Energy sentence example

energy
  • The boy was no longer sleepy, but full of energy and excitement.
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  • Now put that energy into walking.
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  • Vastly more energy than we need pours down on this planet in the form of sunlight.
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  • He already felt the loss of her calm energy, but he had no idea what to do about it.
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  • Before long, she was drenched and chilled, her skin crawling from the bridled charged energy of the storm.
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  • His energy rippled through her, making her gasp at the intensity of the touch that lit her blood on fire.
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  • He didn't respond, and she thought it best to direct her energy to walking rather than talking.
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  • I was keenly surprised and disappointed years later to learn of their acts of persecution that make us tingle with shame, even while we glory in the courage and energy that gave us our "Country Beautiful."
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  • Bianca focused on it and channeled her healing energy towards the dark pain.
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  • She channeled her energy towards it, feeding it.
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  • The energy around them was lively; they were brothers whose bond was formed during their years in the bowels of hell.
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  • A strange energy ran between them, as if she could absorb the faint stream of his magic.
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  • Now, if you acquire an ox, a new source of energy, you can plow more.
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  • But what if that energy cost fell to zero?
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  • Plus, they will be able to convert heat to electricity as well, so anything that heats up will become an energy source.
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  • Our internal electrical system works by using cells that have built up electrical gradient or energy that can be given off to other cells by direct transfer.
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  • And the feeling of energy with which the troops had started began to turn into vexation and anger at the stupid arrangements and at the Germans.
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  • There was something very different about this woman, and it was more than the feel of her energy flowing through him.
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  • She responded, shivering at the energy that fluttered through her when their lips touched.
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  • If she could see and hear, I suppose she would get rid of her superfluous energy in ways which would not, perhaps, tax her brain so much, although I suspect that the ordinary child takes his play pretty seriously.
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  • Or perchance, at evening, I hear him in his stable blowing off the superfluous energy of the day, that he may calm his nerves and cool his liver and brain for a few hours of iron slumber.
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  • If not for Yully's fading energy, Jule would've stayed to make sure Damian's version of chat resembled his and not Dusty's, who was more likely to shoot first and discuss later.
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  • "What made you come?" he asked She wiped her eyes again, overwhelmed by his presence yet comforted by the flow of energy between them.
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  • What we're doing together blows my imagination so I'll devote as much time and energy as I can possible muster to optimizing our results.
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  • It's the same thing you do to change an object into another, only normal objects have far less energy to control.
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  • One would argue that energy costs will remain high.
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  • His gaze flared at his words, and the energy between them pulsed.
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  • Believe me in war the energy of young men often shows the way better than all the experience of old Cunctators.
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  • The day was getting hot and it took too much energy to argue.
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  • His absence sucked the energy from the room and she stared down at the dishwater.
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  • A problem arises because of the strong correlation between standard of living and energy consumption.
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  • If you are a farmer and work alone, you can only plant as much land as you can personally plow. You can do just a couple of thousand calories of work a day, consuming only the energy produced by the food you ate.
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  • Without energy to power these, prosperity plummets.
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  • But think about how it could play out: If energy truly were free and unlimited, you could, for instance, power tractors everywhere in the world.
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  • That was indeed the hope for atomic energy in that era, and it did not pan out.
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  • Houses will be built by robots using materials not yet invented that are cheaper and more energy efficient.
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  • Instead of responding, she concentrated on pulling his energy into her body then pushed it back.
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  • Yully pulled what she could of his energy into her body.
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  • Touching him sent warm energy racing through her blood.
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  • The point is that the cost of making almost everything is mostly energy and intellect, not raw materials.
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  • An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.
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  • And in that future, I believe the world can have—in fact, will have—plentiful, free, clean energy that will result in dramatically lower costs for everything, everywhere.
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  • If they would only expend the same amount of energy loving their fellow men, the devil would die in his own tracks of ennui.
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  • The ache within her deepened at the idea of trusting someone for the first time in her life, and the energy flowing between them grew more intense.
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  • The pinch came, followed by the strange sensations of energy flying within her.
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  • The word potential does not imply that this energy is not real; it exists in potentiality only in the sense that it is stored away in some latent manner; but it can be drawn upon without limit for mechanical work.
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  • Of the total quantity of energy incident on the earth about 40% is reflected back from the earth's atmosphere.
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  • But this superficiality was accompanied by such wonderful acuteness within a certain range, by such an absolutely unsurpassed literary aptitude and sense of style in all the lighter and some of the graver modes of literature, by such untiring energy and versatility in enterprise, that he has no parallel among ready writers anywhere.
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  • His numerous writings, from 1823 onwards, were the reservoirs in which the entire energy of a life was stored.
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  • It is fair to assume that Grant would have followed other unsuccessful generals into retirement, had he not shown that, whatever his mistakes or failures, and whether he was or was not sober and temperate in his habits, he possessed the iron determination and energy which in the eyes of Lincoln and Stanton,' and of the whole Northern people, was the first requisite of their generals.
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  • Comte threw himself into the suit with an energy worthy of Voltaire and won it.
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  • The animal and the plant alike require food to repair waste, to build up new tissue and to provide material which, by chemical change, may liberate the energy which appears in the processes of life.
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  • Although the age did not afford free scope and stimulus to individual energy and enterprise, it furnished more material and social advantages for the peaceful cultivation of letters.
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  • First, think of energy as the capacity to do work.
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  • I think no matter what, energy costs will fall dramatically in the future, probably to near zero, because the economic incentives to unlock that technical puzzle are so overwhelming.
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  • To deal in generalities, plants capture, on average, about 5 percent of the solar energy that falls on their leaves.
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  • These sights and sounds had no depressing or intimidating effect on him; on the contrary, they stimulated his energy and determination.
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  • During this difficult journey Mademoiselle Bourienne, Dessalles, and Princess Mary's servants were astonished at her energy and firmness of spirit.
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  • Thanks to her activity and energy, which infected her fellow travelers, they approached Yaroslavl by the end of the second week.
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  • What would have happened if on approaching Tarutino, Napoleon had attacked the Russians with but a tenth of the energy he had shown when he attacked them at Smolensk?
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  • The flow of energy soothed her, and she relaxed against him.
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  • Itching to relieve some of her own nervous energy after the run-in with the vamps, she'd reached the door when Jonny spoke again.
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  • Carmen arrived on stage with an energy that kept her ponytail bobbing.
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  • She suspected he was dangerous, but right now, she felt the danger radiating off him in a similar charged energy to Jonny's, except that Xander's had the same effect as adrenaline on her.
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  • He was still bristling with stormy energy.
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  • It explained the storm-cloud energy and how he'd broken her forearm with no effort.
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  • Woman, in her wasted life, in her hurried death, here stands appealing to the society that degrades her, with a combination of eloquence and poetry, of forms of art at once instantaneous and permanent, and with great metrical energy and variety.
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  • With indefatigable energy he at once attempted to grapple with the difficulties of the situation, waging an almost desperate struggle with sloth, corruption and incompetence.
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  • During this time he went from one city to the other, according as the danger was more pressing, and constantly displayed an admirable zeal and an imperturbable energy.
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  • At first he threw himself with great energy into the task of building up an adequate system of schools.
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  • It is not, therefore, strange that Cromwell's first essays in war were characterised more by energy than technical skill.
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  • A simple example of the transformation of kinetic energy into potential energy, and vice versa, is afforded by the pendulum.
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  • When work is done against these forces no full equivalent of potential energy may be produced; this applies especially to frictional forces, for if the motion of the system be reversed the forces will be also reversed and will still oppose the motion.
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  • The electric transmission of energy can be performed with an efficiency not reached by any other method, and the electric motor readily adapts itself to cranes.
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  • In electric cranes a useful method is to arrange the connexions so that the lifting motor acts as a dynamo, and, driven by the energy of the falling load, generates a current which is converted into heat by being passed through resistances.
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  • When electric oscillations are set up in an open or closed electric circuit having capacity and inductance, and left to themselves, they die away in amplitude, either because they dissipate their energy as heat in overcoming the resistance of the circuit, or because they radiate it by imparting wave motion to the surrounding ether.
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  • Subsequently he edited a weekly paper at Waltham, studied law and was admitted to the bar, his energy and his ability as a public speaker soon winning him distinction.
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  • The prophetic office ceased to exist when its work was done, and part of the intellectual energy of the people was thus set free for other tasks than the establishment of theistic dogma.
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  • The Peninsular War called for large forces of the old Grande Arsnee and for a brief period Napoleon directed operations in person; and the Austrians took advantage of the dissemination and weakness of the French forces in Germany to push forward their own preparations with renewed energy.
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  • Ceaseless industry and energy were the principal results of the victory.
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  • A partial explanation of this phenomenon may perhaps be found in the economy of nervous energy his strategical method ensured to him.
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  • In 1894 he was greatly cheered by the plan, suggested by friends in England and carried out by them with the greatest energy, of the noble collection of his works in twenty-eight volumes, since known as the Edinburgh editions.
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  • The Greeks are of an especially fine type, physical and moral, and noted all through Anatolia for energy and stability.
