He waited to hear an engine start, ready to pounce.
As Dean shut off the engine he turned to his companion.
I felt the hot breath from the engine on my face, and the smoke and ashes almost choked us.
She started the engine, avoiding Megan's gaze.
Once he was seated and started the engine, she thanked him, but he didn't respond.
If the engine whistles, let it whistle till it is hoarse for its pains.
The engine turned over once and then headlights blinded her until he turned the car around.
A few minutes later the truck engine started and he backed the Dodge 4x4 pickup out of the garage.
The shaft of P can be readily put in gear with a powerful engine for the purpose of hauling back the cable should it be found necessary to do so.
They seem to know man isn't a threat until the engine is shut off.
And yet, its little engine hummed along with a surprising lack of noise.
Ample mention was made of alcohol as the fuel for the engine of lust.
Helen was greatly interested in the boat, and insisted on being shown every inch of it from the engine to the flag on the flagstaff.
He started the engine and she clamped her arms around him, clinging to him as he spun the tires in a spray of pebbles and rocks.
The sound of a car door, and then an engine starting jarred him into realizing Elisabeth must have stayed in the woods all this time.
He pulled the truck into the yard, shut off the engine and removed the keys from the ignition.
As she turned into the circular drive and shut off the engine, she let out a long sigh.
Sofia wrapped her arms around Dustin and squeezed her eyes closed as the engine roared to life.
They parked close to the building and, leaving the engine running, Dean made a dash for the office.
Lydia turned off the engine and they sat there alone with no other cars in sight.
She stood beside Alex and listened to the truck door slam and the engine race when Josh started it.
In the future, something very much like the Amazon suggestion engine, but for all of life, will change that.
The pay per click (PPC) business is a way to advertise online to people who did a specific search in a search engine like Google or who are viewing content on a certain topic.
Josh said the engine is shot.
The engine turned over and backfired, black smoke frothing out of the tail pipe.
A second engine, the West Point, also built at West Point Foundry for the South Carolina railroad, differed from the Best Friend in having a horizontal boiler with 6 or 8 tubes, though in other respects it was similar.
He went back to his car and started the engine, glancing back, but she had already closed the door.
At its opening, on the 27th of September 1825, a train of thirtyfour vehicles, making a gross load of about go tons, was drawn by one engine driven by Stephenson, with a signalman on horseback in advance..
I see only a coincidence of occurrences such as happens with all the phenomena of life, and I see that however much and however carefully I observe the hands of the watch, and the valves and wheels of the engine, and the oak, I shall not discover the cause of the bells ringing, the engine moving, or of the winds of spring.
The engine drew a train weighing 13 tons 35 m.
He stopped the ATV and shut off the engine.
book and engine room register are not compulsory, but are usually kept.
If we could drive the engine so fast as to reduce C' to zero, the whole of the energy of the battery would be available, no heat being produced in the wires, but the horse-power of the engine would be indefinitely small.
We have seen that the efficiency of an electromagnetic engine is greatest when the current is indefinitely small, and then the rate at which it works is also indefinitely small.
He then began to teach her the political advantages of religion and to prepare the way for that tremendous engine in the hands of the state, the Inquisition.
After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.
A train weighing 92 tons could be drawn by one engine at the rate of 5 m.
In 1831 the Baltimore & Ohio Company offered a prize of $4000 for an American engine weighing 32 tons, able to draw 15 tons at 15 m.
Baldwin, the founder of the famous Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia, built his first engine, Old Ironsides, for the Philadelphia, Germantown & Morristown railroad; first tried in November 1832, it was modelled on Stephenson's Planet, and had a single pair of driving wheels at the firebox end and a pair of carrying wheels under the smoke-box.
It is an answer engine, but one that attempts to answer questions that have never before been asked.
Behind her, Josh roared his engine as he turn the truck around, and slung gravel on the road as he took off.
The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.
In consequence of this composite formation, amethyst is apt to break with a rippled fracture, or to show "thumb markings," and the intersection of two sets of curved ripples may produce on the fractured surface a pattern something like that of "engine turning."
In steam vessels a rough and fair engine room register are kept, FIG.
The directors having offered a prize of £500 for the best engine, trials were held on a finished portion of the line at Rainhill in October 1829, and three engines took part - the Rocket of George and Robert Stephenson, the Novelty of John Braithwaite and John Ericsson, and the Sanspareil of Timothy Hackworth.
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
His second engine, the E.
The ruling gradient of a section of railway is the steepest incline in that section, and is so called because it governs or rules the maximum load that can be placed behind an engine working over that portion of line.
Sometimes, however, a sharp incline occurring on an otherwise easy line is not reckoned as the ruling gradient, trains heavier than could be drawn up it by a single engine being helped by an assistant or " bank " engine; sometimes also " momentum " or " velocity " grades, steeper than the ruling gradient, are permitted for short distances in cases where a train can approach at full speed and thus surmount them by the aid of its momentum.
In rack railways a cog-wheel on the engine engages in a toothed rack which forms part of the permanent way.
Blenkinsop placed the teeth on the outer side of one of the running rails, and his reason for adopting a rack was the belief that an engine with smooth wheels running on smooth rails would not have sufficient adhesion to draw the load required.
If the current drive an electromagnetic engine, the reaction of the engine will produce an electromotive force opposing the current.
von Jacobi showed that for a given electromotive force in the battery the horse-power is greatest when the current is reduced to one-half of what it would be if the engine were at rest.
Helmond is one of the industrial centres of the province, and possesses over a score of factories for cotton and silk weaving, cotton printing, dyeing, iron founding, brewing, soap boiling and tobacco dressing, as well as engine works and a margarine factory.
Abt also developed the plan of combining rack and adhesional working, the engine working by adhesion alone on the gentler slopes but by both adhesion and the rack on the steeper ones.
Four things will then happen that will make the suggestion engine get vastly better over time:
She followed him out the door and watched as he hopped into the truck and started the engine.
Quint dropped into the seat and started the engine.
After what seemed like hours of traveling down trails that were little more than rockslides, Giddon stopped the ATV and shut off the engine.
He chuckled and started the engine.
Since his back was to the danger, he was unaware when the man gunned the engine and started to drive towards him.
"Best we could do on short notice," Fred yelled over the wailing blast of the fire engine's siren ahead of them.
Riding in a police car is the next best thing to a fire engine.
He pulled into the yard, put the truck in park and turned off the engine.
Keaton pulled the car off the road into a grassy parking area beside the creek and shut off the engine.
In steam cranes it is usual to work all the motions from one double cylinder engine.
The earliest arrangement of this kind was patented by John Blenkinsop, of the Middleton Colliery, near Leeds, in 1811, and an engine built on his plan by Mathew Murray, also of Leeds, began in 1812 to haul coals from Middleton to Leeds over a line 32 m.
Racks of this type usually become impracticable for gradients steeper than 1 in 4, partly because of the excessive weight of the engine required and partly because of the tendency of the cog-wheel to mount the rack.
The 6 cylinder engine on display is a later version (circa 1914) and is virtually two 3-cylinder engines sharing a common crankcase.
The brake's rotor was coupled to the engine's crankshaft.
- Robinson's form of Stirling's Engine.
On such lines the beginning of a rack section is provided with a piece of rack mounted on springs, so that the pinions of the engine engage smoothly with the teeth.
At terminal stations, especially at such as are used by short-distance trains which arrive at and start from the same platform, a third track is often laid between a pair of platform tracks, so that the engine of a train which has arrived at the platform can pass out and place itself at the other end of the train, which remains undisturbed.
