Employed sentence example

employed
  • He'd recently employed a deputy who was doing a top notch job.
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  • He employed him no more.
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  • Idle computer time employed to solve the world's problems.
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  • The ancient historians all employed one and the same method to describe and seize the apparently elusive--the life of a people.
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  • He also largely employed Jews and Ishmaelites,' the financial specialists of the day, whom he rewarded with lands and titles.
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  • He argued that, if heat be energy, then, when it is employed in doing work, as in a steam-engine, some of the heat must itself be consumed in the operation.
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  • This they employed in constructing a strong wall around their city, a defence which stood them in good stead when Ionia was attacked by Cyrus in 546.
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  • Up to that time preaching and conference had been the only weapons employed.
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  • This plan anticipated that employed later by Louis XIV.
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  • With an apparatus similar to the above, but smaller, made of iron and filled with mercury, Joule obtained results varying from 772.814 foot-pounds when driving weights of about 58 lb were employed to 775.352 foot-pounds when the driving weights were only about 192 lb.
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  • So he employed a wise man whose name was Al Farra to be their teacher.
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  • The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.
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  • This system required two line wires, and, although a remarkably serviceable apparatus and in use for many years, is no longer employed.
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  • House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
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  • Copper is not yet universally employed, price being the governing factor in its employment; moreover, the conducting quality of the iron used for telegraphic purposes has of late years been very greatly improved.
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  • The sizes of copper wire employed have weights of too, 150, 200 and 400 lb per statute mile, and have electrical resistances (at 60° F.) of 8.782, 5.8 55, 4.39 1 and 2.195 standard ohms respectively.
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  • The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.
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  • The size of the accumulators employed varies from a cell capable of an output of 8 ampere-hours, to a size giving 750 ampere-hours.
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  • At offices where the work is heavier than can be dealt with by the A B C apparatus, the " Single Needle " instrument has been very largely employed; it has the advantage of slight Single liability to derangement, and of requiring very little adjustment.
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  • Thus, when it is not necessary to keep a copy, a much simpler instrument may be employed and the message read by sound.
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  • The two methods most commonly employed are the differential and bridge methods.
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  • In practice the number of segments actually employed is much greater than that indicated on the figure, and the segments are arranged in a number of groups, as shown by fig.
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  • In Squier and Crehore's " Synchronograph " system " sine waves of current, instead of sharp " makes and breaks," or sharp reversals, are employed for transmitting signals, the waves being produced by an alternating-current dynamo, and regulated by means of a perforated paper ribbon, as in the Wheatstone automatic system.
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  • Per forating machines equipped with typewriter keyboards are used for the preparation of the messages, two or three keyboard perforators being employed at each end of the telegraph lines on which the Murray system is used.
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  • For working long submarine cables the apparatus ordinarily employed on land lines cannot be used, as the retarding effect of the electrostatic capacity of the cable is so marked that signals fail to be recorded except at a very slow speed of working.
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  • Owing to the difficulty of maintaining perfect balance on duplexed cables, curb sending is not now used, but the signals are transmitted by means of an apparatus similar to the Wheatstone automatic transmitter used on land lines and differing from the latter only in regard to the alphabet employed; the signals from the transmitter actuate a relay having heavy armatures which in turn transmit the signals to the cable; this arrangement gives very firm signals, a point of great importance for good working.
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  • The shunts usually employed with the drum relay (referred to above) have each a resistance of about 30 ohms and an inductance of 20, 30 and 40 henrys respectively.
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  • The " Great Eastern " was again employed, and leaving the south-west coast of Ireland on the 13th of July she reached Trinity Bay a fortnight later, without serious mishap. She then steamed eastwards again, and on the 13th of August made her first attempt to recover the lost cable.
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  • An interrupted current having a frequency of about 400 was used in the primary circuit, and a telephone was employed as a receiver in the secondary circuit.
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  • In conjunction with the above receiver he employed a transmitter, which consisted of a large induction or spark coil S having its spark balls placed a few millimetres apart; one of these balls was connected to an earth FIG.
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  • Popoff employed an electromagnetic tapper, in fact the mechanism of an electric bell with the gong removed, for this purpose.
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  • At a later date a syntonic system comprising, as above stated, an antenna directly coupled to a resonant closed circuit was put into operation by Lodge and Muirhead, and much the same methods have been followed in the system known as the Telefunken system employed in Germany.
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  • The first antenna employed consisted of 50 bare copper wires 200 ft.
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  • In his method three vertical antennae are employed, placed at equidistant distances, and oscillations are created in the three with a certain relative difference of phase.
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  • The mines near the city are very productive, and thousands of men and beasts are employed in transporting lead, iron, copper, zinc and sulphur to the coast.
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  • It also forms amalgams with mercury, and on this account has been employed in dentistry for the purpose of stopping (or filling) teeth.
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  • Telephony is the art of reproducing sounds at a distance from their source, and a telephone is the instrument employed in sending or receiving such sounds.
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  • The term " telephony " was first used by Philipp Reis of Friedrichsdorf, in a lecture delivered before the Physical Society of Frankfort in 1861.1 But, although this lecture and Reis's subsequent work received considerable notice, little progress was made until the subject was taken up between 1874 and 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, a native of Edinburgh, then resident in Boston, Mass., U.S.A. Bell, like Reis, employed electricity for the reproduction of sounds; but he attacked the problem in a totally different manner.