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  • Crowds of persons attended his addresses, on whom his energy, command of language, powerful voice and impassioned gestures made a profound impression.
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  • In order that positively electrified ions may enter a solution, an equivalent amount of other positive ions must be removed or negative ions be added, and, for the process to occur spontaneously, the possible action at the two electrodes must involve a decrease in the total available energy of the system.
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  • The fear of being imprisoned in a convent for the rest of her life was the determining cause of her irresistible outburst of energy.
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  • The Central Hall atTollcross testifies to Methodist energy.
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  • Marutha, who was Nestorian catholicus of Seleucia from about 540 to 552 1 and a man of exceptional energy, made the only known attempt, which was, however, unsuccessful, to provide the Nestorians with a Bible version of their own.
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  • But his subordinate rank gave him no chance to impart a greater measure of energy to the naval operations.
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  • As regards the generation of electric energy, by pointing out defects of design in the dynamo as it existed about 1878, and showing.
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  • The energy with which Ulysses, after the slaughter of the suitors, calls to Euryclea for "fire and sulphur" to purge (literally "fumigate") the dininghall from the pollution of their blood (Od.
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  • Full of energy, Amyraut very speedily gave to French Protestantism a new force.
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  • Function of receive antenna is extraction energy from electromagnetic field.
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  • during that period through Baron Louis, and the king rewarded his energy and tact by appointing him prefect of police at Paris on the 7th of July 1815.
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  • The company set to work with energy and the result was seen in largely increased exports.
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  • Considerable energy was shown in railway construction and by the end of 1918 there were combined railway and steamer routes from the mouth of the Congo to Dar es Salaam and Cape Town.
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  • Equation (3) is called Bernoulli's equation, and may be interpreted as the balance-sheet of the energy which enters and leaves a given tube of flow.
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  • b2' and this, by § 36, is also the ratio of the kinetic energy in the annular 4,1 interspace between the two cylinders to the kinetic energy of the liquid moving bodily inside r = b.
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  • The kinetic energy of the liquid inside a surface S due to the velocity function 4' f i (s given by T=2p + (d) 2+ (t) dxdydz, pff f 75 4 dS (I) by Green's transformation, dv denoting an elementary step along the normal to the exterior of the surface; so that d4ldv = o over the surface makes T = o, and then (d4 2 d4) 2 'x) + (dy) + (= O, dd?
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  • (2) If the actual motion at any instant is supposed to be generated instantaneously from rest by the application of pressure impulse over the surface, or suddenly reduced to rest again, then, since no natural forces can act impulsively throughout the liquid, the pressure impulse W satisfies the equations I do = I d i dos - ax -u, - - y = -v, Pdz = -t, a =p4)-}-a constant, (4) and the constant may be ignored; and Green's transformation of the energy T amounts to the theorem that the work done by an impulse is the product of the impulse and average velocity, or half the velocity from rest.
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  • In plane motion the kinetic energy per unit length parallel to Oz T 2p J J [(d4)) 2+ (d dy (P)1dxdy=lpfl[ a) 2+ (=zp 4d ds=zp f, ydvds.
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  • (to) Integrating over the base, to obtain one-third of the kinetic energy T, 3T = 2 pf '3 4R2(3x4-h4)dx/h 3 = pR2h4 / 1 35 V 3 (II) so that the effective k 2 of the liquid filling the trianglc is given by k 2 = T/Z p R 2 A = 2h2/45 = (radius of the inscribed circle) 2, (12) or two-fifths of the k 2 for the solid triangle.
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  • But supposing them determined for the motion of a body through a liquid, the kinetic energy T of the system, liquid and body, is expressible as a quadratic function of the components U, V, W, P, Q, R.
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  • Conversely, if the kinetic energy T is expressed as a quadratic function of x, x x3, y1, y2, y3, the components of momentum, the partial differential coefficient with respect to a momentum component will give the component of velocity to correspond.
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  • These theorems, which hold for the motion of a single rigid body, are true generally for a flexible system, such as considered here for a liquid, with one or more rigid bodies swimming in it; and they express the statement that the work done by an impulse is the product of the impulse and the arithmetic mean of the initial and final velocity; so that the kinetic energy is the work done by the impulse in starting the motion from rest.
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  • In the motion which can be solved by the elliptic function, the most general expression of the kinetic energy was shown by A.
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  • But Piero's unexpected energy upset the schemes of his enemies.
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  • He put an end to the division which had arisen between the spiritual leaders of Palestinian Judaism by the separation of the scribes into the two schools called respectively after Hillel and Shammai, and took care to enforce his own authority as the president of the chief legal assembly of Judaism with energy and often with severity.
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  • In 1643 he took an active part in the proceedings against Nathaniel Fiennes for the surrender of Bristol, and showed a vindictive energy in the prosecution of Archbishop Laud.
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  • At Chancellorsville he displayed great intrepidity and energy, and on the eve of the battle of Gettysburg was appointed to succeed Hooker.
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  • The energy and imprudence of Eutyches in asserting his opinions led to his being accused of heresy by Domnus of Antioch and Eusebius, bishop of Dorylaeum, at a synod presided over by Flavian at Constantinople in 448.
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  • (During these early years the Arabs had not only made conquests by land, but had found an outlet for their energy at sea.
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  • The fact that energy is being used at so high a rate as Too H.P. on so small a charge of material sufficiently indicates that the furnace is only used for experimental work, or for the fusion of metals which, like tungsten or chromium, can only be melted at temperatures attainable by electrical means.
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  • with a substance offering a high resistance to the current passing through it, and (2) those in which the substance to be heated itself affords the resistance to the passage of the current whereby electric energy is converted into heat.
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  • It was found in practice (in 1889) that the expenditure of energy per pound of reduced aluminium was about 23 H.P.-hours, a number considerably in excess of that required at the present time for the production of pure aluminium by the electrolytic process described in the article Aluminium.
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  • Among the factors, economic, geographic, political and social, which combined to bring about the decline of the Hanseatic League, none was probably more influential than the absence of a German political power comparable in unity and energy with those of France and England, which could quell particularism at home, and abroad maintain in its vigour the trade which these towns had developed and defended with their imperfect union.
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  • 'Ali, the son of a Cretan renegade, was proclaimed sovereign by the troops under the title of "Bey," and, being a prince of energy and ability, was able to establish the hereditary sovereignty, which has lasted without change of dynasty to the present time.2 Frequent wars with Algiers form the chief incidents in the internal history of Tunisia under the Beys.
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  • He displayed great energy in facing the difficulties of a turbulent situation, but was unsuccessful.
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  • Napoleon had here double the force of the allies; Kutusov, however, displayed great energy, changed front to his right and called up his reserves.
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  • He was shortly assigned to a territorial command on the Mississippi, and first won distinction by his energy in seizing, on his own responsibility, the important point of Paducah, Kentucky, situated at the confluence of the two great waterways of the Tennessee and the Ohio (6th Sept.
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  • This, with Grant's driving energy infused into the best army that the Union possessed, resolved itself into a series, almost uninterrupted, of terrible battles.
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  • The evil rose to alarming proportions during Grant's presidency, partly because of the immense extension of the civil service, partly because of the growing tendency to alliance between spoilsmen and the persons benefited by protective tariffs, and partly because the public attention was still so much absorbed in Southern affairs that little energy was left for curbing rascality in the North.
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  • olcano rapidly resumes its energy and the partially filled-up ti rater is cleared out by a succession of tremendous explosions.
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  • The system for which the Positive Philosophy is alleged to have been the scientific preparation contains a Polity and a Religion; a complete arrangement of life in all its aspects, giving a wider sphere to Intellect, Energy and Feeling than could be found in any of the previous organic types, - Greek, Roman or Catholic-feudal.
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  • There are at least two possibilities: (1) that in Latium g and k were pronounced almost identically, as, e.g., in the German of Wurttemberg or in the Celtic dialects, the difference consisting only in the greater energy with which the k-sound is produced; (2) that the confusion is graphic, K being sometimes written I C, which was then regarded as two separate symbols.
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  • Otto had untiring perseverance and relentless energy.
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  • He happened to send his eldest son, John, to Liverpool to sell a cargo of grain there, and the energy and aptitude of the young man attracted the favourable notice of a leading corn-merchant of Liverpool, who recommended him to settle in that city.
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  • The prince consort wrote: " Gladstone is now the real leader in the House of Commons, and works with an energy and vigour altogether incredible."
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  • The motivepower generated by the Camuzzoni canal is utilized by a large nail factory, flour mills, paper mills, cotton mills and works for the distribution of electric energy.
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  • With these may be named the demon lantern-bearers, so perfect in the grotesque treatment of the diabolical heads and the accurate anatomical forms of the sturdy body and limbs; the colossal temple guardians of the great gate of Tdai-ji, by Unkei and Kwaikei (11th century), somewhat conventionalized, but still bearing evidence of direct study from nature, and inspired with intense energy of action; and the smaller but more accurately modelled temple guardians in the Saikondo, Nara, which almost compare with the fighting gladiator in their realization of menacing strength.