The second arrangement enables any particular engine to enter or leave without disturbing the other; but on the other hand an accident to the turn-table may temporarily imprison the whole of them.
Machine shops are usually provided to enable minor repairs to be executed; the tendency, both in England and America, is to increase the amount of such repairing plant at engine sheds, thus lengthening the intervals between the visits of the engines to the main repairing shops of the railway.
When water is required, a scoop is lowered into them from below the engine, and if the speed is sufficient the water is forced up it into the tender-tanks.
Between A and B, A and C, and A and D, there may be a string of stations, p, q, r, s, &c., all receiving goods from a, b, c and d, and it would manifestly be inconvenient and wasteful of time and trouble if the trains serving those intermediate stations were made up with, say, six wagons from a to p next the engine, five from b to p at the middle, and four from c to p near the end.
An engine coupled to a batch of wagons runs one or more of them down one siding, leaves them there, then returns back with the remainder clear of the points where the sidings diverge, runs one or more others down another siding, and so on till they are all disposed of.
In some cases nothing more is required than to attach an engine and brake-van (" caboose ") and despatch the train; but if, as will happen in others, a further rearrangement of XXII.
The method of working is for the pole to be swung out behind a number of wagons; one engine is then started and with its pole pushes the wagons in front of it until their speed is sufficient to carry them over the points, where they are diverted into any desired siding.
It then runs back to the train to repeat the operation, but while it is doing so a second engine similarly equipped has poled away a batch of wagons on the opposite side.
The wagons are pushed by an engine at their rear up one slope of an artificial mound, and as they run down the other slope by gravity are switched into the desired siding.
value of the tractive force is required than this provides for, namely from 4 to 5 tons, the driving-wheels are coupled to one or more pairs of heavily loaded wheels, forming a class of what are called " coupled engines " in contradistinction to the " single engine " with a single pair of loaded driving-wheels.
The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.
With this assumption, 0.06 is the fraction of the heat energy of the coal which is utilized in the engine cylinders as mechanical work; that is to say, of the 15,000 B.Th.U.
A " perfect engine " receiving and rejecting steam at the same temperatures as the actual engine of the locomotive, would develop about twice this power, say 1400 I.H.P. This figure represents the ideal but unattainable standard of performance.
This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.
The horsepower available at the driving-axle, conveniently called the brake horse-power, is from 20 to 30% less than the indicated horse-power, and the ratio, B.H.P./I.H.P. =E, is called the mechanical efficiency of the steam engine.
Thus an engine working at maximum power may be used to haul a relatively light load at a high speed or a heavy load at a slow speed.
- The power of the engine is applied to the vehicles through the draw-bar, so that the draw-bar pull is a measure of the vehicle resistance.
Eng., October 1898), it appeared that the engine resistance was about 35% of the total resistance, and in the train-resistance experiments on the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway quoted above the engine resistance was also about 35% of the total resistance, thus confirming the North-Eastern railway results.
17, the engine resistance at 40 m.
Hence Engine resistance, R e = 80 X20 = 1600 lb Vehicle resistance, R v =200 X8.5 = 1700 „ Train resistance, R = 3300 „ The speed, 40 m.
The principal condition operating in the design of locomotives intended for local services with frequent stops is the degree of acceleration required, the aim of the designer being to produce an engine which shall be able to bring the train to its journey speed in the shortest time possible.
The weight of the engine may be assumed in advance to be 80 tons.
The first one of the group was made on the boiler fixed in the locomotive yard at Stratford, and the two remaining experiments of the group were made while the engine was working a train between London and March.
passenger engine, scale 24.
The exhaust steam passing from the engine through the blastpipe and the chimney produces a diminution of pressure, or partial vacuum, in the smoke-box roughly proportional to the weight of steam discharged per unit of time.
19 shows the box of the fourcoupled express passenger engine designed by J.
four-coupled express engine, scale A.
In the case of the London & North-Western engine (fig.
At every blast a small quantity of steam is caught by the orifice 0 and led to the ejectors, one on each side, with the result that the ashes are blown out into the receptacles on each side of the engine, one of which is shown at E.
As the indicated horse-power of the engine increases, the weight of steam discharged increases, and the smoke-Lox vacuum is increased, thereby causing more air to flow through the furnace and increasing the rate of combustion.
7 hose conditions are to a certain extent mutually antagonistic, since an engine designed to satisfy either condition independently of the other R euld Le a different engine from that designed to make the best ccmpromise between them.
7 he torque exerted on the driving-axle by the steam engine just at starting may be that due to the full boiler pressure acting in the cylinders, but usually the weight on the coupled wheels is hardly sufficient to enable advantage to be taken of the full boiler pressure, and it has to be throttled down by the regulator to prevent slipping.
The form of the torque curve, or crank effort curve, as it is sometimes called, is discussed in the article Steam Engine, and the torque curve corresponding to actual indicator diagrams taken from an express passenger engine travelling at a speed of 65 m.
Hence assuming the mechanical efficiency of the engine to be and substituting !
If p is the mean pressure at any speed the total tractive force which the engine is exerting is given by equation (25) above.
Let an engine have two cylinders each 19 in.
The engine can only exert this large tractive force so long as the mean pressure is maintained at 149 lb per square inch.
per pound, the maximum indicated horse-power is given by the expression I.H.P. maximum - CcA X778 1980000 where A is the area of the grate in square feet, and is the combined efficiency of the engine and boiler.
ft., that the rate of combustion is 150 lb of coal per square foot of grate per hour, that the calorific value is 14000, and finally that n =0.06, the maximum indicated horse-power which the engine might be expected to develop would be o 06 X 150 x14000 X24 X 778/1980000 = I 190, corresponding to a mean effective pressure in the cylinders of 59.5 lb per square inch.
per second, the total resistance R, which the engine can overcome at this s p eed, is by equation (10) R=(1190X550)/88=7.400 lb.
Thus although at a slow speed the engine can exert a tractive force of 18,600 lb, at 60 m.
per hour, the tractive force falls to 7400 lb, and this cannot be increased except by increasing the rate of combustion (neglecting any small changes due to a change in the efficiency 7 Knowing the magnitude of R, the draw-bar pull, and hence the weight of vehicle the engine can haul at this speed, can be estimated if the resistances are known.
This is the load which the engine would take in ordinary weather.
per hour with a " single " engine.
Combined Engine and Boiler Efficiency.
- The combined engine and boiler efficiency has hitherto been taken to be o 06; actual values of the boiler efficiencies are given in Table XX.
Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.
Thus a standard of comparison for every individual engine may be obtained with which to compare its actual performance.
The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
In no case could an engine receiving steam at the tem perature corresponding to this pressure and rejecting heat at 212° F.
That is to say, a perfect engine working between the limits of temperature assigned would convert only 18% of the total heat supply into work.
This would be an ideal performance for an engine receiving steam at 190 lb initial pressure absolute, and rejecting steam at the back pressure assumed above, and could never be attained in practice.
The way the thermal efficiency of the ideal engine increases with the pressure is exhibited in fig.
- Engine Efficiency Curves.
From the diagram it will be seen that the corresponding efficiency of the ideal engine is about 0.18.
That is to say, the engine actually utilized 61% of the energy which it was possible to utilize by means of a perfect engine working with the same initial pressure against a back pressure equal to;the atmosphere.
The initial temperature of the standard engine of comparison must be the temperature of the steam taken in the steam-pipe.
For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.
In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.
Coal-saving can be shown to the extent of about 1% in some cases, but the saving depends upon the kind of service on which the engine is employed.