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  • In this several microphonic joints were employed.
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  • In the Ader transmitter as many as twelve carbon pencils were employed, arranged in a series of two groups with six pencils in parallel in each group. These were supported at their ends in parallel carbon bars, which were carried by a nearly horizontal wooden diaphragm.
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  • The method first employed for working a telephone line was extremely simple.
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  • This arrangement is still employed, a hook being attached to the switch lever so that the mere hanging up of the telephone puts the bell in circuit.
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  • In some cases when a magneto-generator is employed for calling purposes the coil of the machine is automatically cut out of circuit when it is not in action, and is brought into circuit when the handle is turned by the operation of a centrifugal or other arrangement.
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  • These advantages led to the gradual supersession of the single-wire system until at the present day the all-metallic system is employed almost universally.
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  • Several single switchboards like that described may be employed, each devoted to a certain section of the subscribers, and placed in care of an operator.
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  • Both the series and the branching methods of multipling are recognized at the present time as standard methods, although the former is only employed in comparatively small exchanges.
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  • In another party line system a harmonic principle is employed: the ringing machines deliver alternating currents of four frequencies, while each bell is constructed to operate at a particular frequency only.
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  • As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.
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  • Doolittle was of the greatest importance in rendering the use of long lines practicable, and it is universally employed for such service.
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  • It had paid the Post Office in royalties already £1,848,000, and the Post Office under the agreement would step into the business in 1911 by merely paying for the plant employed.
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  • The people are employed in fishing for coral and sponges, as well as for bream, mullet and other fish.
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  • On the other hand, the Bactrian species, which is employed throughout a large tract of central Asia in the domesticated condition, appears, according to recent researches, to exist in the wild state in some of the central Asian deserts.
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  • These vary in weight from soo to 1000 lb, according to the variety of camel employed, for of the Arabian camel there are almost as many breeds as there are of the horse.
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  • In the rest of Italy the elm and the maple are the trees mainly employed as supports.
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  • Artificial props of several kindswires, cane work, trellis work, &c.are also in use in many districts (in the neighborhood of Rome canes are almost exclusively employed), and in some the plant is permitted to trail along the ground.
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  • The value of the product has, however, proportionately increased, so that the sum realized was little less, while less than half the number of men was employed.
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  • In i879 4000 men were employed; in 1902 only just over 1oo0.
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  • Chemicals sulphate of copper, employed chiefly as a preventive 01 certain maladies of the vine; carbonate of lead, hyper.
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  • Wine is the prevailing drink, The condition of the workmen employed in manufactures has improved during recent years.
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  • The substitution of steamships for sailing vessels has brought about a diminution in the number of vessels belonging to the Italian mercantile marine, whether employed in the coasting trade, the fisheries or in traffic on the high seas.
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  • A fourth of this sum was to be handed to the communes to be employed on works of beneficence or education as soon as a surplus was obtained from that part of the annuity assigned for the payment of monastic pensions; and in Sicily, 209 communes entered on their privileges as soon as the patrimony was liquidated.
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  • The personnel of the navy consists of the following corps: (I) General staff; (2) naval engineers, chiefly employed in building and repairing war vessels; (3) sanitary corps; (4) commissariat corps, for supplies and account-keeping; (5) crews.
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  • At the same time the capital employed in banking decreased by nearly one-half, namely, from about 12,360,000 in 1880 to about 6,520,000 in 1898.
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  • At first, indeed, the term was apparently confined to the regions of the central and southern districts, exclusive of Cisalpine Gaul and the whole tract north of the Apennines, and this continued to be the official or definite signification of the name down to the end of the republic. But the natural limits of Italy are so clearly marked that the name came to be generally employed as a geographical term at a much earlier period.
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  • Article 10 extended immunity to ecclesiastics employed by the Holy See, and bestowed upon foreign ecciesiastics in Rome the personal rights of Italian citizens.
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  • Doubts, however, soon sprang up as to its effect upon the minds of Austrian statesmen, since on the 8th of November the language employed by Kllay and Count Andrssy to the Hungarian delegations on the subject of Irredentism was scarcely calculated to soothe Italian susceptibilities.
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  • Germany would be sufficiently employed in carrying on war against two fronts.
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  • One consequence of the agrarian agitations was the increased use of machinery and the reduction in the number of hands employed, which if it proved advantageous to the landlord and to the few laborers retained, who received higher wages, resulted in an increase of unemployment.
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  • The last great undertaking in which he was employed was the revision of his codification of the canon law, which had been all but completed before the death of Henry.
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  • Thus, as employed by most writers, " Natural Religion " connotes neutrality or even friendliness towards Christianity; just as is the case with theism in sense (2), or with Natural Theology.
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  • Probably " Nature " is here employed in a more familiar or humbler sense than in the passing reference in the Sermons.
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  • Welsh law is to be used in Wales, and in the marches the law of the marches is to be employed.
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  • Very few experts are employed in supervision; practically everything is directed by the officials, who themselves have first to learn each trade.
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  • In 1839, Dr Helfer, a German savant employed by the Indian government, having landed in the islands, was attacked and killed.
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  • Nevertheless, though the conceptions originally denoted by " evolution " and " development " were shown to be untenable, the words retained their application to the process by which the embryos of living beings gradually make their appearance; and the terms" development," " Entwickelung,"and " evolutio " are now indiscriminately used for the series of genetic changes exhibited by living beings, by writers who would emphatically deny that " development " or " Entwickelung " or " evolutio," in the sense in which these words were usually employed by Bonnet or Haller, ever occurs.