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  • 30), but, urged by Origen, and at last almost compelled by Phaedimus of Amasia, his metropolitan, neither of whom was willing to see so much learning, piety and masculine energy practically lost to the church, he, after many attempts to evade the dignity, was consecrated bishop of his native town (about 240).
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  • The convenience also with which the energy of waterfalls can be converted into electric energy has led to the introduction of chemical industries into countries and districts where, owing to the absence of coal, they were previously unknown.
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  • The solution of the iron anode was intended to afford the necessary energy.
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  • In this he took the portfolio of the Interior, and the main energy of the government was devoted to the struggle with clericalism.
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  • Dr Samuel Jebb included antiquarian notices as well as literary reviews in his Bibliotheca literaria (1722-1724), previously mentioned, but the Gentleman's Magazine, founded in 1731, fully established, through the tact and energy of the publisher Edward Cave, the type of the magazine, from that time so marked a feature of English periodical literature.
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  • Weisse in order to give his whole energy to the Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend (1759-1765), carried on by the help speaking countries is equipped, the Jahresberichte and Bibliographien, which give each year a full account of the literature of the subject with which they are concerned.
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  • During his first expedition (622) he failed to secure a footing in Armenia, whence he had hoped to take the Persians in flank, but by his unwearied energy he restored the discipline and efficiency of the army.
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  • The triumphs which Heraclius had won through his own energy and skill did not bring him lasting popularity.
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  • Worn out by continuous fighting and weakened by dropsy, Heraclius failed to show sufficient energy against the new peril that menaced his eastern provinces towards the end of his reign.
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  • He returned resolved to devote the rest of his days to rousing the Church to her duty in the sphere of foreign missions, but his health was now broken, and his old energy flagged.
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  • An electrified conductor is a store of energy, and from the definition of potential it is clear that the work done in increasing the charge q of a conductor whose potential is v by a small amount dq, is vdq, and since this added charge increases in turn the potential, it is easy to prove that the work done in charging a conductor with Q units to a potential V units is z QV units of work.
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  • Accordingly the number of electric cells into which the space round is cut up is equal to twice the energy stored up, or each cell contains half a unit of energy.
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  • This harmonizes with the fact that the real seat of the energy 3f electrification is the dielectric or insulator surrounding the charged conductor.'
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  • When a quantity of heat, H, is supplied to a body, part is expended in raising the temperature of the body, or in expanding the volume against molecular forces, and is represented by an increase in the total quantity of energy contained in the body, which is generally called its Intrinsic Energy, and will be denoted by the symbol E.
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  • (I) in which E 0 represents the quantity of energy originally present in the body, and all the quantities are supposed, as usual, to be expressed in mechanical units.
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  • E - E 0, then, represents the total increase of the intrinsic energy of the body in its final state, which may be determined by measuring H and W.
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  • But this simple relation is only true of the net balances of heat and work in a complete cyclical process, which must be adopted for theoretical purposes if we wish to eliminate the unknown changes of intrinsic energy.
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  • The significance of relation (I) is best appreciated by considering the graphic representation of quantities of heat and energy on a work-diagram.
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  • Any closed path or figure, such as ABCD, represents a complete cycle or series of operations, in the course of which the substance is restored to its original state with respect to temperature, intrinsic energy and other properties.
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  • If the substance in any state such as B were allowed to expand adiabatically (dH = o) down to the absolute zero, at which point it contains no heat and exerts no pressure, the whole of its available heat energy might theoretically be recovered in the form of external work, represented on the diagram by the whole area BAZcb under the adiabatic through the state-point B, bounded by the isometric Bb and the zero isopiestic bV.
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  • The change of the intrinsic energy in passing from one state to another, as from B to C is represented by the addition of the heat-area H= Bczz', and the subtraction of the work-area W = BCcb.
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  • It follows from the first law that the intrinsic energy of a substance in a given state must always be the same, or that the change of E in any transformation must depend only on the initial and final states, and not on the path or process.
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  • It will be observed that the areas representing H and W both depend on the form of the path BC, but that the difference of the areas representing the change of intrinsic energy dE is independent of BC, which is a boundary common to both H and W.
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  • Intrinsic Energy.
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  • - The change of intrinsic energy E along any path is found by subtracting the work pdv from either of the expressions for dH.
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  • Since the change of energy is independent of the path, the finite change between any two given states may be found by integration along any convenient path.
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  • The change of energy at constant volume is simply sdo, the change at constant temperature is (odp/de - p)dv, which may be written dE/de (v const) =s, dE/dv (0 const) =odp/do - p .
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  • Observing that F is a function of the co-ordinates expressing the state of the substance, we obtain for the variation of S with pressure at constant temperature, dS/dp (0 const) '=' 2 F/dedp =-0d 2 v/d0 2 (p const) (12) If the heat supplied to a substance which is expanding reversibly and doing external work, pdv, is equal to the external work done, the intrinsic energy, E, remains constant.
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  • The lines of constant energy on the diagram are called Isenergics.
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  • The energy E and the total heat F are functions of the temperature only, by equations (9) and (I I), and their variations take the form dE = sdO, d F = Sd0.
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  • (14) where (00,v), (e 0, vo) are any two points on the adiabatic. The corresponding expressions for the change of energy or total heat are obtained by adding the term 2as 0 (02-002) to those already given, thus: E - Eo = so (0-00) + 2 aso (02-002), F - Fo=S0(0-00) + zaso (02-002), where So= so+R.
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  • Under this condition the increase of intrinsic energy would be equal to the heat absorbed, and would be indicated by fall of temperature of the calorimeter.
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  • Joule failed to observe any change of temperature in his apparatus, and was therefore justified in assuming that the increase of intrinsic energy of a gas in isothermal expansion was very small, and that the absorption of heat observed in a similar experiment in which the gas was allowed to do external work by expanding against the atmospheric pressure was equivalent to the external work done.
    1
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  • If we consider any short length of the stream bounded by two imaginary cross-sections A and B on either side of the plug, unit mass of the fluid in passing A has work, p'v', done on it by the fluid behind and carries its energy, E'+ U', with it into the space AB, where U' is the kinetic energy of flow.
    1
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  • In passing B it does work, p"v", on the fluid in front, and carries its energy, E"+ U", with it out of the space AB.
    1
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  • If there is no external loss or gain of heat through the walls of the pipe, and if the flow is steady, so that energy is not accumulating in the space AB, we must evidently have the condition E'+U'+p'v' =E'+ U"+p"v" at any two cross-sections of the stream.
    1
    0
  • The expression for the change of intrinsic energy E between any given limits poOo to po is readily found by substituting these values of the specific heats in equations (II) or (13), and integrating between the given limits.
    1
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  • The energy is less than that of an ideal gas by the term npc. If we imagine that the defect of volume c is due to the formation of molecular aggregates consisting of two or more single molecules, and if the kinetic energy of translation of any one of these aggregates is equal to that of one of the single molecules, it is clear that some energy must be lost in co-aggregating, but that the proportion lost will be different for different types of molecules and also for different types of co-aggregation.
    1
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  • If two monatomic molecules, having energy of translation only, equivalent to 3 degrees of freedom, combined to form a diatomic molecule with 5 degrees of freedom, the energy lost would.
    1
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  • If two diatomic molecules, having each 5 degrees of freedom, combine to form a molecule with 6 degrees of freedom, we should have n = 2, or the energy lost would be 2pc per unit mass.
    1
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  • The loss of energy could not be greater than this on the simple kinetic theory, unless there were some evolution of latent heat of co-aggregation, due to the work done by the mutual attractions of the co-aggregating molecules.
    1
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  • If mechanical work or kinetic energy is directly converted into heat by friction, reversal of the motion does not restore the energy so converted.
    1
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  • In all such cases there is necessarily, by Carnot's principle, a loss of efficiency or available energy, accompanied by an increase of entropy, which serves as a convenient measure or criterion of the loss.
    1
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  • In this case the work of expansion, pdv, is expended in the first instance in producing kinetic energy of motion of parts of the gas.
    1
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  • Assuming that no heat is supplied from external sources and no external work is done, the intrinsic energy remains constant by the first law.
    1
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  • The final state of the substance, when equilibrium has been restored, may be deduced from this condition, if the energy can be expressed in terms of the co-ordinates.
    1
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  • Or maybe smart old people just direct that energy to crosswords and it is not the crosswords doing the job at all ...
    17
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  • I suspect it is both; GNP rises, so we buy more energy, allowing GNP to rise so we can buy more energy.
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  • But is energy really scarce—or is it like air?
    9
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  • I don't mean that in a motivational poster kind of way but in a literal sense: Failures (and what we learn from them) will help build the energy solutions for our future.
    13
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  • People who live their lives following their passions seem more full of life and energy than anyone else.
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  • From our point of view, the job of the plant is to convert sunlight into energy and store that energy in a tasty way; then when we eat the plant, we get that energy.
    7
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  • From our standpoint, the plant wastes all the rest of its energy on riotous living: growing roots and leaves, soaking up water, separating carbon molecules from oxygen ones.
    12
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  • The French crowd fled at a continually increasing speed and all its energy was directed to reaching its goal.
    7
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  • Built on the energy industry, the city is fast and lively.