It was of the same type as Mallet's engine, and was made by simply bushing one cylinder of an ordinary two-cylinder simple engine, the bushed cylinder being the high-pressure and the other cylinder the low-pressure cylinder.
Locomotives have to start with the full load on the engine, consequently an outstanding feature of every compound locomotive is the apparatus or mechanism added to enable the engine to start readily.
The engine can be worked as a four-cylinder simple at the will of the driver.
In this engine the two piston-rods of one side are not coupled to a common cross-head, but drive on separate cranks at an angle of 180°, the pair of 180° cranks on each side being placed at right angles.
When the four cranks are placed with two pairs at 180°, the pairs being at 90°, the forces are balanced without the introduction of a hammer-blow, but there remain large unbalanced couples, which if balanced by means of revolving weights in the wheels again reintroduce the hammerblow, and if left unbalanced tend to make the engine oscillate in a horizontal plane at high speed.
A convenient way of describing any type of engine is by means of numerals indicating the number of wheels - (I) in the group of wheels supporting the leading or chimney end, (2) in the group of coupled wheels, and (3) in the group supporting the trailing end of the engine.
Thus 4-4-2 represents a bogie engine with four-coupled wheels and one pair of trailing wheels, the wellknown Atlantic type; 4-2-2 represents a bogie engine with a single pair of driving-wheels and a pair of trailing wheels; 0-4-4 represents an engine with four-coupled wheels and a trailing bogie, and 4-4-o an engine with four-coupled wheels and a leading bogie.
It is generally designed as a 4-2-2 engine, but some old types are still running with only three axles, the 2-2-2.
In America it is still the standard engine for passenger traffic, but for goods service it is now employed only on branch lines.
It is a safe, steady-running and trustworthy engine, with excellent distribution of weight, and it is susceptible of a wide range of adaptability in power requirements.
The famous engine " Charles Dickens " was one of this class.
A powerful engine for heavy passenger and fast goods service.
This is the standard goods engine of Great Britain and the continent of Europe.
In the United States it is the standard heavy slow-speed freight engine, and has been built of enormous size and weight.
These are generally tank engines, carrying their fuel and water on the engine proper.
for a simple two-cylinder engine, and cylinder volume is slightly increased with the necessary accompaniment of heavier loads on the coupled wheels to give the necessary adhesion.
Compound locomotives have been tried, as stated in § 17, but the tendency in England is to revert to the simple engine for all classes of work, though on the continent of Europe and in America the compound locomotive is largely adopted, and is doing excellent work.
An ordinary slow suburban train may weigh about loo tons exclusive of the engine, and may be timed at an inclusive speed, from the beginning to the end of its journey, as low as 12 or 15 m.
Coal trains, excluding the engine, weigh up to Boo or 900 tons, and travel at from 18 to 22 m.
In British practice the chains consist of three links, and are of such a length that when fully extended there is a space of a few inches between opposing buffers; this slack facilitates the starting of a heavy train, since the engine is able to start the wagons one by one and the weight of the train is not thrown on it all at once.
In the United States the Safety Appliance Act of 1893 also forbade the railways, after the 1st of January 1898, to run trains which did not contain a " sufficient number " of cars equipped with continuous brakes to enable the speed to be controlled from the engine.
The cable is slow; and unless development along new lines of com p ressed air or some sort of chemical engine takes place, electricity will monopolize the field.
Columbus is situated in a fine farming region, and has extensive tanneries, threshingmachine and traction and automobile engine works, structural iron works, tool and machine shops, canneries and furniture factories.
In 1887, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, a prize of 200 went to a compound portable agricultural engine, one of £loo to a simple portable agricultural engine, and lesser prizes to a weighing-machine for horses and cattle, a weighing-machine for sheep and pigs, potato-raisers and one-man-power cream separators.
It is either set in the first instance at some distance from the engine and well, or is subsequently removed sufficiently far away before the drill enters the oil-bearing formation, and until the oil and gas are under control, in order to minimize the risk of fire.
The engine, which is provided with reversing gear, is of 12 or 15 horse-power and motion is communicated through a belt to the band-wheel, which operates the walking-beam by means of a crank.
The drilling of a well is commonly carried out under contract, the producer erecting the derrick and providing the engine and boiler while the drilling contractor finds the tools, and is Drill ing the responsible for accidents or failure to complete the well.
In 1919 the city's outstanding bonds amounted to $19,884,000, to which in 1920 was added $5,500,000 for removal of railway grade crossings, for a municipal farm to afford better treatment of the tubercular and insane, for new engine houses and reconstruction of streets and for municipal lighting equipment.
For theoretical considerations see Vaporization, and for the most important application see Steam Engine; also Water.
Steam Engine >>
Though the experiment with this engine was successful, the design was abandoned by the pasha, and Belzoni resolved to continue his travels.
Several times during summer the trees ought to be regularly examined, and the young shoots respectively topped or thinned out; those that remain are to be nailed to the wall, or braced in with pieces of slender twigs, and the trees ought occasionally to be washed with the garden engine or thoroughly syringed, especially during very hot summers.
After the fruit has set, the foliage should be refreshed and cleansed by the daily use of the syringe or garden engine.
In Rowland's dividing engine the screws were prepared by a special process devised by him, and the resulting gratings, plane and concave, have supplied the means for much of the best modern optical work.
An engine plane is an inclined road, up which loaded cars are hauled by a stationary engine and rope, the empty cars running down by gravity, dragging the rope after them.
In the tail-rope system of haulage, best adapted for single track roads, there are two ropes - a main and a " tail " rope - winding on a pair of drums operated by an engine.
The loaded train is coupled to the main rope, and to the rear end is attached the tail-rope; which reaches to the end of the line, passing there around a large grooved sheave and thence back to the engine.
By winding in the main rope the loaded cars are hauled towards the engine, dragging behind them the tail-rope, which unwinds from its drum.
The trip being completed, the empty train is hauled back by reversing the engine.
In the endless rope system the rope runs from a grip wheel on the driving engine to the end of the line, round a return sheave, and thence back to the engine.
As the cranks are set go apart, there is no dead centre, and the engine is able to start under full load from any point of the stroke.
The engine is direct-acting, the drums making one revolution for each double stroke.
The hoisting speed is therefore slower, and as less engine power is required for a given load the cylinders.
12) tend to equalize the varying load on the engine due to the winding and unwinding of the rope.
On starting to hoist, the rope winds from the small towards the large end of the drum, the lever arm, or radius of the coils, increasing as the weight of Winding Engine.
If, for a twocompartment shaft, a pair of drums (or a single wide drum) be keyed to the engine shaft, with the ropes wound in opposite directions, the hoisting is " in balance," that is, the cages and cars counterbalance each other, so that the engine has to raise only the useful load of mineral, plus the rope.
The maximum load on the engine is thus greater and more power is required than for fixed drums. Steam consumption is economized, whenever possible, by throwing in the clutches of both drums and hoisting in balance.
contents, produces excessive variations in the load on the engine difficult to deal with.
Each stage has its own engine, rope and cage.
The variations in engine load are thus reduced, and incidentally hoisting time is saved.
The rods are caused to oscillate slowly by an engine, one rising while the other is falling.
Tanks operated by the main hoisting engines, and of capacities up to 50o gallons or more, are applicable under several conditions: (1) When the shaft is deep, the quantity of water insufficient to keep a pump in regular operation, and the hoisting engine not constantly employed in raising mineral, the tank is worked at intervals, being attached temporarily to the hoisting rope in place of the cage.
