in his Encyclical of August 4, 1879, which directed the clergy to take the teachings of Aquinas as the basis of their theological position.
The encyclical Pascendi Dominici Gregis (Sept.
Davidson, The Lambeth Conferences of 1867, 187.8 and 1888 (London, 1896); Conference of Bishops of the Anglican Communion, Encyclical Letter, &c. (London, 1897 and 1908).
An encyclical of Pius IX.
At the general parliamentary elections of 1904 a few Catholics had been elected as such, and the encyclical of the 11th of June 1905 On the political organization of the Catholics, practically abolished the non erpedit.
of the fall of Edessa, and at the end of the year he had sent an encyclical to France - the natural soil, as we have seen, of crusading zeal.
Externally uneventful as his life henceforth necessarily was, it was marked chiefly by the reception of distinguished personages and of numerous pilgrimages, often on a large scale, from all parts of the world, and by the issue of encyclical letters.
The encyclical Aeterni Patris (4th August 1879) was 1 Leonis XIII.
His encyclical issued at Easter 1902, and described by himself as a kind of will, was mainly a reiteration of earlier condemnations of the Reformation, and of modern philosophical systems, which for their atheism and materialism he makes responsible for all existing moral and political disorders.
published his encyclical Providentissimus Deus, which indeed directly condemned not Abbe Loisy's but Mgr d'Hulst's position, yet rendered the continued publication of consistently critical work so difficult that Loisy himself suppressed his Enseignement at the end of 1893.
Pope Leo had indeed, in a letter to the Franciscan ministergeneral (November 1898), and in an encyclical to the French clergy (September 1899), vigorously emphasized the traditionalist principles of his encyclical Providentissimus of 1893; he had even, much to his prompt regret, signed the unfortunate decree of the Roman Inquisition, January 1897, prohibiting all doubt as to the authenticity of the "Three Heavenly Witnesses" passage, John v.
And the study of the encyclical concludes: "Time is the great teacher.
Lacey's Harnack and Loisy, with introduction by Viscount Halifax (London, 1904); "The Encyclical and M.
in an encyclical of 553,1 where he condemns those "who share with Nestorians in belief and prayer, and take their breadofferings to their shrines and receive communion from them, as if from the ministers of the oblations of the Paulicians."
With him, however, Manning found less sympathy than with his predecessor, though Manning's advocacy of the claims of labour attracted Leo's attention, and influenced the encyclical which he issued on the subject.
In his first encyclical, Leo XIII.
The archbishop opened the conference with an address: deliberation followed; committees were appointed to report on special questions; resolutions were adopted, and an encyclical letter was addressed to the faithful of the Anglican Communion.
It has then met at Lambeth, and after sitting for five days for deliberation upon the fixed subjects and appointment of committees, has adjourned, to meet again at the end of a fortnight and sit for five days more, to receive reports, adopt resolutions and to put forth the encyclical letter.
In addition to the encyclical letter, nineteen resolutions were put forth, and the reports of twelve special committees are appended upon which they are based, the subjects being intemperance, purity, divorce, polygamy, observance of Sunday, socialism, care of emigrants, mutual relations of dioceses of the Anglican Communion, home reunion, Scandinavian Church, Old Catholics, &c., Eastern Churches, standards of doctrine and worship. Perhaps the most important of these is the famous "Lambeth Quadrilateral," which laid down a fourfold basis for home reunion - the Holy Scriptures, the Apostles' and Nicene creeds, the two sacraments ordained by Christ himself and the historic episcopate.
But as a faithful Catholic he obeyed the encyclical of 1892, and declared his readiness to rally to a Republican government, provided that it respected religion.
In the same year Dr Temple and his brother archbishop issued an able reply to an encyclical of the pope which denied the validity of Anglican orders.
was of his importance in this position is shown by the beautiful encyclical, De civitatum constitutione christiana (" Immortale Dei " of Nov.
At its very commencement, the pope in his first encyclical (Easter 1878) proclaimed the necessity of a temporal hierarchy.
had sounded the clarion for battle against the Social The Pope Democracy; his encyclical Novarum serum en- and Social deavoured to show the means to be employed, Democracy.
Martin published the decrees of his Lateran synod in an encyclical, and Constans replied by enjoining his exarch to seize the pope and send him prisoner to Constantinople.
The encyclical Pascendi of t ?
But the new propagandism was denounced from Rome in an encyclical.
principle of not aiming at any assimilation of rites, but only at " the full and perfect union of faith " (Encyclical Praeclara gratulationis of June 1894).
F.), while the whole movement was condemned in bitter and scathing language by Pius X.'s encyclical (Pascendi gregis) against the Modernists.
In July 1907 the Holy Office published its decree condemning certain modernist propositions, and in September the pope issued his encyclical Pascendi Gregis.
The encyclical letters of the Roman Catholic Church are epistles, even more so than bulls, which are usually more special in their destination.