    1
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  • The pale, dark-haired youth was drenched, but it was the wild look on his face that made her stop in the middle of the foyer and watch him pace with agitated energy.
    0
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  • Her breath caught as his body sucked up her cool energy.
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  • He was exhausted and wired with angry energy.
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  • He drew her into his body, reveling in the flow of her cool energy.
    0
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  • He carried on with Bianca like the sister she now was, and Jule couldn't help feeling a sense of gratitude towards the small woman with the quick smile, warm gaze, and healing energy.
    0
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  • Without touching him, she still felt the ebb and flow of energy.
    0
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  • Cold energy shot through Deidre, and she flinched.
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  • Darkyn cupped her cheek with one hand, the cool energy spreading as his thumb rubbed her cheek lightly.
    0
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  • Darkyn touched her arm again, his cool energy making her snap.
    0
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  • He scared her, and she touched him instinctively, wanting his cool energy to help calm her emotions.
    0
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  • Deidre braced herself, hoping not to feel the warm energy of his magic.
    0
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  • His cool energy worked through her, calming her.
    0
    0
  • Cold energy sealed the deal as official.
    0
    0
  • He touched her again, cold energy spinning through her.
    0
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  • He gobbled everything he could grab as if building energy for the balance of his coast-to-coast trek.
    0
    0
  • Warm energy fluttered through her.
    0
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  • She gasped, the heat and energy of his touch making her shiver.
    0
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  • A ripple of cold energy floated through her head and made her shiver.
    0
    0
  • No point in wasting energy screaming now.
    0
    0
  • He caught her wrist, and a strange energy moved up her arm.
    0
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  • He pulled her closer to him, until their sides were pressed together, then released her as the weird energy fluttered through her.
    0
    0
  • The strange energy hummed through her again, and she became aware of new sensations she'd never noticed with anyone else.
    0
    0
  • Wired energy made him edgy and his step quick.
    0
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  • Her body was humming with the stranger's weird energy.
    0
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  • He couldn't forget the energy of the bond that tore through when he held her on the roof.
    0
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  • He rested his hand on the base of her neck, the warm energy of their bond moving through him.
    0
    0
  • The warm energy crept across her skin and into her blood.
    0
    0
  • She was surprised to feel a strange zap of energy, different than Gabriel's warmth but not unpleasant.
    0
    0
  • Cold energy shot through her.
    0
    0
  • Deidre's body betrayed her, giving a full-form shudder at the rush of heat and energy.
    0
    0
  • Their energy made her skin tingle uncomfortably.
    0
    0
  • Cold energy traveled through her as she gripped the emerald.
    0
    0
  • It was followed by warm energy that Gabriel pushed into her body to calm her.
    0
    0
  • She wanted to tell him to leave, but whatever bond existed between them, it filled her with warmth and energy that quelled the meltdown she was about to have.
    0
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  • His energy sapped, the kid was sprawled half asleep across the race car bed.
    0
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  • He found some of his wired energy dissipating at the long walk and change of scenery despite knowing nothing good had ever come from a meeting with Sasha.
    0
    0
  • Her eyes were heavy, her anger draining her last bit of energy.
    0
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  • A blast of energy whipped by her, knocking her back, and the jaguar was sent flying.
    0
    0
  • The hot energy circulating through her body came from the large, olive-hued hands touching her.
    0
    0
  • The thrum of warm energy coursed through her again, and she felt again her destiny was tied with his.
    0
    0
  • Her thoughts drifted to the prisoner, the memory of his touch and the strange energy making her blood quicken.
    0
    0
  • The odd energy flowing between them held them both in silence for a long moment before he spoke.
    0
    0
  • The warrior before her had an intensity that made her breath catch, and the energy between them made her insides tingle.
    0
    0
  • She squirmed, unwilling to be defenseless with the tarantulas so close and uneasy with the warm energy flowing again between them.
    0
    0
  • She understood him and obviously felt the same energy he did when they touched.
    0
    0
  • His touch sent heated energy through her, and the nearness of his body made her tense.
    0
    0
  • The connection between them flowed with hot energy, the planet's life form itself bonding the two of them together at their touch.
    0
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  • She could feel his angry energy even over the viewer.
    0
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  • The initial sensations passed, and he breathed deeply, finally able to focus as his body adjusted to the feel of the energy flowing through him.
    0
    0
  • She didn't have the energy for a fight.
    0
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  • All she could think about was seeing, touching, kissing A'Ran and experiencing the odd energy that ran between them.
    0
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  • She felt the energy even from the distance and started forward.
    0
    0
  • Lana brought up the energy grids.
    0
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  • Everything this side of the Mississippi is working on solar energy, but not all the facilities are equipped with energy storage, and because it's fall, our energy collection is limited.
    0
    0
  • She listened for the familiar thrum of energy over her breathing.
    0
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  • She dragged the unconscious commander to the floor and replaced him in the seat before the energy terminal, assessing the damage done.
    0
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  • There was no running water, no food supplies, no energy whatsoever, just a deteriorating building with a score of insurgents and a small black box.
    0
    0
  • "Down South, we call this energy water," he said.
    0
    0
  • He was hot and sweaty, but he'd not yet been able to rid himself of the wired energy humming through his blood.
    0
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  • "It's a local energy grid controller," Lana said.
    0
    0
  • We're building a bigger battery to store the energy we generate from the river, but … Kelli shrugged.
    0
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  • There's no energy stored in it right now.
    0
    0
  • I'll check all the receivers and make sure the town will have energy before I go.
    0
    0
  • While they took away the fatigue and gave her energy, she could think of nothing but chocolate sundaes and pickles.
    0
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  • "You may have endless energy as a dead man, but I don't," she told him.
    0
    0
  • He managed to keep his body fluids up by frequent gulps to replenish his rapidly diminishing energy.
    0
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  • That was usually during the winter when he wasn't so busy and had more energy.
    0
    0
  • He must have had a lot of energy to keep up with two women.
    0
    0
  • Her cool energy surrounded him.
    0
    0
  • Here, magic emanated off of everything and filled her with its energy.
    0
    0
  • She was wired with a different kind of energy after the sparring session, one that made her remember all too clearly how she'd felt under his body.
    0
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  • Desire flew through her, hot and fast like the strange energy running between them.
    0
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  • With his healing magic and the first cheeseburger in her belly, Jenn felt renewed energy.
    0
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  • Carnot, who were greatly impressed by his energy, sincerity and ability.
    0
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  • During his father's lifetime he had greatly distinguished himself by his administration of Transylvania, then a wilderness, which, with incredible patience and energy, he colonized and christianized.
    0
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  • ENERGY (from the Gr.
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  • A bent spring possesses energy, for it is capable of doing work in returning to its natural form; a charge of gunpowder possesses energy, for it is capable of doingwork in exploding; aLeyden jar charged with electricity possesses energy, for it is capable of doing work in being discharged.
    0
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  • The motions of bodies, or of the ultimate parts of bodies, also involve energy, for stopping them would be a source of work.
    0
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  • All kinds of energy are ultimately measured in terms of work.
    0
    0
  • Energy is the capacity for doing work.
    0
    0
  • Hence it is not surprising that, in those more subtle forms in which energy cannot be readily or completely converted into work, the universality of the principle of energy, its conservation, as regards amount, should for a long while have escaped recognition after it had become familiar in pure dynamics.
    0
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  • The smoother we make the pulley the more nearly does the amount of useful work which the weight is capable of doing approach ro foot-pounds, and if we take into account the work done against the friction of the pulley, we may say that the work done by the descending weight is ro foot-pounds, and hence when the weight is in its elevated position we have at disposal r o foot-pounds more energy than when it is in the lower position.
    0
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  • It should be noticed, however, that this energy is possessed by the system consisting of the earth and pound together, in virtue of their separation, and that neither could do work without the other to attract it.
    0
    0
  • The system consisting of the earth and the pound therefore possesses an amount of energy which depends on the relative positions of its two parts, on account of the latent physical connexion existing between them.
    0
    0
  • In most mechanical systems the working stresses acting between the parts can be determined when the relative positions of all the parts are known; and the energy which a system possesses in virtue of the relative positions of its parts, or its configuration, is classified as "potential energy," to distinguish it from energy of motion which we shall presently consider.
    0
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  • Newton had divined the principle of the conservation of energy, so far as it belongs purely to mechanics.
    0
    0
  • There was, however, even before Newton's time, more than a suspicion that heat was a form of energy.
    0
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  • After Newton's time the first vigorous effort to restore the universality of the doctrine of energy was made by Benjamin Thompson, Count Rumford, and was published in the Phil.
    0
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  • P. Joule to achieve; his experiments conclusively prove that heat and energy are of the same nature, and that all other forms of energy can be transformed into an equivalent amount of heat.
    0
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  • The quantity of energy which, if entirely converted into heat, is capable of raising the temperature of the unit mass of water from C. to 1° C. is called the mechanical equivalent of heat.
    0
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  • He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.
    0
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  • Mayer made an assumption the converse of that of Seguin, asserting that the whole of the work done in compressing the air was converted into heat, and neglecting the possibility of heat being consumed in doing work within the air itself or being produced by the transformation of internal potential energy.