(2) For raising large volumes of water from deep shafts pairs of tanks are operated in balance in special shaft compartments by their own hoisting engine.
With an efficient engine the cost per gallon of water is often less than for pumping.
Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.
The engine works a massive counter-balanced walking-beam from which is suspended in the shaft a long wooden (or steel) rod, made in sections and spliced together.
Cornish pumps are economical in running expenses, provided the driving engine is of proper design and the disadvantages incurred in conveying steam underground are avoided.
It is driven by a powerful engine through triple gearing of 42 to 1, and speeded to have a surface velocity of rollers of 15 ft.
long, and driven by one engine through gearing of 15 to 1, are speeded to have a surface velocity of rollers of 25 ft.
Watt, when he invented the steam engine, laid down the principles on which it is based, and they hold good to the present day.
The crusher is preferably driven by an independent engine, but with suitable gearing it can be driven by the mill engine.
While the engine in gear is coiling in its rope and drawing the plough towards itself, the rope of the other engine is paid out with merely so much drag on it as to keep it from kinking or getting ravelled on the drum.
The Cambrian railway engine and carriage works are here; and there are tanneries, malting works, machinery works and iron foundries.
The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
This is the cycle employed by Carnot for the establishment of his fundamental principle of reversibility as the criterion of perfect efficiency in a heat engine.
- Carnot adopted as the analytical expression of his principle the statement that the efficiency W/H, or the work obtainable per unit of heat by means of a perfect engine taking in heat at a temperature t° C. and rejecting heat at o° C., must be some function F(t) of the temperature t, the lower limit o° C. being supposed constant.
To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.
The total heat with which we are actually concerned in the working of a steam engine is the total heat as here defined, and not the total heat as defined by Regnault, which, however, differs from (E+pv) only by a quantity which is inappreciable in ordinary practice.
This method of representation is applicable to certain kinds of problems, and has been developed by Macfarlane Gray and other writers in its application to the steam engine.
One or two chapters on the subject are also generally included in treatises on the steam engine, or other heat engines, such as those of Rankine, Perry or Ewing.
30 and proceeded N., leaving the " Canopus " to remedy engine defects and bring on colliers.
Air is then forced into the inclosed space by means of a compressing engine, until the pressure is sufficient to oppose the flow of water into the excavation, and to drive out any that may collect in the bottom of the shaft through a pipe which is carried through the air-sluice to the surface.
The pumps, placed close to the point where the water accumulates, may be worked by an engine on the surface by means of heavy reciprocating rods which pass down the shaft, or by underground motors driven by steam, compressed air or electricity.
The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.
The most successful of the first class, or pick machines, that of William Firth of Sheffield, consists essentially of a horizontal pick with two cutting arms placed one slightly in advance of the other, which is swung backwards and forwards by a pair of bell crank levers actuated by a horizontal cylinder engine mounted on a railway truck.
In the Gartsherrie machine of Messrs Baird, the earliest of the flexible chain cutter type, the chain of cutters works round a fixed frame or jib projecting at right angles from the engine carriage, an arrangement which makes it necessary to cut from the end of the block of coal to the full depth, instead of holing into it from the face.
the loaded waggons may be made to pull back the empty ones to the working faces, and (3) dip or down-brows, requiring engine power.
These can, however, only be used advantageously where there are fixed pumps, the fall of water generating the power resulting in a load to be removed by the expenditure of an equivalent amount of power in the pumping engine above that necessary for keeping down the mine water.
towards the shaft, and the empty ones returned " in bye," or towards the working faces, by reversing the engine; while in the other systems, double lines, with the rope travelling continuously in the same direction, are the rule.
On the tail rope plan the engine has two drums worked by spur gearing, which can be connected with, or cast loose from, the driving shaft at pleasure.
When the load is being drawn out, the engine pulls directly on the main rope, coiling it on to its own drum, while the tail drum runs loose paying out its rope, a slight brake pressure being used to prevent its running out too fast.
twice the length of the way; the set is returned in bye, by reversing the engine, casting loose the main, and coupling up the tail drum, so that the tail rope is wound up and the main rope paid out.
This method, which is the oldest, is best adapted for ways that are nearly level, or when many branches are intended to be worked from one engine, and can be carried round curves of small radius without deranging the trains; but as it is intermittent in action, considerable engine-power is required in order to get up the required speed, which is from 8 to ro m.
In dip workings the tail rope is often made to work a pump connected with the bottom pulley, which forces the water back to the cistern of the main pumping engine in the pit.
The chain passes over a pulley driven by the engine, placed at such a height as to allow it to rest upon the tops of the tubs, and round a similar pulley at the far end of the plane.
The different elements making up the drawing arrangements of a colliery are - (r) the cage, (2) the shaft or pit fittings, (3) the drawing-rope, (4) the engine and (5) the surface arrangements.
This engine draws a net load of 52 tons of coal from a depth of 625 yds.
The work of the winding engine, being essentially of an intermittent character, can only be done with condensation when a central condenser keeping a constant vacuum is used, and even with this the rush of steam during winding may be a cause of disturbance.
This difficulty may be overcome by using Rateau's arrangement of a low-pressure turbine between the engine and the condenser.
One drum is usually fixed to the shaft, while the other is loose, with a screw link or other means of coupling, in order to be able to adjust the two ropes to exactly the same length, so that one cage may be at the surface when the other is at the bottom, without having to pay out or take up any slack rope by the engine.
For flat ropes the drum or bobbin consists of a solid disk, of the width of the rope fixed upon the shaft, with numerous parallel pairs of arms or horns, arranged radially on both sides, the space between being just sufficient to allow the rope to enter and coil regularly upon the preceding lap. This method has the advantage of equalizing the work of the engine throughout the journey, for when the load is greatest, with the full cage at the bottom and the whole length of rope out, the duty required in the first revolution of the engine is measured by the length of the smallest circumference; while the assistance derived from gravitating action of the descending cage in the same period is equal to the weight of the falling mass through a height corresponding to the length of the largest lap, and so on, the speed being increased as the weight diminishes, and vice versa.
In Koepe's method the drum is replaced by a disk with a grooved rim for the rope, which passes from the top of one cage over the guide pulley, round the disk, and back over the second guide to the second cage, and a tail rope, passing round a pulley at the bottom of the shaft, connects the bottoms of the cages, so that the dead weight of cage, tubs and rope is completely counterbalanced at all positions of the cages, and the work of the engine is confined to the useful weight of coal raised.
A novelty in winding arrangements is the substitution of the electromotor for the steam engine, which has been effected in a few instances.
Motion is obtained from a continuous-current generator driven by an alternating motor with a very heavy fly-wheel, a combination known as the Ilgner transformer, which runs continuously with a constant draught on the generating station, the extremely variable demand of the winding engine during the acceleration period being met by the energy stored in the fly-wheel, which runs at a very high speed.
To prevent accidents from the breaking of the rope while the cage is travelling in the shaft, or from over-winding when in consequence of the engine not being stopped in time the cage may be drawn up to the head-gear pulleys (both of which are unhappily not uncommon), various forms of safety catches and disconnecting hooks have been adopted.
Maximum speed controllers in connexion with the winding indicator, which do not allow the engine to exceed a fixed rate of speed, are also used in some cases, with recording indicators.
When the cage arrives at the surface, or rather the platform forming the working top above the mouth of the pit, it is received upon the keeps, a pair of hinged gratings which are kept in an inclined position over the pit-top by counterbalance weights, so that they are pushed aside to allow the cage to pass upwards, but fall back and receive it when the engine is reversed.