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  • Evolution, or development, is, in fact, at present employed in biology as a general name for the history of the steps by which any living being has acquired the morphological and the physiological characters which distinguish it.
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  • Statistical inquiry into the facts of life has long been employed, and in particular Francis Galton, within the Darwinian period, has advocated its employment and developed its methods.
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  • The conception is necessarily somewhat hazy, but the words bathmism and bathmic Evolution have been employed by a number of writers for some such conception.
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  • Educated at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, he obtained a position in Florence through the influence of an Englishman, William Craufurd, but soon he entered the Prussian diplomatic service and was employed in Florence, in Constantinople and in Rome.
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  • He was of good family, and after studying at the university of Naples he entered the public service, and was for many years employed in the office of the administration of finances.
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  • Divers have been employed to collect amber from the deeper waters.
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  • Galen is said to have invented hiera-picra, which he employed as an anthelmintic; it is still used in England as a domestic remedy.
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  • The assistants employed at these dispensaries after a time appear to have gone into business on their own account, and in this way the dispensing chemists, as a class, appear to have originated.
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  • The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.
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  • Such a system is called a tissuesystem, the word tissue being employed for any collection of cells with common structural, developmental, or functional characters to which it may be conveniently applied.
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  • The latter function has been found to be of extreme importance in the case of plants exposed to the direct access of the suns rays, the heat of which would rapidly cause the death of the protoplasts were it not employed in the evaporation of the water.
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  • What is not used in the constructive processes is employed in the evaporation of the water, the leaf being thus kept cool.
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  • The material and the energy go together, the decomposition of the one in the cell setting free the other, which is used at once in the vital processes of the cell, being in fact largely employed in constructing protoplasm or storing various products.
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  • Marco remained for seventeen years in the service of the Great Khan, and was employed on many important missions.
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  • The association first employed John Ledyard (who had previously made an extraordinary journey into Siberia) to cross Africa from east to west on the parallel of the Niger, and William Lucas to cross the Sahara to Fezzan.
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  • It is usual to distinguish between the general coast-line measured from point to point of the headlands disregarding the smaller bays, and the detailed coast-line which takes account of every inflection shown by the map employed, and follows up river entrances to the point where tidal action ceases.
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  • The terms employed, especially for the subdivisions, cannot be easily translated into other languages, and the English equivalents in the following table are only put forward tentatively Richthofen'S Classification Of Mountains I.
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  • The term coprolites has been made to include all kinds of phosphatic nodules employed as manures, such, for example, as those obtained from the Coralline and the Red Crag of Suffolk.
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  • It was formerly employed by the Hudson's Bay Company as part of a canoe route to the fur lands of the north.
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  • The moon-goddess was worshipped in the city with a pomp and ceremony in all respects analogous to those employed in the Cappadocian city.
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  • William Howard was employed as counsel by the corporation of Lynn, and it is worthy of note that the "crosslets fitchy" in his shield of arms suggest the cross with which the dragon was discomfited by St Margaret, the patroness of Lynn.
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  • As a specific for gout colchicum was early employed by the Arabs; and the preparation known as eau medicinale, much resorted to in the 18th century for the cure of gout, owes its therapeutic virtues to colchicum; but general attention was first directed by Sir Everard Home to the use of the drug in gout.
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  • A third reflecting plate is sometimes employed, the cross-section of the three forming an equilateral triangle.
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  • His poems, both secular and religious, contained in his Diwan and scattered in the liturgy, are all in Hebrew, though he employed Arabic metres.
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  • The amethyst was used as a gem-stone by the ancient Egyptians, and was largely employed in antiquity for intaglios.
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  • In 1848 Airy invented the reflex zenith tube to replace the zenith sector previously employed.
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  • For speeds over six knots a 14-second glass is employed, and the speed indicated by the log-line is doubled.
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  • A governor is not employed.
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  • In the British mercantile marine all ships (except those employed exclusively in trading between ports on the coasts of Scotland) are compelled to keep an official log book in a form approved by the Board of Trade.
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  • Other methods have been employed, but with varying commercial success.
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  • During the Polish insurrection Gorchakov rebuffed the suggestions of Great Britain, Austria and France for assuaging the severities employed in quelling it, and he was especially acrid in his replies to Earl Russell's despatches.
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  • He employed him in setting right the coinage.
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  • They thought that it was not sufficient to trust to the ear alone, to determine the principles of music, as did practical musicians like Aristoxenus, but that along with the ear, physical experiments should be employed.
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  • He became secretary of the embassy in London; was employed on special missions in the principalities and at St Petersburg (1848), and was sent to Egypt as special commissioner in 1851.
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  • A gunboat for preventive service purchased from the British government and commanded by an Englishman, with native petty officers and crew, is employed by the Liberian government.
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  • The leaves of a closely allied plant, Empleurum serratulum, are employed as a substitute or adulterant for buchu.
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  • The winters are less severe, and modern agricultural machinery is generally employed, at all events on the larger estates.
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  • Here again both capital and labour are short, and the cultivation of the soil suffers from the fact that, owing to the absence of timber, dry dung is used for fuel instead of being employed as manure.
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  • The copper industry has greatly declined since the 18th century; whereas then it kept 20 smelting works employed, now one-tenth of that number can hardly be kept going.