    0
    0
  • In this experiment a great noise was produced, corresponding to a loss of energy, and Joule endeavoured to determine the amount of energy necessary to produce an equal amount of sound from the string of a violoncello and to apply a corresponding correction.
    0
    0
  • A metal vessel was placed in a calorimeter and air forced into it, the amount of energy expended in compressing the air being measured.
    0
    0
  • Assuming that the whole of the energy was converted into heat, when the air was subjected to a pressure of 21.5 atmospheres Joule obtained for the mechanical equivalent of heat about 824.8 foot-pounds, and when a pressure of only 10 .
    0
    0
  • By continuing this process every unit of mass which enters B will carry with it more energy than each unit which leaves B, and hence the temperature of the gas in B will be raised and that of the gas in A lowered, while no heat is lost and no energy expended; so that by the application of intelligence alone a portion of gas of uniform pressure and temperature may be sifted into two parts, in which both the temperature and the pressure are different, and from which, therefore, work can be obtained at the expense of heat.
    0
    0
  • This shows that the principle of the dissipation of energy has control over the actions of those agents only whose faculties are too gross to enable them to grapple individually with the minute portions of matter which are the seat of energy.
    0
    0
  • In the preface he states the position that "whenever, then, two gases are allowed to mix without the performance of work, there is dissipation of energy, and an opportunity of doing work at the expense of low temperature heat has been for ever lost."
    0
    0
  • In such experiments the molecular energy of a gas is converted into work only in virtue of the molecules being separated into classes in which their velocities are different, and these classes then allowed to act upon one another through the intervention of a suitable heat-engine.
    0
    0
  • If we could drive the engine so fast as to reduce C' to zero, the whole of the energy of the battery would be available, no heat being produced in the wires, but the horse-power of the engine would be indefinitely small.
    0
    0
  • The availability of the energy of electrical separation in a charged Leyden jar is also limited only by the resistance of conductors, in virtue of which an amount of heat is necessarily produced, which is greater the less the time occupied in discharging the jar.
    0
    0
  • The availability of the energy of magnetization is limited by the coercive force of the magnetized material, in virtue of which any change in the intensity of magnetization is accompanied by the production of heat.
    0
    0
  • In all cases there is a general tendency for other forms of energy to be transformed into heat on account of the friction of rough surfaces, the resistance of conductors, or similar causes, and thus to lose availability.
    0
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  • It is practically important to consider the rate at which energy may be transformed into useful work, or the horse-power of the agent.
    0
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  • It generally happens that to obtain the greatest possible amount of work from a given supply of energy, and to obtain it at the greatest rate, are conflicting interests.
    0
    0
  • A similar condition obtains in the steamengine, in which a great rate of working necessitates the dissipation of a large amount of energy.
    0
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  • lowered, energy is given out.
    0
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  • To control the speed and Brakes absorb this energy, brakes have to be provided.
    0
    0
  • Accordingly this energy is rapidly dissipated and but few oscillations can take place.
    0
    0
  • If, however, the antenna is inductively or directly coupled to a condenser circuit of large capacity then the amount of energy which can be stored up before discharge takes place is very much greater, and hence can be drawn upon to create prolonged or slightly damped trains of waves.
    0
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  • When electric oscillations are set up in these two classes of electric radiators, the first class send out a highly damped wave train and the second a feeble damped wave train provided that they have sufficient capacity or energy storage and low resistance.
    0
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  • When oscillations are excited in this last circuit they communicate them to the antenna provided this last circuit is tuned or syntonized to the closed circuit, and the radiating antenna has thus a large store of energy to draw upon and can therefore radiate prolonged trains of electric waves.
    0
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  • All of them couple the transmitting antenna directly or inductively to a capacity-inductive circuit serving as a storage of energy, and all of them create thereby electric waves of the same type moving over the earth's surface with the magnetic force of the wave parallel to it.
    0
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  • Calls are registered by pressing a key, which connects a battery through a position meter of very low resistance to the socket of the line jack, thereby furnishing the necessary energy to the meter.
    0
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  • But new actors appeared upon the scene, and the same old struggle was resumed with fiercer energy.
    0
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  • The lower classes provoked disorders, which were very serious at Leghorn, and were only quelled by Guerrazzis energy.
    0
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  • The revolt was put down owing to the energy of the mayor of Palermo, Marquis A.
    0
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  • Almost the only respect in which the Left could boast a decided improvement over the administration of the Right was the energy displayed by Nicotera in combating brigandage and the mafia in Calabria and Sicily.
    0
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  • Though sixty-eight years of age, Crispi possessed an activity, a rapidity of decision and an energy in execution with which none of his contemporaries could vie.
    0
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  • In the Armenian question Italy seconded with energy the diplomacy of Austria and Germany, while the Italian fleet joined the British Mediterranean squadron in a demonstration off the Syrian.
    0
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  • On the 17th of April a general railway strike was ordered by the union, but owing to the action of the authorities, who for once showed energy, the traffic was carried on, Other disturbances of a serious character occurred among the steelworkers of Terni, at Grammichele in Sicily and at Alessandria.
    0
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  • Baldwin raised them to great prosperity by his energy and foresight, and chiefly as a result of the active political and military support he rendered to the emperors Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian and Charles IV.
    0
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  • Brown and Escombe have shown that the amount of solar energy taken up by a green leaf may often be fifty times as much as it can utilize in the constructive processes of which it is the seat.
    0
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  • Whether the leaf is brightly or only moderately illuminated, the same relative proportions of the total energy absorbed are devoted to the purposes of composition and construction respectively.
    0
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  • The idea was till recently currently accepted, that anything which plants absorbed from without, and which went to build up their organic substance, or to supply them with energy, or to exert some beneficial influence upon their metabolism, coiistituted their food.
    0
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  • The absorption of these rays implies that the pigment absorbs radiant energy from the sun, and gives us some explanation of its power of constructing the carbohydrates which has been mentioned as the special work of the apparatus.
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  • Supply and Distribution of Energy in PlantsIt is well known that one of the conditions of life is the maintenance of the process which is known as respiration.
    0
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  • These respiratory processes are associated with the liberation of energy by the protoplasm, energy which it applies to various purposes.
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  • The fundamental difference between the two methods is that while the mechanical energy developed by a steam engine is in the first case applied directly to the driving-axle of the locomotive, in the second case it is transformed into electrical energy, transmitted over relatively long distances, and retransformed into mechanical energy on the driving-axles of the train.
    0
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  • That is to say, the engine actually utilized 61% of the energy which it was possible to utilize by means of a perfect engine working with the same initial pressure against a back pressure equal to;the atmosphere.
    0
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  • (3) The effect of change of volume against external pressure (due to production or consumption of mechanical energy) may be neglected in the case of solids, liquids or solutions, but must usually be taken into account when gases are dealt with.
    0
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  • In such a case, the best retort was to return in all haste in order to put more energy into the huge centralized organism which the emperor alone could work.
    0
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  • All creatures exist only through the continuous creative energy of the Divine Being, and are no more independent of his will than are our thoughts independent of us, - or rather less, for there are thoughts which force themselves upon us whether we will or not.
    0
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  • But these outbursts of energy were too spasmodic, and popular opinion repeatedly veered back in favour of the peace-party.
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  • At this period Athens was altogether overshadowed in material strength by the great Hellenistic monarchies and even by the new republican leagues of Greece; but she could still on occasion display great energy and patriotism.
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  • The subsequent history of Benares contains two important events, the rebellion of Chait Singh in 1781, occasioned by the demands of Warren Hastings for money and troops to carry on the Mahratta War, and the Mutiny of 1857, when the energy and coolness of the European officials, chiefly of General Neill, carried the district successfully through the storm.
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  • In all cases of chemical change energy in the form of heat is either developed or absorbed, and the amount of heat developed or absorbed in a given reaction is as definite as are the weights of the substance engaged in the reaction.
    0
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  • We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
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  • In the formation of gaseous hydrobromic acid from liquid bromine and gaseous hydrogen H2+Br2=HBr+HBr, in addition to the energy expended in decomposing the hydrogen and bromine molecules, energy is also expended in converting the liquid bromine into the gaseous condition, and probably less heat is developed by the combination of bromine and hydrogen than by the combination of chlorine and hydrogen, so that the amount of heat finally developed is much less than is developed in the formation of hydrochloric acid.
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  • Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
    0
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  • Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.
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  • Another branch, related to energetics, is concerned with the transformation of chemical energy into other forms of energy - heat, light, electricity.
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  • Combustion is a familiar example of the transformation of chemical energy into heat and light; the quantitative measures of heat evolution or absorption (heat of combustion or combination), and the deductions therefrom, are treated in the article Thermochemistry.
    0
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  • Transformations of electrical into chemical energy are witnessed in the processes of electrolysis (q.v.; see also Electrochemistry and Electrometallurgy).
    0
    0
  • If, however, an amount of energy a is taken up in separating atoms, the ratio is expressible as C p /C„= (5+a)/(3-Fa), which is obviously smaller than 5/3, and decreases with increasing values of a.