The cage is then lifted by the engine clear of the keeps, which are opened by a lever worked by hand, and the empty tubs start on the return trip. When the cage has several decks, it is necessary to repeat this operation for each, unless there is a special provision made for loading and discharging the tubs at different levels.
Some characteristic figures of the yield for British collieries in 1898 are given below: Albion Colliery, South t 551,000 tons in a year for one Wales s shaft and one engine.
per minute under such conditions, and the number of working places would thus be restricted, and consequently the output reduced to about 500 tons per shift of Io hours, which could be raised by a single engine at the surface without requiring any very different appliances from those in current use.
The Camden & Amboy railway, begun in 1831 and completed from Bordentown to South Amboy (34 m.) in 1832, was one of the first railways in the United States; in September 1831 the famous engine "Johnny Bull," built in England and imported for this railway, had its first trial at Bordentown, and a monument now marks the site where the first rails were laid.
The general theory of this kind of brake is as follows: - Let F be the whole frictional resistance, r the common radius of the rubbing surfaces, W the force which holds the brake from turning and whose line of action is at a perpendicular distance R from the axis of the shaft, N the revolutions of the shaft per minute, co its angular velocity in radians per second; then, assuming that the adjustments are made so that the engine runs steadily at a uniform speed, and that the brake is held still, clear of the stops and without oscillation, by W, the torque T exerted by the engine is equal to the frictional torque Fr acting at the brake surfaces, and this is measured by the statical moment of the weight W about the axis of revolution; that is T =Fr=WR...
Whilst alcohol is applied in motor engines in a similar manner to petrol, its vapour mixed with a proper proportion of air being drawn into the cylinder where it is compressed and ignited, it cannot be used with maximum efficiency by itself in engines such as are fitted to modern motors because it requires a higher degree of compression than petrol engines are usually designed to stand, and also because, unless special arrangements are made, a motor engine will not start readily from the cold with alcohol alone.
We see the steam issuing from the whistle of a distant engine long before we hear the sound.
The engine follows up any wave that it has sent forward, and so crowds up the succeeding waves into a less distance than if it remained at rest.
- The external forces acting on a bridge may be classified as follows: (t) The live or temporary load, for road bridges the weight of a dense crowd uniformly distributed, or the weight of a heavy wagon or traction engine; for railway bridges the weight of the heaviest train likely to come on the bridge.
p. 35) has considered two cases-(a) a traction engine and boiler trolley, and (b) a traction engine and trucks loaded with granite.
13 14.08 14 14 12.4,5 10.46 10 46 10.46 9 6 5 Goods Engine, L.
'0 _1718 ' Passenger Engine, Cal.
27-5 s_17- 10#' over T.1 C. T.y C. T.,I, C. T.i C. t1 C. 16-13 18 -0 18 -O 12-17 11-10 14 - 10 Express Passenger Engine, G.
Thus a consolidation engine may weigh 126 tons with a length over buffers of 57 ft., corresponding to an average load of 2.55 tons per ft.
Again, rapidly changing forces, due to the moving parts of the engine which are unbalanced vertically, act on the bridge; and, lastly, inequalities of level at the rail ends give rise to shocks.
At the age of nineteen he invented an electromagnetic engine, and in the course of examining its performance dissatisfaction with vague and arbitrary methods of specifying elec rical quantities caused him to adopt a convenient and scie tific unit, which he took to be the amount of electricity req ired to decompose nine grains of water in one hour.
A new form of condenser was tested on the small engine employed, and the results it yielded formed the starting-point of a series of investigations which were aided by a special grant from the Royal Society, and were described in an elaborate memoir presented to it on the 13th of December 1860.
His results, according to Kelvin, led directly and speedily to the present practical method of surface-condensation, one of the most important improvements of the steam engine, especially for marine use, since the days of James Watt.
There was no majority in the Commons for the budget as such, since the Irish Nationalists only supported it as an engine for destroying the veto of the Lords and thus preparing the way for Irish Home Rule.
During his eleven years' ministry (1876-1878 with Depretis, 1884-1891 with Depretis and Crispi, 1896-1898 with Rudini), he succeeded in creating large private shipyards, engine works and metallurgical works for the production of armour, steel plates and guns.
Stepniak was killed by a railway engine at a level crossing at Bedford Park, Chiswick, where he resided, on the 23rd of December 1895.
The object of the spinner at this point is to straighten out the tangles and lumps, and to lay the fibres parallel: the first machine to assist in this process being known as an opening machine, and the second as a filling engine.
The lap is taken to the filling engine, which is similar in construction and appearance to the opener as far as the feeding arrangements are concerned, but the drum, in place of being entirely covered with fine steel teeth, is spaced at intervals of from 5 to to in.
The flat dressing frame is a box or frame holding a certain number of book-boards from the filling engine, which boards when full of silk are screwed tightly together in the frame.
On the 15th of September of the following year he was accidentally killed by a locomotive engine while present at the opening of the Liverpool and Manchester railway.
Foiled in their first ill-directed attempt, they were compelled to have recourse to that tremendous engine of regal tyranny, the law of treason.
As leader of the party and responsible for the maintenance of so great a political engine, he was anxious not to be precipitate.
Thus the pope laid the foundations of that wonderful and silent engine of universal government by which Rome still rules the Catholics of every land on the face of the globe.
Artificial membranes are seldom or never perfectly semi-permeable - some leakage of solute nearly always occurs, but the imperfections of actual membranes need no more prevent our use of the ideal conception than the faults of real engines invalidate the theory of ideal thermodynamics founded on the conception of a perfect, reversible, frictionless, heat engine.
Then let us heat both ice and solution through the infinitesimal temperature range dT to the freezing point T of the solvent, melt the ice by the application of an amount of heat L, which measures its latent heat of fusion, and allow the solvent so formed to enter the solution reversibly through a semi-permeable wall into an engine cylinder, doing an amount of work Pdv.
If solvent be allowed to enter through a semipermeable wall into an engine cylinder, the work done when the solution within is already dilute will be the same whatever the nature of the interaction between solute and solvent, that is, whatever be the nature of the solvent itself.
As an example, let us take the following investigation: An engine cylinder may be imagined to possess a semi-permeable bottom and to work without friction.
Bonham Carter went full speed ahead with the starboard engine and full speed astern with the port to turn her round.
In the "Iphigenia," like the "Intrepid," the engine room ratings had avoided being taken off, so as to be present at the fight.
Provided it be rigid, the bed-plate of an engine is no better for weighing 30 cwt.
Give occasional washings with the engine to keep down insects.
To prevent this he might make a second or suction hole, and thus he would have a veritable engine, perhaps one of the very earliest of all.
But even more important than these were the advent of the steam engine between 1760 and 1770, and of the railroad in 1825, each of which gave the iron industry a great impetus.
Both created a great demand for iron, not only for themselves but for the industries which they in turn stimulated; and both directly aided the iron master: the steam engine by giving him powerful and convenient tools, and the railroad by assembling his materials and distributing his products.
- On its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres of the blast-furnace, the blast, i.e.
This heating was formerly done by burning part of the gases, after their escape from the furnace top, in a large combustion chamber, around a series of cast iron pipes through which the blast passed on its way from the blowing engine to the tuyeres.
Of this power about half would be used at the blastfurnaces themselves, leaving 750,000 horsepower available for driving the machinery of the rolling mills, &c. This use of the gas engine is likely to have far - reaching results.
Before its use in the gas engine, the blast-furnace gas has to be freed carefully from the large quantity of fine ore dust which it carries in suspension.