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  • About that time a thorough reform of the machinery in use was effected whereby the number of hands employed was reduced, but the yearly production doubled or trebled.
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  • There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
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  • The number killed (811) is equal to about three in every thousand trainmen employed.
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  • Of train men (including engine-drivers and firemen), one out of 125 employed was killed (all causes), and one in eight injured.
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  • It was not till more than half a century later that an American, Sylvester Marsh, employed the rack system for the purpose of enabling trains to surmount steep slopes on the Mount Washington railway, where the maximum gradient was nearly 1 in 22.
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  • The Locher rack, employed on the Mount Pilatus railway, where the steepest gradient is nearly I in 2, is double, with vertical teeth on each side, while in the Strub rack, used on the Jungfrau line, the teeth are cut in the head of a rail of the ordinary Vignoles type.
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  • For surmounting still steeper slopes, cable railways may be employed.
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  • When water ballast is employed the water is filled into a tank in the bottom of the wagon or car, its quantity, if passengers are carried, being regulated by the number ascending or descending.
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  • Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.
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  • The keys which hold the rail in the chairs are usually of oak and are placed outside the rails; the inside position has also been employed, but has the disadvantage of detracting from the elasticity of the road since the weight of a passing train presses the rails up against a rigid mass of metal instead of against a slightly yielding block of wood.
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  • The joints of flanged rails are similar to those employed with bull-headed rails.
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  • The same arrangement is employed at junctions where different running lines converge.
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  • For the illumination of large stations by night electric arc lamps are frequently employed, but some authorities favour high-pressure incandescent gas-lighting.
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  • Such troughs were first employed on the London & North-Western railway in 1857 by John Ramsbottom, and have since been adopted on many other lines.
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  • One of these, employed in America, is known as " poling."
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  • With exceptionally bad weather the load would have to be reduced or two engines would have to be employed, or an exceptionally high rate of combustion would have to be maintained in the fire-box.
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  • Coal-saving can be shown to the extent of about 1% in some cases, but the saving depends upon the kind of service on which the engine is employed.
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  • In America it is still the standard engine for passenger traffic, but for goods service it is now employed only on branch lines.
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  • The first English sleeping cars made their appearance in 1873, but they were very inferior to the vehicles now employed.
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  • The first railway carriages in England had four wheels with two axles, and this construction is still largely employed, especially for short-distance trains.
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  • In the United States the danger of the stoves that used to be employed for heating the interiors of the cars has been realized, and now the most common method is by steam taken from the locomotive boiler and circulated through the train in a line of piping, rendered continuous between the cars by flexible coupling-hose.
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  • But goods and mineral trains so fitted are rare, and the same is the case on the continent of Europe, where, however, such brakes are generally employed on passenger trains.
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  • Light locomotives, light rails and light rolling stock are employed.
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  • Manuel was expelled, but he refused to accept this sentence, and force was employed to remove him.
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  • The corpse may be burnt, in part or as a whole; portions may be assigned to the priest, the sacrificer and the gods; the skull, bones, &c., may receive special treatment; the fat or blood may be set aside, and they or the ashes may be singled out as the share of the god, to be offered upon the altar; the skin of the victim may be employed as a covering for the idol or material representative of the god, either permanently or till the next annual sacrifice.
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  • But in 1767 France ceded the islands to Spain, De Bougainville being employed as intermediary.
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  • He had a considerable talent for this work and was often employed on similar occasions.
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  • He was frequently employed in missions to the pope, and in 968 to Constantinople to demand for the younger Otto (afterwards Otto II.) the hand of Theophano, daughter of the emperor Nicephorus Phocas.
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  • Roberval was one of those mathematicians who, just before the invention of the infinitesimal calculus, occupied their attention with problems which are only soluble, or can be most easily solved, by some method involving limits or infinitesimals, and in the solution of which accordingly the calculus is always now employed.
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  • Between Roberval and Descartes there existed a feeling of ill - will, owing to the jealousy aroused in the mind of the former by the criticism which Descartes offered to some of the methods employed by him and by Pierre de Fermat; and this led him to criticize and oppose the analytical methods which Descartes introduced into geometry about this time.
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  • That they were employed in divination is consonant with the facts already noted.
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  • The expression " wisdom," as it is employed in the locus classicus, Prov.
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  • Owing to its durability the wood was employed for mummy cases, and images of the gods; .....
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  • He now employed himself in making optical glasses, and in engraving on metal, devoting his spare time to the perusal of works on mathematics and optics.
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  • The flavour of these chapters is due to the irony which Gibbon has employed with consummate art and felicity.
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  • It was always patent that what he was chiefly concerned with was the substance and the life of Christian truth, and that his whole energies were employed in this inquiry because his whole heart was engaged in the truths and facts which were at stake.
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  • These places employed 35.9% of the labour engaged in manufacturing, and the value of their products was 38.8% of the total for the state.
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  • About 95% of the guns employed in the Spanish-American War were made under his superintendence.
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  • Having made the grand tour he returned to Ireland; and being employed by the parliament in a mission to the duke of Ormonde, now reduced to the last extremities, he succeeded in concluding a treaty with him on the 19th of June 1647, thus securing the country from complete subjection to the rebels.
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  • His school days being then terminated, he was employed as a store-clerk for one year.