I Tim., like Ephesians, is a writing whose lack of greetings and general tone point to the functions of an encyclical or Catholic epistle.
The encyclical on unity of Pope Leo XIII.
As such he appears in a position to address an encyclical to "the twelve tribes of the dispersion"; for the context (i.
Ratramnus perhaps won most glory in his own day by his Contra Graecorum opposita, in four books (868), a valued contribution to the controversy between the Eastern and Western Churches which had been raised by the publication of the encyclical letter of Photius in 867.
But the Catholic party redoubled its violence, and the pope sent out the encyclical Quanta Cura and the Syllabus, especially directed against France.
of the constitution the full sense of its text f Liberty of conscience, a principle condemned by the Syllabus of 1864 and sneered at in the encyclical Pascendi gregis of 1905, was hardly a phrase calculated to conciliate the Spanish clergy, still less the Vatican.
I am sure that he knows that the original concept derives from Catholic teaching, and a 19th century papal encyclical.
This week's paper also offers in-depth analysis of Pope Benedict's first encyclical.
The present Pope's last encyclical in this series was in 1991.
encyclical letter on the value of human life, 1995.
The reports of the five special committees (based in part upon those of the committee of 1867) were embodied in the encyclical letter, viz.
The results of the deliberations were embodied in seventy-eight resolutions, which were appended to the encyclical issued, in the name of the conference, by the Archbishop of Canterbury on the 8th of August.
But at the same time, fearing a schism in the church should he attack Catholic Austria, he forbade his troops to do more than defend the frontier, and in his Encyclical of the 29th of April stated that, as head of the church, he could not declare war, but that he was unable to prevent his subjects from following the example of other Italians.
This he followed up by an encyclical on the unity of the Church (Sails cognitum, 29th June 1896); and the question of the validity of Anglican ordinations from the Roman Catholic point of view having been raised in Rome by Viscount Halifax, with whom the abbe Louis Duchesne and one or two other French priests were in sympathy, a commission was appointed to consider the subject, and on the 15th of September 1896 a condemnation of the Anglican form as theologically insufficient was issued, and was directed to be taken as final.
The less conciliatory attitude towards the Italian government was resumed in an encyclical addressed to the Italian clergy (5th August 1898), in which he insisted on the duty of Italian Catholics to abstain from political life while the papacy remained in its "painful, precarious and intolerable position."
And in January 1902, reversing the policy which had its inception in the encyclical, Rerum novarum, of 1891, and had further been developed ten years later in a letter to the Italian bishops entitled Graves de communi, the "Sacred Congregation of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs" issued instructions concerning "Christian Democracy in Italy," directing that the popular Christian movement, which embraced in its programme a number of social reforms, such as factory laws for children, old-age pensions, a minimum wage in agricultural industries, an eight-hours' day, the revival of trade gilds, and the encouragement of Sunday rest, should divert its attention from all such things as savoured of novelty and devote its energies to the restoration of the temporal power.
Above all it was this spirit that breathed through every line of the famous encyclical, Pascendi gregis, directed against the " Modernists " (see Roman Catholic Church: History), which denounced with bitter scorn and irony those so-called Catholics who dared to attempt to reconcile the doctrine of the Church with the results of modern science, and who, presumptuously disregarding the authority of the Holy See, maintained " the absurd doctrine that would make of the laity the factor of progress in the Church."
As opposed to the critical and analytical tendencies of the modern world, then, the Roman Catholic Church assumes the function of the champion of moral and intellectual discipline, an attitude defined, in its extremest expression, by Pius IX.'s Syllabus of 1864 (see Syllabus), and the famous encyclical Pascendi of Pius X.
- The Uniat Churches in Asia and Africa occupy a peculiar position in so far as Rome has recognized the traditional rights of the patriarchates (see, e.g., Leo XIII.'s encyclical Praeclara gratulationis of June 1894), and they therefore enjoy almost complete autonomy; thus the patriarchs nominate their own suffragans and have the right to summon synods for specific purposes (see Patriarch).
In 1864 appeared the encyclical Quanta Cura, together with a Syllabus of eighty of the most important " errors of our time " (see Syllabus).
Those numbered 11-22, written in 344, are almost all directed against the Jews; the subjects are circumcision, passover, the sabbath, persuasion (the encyclical letter referred to above), distinction of meats, the substitution of the Gentiles for the Jews, that Christ is the Son of God, virginity and holiness, whether the Jews have been finally rejected or are yet to be restored, provision for the poor, persecution, death and the last times.
The encyclical letter is accompanied by sixty-three resolutions (which include careful provision for provincial organization and the extension of the title "archbishop" to all metropolitans, a "thankful recognition of the revival of brotherhoods and sisterhoods, and of the office of deaconess," and a desire to promote friendly relations with the Eastern Churches and the various Old Catholic bodies), and the reports of the eleven committees are subjoined.
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