    0
    0
  • Let double bonds be present, in number p, and let the energy due to such a bond be Y.
    0
    0
  • If triple bonds, q in number, occur also, and the energy of such a bond be Z, the equation for H becomes H = nE-+-mn -1-p(2X - Y) +q(3X - Z).
    0
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  • The first group, named the " luminophore," is such that when excited by suitable aetherial vibrations emits radiant energy; the other, named the " fluorogen," acts with the luminophore in some way or other to cause the fluorescence.
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  • Mendeleeff endeavoured to obtain a connexion between surface energy and constitution; more successful were the investigations of Schiff, who found that the " molecular surface tension," which he defined as the surface tension divided by the weight.
    0
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  • Ramsay and Shields suggested that there exists an equation for the surface energy of liquids, analogous to the volume-energy equation of gases, PV = RT.
    0
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  • Ramsay and Shields found from investigations of the temperature coefficient of the surface energy that Tin the equation y(Mv) 3 = KT must be counted downwards from the critical temperature T less about 6°.
    0
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  • Their surface energy equation therefore assumes the form y(Mv)i=K(T-6°).
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  • But though in Rienzi Wagner had shown energy and ambition, that work was far from representing his preconceived ideal.
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  • The Persian monarchy was strong in its size, in the mere amount of men and treasure it could dispose of under a single hand; the Greek state was strong in its morale, in the energy and discipline of its soldiery.
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  • The last duke of Elbeuf was Charles Eugene of Lorraine, prince de Lambesc, who distinguished himself in 1789 by his energy in repressing risings of the people at Paris.
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  • In these men the millennarianism of the ancient church came to life again; and in the revolutionary movements of the i 5th and 16th centuries - especially in the Anabaptist movements - it appears with all its old uncompromising energy.
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  • These writings, however, corresponded to but one phase of Rankine's immense energy and many-sided character.
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  • In 18 To, owing to the growth of Methodism and the lack of ordained ministers, he led the Connexion in the movement for connexionally ordained ministers, and his influence was the chief factor in the success of that important step. From 1811 to 1814 his energy was mainly devoted to establishing auxiliary Bible Societies.
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  • This was the task of the early Hebrew thinkers, and to it a large part of the higher energy of the nation was devoted.
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  • The charge of pacifism was often brought against him, and his career generally as Secretary was widely condemned throughout the United States as lacking in energy, foresight and ability, and especially for his failure to prepare adequately in the months immediately preceding the American declaration of war.
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  • With his energy, ability and gift of dominating and organizing, he might indeed have done a great deal.
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  • For the subjects of this general heading see the articles Mechanics; Dynamics, Analytical; Gyroscope; Harmonic Analysis; Wave; HYDROMechanics; Elasticity; Motion, Laws Of; Energy; Energetics; Astronomy (Celestial Mechanics); Tide.
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  • Under the " new regime " the Turkish government displayed commendable energy in reconstructing and reorganizing the seapower of the empire.
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  • The troubles arising from this cause and from greater energy in the collection of taxes led the Armenians in outlying and mountainous districts to rise against the authorities.
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  • The defeats undergone by their outpost detachment had profoundly affected the nerves of the troops, and on the afternoon of the 11th, on the false alarm of a French approach, a panic broke out in the streets of Jena, and it took all the energy of Hohenlohe and his staff to restore order.
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  • Carbonic acid is taken from the water and synthesized (by the mediation of light energy) into carbohydrate.
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  • Graham, crossing the Douro near Lamego, carried out his laborious march with great energy, and Joseph retired precipitately from the Douro, behind the Pisuerga.
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  • For some years Gratian governed the empire with energy and success, but gradually he sank into indolence, occupied himself chiefly with the pleasures of the chase, and became a tool in the hands of the Frankish general Merobaudes and bishop Ambrose.
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  • The ions are associated with very large electric charges, and, whatever their exact relations with those charges may be, it is certain that the energy of a system in such a state must be different from its energy when unelectrified.
    0
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  • In accordance with the principles of energetics, any change which involves a decrease in the total available energy of the system will tend to occur, and thus the necessary and sufficient condition for the production of electromotive force is that the available energy of the system should decrease when the current flows.
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  • This process involves a decrease in the available energy of the system, for the dissolution of zinc gives out more energy than the separation of copper absorbs.
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  • It is necessary to observe that the condition for change in a system is that the total available energy of the whole system should be decreased by the change.
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  • change is allowed by the mechanism of the system, and deal with the sum of all the alterations in energy.
    0
    0
  • Thus in the Daniell cell the dissolution of copper as well as of zinc would increase the loss in available energy.
    0
    0
  • Now a well-known relation connects the available energy of a reversible system with the corresponding change in its total internal energy.
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  • The available energy A is the amount of external work obtainable by an infinitesimal, reversible change in the system which occurs at a constant temperature T.
    0
    0
  • if I be the change in the internal energy, the relation referred to gives us the equation A = I +T (dA/dT), where dA/dT denotes the rate of change of the available energy of the system per degree change in temperature.
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  • If the chemical changes which occur in the cell were allowed to take place in a closed vessel without the performance of electrical or other work, the change in energy would be measured by the heat evolved.
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  • Since the final state of the system would be the same as in the actual processes of the cell, the same amount of heat must give a measure of the change in internal energy when the cell is in action.
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  • Thus, if L denote the heat corresponding with the chemical changes associated with unit electric transfer, Le will be the heat corresponding with an electric transfer e, and will also be equal to the change in internal energy of the cell.
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  • Hence we get the equation Ee = Le +Te (dE/dT) or E = L+T(dE/dT), as a particular case of the general thermodynamic equation of available energy.
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  • In the latter case, the tendency of the metal to dissolve in the more dilute solution is greater than its tendency to dissolve in the more concentrated solution, and thus there is a decrease in available energy when metal dissolves in the dilute solution and separates in equivalent quantity from the concentrated solution.
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  • An electromotive force is therefore set up in this direction, and, if we can calculate the change in available energy due to the processes of the cell, we can foretell the value of the electromotive force.
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  • Once more we see that it is the total impending change in the available energy of the system which controls the electromotive force.
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  • But the government and the people displayed a memorable and exemplary energy, under the constant supervision of the king, the queen, and burgomaster Nansen.
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  • Forces acting on a Small Body in the Magnetic Field.-If a small magnet of length ds and pole-strength m is brought into a magnetic field such that the values of the magnetic potential at the negative and positive poles respectively are V 1 and the work done upon the magnet, and therefore its potential energy, will be W =m(V2-Vi) =mdV, which may be written W =m d s- = M d v= - MHo = - vIHo, ds ds where M is the moment of the magnet, v the volume, I the magnetization, and Ho the magnetic force along ds.
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  • Hopkinson pointed out that the greatest dissipation of energy which can be caused by a to-and-fro reversal is approximately represented by Coercive force X maximum induction fir.
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  • For specimens of large sectional area it is necessary to apply corrections in respect of the energy dissipated by eddy currents and in heating the secondary circuit.
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  • In response to the demand, manufacturers have succeeded in producing transformer plate in which the loss of energy due to hysteresis is exceedingly small.
    0
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  • The rate at which energy is lost being proportional to the frequency, it is obvious that the loss at frequency ioo may be deduced from that at any other frequency n by simply multiplying by too n.
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  • Further, if the alternations take place so slowly that the full maximum and minimum values of the magnetization are reached in the intervals between the reversals, there will again be no dissipation of energy.
    0
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  • But at any intermediate frequency the ascending and descending curves of magnetization will enclose a space, and energy will be dissipated.
    0
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  • Applying the principle of the conservation of internal energy, he demonstrates that for iron in a field of woo units and upwards the E.M.F.
    0
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  • Now the unstable movements of the needles are of a mechanically irreversible character; the energy expended in dissociating the members of a combination and placing them in unstable positions assumes the kinetic form when the needles turn over, and is ultimately frittered down into heat.
    0
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  • Hence in performing a cycle there is a waste of energy corresponding to what has been termed hysteresis-loss.
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  • Supposing Ewing's hypothesis to be correct, it is clear that if the magnetization of a piece of iron were reversed by a strong rotating field instead of by a field alternating through zero, the loss of energy by hysteresis should be little or nothing, for the molecules would rotate with the field and no unstable movements would be possible.'
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  • Besides this most important contribution to the general fabric of dynamical science, we owe to Lagrange several minor theorems of great elegance, - among which may be mentioned his theorem that the kinetic energy imparted by given impulses to a material system under given constraints is a maximum.
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  • In spite of its wide basis and great energy, the monte dei riformatori, the heart of the new government, could not satisfactorily cope with the attacks of adverse factions and treacherous allies.
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  • Factories sprang up in the South in a few months, supplying the army with arms and munitions of war, and the energy of the president was everywhere apparent.
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  • The government met the crisis by renewed energy in harbour works, railway construc y gy y tions and the development of the natural resources of the country.
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  • He died when his son Richard was a child, and the care of the family devolved upon the mother, who was a woman of'strong sense and of great energy of character, and who, after her husband's death, left Dunford and returned to Midhurst.