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  • The first of these was in 1899, and the subjects were the railwaymen employed on certain lines running through highly malarious districts.
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  • It is a district of poor streets, inhabited by a labouring population employed in leather and other factories, and in the Surrey Commercial Docks and the wharves bordering the river.
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  • Nevertheless, or rather for this very reason, its symbols found their way into the rising literature of the vulgar tongues, and helped to quicken the fancy of the artists employed upon church buildings and furniture.
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  • Both of these statements are correct when the powerful mineral acid and bases are considered, exceptions only arising when weak acids and bases are employed.
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  • When the solutions employed are dilute, no water is placed in the calorimeter, the temperature-change of the solutions themselves being used to estimate the thermal effect brought about by mixing them.
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  • He therefore abstained from determining for each case the specific heats of the solutions he employed, and contented himself with the above approximation.
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  • The total quantity of liquid employed need not in general exceed half a litre if a sufficiently delicate thermometer is available.
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  • Combustion calorimeters are employed for observing the heat generated by the brisk interaction of substances, one of which at least is gaseous.
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  • The heat-units employed in thermochemistry have varied from time to time.
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  • In view of the not very great accuracy of thermochemical measurements, the precise definition of the heat-unit employed is not a matter of special importance.
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  • Among the later buildings, a few may be noted by Sanmicheli of Verona, who was employed as chief architect of the cathedral from 1509 to 1528.
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  • Most notable of all perhaps was the shepherd Athronges, who assumed the pomp of royalty and employed his four brothers as captains and satraps in the war which he waged upon Romans and king's men alike - not even Jews escaped him unless they brought him contributions.
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  • He employed his great influence to promote both art and science and Liberal views in his native country.
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  • The working of children under twelve years of age in any factory or manufacturing establishment is unlawful, the working of children between the ages of twelve and thirteen in such places is allowed only on condition that they be employed as apprentices and have attended school for at least four months during the preceding year; and no boy or girl under fourteen is to work in such places during night time.
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  • The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
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  • After the peace he was employed in an administrative post in Armenia, where he remained until 1882.
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  • The word Orchis is used in a special sense to denote a particular genus of the Orchid family (Orchidaceae); very frequently, also, it is employed in a more general way to indicate any member of that large and very interesting group. It will be convenient here to use the word Orchis as applying to that particular genus which gives its name to the order or family, and to employ the term "orchid" in the less precise sense.
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  • But while we have yet to wait for that expansion of principal triangulation which will bring Asia into connexion with Europe by the direct process of earth measurement, a topobetween graphical connexion has been effected between Russian Russ/an and Indian surveys which sufficiently proves that the and deductive methods employed by both countries for the Indian determination of the co-ordinate values of fixed points so surveys.
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  • From the Gomal Baluchistan itself becomes an intervening state between British India and Afghanistan, and the dividing line between Baluchistan and Afghanistan is laid down with all the precision employed on the more northerly sections of the demarcation.
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  • Indian influence is predominant as far as Cambodia (though with a Chinese tinge), Indian alphabets being employed and the Buddhism being of the Sinhalese type, but in Annam and Tongking the Chinese script and many Chinese institutions are in use.
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  • It is a poor and crowded district, and a large industrial population is employed in the riverside wharves and in potteries, glassworks and other manufactures.
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  • Glycerin is also employed in the manufacture of formic acid.
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  • One of the functions of this official was to subsidize political pamphleteers, and Mirabeau had hoped to be so employed, but he ruined his chances by a series of writings on financial questions.
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  • Nanfan died in 1507, but the king made Wolsey his chaplain and employed him in diplomatic work.
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  • But where irrigation is employed the yield of crops is excellent.
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  • Cassini in 1743, it was afterwards perfected, and has been extensively employed.
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  • Turgot was opposed to all labour associations of employers or employed, in accordance with his belief in free competition.
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  • But he employed Nordin quite differently from his episcopal colleague Olaf Wallqvist.
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  • From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
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  • Job, besides immense possessions in flocks and herds, had 500 yoke of oxen, which he employed in ploughing, and a " very great husbandry."
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  • The bitter feelings engendered between employer and employed culminated in the peasants' revolt of 1381.
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  • Of wheel-ploughs he observes, that " they be good on even grounde that lyeth lyghte "; and on such lands they are still most commonly employed.
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  • He mentions the different kinds of wheat, barley and oats; and after describing the method of harrowing "all maner of cornnes," we find the roller employed.
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  • Norden's work contains many judicious observations on the " different natures of grounds, how they may be employed, how they may be bettered, reformed and amended."
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  • Turnips were hand-hoed and extensively employed in feeding sheep and cattle.
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  • Both the quantity and the quality of the produce, and consequently its feeding value, must depend greatly upon the selection of the best description of roots to be grown, and on the character and the amount of the manures, and especially on the amount of nitrogenous manure employed.
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  • Such, moreover, is the effect of different manures that the gross produce of the mixed herbage is totally different on the respective plots according to the manure employed, both as to the proportion of the various species composing it and as to their condition of development and maturity.
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  • On farms of moderate size it is usual to hire steam tackle as required, the outlay involved in the purchase of a set being justifiable only in the case of estates or of very big farms where, when not engaged in ploughing, or in cultivating, or in other work upon the land, the steam-engine may be employed in threshing, chaff-cutting, sawing and many similar operations which require power.