Probably the most successful one has been a rotary engine invented by Mr Arthur Rigg.1 In this engine the stroke, and therefore the amount of water used, can be varied either by hand or by a governor while it is running; the speed can also be varied, very high rates, as much as 600 revolutions a minute, being attainable without the question of shock or vibration becoming troublesome.
3), while their plungers are connected to a disk crank which rotates above the point 0, which is the centre of the main crank; 0 S being the crank length or half stroke of the engine, any variation in its length will vary the power of the engine and at the same time the quantity of water used.
The movement of S is obtained by means of a relay engine, in which there are two rams of different diameters; a constant pressure is always acting on the smaller of these when the motor is at work, while the governor (or handpower if desired) admits or exhausts pressurewater from the face of the other, and the movements to and fro thus given to the two rams alter the position of the stud S, and thus change the stroke of the plungers of the main engine.
4 gives an outside view of a 30-H.P. engine capable of using water at a pressure of 700 lb per sq.
The actual efficiency of these wheels when used with high falls is from 80 to 86%; when used in connexion with high-pressure water in London an efficiency 1 This engine was fully described in Engineering, vol.
The city is served by the Chicago & North-Western railway, which maintains here an engine house and extensive machine shops, and of which it is a division headquarters.
It is also noted for its bleach and dye works, its engine works, foundries, paper factories, and production of silk goods, watches, jewelry, mathematical instruments, leather, chemicals, &c. Augsburg is also the centre of the acetylene gas industry of Germany.
(6) A strictly periodic oscillation of this kind occurs in the working of a steam engine, in which the walls of the cylinder are exposed to regular fluctuations of temperature with the admission and release of steam.
The motive power is generally a steam engine, but the greater economy and facility of oil engines have led to their fairly wide adoption.
In the ambition of the spiritual and the secular princes the pope had an immensely powerful engine of offence against the emperor, and without the slightest scruple this was turned to the best advantage.
(The architect being at that time also the contractor.) The chapters are -- (1) on various machines, such as scaling-ladders, windmills, &c.; (2) on windlasses, axles, pulleys and cranes for moving heavy weights, such as those used by Chersiphron in building the great temple of Diana at Ephesus, and on the discovery by a shepherd of a quarry of marble required to build the same temple; (3) on dynamics; (4) on machines for drawing water; (5) on wheels for irrigation worked by a river; (6) on raising water by a revolving spiral tube; (7) on the machine of Ctesibius for raising water to a height; (8) on a very complicated water engine, the description of which is not intelligible, though Vitruvius remarks that he has tried to make the matter clear; (9) on machines with wheels to register the distance travelled, either by land or water; (10) on the construction of scorpiones for hurling stones; (11) and (12) on balistae and catapults; (13) on battering rams and other machines for the attack of a fortress; (14) on shields (testudines) to enable soldiers to fill up the enemy's ditches; (15) on other kinds of testudines; (16) on machines for defence, and examples of their use in ancient times.
Besides the large number of saw and planing mills, there are shipbuilding yards, engine and boiler works, cotton and woollen mills, and factories for acetic acid and naphtha.
Stalybridge is one of the oldest seats of the cotton manufacture in this locality, the first cotton mill having been erected in 1776, and the first steam engine in 1795.
Strachey in 1878, by which the higher rates were reduced and the lower rates raised, with a view to their ultimate equalization over the whole country, effectually abolished this old engine of oppression.
Repeated annexations, the spread of education, the appearance of the steam engine and the telegraph wire, all alike revealed a consistent determination to substitute an English for an Indian civilization.
The Values Deduced In This Manner For The Equivalent Agreed As Closely As Could Be Expected Considering The Impossibility Of Regulating The External Condition Of Temperature And Moisture With Any Certainty In An Engine Room.
This Variation May Have Been Due To The State Of The Lagging, Which Moorby Distrusted In Spite Of The Great Reduction Of The Heat Loss, Or It May Have Been Partly Due To The Difficulty Of Regulating The Speed Of The Engine And The Watersupply To The Brake In Such A Manner As To Maintain A Constant Temperature In The Outflow, And Avoid Variations In The Heat Capacity Of The Brake.
It Would Have Been Desirable, If Possible, To Have Tried The Effect Of A Larger Range Of Variation In The Experimental Conditions Of Load And Speed, With A View To Detect The Existence Of Constant Errors; But Owing To The Limitations Imposed By The Use Of A Steam Engine, And The Difficulty Of Securing Steady Conditions Of Running, This Proved To Be Impossible.
One of the chief practical objections to air-engines is the great bulk of the working substance in relation to the amount of heat that is utilized in the working of the engine.
Gas-engines and oil-engines and other types of engine employing internal combustion may be regarded as closely related to the air-engine.
The highest thermodynamic efficiency will be reached when the working substance is at the top of its temperature range while any heat is being received and at the bottom while any heat is being rejected - as is the case in the cycle of operations of the theoretically imagined engine of Carnot.
The essential parts of one form of Stirling's engine are shown in fig.
The engine was double-acting, another heating vessel like A being connected with the upper end of the working cylinder at F.
This engine was the subject of two patents (by R.
A double-acting Stirling engine of 50 horse-power, using air which was maintained by a pump at a fairly high pressure throughout the operations, was used for some years in the Dundee Foundry, where it is credited with having consumed only Iï¿½7 lb of coal per hour per indicated horse-power.
Hayward and Tyler's "Rider" engine maybe mentioned as another small hot-air motor which follows nearly the Stirling cycle of operations.
Perry (Steam Engine, p. 580), assuming a characteristic equation similar to Zeuner's (which makes v a linear function of the temperature at constant pressure, and S independent of the pressure), calculates S as a function of the temperature to satisfy Regnault's formula (10) for the total heat.
It was first employed in the case of steam by Peabody as a means of estimating the wetness of saturated steam, which is an important factor in testing the performance of an engine.
HYDRAULICS, STEAM ENGINE, GAS ENGINE, Ott.
ENGINE, and fully de,veloped in Rankines The Steaisr Engine and Other Prime Movers (London, 1902).
As an example of circular shifting may be cited the motion of the coupling rod, by which the parallel and equal cranks upon two or more axles of a locomotive engine are connected and made to rotate simultaneously.
The coupling rod remains always parallel to itself, and all its points describe equal and similar circles relatively to the frame of the engine, and move in parallel directions with equal velocities at the same instant.
Coupling of Parallel Axes.Two or more parallel shafts (such as those of a locomotive engine, with two or more pairs of driving wheels) are made to rotate with constantly equal angular velocities by having equal cranks, which are maintained parallel by a coupling-rod of such a length that the line of c000exion is equal to the distance between the axes.
121) If the link d is fixed the chain at once becomes the mechanism of th ordinary steam engine; if the link e is fixed the mechanism obtainec is that of the oscillating cylinder steam engine; if the link c is fixec the mechanism becomes either the Whitworth quick-return motioi or the slot-bar motion, depending upon the proportion between thi L--~-,,-k-.
See also DYNAMOMETER for illustrations of the use of what are essentially friction-straps of different forms for the measurement of the brake horse-power of an engine or motor.
In balancing the mechanism of a steam engine it is often sufficiently accurate to consider the motion of the pistons as simple harmonic, and the effect on the framework of the acceleration of the connecting rod may be approximately allowed for by distributing the weight of the rod between the crank pin and the piston inversely as the centre of gravity of the rod divides the distance between the centre of the cross head pin and the centre of the crank pin.
The moving parts of the engine are then divided into two complete and independent systems, namely, one system of revolving weights consisting of crank pins, crank arms, &c., attached to and revolving with the crank shaft, and a second system of reciprocating weights consisting of the pistons, cross-heads, &c., supposed to be moving each in its line of stroke with simple harmonic motion.