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  • He threw himself with great energy into the agitation which led to the incorporation of the city, and was elected one of its first aldermen.
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  • "You must address yourselves," he said in the House of Commons, "as men of sense and men of energy, to the question - what are you to do with the Christian population?
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  • With inexhaustible energy he promoted the legal proceedings over the riot in St George's Fields, when a youth named Allen was killed, and exposed the irregularity in the judge's order for the execution of two Spitalfields weavers.
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  • This was due partly to the excessive proselytizing energy of the Angevins, which provoked rebellion on the part of their Greek-Orthodox subjects, partly to the natural dynastic competition of the Servian and Bulgarian tsars, and partly to the emergence of a new nationality, called Walachia was regarded by the Magyars as part of the banate of Szoreny.
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  • There are grave objections to an arbitrary rule of this kind, the chief being the useless waste of mental energy in remembering it.
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  • With the death of Wat Tyler the rising in London and the home counties quickly subsided, though in East Anglia it flickered a short time longer under the leadership of John Wraw and Geoffrey Litster until suppressed by the energy of Henry Despenser, bishop of Norwich.
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  • By the principle of energy the illumination over the entire focal plane must be equal to that over the diffracting area; and thus, in accordance with the suppositions by which (3) was obtained, its value when integrated from E= co to = -1-x, and from n = - oo to n = -1-oo should be equal to ab.
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  • It has already been suggested that the principle of energy requires that the general expression for I 2 in (2) when integrated over the whole of the plane, n should be equal to A, where A is the area of the aperture.
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  • Such a conclusion would be in the face of the principle of energy, which teaches plainly that the retardation in question leaves the aggregate brightness unaltered.
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  • Nansen used all the arts of the agitator with extraordinary energy and success.
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  • In this capacity Gerbert showed the same energy that had characterized his former life.
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  • So far, however, energy and Successes v i g i lance made them successful.
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  • Even in his old age he displayed the same restless energy, and is said to have been meditating a fresh attack on Carthage at the time of his death.
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  • upon its construction, and, on the other, upon the energy supplied to it; and to speak of "vitality" as anything but the name of a series of operations is as if one should talk of the "horologity" of a clock.
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  • But the line of constant energy on - the diagram does not represent the path of the transformation, unless it be supposed to be effected in a series of infinitesimal steps between each of which the substance is restored to an equilibrium state.
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  • If dW is the external work done, dH the heat absorbed from external sources, and dE the increase of intrinsic energy, we have in all cases by the first law, dH-dE=dW.
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  • This function may be represented, for each state or phase of the system considered, by an area on the indicator diagram similar to that representing the intrinsic energy, E.
    0
    0
  • The intrinsic energy, E, is similarly represented by the area DZ'Vd under the adiabatic to the right of the isometric Dd.
    0
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  • The increment of this area (or the decrement of the negative area E--04) at constant temperature represents the external work obtainable from the substance in isothermal expansion, in the same way that the decrement of the intrinsic energy represents the work done in adiabatic expansion.
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  • The function J = E-94,, has been called the " free energy " of the substance by Helmholtz, and 90 the " bound energy."
    0
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  • These functions do not, however, represent energy existing in the substance, like the intrinsic energy; but the increment of 90 represents heat supplied to, and the decrement of (E-04) represents work obtainable from, the substance when the temperature is kept constant.
    0
    0
  • This function is also called the " thermodynamic potential at constant volume " from the analogy with the condition of minimum potential energy as the criterion of stable equilibrium in statics.
    0
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  • If 0', E', v'; and 4)", E", v", refer to unit mass of the substance in the first and second states respectively in equilibrium at a temperature 0 and pressure p, the heat absorbed, L, per unit mass in a change from the first to the second state is, by definition of the entropy, equal to 0(4)"-4)'), and this by the first law is equal to the change of intrinsic energy, E" - E', plus the external work done, p(v" - v'), i.e.
    0
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  • Writing formulae (3r) and (33) for the energy and entropy with indeterminate constants A and B, instead of taking them between limits, we obtain the following expressions for the thermodynamic functions in the case of the vapour: " =Solog e 0 - R log e p - ncp/D+A".
    0
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  • E, Intrinsic energy per unit mass.
    0
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  • U, Kinetic energy of flow of fluid.
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  • It would seem that before this time Montanus had disappeared from the scene; but Maximilla, and probably also Prisca, were working with redoubled energy.
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  • He strongly advocated the abolition of university tests (1853), and threw himself with great energy into all that affected the social life of the people.
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  • It is the man of energy, of some means, of ambition, who takes the chances of success in the new country, leaving the poor, the indolent, the weak and crippled at home.
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  • Kuprili's restless energy continued to the last, exhibiting itself on one side in wholesale executions, on the other in vast building operations.
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  • After occupying various important posts he became grand vizier in 1697, and owing to his ability and energy the Turks were able to drive the Austrians back over the Save, and Turkish fleets were sent into the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
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  • 19), makes no difference to the statement that the faith which overcame the world derived its energy from convictions which strove for utterance.
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  • He was, however, an admirable tactician, a consummate knight, and he possessed extraordinary vigour and energy of temperament.
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  • It appeared that a surface blackened so as to absorb the radiant energy directed on it was repelled relatively to a polished surface.
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  • In later memoirs Reynolds followed up this subject by proceeding to establish definitions of the velocity and the momentum and the energy at an element of volume of the molecular medium, with the precision necessary in order that the dynamical equations of the medium in bulk, based in the usual manner on these quantities alone, without directly considering thermal stresses, shall be strictly valid - a discussion in which the relation of ordinary molar mechanics to the more complete molecular theory is involved.
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  • The abrupt cessation of such an inexhaustible fount of enterprise and energy was a distinct loss to Sweden; and signs are not wanting that, in his latter years, Charles had begun to feel the need and value of repose.
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  • On the 28th of May Rupert and d'Estrees, believing that De Ruyter was too much afraid of their superior numbers to venture to sea, sent in a squadron of light vessels and fire-ships to attack him, but he took the offensive at once, scattering the light squadron, and falling with energy on the restof the fleet, which, not being in expectation of a vigorous assault, was taken at a disadvantage.
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  • The allies in Germany were now not merely checked but driven from point to point by Turenne, who on this occasion displayed a degree of energy rare in the military history of the period.
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  • After the accession of the Whigs to office in 1832 he held various important offices in the ministry, and most of the measures of reform for Scotland, such as burgh reform, the improvements in the law of entail, and the reform of the sheriff courts, owed much to his sagacity and energy.
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  • His life at Rugby was marked by great energy and bold initiative.
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  • i.; that the walls had been destroyed and the gates burnt down; that some external opposition (with which, however, Ezra did not have to contend) had been successful; that the main object of Ezra's mission was delayed for twelve years, and, finally, that only through Nehemiah's energy was the work of social and religious reorganization successful.
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  • In his last years he passed most of his days at Aix, though he had sufficient energy to take the field for a short time during the Danish War.
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  • Louis was readily induced to rebel; but the country was saved from a serious civil war by the energy of the king's officers and the solid loyalty of his "good cities."
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  • Motion is obtained from a continuous-current generator driven by an alternating motor with a very heavy fly-wheel, a combination known as the Ilgner transformer, which runs continuously with a constant draught on the generating station, the extremely variable demand of the winding engine during the acceleration period being met by the energy stored in the fly-wheel, which runs at a very high speed.
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  • originally impinged on that at rest is now represented by the energy, kinetic and potential, of the small motions of the individual molecules.
    0
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  • Thus the molecular theory of matter, as we have now pictured it, leads us to identify heat-energy in a body with the energy of motion of the molecules of the body relatively to one another.
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  • The molecules of the two surface-layers will exert forces upon one another, so that, when the rubbing takes place, each layer will set the molecules of the other into motion, and the energy of rubbing will be used in establishing this heat-motion.
    0
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  • As the temperature of a body increases the average energy of the molecules will increase, and therefore the range of their excursions from their positions of equilibrium will increase also.
    0
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  • The substance attains to a perfectly liquid state as soon as the energy of motion of the molecules is such that there is a constant rearrangement of position among them.
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  • Moreover, the molecules which escape are, on the whole, those with the greatest energy.
    0
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  • The average energy of the molecules of the liquid is accordingly lowered by evaporation.
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  • In terms of the molecular theory this indicates that the total energy of the gas is the sum of the separate energies of its different molecules: the potential energy arising from intermolecular forces between pairs of molecules may be treated as negligible when the matter is in the gaseous state.
    0
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  • If the system is supposed to obey the conservation of energy and to move solely under its own internal forces, the changes in the co-ordinates and momenta can be found from the Hamiltonian equations aE aE qr = 49 - 1 57., gr where q r denotes dg r ldt, &c., and E is the total energy expressed as a function of pi, qi,.
    0
    0
  • Let the whole energy E of the system be supposed equal to Ei+E2, where E2 is of the form E2 = ?
    0
    0
  • The second line in E2 will represent the energy (or part of the energy) of s' similar molecules of the second kind, and so on.
    0
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  • = I /4 h, (7) showing that the mean energy represented by each term in E2 (fotinula 2) is the same.