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  • A large number of agricultural labourers were thus only in partial employment, and their withdrawal from the land was of minor importance as compared with the shrinkage in the number of those permanently employed.
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  • Average Weekly Cash Wages of ordinary Agricultural Labourers employed on certain Farms in England and Wales.
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  • In 1822, however, when he had just completed his seventeenth year, this intention was abandoned, and he entered as a clerk in the examiner's office of the India House, "with the understanding that he should be employed from the beginning in preparing drafts of despatches, and be thus trained up as a successor to those who then filled the highest departments of the office."
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  • Every hypothesis must be tested by an appeal to the facts of life, and modified or abandoned if it will not bear examination, unless we are convinced on genuine evidence that it may for a time be employed as a useful approximation, without prejudice to the later stages of the investigation we are conducting.
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  • There is another very important instrument of investigation which can be used in our own time, but cannot be employed in historical research.
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  • Like Malthus, Ricardo owes his reputation very largely to the theory associated with his name, though it has long ceased to be stated precisely in the terms he employed.
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  • To speak of " additional labour and capital " without reference to the kind and quality of the labour and capital, and the manner in which they are employed, organized and directed, throws very little light on agriculture.
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  • He employed the theory with wonderful success in unravelling the problems of his time.
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  • We know that he had been employed by that king to prepare the siege-train for his attack on Stirling in 1304.
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  • Ever active, he employed himself in the narrower sphere of repairing the castle and improving its domains and gardens, in shipbuilding on the Clyde, and in the exercise of the virtues of hospitality and charity.
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  • The wood of the spruce is also employed in the manufacture of wood-pulp for paper.
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  • The fibrous tough roots, softened by soaking in water, and split, are used by the Indians and voyageurs to sew together the birch-bark covering of their canoes; and a resin that exudes from the bark is employed to varnish over the seams. It was introduced to Great Britain at the end of the 17th century and was formerly more extensively planted than at present.
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  • The wood is inferior to that of Picea excelsa, but, being soft and easily worked, is largely employed in the countries to which it is indigenous for all the purposes of carpentry.
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  • During this and the following year he was employed in saving Sweden from the attacks of Peter the Great, and in arranging the pacification of the north.
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  • The faculty employed in this further investigation is no "separate moral faculty," but that same reason which is the source of all our knowledge - ethical and other.
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  • We have already seen that De Blainville, though fully persuaded of the great value of sternal features as a method of classification, had been compelled to fall back upon the old pedal characters so often employed before; but now the scholar had learnt to excel his teacher, and not only to form an at least provisional arrangement of the various members of the Class, based on sternal characters, but to describe these characters at some length, and so give a reason for the faith that was in him.
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  • That the palatal structure must be taken into consideration by taxonomers as affording hints of some utility there can no longer be a doubt; but perhaps the characters drawn thence owed more of their worth to the extraordinary perspicuity with which they were presented by Huxley than to their own intrinsic value, and if the same power had been employed to elucidate in the same way other parts of the skeleton - say the bones of the sternal apparatus or even of the pelvic girdle - either set might have been made to appear quite as instructive and perhaps more so.
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  • After 1655 he was employed and patronized by the Hon.
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  • Pietro Orseolo and his successors rebuilt the church on a larger scale in the form of a basilica with three eastern apses and no transept, and Byzantine workmen were employed.
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  • There can be no doubt that Byzantine artists had a large share in the work, but it is equally certain that Lombard workmen were employed along with the Orientals, and thus St Mark's became, as it were, a workshop in which twd styles, Byzantine and Lombard, met and were fused together, giving birth to a new style, peculiar to the district, which may fairly be called Veneto-Byzantine.
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  • Mosaics are employed to decorate the spandrils of the arches.
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  • The most striking example is undoubtedly the Ca' d'Oro, so called from the profusion of gold employed on its façade.
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  • In Plymouth alone a fleet of some two hundred boats,assembles; and on the French side of the Channel no less capital and labour are invested in it, the vessels employed being, though less in number, larger in size than on the English side.
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  • Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.
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  • Thousands of workmen are employed in the slate quarries.
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  • In India it is known as Nurma or Deo cotton, and is usually stated to be employed for making thread for the turbans of the priests.
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  • The simplest cotton gin in extensive use is the " churka," used from early times, and still largely employed in India and China.
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  • This machine, under various modifications, is employed for ginning the greater portion of the cotton grown in the Southern States of America.
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  • The crop is picked, ginned and baled in the usual way, the Macarthy style action roller gins being almost exclusively employed.
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  • The poorer grades are employed in the manufacture of soap, candles and phonograph records.
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  • They bore holes and penetrate into flower-buds and young bolls, causing them to drop. Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize, to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.
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  • Several of the citrates are much employed as medicines, the most important being the scale preparations of iron.
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  • At the time of his visit Daniel Defoe found thread-making in vogue, which employed the women while the men were at sea.
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  • Berthelot was the first to suggest, in 1866, after conducting a series of experiments, that mineral oil was produced by purely chemical action, similar to that employed in the manufacture of acetylene.
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  • Four strings of iron casing are usually employed, having the following diameters: to in., 84 in., 64 in.
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  • It is one of the most rapid and economical which can be employed in soft formations, but where hard rock is encountered it is almost useless.
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  • The device employed for this purpose is known as the water-packer, and consists in its simplest form of an india-rubber ring, which is applied between the tubing and the well-casing, so that upon compression it makes a tight joint.
