give permission to merchants, both English and foreign, to enter and leave the kingdom, except in time of war.
repeats the promise of freedom to the English church and of their rights and liberties to all.
As Pollock and Maitland (History of English Law) say "on the whole the charter contains little that is absolutely new.
It was regarded as having conferred upon the nation nothing less than the English constitution in its perfect and completed form.
"Magna Carta, the Petition of Rights and the Bill of Rights form that code, which I call the Bible of the English Constitution."
In addition to Blackstone, Coke and these later writers, the following works may also be consulted: John Reeves, History of English Law (1783-1784); L.
Maitland, The History of English Law (1895); W.
Holdsworth, A History of English Law (1903), and Kate Norgate, John Lackland (1902).
The church of St Oswald at Filey is a fine cruciform building with central tower, Transitional Norman and Early English in date.
First of all, his genetic method as applied to the mind's ideas - which laid the foundations of English analytical psychology - was a step in the direction of a conception of mental life as a gradual evolution.
- The theological discussions which make up so large a part of the English speculation of the 18th century cannot detain us here.
ALFRED VON REUMONT (1808-1887), German scholar and diplomatist, the son of Gerhard Reumont (1765-1829), was born on the 15th of August 1808 and was named Alfred after the English king, Alfred the Great.
This last book has been translated into English by R.
Reservations of this nature are made in many English patents of chancellors and were held good in R.
and Catharine of Aragon was the most famous English cause tried by delegates under the " original " jurisdiction of the pope, and was ultimately " evoked " to Rome.
Burning was an English punishment for some secular offences.
The English and Irish provinces are treated as self-contained.
Stephen, History of the Criminal Law of England (London, 1883); Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law before Edward I.
catta, but the English name "lemur" is often taken to include all the members of the sub-order, although the aberrant forms are often conveniently termed "lemuroids."
Its chief remains of antiquity are a square peel-tower and the cruciform church of St Andrew, of which part of the fabric is of pre-Conquest date, though the building is mainly Early English.
With this use of the word, philologically inexact, but historically quite defensible, may be compared the use of the word English, which is not exactly the language of the Angles, or of the word French, which is not exactly the language of the Franks.
Oldenberg; and the more important parts of it have been translated into English by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg in their Vinaya Texts.
The four principal ones have been published for the Pali Text Society, and some volumes have been translated into English or German.
DANEGELD, an English national tax originally levied by 'Ethelred II.
The battle of the Herrings (February 1429) was fought in order to cover the march of a convoy of Lenten food to the English army besieging Orleans.
With the growth of the Oxford Movement in the English Church, the practice of observing Lent was revived; and, though no rules for fasting are authoritatively laid down, the duty of abstinence is now very generally inculcated by bishops and clergy, either as a discipline or as an exercise in self-denial.
It is beautifully placed near the river, and is a fine cruciform structure, partly Early English and partly Perpendicular, with a central tower and lofty octagonal spire.
Evidence of the intense interest taken by American visitors in Stratford is seen in the memorial fountain and clock-tower presented in 1887, and in a window in the church illustrating scenes from the Incarnation and containing figures from English and American history.
SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN (1632-1723), English architect, the son of a clergyman, was born at East Knoyle, Wiltshire, on the 10th of October 1632; he entered at Wadham College, Oxford, in 1646, took his degree in 1650, and in 1653 was made a fellow of All Souls.
Tyrwhitt (1791), and there is an English translation of the Hymns by T.
In English medieval literature it appears in three somewhat different versions: Sir Orpheo, a " lay of Brittany " printed from the Harleian MS. in J.
"SIR ARTHUR JOHN EVANS (1851-), English archaeologist, was born at Nash Mills, Herts., July 8 185r, the eldest son of Sir John Evans, K.C.B.
MATTHEW NEWCOMEN (c. 1610-1669), English nonconformist divine, was born about 1610 and educated at St John's College, Cambridge (M.A.
Buffon remarked that the same temperature might have been expected, all other circumstances being equal, to produce the same beings in different parts of the globe, both in the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Yet lawns in the United States are destitute of the common English daisy, the wild hyacinth of the woods of the United Kingdom is absent from Germany, and the foxglove from Switzerland.
It is distinguished from other English geographical books of the period by confining attention to the principles of geography, and not describing the countries of the world.
The English translation renders the definition thus: " Geography is that part of mixed mathematics which explains the state of the earth and of its parts, depending on quantity, viz.
This system of geography founded a new epoch, and the book - translated into English, Dutch and French - was the unchallenged standard for more than a century.
Bergman's Physical Description of the Earth was published in Swedish in 1766, and translated into English in 1772 and into German in 5774.
Pytheas, whose own narrative is not preserved, coasted the Bay of Biscay, sailed up the English Channel and followed the coast of Britain to its most northerly point.
This voyage of the middle of the 9th century deserves to be held in happy memory, for it unites the first Norwegian polar explorer with the first English collector of travels.
English enterprise Dutch French .
It is from these works that our knowledge of the gallant deeds of the English and other explorers of the Elizabethan age is mainly derived.
One important object of English maritime adventurers of those days was to discover a route to Cathay by the north-west, a second was to settle Virginia, and a third was to raid the Spanish settlements in the West Indies.
Many English voyages were also made to Guinea and the West Indies, and twice English vessels followed in the track of Magellan, and circumnavigated the globe.
The third English voyage into the Pacific was not so fortunate.
The English enterprises were persevering, continuous and successful.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.
From Persia much new information was supplied by Jean Chardin, Jean Tavernier, Charles Hamilton, Jean de Thevenot and Father Jude Krusinski, and by English traders on the Caspian.
Another English merchant, named Jonas Hanway, arrived at Astrabad from Russia, and travelled to the camp of Nadir at Kazvin.
2 This phrase is old, appearing in one of the earliest English works on geography, William Cuningham's Cosmographical Glasse conteinyng the pleasant Principles of Cosmographie, Geographie, Hydrographie or Navigation (London, 1559).
(Paris, 1897, 1900), and into English by Dr Hertha Sollas as The Face of the Earth, vols.
Congress (London, 18 95), p. 735 (English Abstract, p. 748).
The terms employed, especially for the subdivisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the English equivalents in the following table are only put forward tentatively Richthofen'S Classification Of Mountains I.
The only other important term which requires to be noted here is talweg, a word introduced from the German into French and English, and meaning the deepest line along the valley, which is necessarily occupied by a stream unless the valley is dry.
ROBERT SPENCER SUNDERLAND, 2ND Earl Of (1640-1702), English politician, was the only son of Henry Spencer (1620-1643), who succeeded his father, William, as 3rd Baron Spencer of Wormleighton in 1636.
Besides the university library, there is the Ohio state library occupying a room in the capitol and containing in 1908 126,000 volumes, including a "travelling library" of about 36,000 volumes, from which various organizations in different parts of the state may borrow books; the law library of the supreme court of Ohio, containing complete sets of English, Scottish, Irish, Canadian, United States and state reports, statutes and digests; the public school library of about 68,000 volumes, and the public library (of about 55,000), which is housed in a marble and granite building completed in 1906.
Though a Protestant, he supported the government of Mary of Guise, showed himself violently anti-English, and led a raid into England, subsequently in 1559 meeting the English commissioners and signing articles for peace on the border.
The queen required a protector, whom she found, not in the feeble Darnley, nor in any of the leaders of the factions, but in the strong, determined earl who had ever been a stanch supporter of the throne against the Protestant party and English influence.