    0
    0
  • These equations express the " law of equipartition of energy," commonly spoken of as the Maxwell-Boltzmann Law.
    0
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  • We have already seen that the#mean energy increases with the temperature: it will now be supposed that the mean energy is exactly proportional to the ture.
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  • If p is the density corresponding to pressure p, we find that,}, formula (Ii) assumes the form P = 3PC2, where C is a velocity such that the gas would have its actual translational energy if each molecule moved with the same velocity C. By substituting experimentally determined pairs of values of p and p we can calculate C for different gases, and so obtain a knowledge of the magnitudes of the molecular velocities.
    0
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  • (16) Let a quantity dQ of energy, measured in work units, be absorbed by the gas from some external source, so that its pressure, volume and temperature change.
    0
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  • The equation of energy is dQ=dE+pdv, (17) expressing that the total energy dQ is used partly in increasing the internal energy of the gas, and partly in expanding the gas against the pressure p. If we take p = RNT/v from equation (14) and substitute for E from equation (16), this last equation becomes dQ 2 (n +3)RNdT +RNTdv (18) which may be taken as the general equation of calorimetry, for a gas which accurately obeys equation (14).
    0
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  • The value of n is the number of terms in the energy of the molecule beyond that due to translation.
    0
    0
  • Thus when n = o, the whole energy must be translational: there can be no energy of rotation or of internal motion.
    0
    0
  • The kinetic energy of the molecules of these gases must contain two terms in addition to those representing translational energy.
    0
    0
  • For a rigid body the kinetic energy will, in general, consist of three terms (AW1 2 +BW2 2 +CW3 2) in addition to the translational energy.
    0
    0
  • Now if the atoms are regarded as points or spherical bodies oscillating about positions of equilibrium, the value of n+3 is precisely six, for we can express the energy of the atom in the form (9 2 v a 2 v a2v E = z(mu 2 +mv 2 +mw 2 +x 2 ax2 + y2ay2-fz2az2), where V is the potential and x, y, z are the displacements of the atom referred to a certain set of orthogonal axes.
    0
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  • energy was assumed.
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  • The difficulty is further diminished when it is proved, as it can be proved, 2 that the modes of energy represented in the atomic spectrum acquire energy so slowly that the atom might undergo collisions with other atoms for centuries before being set into oscillations which would possess an appreciable amount of energy.
    0
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  • In fact the proved tendency for the gas to pass into the " normal state " in which there is equipartition of energy, represents in this case nothing but the tendency for the translational energy to become dissipated into the energy of innumerable small vibrations.
    0
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  • We find that this dissipation, although undoubtedly going on, proceeds with extreme slowness, so that the vibrations pass their energy on to the ether as rapidly as they acquire it, and the " normal state " is never established.
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  • Robins, Benjamin Franklin (New York, 1898, in the American Men of Energy series); W.
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  • Espartero crushed with much energy a revolutionary rising in Barcelona, but on his return to Madrid was so coldly welcomed that he perceived that his prestige was on the wane.
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  • Mutesa was a clever man of restless energy, but regardless of human life and suffering, and consumed by vanity.
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  • France, he observed, needed the spur to practical energy which the Americans had at hand in the effort to subdue the difficulties placed in their way by nature.
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  • The queen established herself at Calais and organized two fleets, one of which was commanded by Eustace the Monk, and an army under Robert of Courtenay; but all her resolution and energy were in vain.
    0
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  • But her energy and firmness overcame all dangers.
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  • Geoffrey the Handsome, with his indefatigable energy, was eminently fitted to suppress the coalitions of his vassals, the most formidable of which was formed in 1129.
    0
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  • Philip of Hesse was attracted by Zwingli's energy, and was eager that the northern reformers should be brought into closer relations with the south.
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  • Finally the theory defined is opposed to all forms of realism, whether in the older form which sought to reduce mind to a function of matter, or in any of the newer forms which seek for the ultimate essence of both mind and matter in some unknown force or energy which, while in itself it is neither, yet contains the potentiality of both.
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  • They are seen to be united under the relation of cause and effect, determining and determined, which turns out to mean that they are merely passing manifestations of some single entity or energy which constitutes the real unknown essence of the things that come before our knowledge.
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  • Deliverance from the pantheistic conception of the universe comes through the recognition of the central place occupied by thought and purpose in the actual world, and, as a consequence of this, of the illegitimacy of the abstraction whereby material energy is taken for the ultimate reality.
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  • energy and skill required and the length (three to five years when sailing vessels were employed) of the ever-widening voyages which finally took the fishermen into every quarter of the globe, contributes the most romantic chapters in the history of American commerce.
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  • His energy and ability as a leader of guerillas hampered Charles X.
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  • They spent their energy in attacking Plato and Aristotle, and hence earned the opprobrious epithet of Eristic. They used their dialectic subtlety to disprove the possibility of motion and decay; unity is the negation of change, increase and decrease, birth and death.
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  • Thus, the gases are not present in simple multiples of their combining weights; atmospheric air results when oxygen and nitrogen are mixed in the prescribed ratio, the mixing being unattended by any manifestation of energy, such as is invariably associated with a chemical action; the gases may be mechanically separated by atmolysis, i.e.
    0
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  • Unfortunately for him the first orders sent to Billow by Gneisenau, chief of the staff, at midnight June 14-1 5, were written in so stilted and hazy a style that Billow did not consider any especial display of energy was required.
    0
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  • smouldering fires of his old energy flamed out once more and Napoleon began a rapid pursuit of the cavalry screen, which crumpled up and decamped as he advanced, yet all his efforts were powerless to entangle the Anglo-Dutch rearguard to such an extent that Wellington must turn back to its assistance.
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  • After doing what was possible to infuse energy into the operations of the French forces, he returned to Paris and was made a member of the Committee of Public Safety.
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    0
  • He continued to visit the armies at the front, and to inspire them with energy.
    0
    0
  • Badoglio's rapid rise was explained by the qualities which he showed in a special degree: determination, energy, and thoroughness.
    0
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  • The swellings on the palmar faces of the phalanges of the several fingers are also indicative, the 1st and and of the thumb respectively, of the logical faculty and of the will; the 1st, and and 3rd of the index finger, of materialism, law and order, idealism; those of the middle finger, humanity, system, intelligence; of the ring finger, truth, economy, energy; and of the little finger, goodness, prudence, reflectiveness.
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  • When the excitement caused by the Revolution had subsided, Congregationalism entered upon a new period of energy.
    0
    0
  • Fortunately the college was more or less successful, owing largely to his enthusiasm and energy, and many of the men who were trained there subsequently made their mark in chemical history.
    0
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  • Noske, notwithstanding the genuineness of his Republican and Social Democratic opinions, enjoyed con siderable popularity in the new army and with the reactionary friends of law and order, as a man of decided character, great energy and resourcefulness in times of crisis.
    0
    0
  • The talents and energy with which he was endowed had endeared him to the people, and great hopes were founded on his accession.
    0
    0
  • His energy and ability were conspicuous in the disastrous battle of Chancellorsvine (q.v.); and at Gettysburg the part played by the III.
    0
    0
  • His singleness of purpose, personal independence and indomit able energy enabled him to achieve triumphs that to others seemed impossible.
    0
    0
  • We may say here that the energy or the intensity of the sound of given wave-length is proportional to the square of the amplitude.
    0
    0
  • We shall show that if we sum these up for a whole wave the potential energy is equal to the kinetic energy.
    0
    0
  • The kinetic energy per cubic centimetre is 2 pu t, where is the density and u is the velocity of disturbance due to the passage of the wave.
    0
    0
  • But the energy will also be doubled, so that (15) still gives the average excess of pressure.
    0
    0
  • (20) We have already found the energy density in the train and the energy stream in equations (13) and (14).
    0
    0
  • § 46) shows that, if there were nodissipation of energy, the vibration would increase indefinitely when the periods coincided.
    0
    0
  • But there is always leakage of energy either through friction or through wave-emission, so that the vibration only increases up to the point at which the leakage of energy balances the energy put in by the applied force.
    0
    0
  • Further, the greater the dissipation of energy the less is the prominence of the amplitude of vibration for exact coincidence over the amplitude when the periods are not quite the same, though it is still the greatest for coincidence.
    0
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  • Probably we should be driven to a purely physical unit, the stream of energy proceeding in any direction, and if the noise were great enough we might measure it possibly by the pressure against a surface.
    0
    0
  • The intensity of the stream of energy passing per second through a square centimetre when a given pure tone is sounded is more definite and can be measured.
    0
    0
  • In the one, the energy of vibration of the source is measured, and the rate at which that energy decreases is observed.
    0
    0
  • The amount radiated out in the form of sound waves is deduced, and hence the energy of the stream at any distance is known.
    0
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  • The energy of this fork with a given amplitude of vibration could be calculated from its dimensions and elasticity, and the amplitude was observed by measuring with a microscope the line into which the image of a starch grain on the prong was drawn by the vibration.
    0
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  • The rate of loss of energy was calculated from the rate of dying down of the vibration.
    0
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  • The difference in loss in the two cases measured the energy given up to and sent out by the resonator as sound.