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  • Torpedoing The explosive employed is generally nitroglycerin, Wells.
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  • Now, however, a miniature torpedo known as a go-devil squib, holding about a quart of nitroglycerin, and having a firing-head similar to that already described, is almost invariably employed.
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  • The Davis calyx drill has also been employed for petroleum drilling.
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  • The former of Systems. is not only employed in the United States, but is in use in Upper Burma, Java, Rumania and elsewhere.
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  • A form of the rod system is used in the Russian oil-fields, but owing to the large diameter of the wells the appliances differ from those employed elsewhere.
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  • The pumps employed to force the oil through the pipes were at first of the single-cylinder or " donkey " type, but these were found to cause excessive wear - a defect remedied by the use of the Worthington pump now generally adopted.
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  • Tanks of various types are employed in storing the oil, those at the wells being circular and usually made of wood, with a content of 250 barrels and upwards.
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  • The barrels employed in the transport of petroleum products are made of well-seasoned white-oak staves bound by six or eight iron hoops.
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  • In Canada, means of transport similar to those already described are employed, but the reservoirs for storage often consist of excavations in the soft Erie clay of the oil district, the sides of which are supported by planks.
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  • The American type of storage-tank is generally employed, in conjunction with clay-lined reservoirs.
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  • For the latter purpose, Westinghouse gas-regulators are employed, the positions of the regulators being so chosen as to equalize the pressure throughout the service.
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  • Some of the more viscous crude oils obtained in the United States are employed as lubricants under the name of " natural oils," either without any treatment or after clarification by subsidence and filtration through animal charcoal.
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  • The system is largely employed in Russia, and its use has been frequently attempted in the United States, but the results have not been satisfactory, on account, it is said, of the much greater quantity of dissolved gas contained in the American oil, the larger proportion of kerosene which such oil yields, and the less fluid character of the residue.
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  • In the United States a horizontal cylindrical still is usually employed in the distillation of the spirit and kerosene, but what is known as the " cheese-box " still has also been largely used.
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  • The stills employed in Russia and Galicia are usually smaller than those already described.
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  • Oils which contain sulphur-compounds are subjected to a special process of refining in which cupric oxide or litharge is employed as a desulphurizing agent.
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  • The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
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  • Before long, however, it was found that the open-cup tests (though they are employed in the United States and elsewhere at the present time) were often very untrustworthy.
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  • For the testing of the viscosity of lubricating oils the Boverton Redwood standardized viscometer is generally employed in Great Britain.
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  • For pharmaceutical purposes crude petroleum is no longer generally used by civilized races, though the product vaseline is largely employed in this way, and emulsions of petroleum have been administered internally in various pectoral complaints; while the volatile product termed rhigolene has been largely used as a local anaesthetic.
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  • For illuminating purposes, the most extensively-used product is kerosene, but both the more and the less volatile portions Of petroleum are employed in suitable lamps.
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  • For heating purposes, the stoves employed are practically kerosene lamps of suitable construction, though gasoline is used as a domestic fuel in the United States.
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  • He was a man often employed on missions and negotiations, and as chancellor he had in his care the archives of the kingdom.
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  • Thus, when his duties called him to Constance in 1414, he employed his leisure in exploring the libraries of Swiss and Swabian convents.
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  • Resolute in recognizing erudition as the chief concern of man, he sighed over the folly of popes and princes, who spent their time in wars and ecclesiastical disputes when they might have been more profitably employed in reviving the lost learning of antiquity.
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  • Having served his apprenticeship as gardener from the age of fifteen, and himself constructed a large lake when gardener to Battlesden in 1821, he was in 1823 employed in the arboretum at Chiswick, the seat of the duke of Devonshire, and eventually became superintendent of the duke's gardens and grounds at Chatsworth, and manager of his Derbyshire estates.
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  • He first appears in history in 40 B.C., when he was employed by Octavian in arranging his marriage with Scribonia, and afterwards in assisting to negotiate the peace of Brundusium and the reconciliation with Antony.
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  • A much better form of electromagnetic ammeter can be constructed on a principle now extensively employed, which consists in pivoting in the strong field of a permanent magnet a small coil through which a part of the current to be measured is sent.
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  • Direct reading equidivisional movable coil ammeters can be made in various portable forms, and are very much employed as laboratory instruments and also as ammeters for the measurement of large electric currents in electric generating stations.
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  • Instruments of this type are called Electrodynamometers, and have been employed both as laboratory research instruments and for technical purposes.
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  • The leased convicts are employed in the turpentine and lumber industries and in the phosphate works.
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  • Since 1885 Primitive Methodism has been developing from a "Connexion" into a "Church," the designation employed since 1902.
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  • The form may have been suggested by that of the Hebrew word for" wisdom."Koheleth, however, is employed in the book not as a title of wisdom (for" wisdom "is never the speaker), but as the independent name of the sage.
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  • Not only are new words employed, and old words in new significations, but the grammatical structure has a modern stamp - some phrases have the appearance of having been translated out of Aramaic into Hebrew.
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  • Numerous varieties of soaps are made; the purposes to which they are applied are varied; the materials employed embrace a considerable range of oils, fats and other bodies; and the processes adopted undergo many modifications.
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  • In the manufacture of stearin for candles, &c., the fatty matter is decomposed, and the liquid olein, separated from the solid fatty acids, is employed as an ingredient in soapmaking.