Although this method balances the pistons in the horizontal plane, and thus allows the pull of the engine on the train to be exerted without the variation due to the reciprocation of the pistons, yet the force balanced horizontally is introduced vertically and appears as a variation of pressure on the rail.
The assumption that the pistons of an engine move with simple harmonic motion is increasingly erroneous as the ratio of the length of the crank r, to the length of the con oecting rod 1 increases.
Dalby (London, 1906), where the inertia stresses brought upon the several links of a Joy valve gear, belonging to an express passenger engine of the Lancashire & Yorkshire railway, are investigated for an engine-speed of 68 m.
243.) The military tactics of Homer belong to the age when the chariot was the principal engine of warfare.
The Engine Room.
This involved almost a revolution in the nature of the tools used, and in the methods of working, and may ultimately even greatly affect the factory system and the concentration of population in large towns which was brought about in the early part of the 19th century by the invention of the steam engine.
This council of Wales, the headquarters of which had been fixed at Ludlow, undoubtedly did good service on behalf of law and order under such capable presidents as Bishop Rowland Lee and William Herbert, earl of Pembroke; but it had long ceased to be of any practical use, and had in fact become an engine of oppression by the time of the Commonwealth, although it was not definitely abolished till the revolution of 1688.
in., and N the number of effective strokes per minute, namely, one for each revolution of the crank shaft if the engine is single-acting, but twice as many if it is double-acting.
A statement of indicated horse-power supplies a measure force acting in the cylinder of an engine, but the power available for doing external work off the crank-shaft is less than this by the amount absorbed in driving the engine itself.
It developed into an engine of horrible oppression, and as such was repugnant to the feelings of a free people.
An all-powerful police, minutely organized, has in some foreign states grown into a terrible engine of oppression and made daily life nearly intolerable.
In January 1812 he placed on the Clyde a steamboat (which he named the "Comet") of about 25 tons, propelled by an engine of three horse power, at a speed of 7 m.
Davy on the application of machinery to the calculation and printing of mathematical tables, he discussed the principles of a calculating engine, to the construction of which he devoted many years of his life.
About the same time he devised and constructed the first electromagnetic engine with automatic polechanger (Sill.
One sees at a glance what an engine of controversy it was to be; yet for a while it remained but a phase of humanism.
The vertical axes are surmounted by two parachutes, and the body of the machine is furnished with an engine, propeller, rudders and an extensive aeroplane.
This model, which was shown at the exhibition of the Aeronautical Society of Great Britain at the Crystal Palace in 1868, consisted of two superposed screws propelled by an engine, the steam for which was generated (for lightness) in an aluminium boiler.
These wheels receive motions from bands and pulleys from a steam or other engine contained in the car.
It was remarkably compact, elegant and light, and obtained the ioo prize of the exhibition for its engine, which was the lightest and most powerful so far constructed.
Its engine represented a third of a horse power, and the weight of the whole (engine, boiler, water, fuel, superimposed aeroplanes and ' " On Aerial Locomotion," Aeronautical Society's Report for 186.7.
45), designed in 1874, consisted of a light, powerful, skeleton frame resting on three wheels; a very effective light engine constructed on a new principle, which dispensed with the old-fashioned, cumbrous boiler; two long, narrow, horizontal aeroplanes; and two comparatively very large aerial screws.
At the first trial of this machine, on the 7th of October 1903, just as it left the launching track it was jerked violently down at the front (being caught, as subsequently appeared, by the falling ways), and under the full power of its engine was pulled into the water, carrying with it its engineer.
The steam engine weighed about 7 lb per horse-power, but the equilibrium of the apparatus 'was defective.
Thanks, however, to the efforts of automobile engineers, great improvements were now being effected in the petrol engine, and, although the certainty and trustworthiness of its action still left something to be desired, it provided the designers of flying machines with what they had long been looking for - a motor FIG.
It consisted of the following parts: - (a) A system of aeroplanes arranged like the capital letter T at a certain upward angle to the horizon and bearing a general resemblance to box kites; (b) a pair of very light propellers driven at a high speed; and (c) an exceedingly light and powerful petrol engine.
The engine was an eight-cylinder Antoinette petrol motor, developing 49 horse-power at 1100 revolutions a minute, and driving directly a single metal screw propeller.
The four-cylinder petrol engine was placed on the lower aeroplane a little to the right of the central line, being counterbalanced by the driver (and passenger FIG.
The invention of the steam engine, following quickly upon that of the carding machine, the spinning jenny, and other ingenious machinery employed in textile manufactures, gave an extraordinary impulse to their development, and, with them, that of kindred branches of industry.
Among the duties transferred to parish councils may be mentioned the provision of parish books and of a vestry room or parochial office, parish chest, fire engine or fire escape, the holding or management of parish property, other than property Powers relating to affairs of the church or held for an ecclesiastical and duties charity, the holding or management of village greens or of parish of allotments, the appointment of trustees of parochial councils.
At New Shildon or East Thickley are extensive railway engine and wagon works belonging to the railway company.
The most simple test for the value of a system of fire-proof coverings, and of partitions and furrings, is to erect a large sample of the work and to subject it alternately to the continued action of an intensely hot flame which is allowed to impinge upon it, and to a stream of cold water directed upon it from the ordinary service nozzle of a steam fire engine.
The mixture, then, was composed of such materials as sulphur and naphtha with quicklime, and took fire spontaneously when wetted - whence the name of wet fire or sea fire; and portions of it were "projected and at the same time ignited by applying the hose of a water engine to the breech" of the siphon, which was a wooden tube, cased with bronze.
For this purpose a number of separate weighbridges of simple construction are erected, one for each wheel of the engine, with their running surfaces in exactly the same horizontal plane.
The engine is moved on to them, and the pressures of all the wheels are taken simultaneously, each by its own weighbridge.
which is kept constantly running by means of a belt and pulley driven by an engine.
I, Steam engine and stone E, Cooling pipes for Gloverbreaker for breaking up tower acid.
K, Engine for compressing air.
It is clear from these facts that, prior to Murdoch's experiments, it was known that illuminating gas could be obtained by the destructive distillation of coal, but the experiments which he began at Redruth in 1792, and which culminated in the lighting of Messrs Boulton, Watt & Co.'s engine works at Soho, near Birmingham, in 1802, undoubtedly demonstrated the practical possibility of making the gas on a large scale, and burning it in such a way as to make coal-gas the most important of the artificial illuminants.
17 shows the Dowson gas-producer, together with the arrangements for purifying the gas for the purpose of working a gas engine.
In Chinese he published books on arithmetic, geometry, algebra (De Morgan's), mechanics, astronomy (Herschel's), and The Marine Steam Engine (T.
The establishment of large engine works by the Great Western railway has aided the development of local industries, and there is a considerable shipping trade, fine china clay and pipeclay being worked near the towns and exported to the Potteries.
iv.); and in the same year expanded Euler's adumbrated method of the variation of parameters into a highly effective engine of perturbational research.
The pitch of a steam-whistle quite obviously rises and falls as the engine to which it is attached approaches and recedes from a stationary auditor; and light pulses are modified like sound-waves by velocity in the line of sight.
In 1826 he went to London, at first on leave of absence from his regiment, and in partnership with John Braithwaite constructed the "Novelty," a locomotive engine for the Liverpool & Manchester railway competition at Rainhill in 1829, when the prize, however, was won by Stephenson's "Rocket."
In 1833 his caloric engine was made public. In 1836 he took out a patent for a screw-propeller, and though the priority of his invention could not be maintained, he was afterwards awarded a one-fifth share of the £20,000 given by the Admiralty for it.
Recipient now of immense ecclesiastical revenues, which, owing to the number of vacant benefices, constituted a powerful engine of government, Louis XIV.
(5) If we might also regard the couple as a reversible thermodynamic engine for converting heat into work, and might neglect irreversible effects, such as conduction, which are independent of the current, we should expect to find the ratio of the heat absorbed at the hot junction to the heat evolved at the cold junction, namely, PIP', to be the same as the ratio T/T of the absolute temperatures of the junctions.
(6) If we apply the second law, regarding the couple as a reversible engine, and considering only the reversible effects, we obtain (s' - s")/T = - d(P/T)/dT.
Richelieu, on whose council was Jacques Gaffarel (1601-1681), the last of the Kabbalists, did not despise astrology as an engine of government.
Jefferson merely had exaggerated fears of a moneyed political engine, and seeing that Hamilton's measures of funding and assumption did make the national debt politically useful to the Federalists in the beginning he concluded that they would seek to fasten the debt on the country for ever.
C.E., xxxvii., 18 74, 2 44), is simply a reversed Stirling air engine, the air working in a closed cycle instead of being actually discharged into the room to be cooled, as is the usual practice with ordinary compressedair machines.
The pistons of the compression and expansion cylinders are connected to the same crankshaft, and the difference between the power expended in compression and that restored in expansion, plus the friction of the machine, is supplied by means of a steam engine coupled to the crankshaft, or by any other source of power.
The compressor may be driven by a steam engine or in any other convenient manner.
Each pound of steam can thus be made to give up some 950 units of heat; while in a good steam engine only about 200 units are utilized in the steam cylinder per pound of steam, and in addition allowance has to be made for mechanical inefficiency.
Sometimes an additional vessel is employed for heating liquor by means of the exhaust steam from the engine driving the ammonia pump. Absorption machines are also made without a pump for returning the strong liquor to the generator.
Distilled water is frequently used, as well as the water produced by the condensation of the steam from the engine, which of course must be thoroughly purified and filtered.
The process is analogous to the optical experiment of looking at a quickly rotating wheel or engine through slits in a disk, rotating slightly faster or slower than the object observed.
We then see the engine going through all its motions but much more slowly, and can follow them easily.
In the simplest cases the functions of two or more of these parts may be combined into one, as in the smith's forge, where the fire-place and heating chamber are united, the iron being placed among the coals, only the air for burning being supplied under pressure from a blowing engine by a second special contrivance, the tuyere, tuiron, twyer or blast-pipe; but in the more refined modern furnaces, where great economy of fuel is an object, the different functions are distributed over separate and distinct apparatus, the fuel being converted into gas in one, dried in another, and heated in a third, before arriving at the point of combustion in the working chamber of the furnace proper.
This principle is capable of very wide extension, the blast furnace being mainly limited in height by the strength the column of materials or "burden" has to resist crushing, under the weight due to the head adopted, and the power of the blowing engine to supply blast of sufficient density to overcome the resistance of the closely packed materials to the free passage of the spent gases.
The engine roared and his tires squealed down the street.
Even the birds could be heard over the sound of the engine.
His lab coat was all the overcoat he wore, and he hopped in place beside a beat-up VW Bug whose engine coughed as if it were on its last leg.
The engine shaft will sink in the ground at 130 fathoms.
The search engine will examine the query, extract nouns and noun phrases and construct a query for the user.
Key phrases are multi-word phrases used in search engine queries.
The stationary engine at the workshop entrance powers the line shafting.
A more recent addition is ' Freddie ' the remote control fire engine, brilliant for the small children.
adsorbed layers are important in many areas from ice-cream to engine oils.
aero engine parts.
Flying characteristics: A gentle flyer, very stable, basic aerobatics only due to the small engine.
Powered by an incredibly powerful 10 Liter supercharged engine, this aircraft can perform spectacular unlimited aerobatics that will amaze the airshow audience.
With the engine placed at the bike's exact center of gravity, it was surprisingly agile for its size.
air quality with a cleaner, quieter engine.
Its customers include all of the world's leading manufacturers of civil and military, fixed and rotary wing aircraft and aero engine.
We design our air filters to provide minimum restriction allowing high airflow into an engine.
For an aircraft, for example, such components might include the airframe, engine and avionics systems.
In contrast to the take off where we use a constant engine power, for landing we need to keep a constant airspeed.
The new engine made it possible to climb steeply out of jungle airstrips surrounded by tall trees.
A still bigger surprise is that a relatively small 2.7 liter diesel engine can push such a large car along with such alacrity.
almighty roar of the engine (with all the bite of a small mouse ).
alternator driven by the engine.
Engine All the boats come with a 4 cylinder Isuzu 55 engine with PRM hydraulic gearbox and twin alternators.
An engine driven 85 amp alternator ensures that the batteries are always well charged up.
The engine alternator is 50 amps and we have an Ampair 100 wind generator with optional water turbine.
The post-war slump brought a last-ditch amalgamation of traction engine manufacturers including Burrell's.
A converted sail shed now houses a stylish tea room and Edwardian and Victorian antiques are to be found in the old engine house.
aspirated 2 liter engine under the bonnet.
You could be fooled into thinking there was a normally aspirated 2 liter engine under the bonnet.
Now rock the engine axially and pull it backward about 5/6 inches until the input shaft clears the clutch assembly then lower away.
autogyro powered by a Victa Pixie 173cc 2-stroke single cylinder piston engine.
A single seat light autogyro powered by a Victa Pixie 173cc 2-stroke single cylinder piston engine.
Nothing to remember, nothing to do - fully automatic engine starting protection!
await fitting to the engine.
Chrome tubular engine guards front and rear, a padded backrest and sturdy aluminum passenger grab rails are just part of the story.
bard's works via Matty Farrow's engine in Australia.
barqueing took on a new lease of life in the mid-19th century, with the typical whaling bark being fitted with an auxiliary engine.
Slide rule engine turned bezel with matching engine turned crown.
We were obviously a bit enthusiastic about filling the engine compartment bilges with water for tunnel ballast!
Thursday was spent cleaning some oily bilges, and re-instating the engine cooling system that I stripped down a week or so ago.
Then a dreadful couple of days cleaning out the engine room bilges.
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Instead of old square buttons and limited colors, the Windows® XP visual style engine natively supports the use of true color bitmap buttons.
blare blaring siren of a fire engine arrives on the bridge, followed by police cars and the car of AGENT MULDER.
For installation on a truck, the truck engine is used to drive the chipper hydraulic system including the fan blower and loading crane.
boater's term for the water intake filter on the engine cooling system.
The two-tone chrome engine and the aluminum silver bodywork coupled with the perfect ergonomics of the make the V-Rod a real beauty.
Bob stokes the boiler, providing steam for Fred to work the Beam Engine.
ENGINE open the bonnet, the lever is at the bottom right hand side of the drivers side dash.
bonnet bulges are necessary to cover the tall C-series engine.
For example, RUDI currently uses the ' Netscape Verity ' search engine which allows full text Boolean searching.
This not only helps improve accessibility for disabled users but also for search engine bots.
boxer engine is designed to produce more torque at low speed rather than maximum power.
What we want to talk about is how they managed to get 345 brake horsepower out of a 2 liter engine.
brake horsepower engine and seven-speed auto gearbox to give a tyre-chirping 0-62mph time of 4.5sec.