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  • Almost any fatty substance can be employed in soap-making; but the choice is naturally restricted by the price of the fat and also the quality of the soap desired.
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  • Curd soap and London grey mottled are prepared from kitchen or ship fat, whilst fuller's fat is employed in the manufacture of soft soaps.
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  • Of the vegetable oils, in addition to cotton-seed and coco-nut, olive oil is the basis of soaps for calico printers and silk dyers; castor oil yields transparent soaps (under suitable treatment), whilst crude palm oil, with bone fat, is employed for making brown soap, and after bleaching it yields ordinary pale or mottled.
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  • The processes of soap manufacture may be classified (a) according to the temperatures employed into (I) cold processes and (2) boiling processes, or (b) according to the nature of the starting material - acid or oil and fat - and the relative amount of alkali, into (1) direct saturation of the fatty acid with alkali, (2) treating the fat with a definite amount of alkali with no removal of unused lye, (3) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali, also with no separation of unused lye, (4) treating the fat with an indefinite amount of alkali with separation of waste lye.
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  • Autoclaves, in which the materials are boiled under pressure, are also employed for certain soaps.
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  • Two principal methods of preparing such compound soaps are employed.
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  • Medicated soaps for external use are only employed in cases of skin ailments, as prophylactic washes and as disinfectant soaps.
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  • Arsenical soap is very much employed by taxidermists for the preservation of the skins of birds and mammals.
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  • This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
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  • It must be noted that the processes described by the alchemists of the 13th century are not put forward as being miraculous or supernatural; they rather represent the methods employed by nature, which it is the end of the alchemist's art to reproduce artificially in the laboratory.
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  • He joined the Methodists, was soon employed as a class leader and local preacher, and continued to preach till a few months before his death.
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  • He was much involved in the wars between the English and French and was employed by Charles VII.
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  • For ordinary purposes grey limestone was furnished by Lycabettus and the adjoining hills; limestone from the promontory of Acte (the co-called " poros " stone), and conglomerate, were also largely employed.
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  • After capturing the Acropolis the Venetians employed material from its ancient edifices in repairing its walls.
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  • Between 1858 and 1868 he was employed in home waters on a variety of special services, chiefly connected with gunnery, signalling and the tactical characteristics and capacities of steam warships.
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  • BrOhl, who began as page and chamberlain, was largely employed in procuring money for his profuse master.
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  • Twelve tailors, it is said, were continually employed in making clothes for him, and he wore a new suit every day.
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  • He was last employed in the negotiations for confirming the truce of Andrussowo (September 1669; March 1670).
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  • Servilius Caepio (praetor iio), was to be employed.
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  • The bishop also influenced the king's policy with regard to France, Scotland and Wales; was frequently employed on business of the highest moment; and was the royal mouthpiece on several important occasions.
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  • In the earliest mosque at old Delhi, they adopted the piers and bracketed capitals of the Jaina builders, whom they probably employed to build their mosque.
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  • They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.
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  • This won him the confidence of Bonaparte, and he was henceforth employed in drawing up many of the more important documents.
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  • This section treats of the qualitative detection and separation of the metals, and the commoner methods employed in quantitative analysis.
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  • It is really not extraordinary that Isaac Hollandus was able to indicate the method of the preparation of the " philosopher's stone " from " adamic " or " virgin " earth, and its action when medicinally employed; that in the writings assigned to Roger Bacon, Raimon Lull, Basil Valentine and others are to be found the exact quantities of it to be used in transmutation; and that George Ripley, in the 15th century, had grounds for regarding its action as similar to that of a ferment.
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  • The + sign is invariably employed in this way either to express combination or action upon, the meaning usually attached to the use of the sign = being that from such and such bodies such and such other bodies are formed.
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  • Thus, the symbols 14 2 and P4 indicate that the molecules of hydrogen and phosphorus respectively contain 2 and 4 atoms. Since, according to the molecular theory, in all cases of chemical change the action is between molecules, such symbols as these ought always to be employed.
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  • Rational formulae of a much simpler description than these graphic formulae are generally employed.
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  • This is also the case if two substances are brought together in solution, by the action of which upon each other a third body is formed which is insoluble in the solvent employed, and which also does not tend to react upon any of the substances present; for instance, when a solution of a chloride is added to a solution of a silver salt, insoluble silver chloride is precipitated, and almost the whole of the silver is removed from solution, even if the amount of the chloride employed be not in excess of that theoretically required.
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  • Many substances were employed in ancient medicine: galena was the basis of a valuable Egyptian cosmetic and drug; the arsenic sulphides, realgar and orpiment, litharge, alum, saltpetre, iron rust were also used.
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  • Tantalum has in recent years been turned to economic service, being employed, in the same manner as tungsten, for the production of the filaments employed in incandescent electric lighting.
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  • It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
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  • A doubly linked pair of atoms is denoted by the sign A with the index corresponding to the side; if there are two pairs of double links, then indices corresponding to both sides are employed.
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  • Certain substances are insoluble in all these reagents, and other methods, such as the fusion with sodium carbonate and potassium nitrate, and subsequent treatment with an acid, must be employed.
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  • Various artifices are employed to denote the end of the reaction.
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  • Various forms of potash bulbs are employed; fig.
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  • Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
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  • In the case of substances possessing anomalous dispersion, the direct measurement of the refractive index for Hertzian waves of very long wave-length may be employed.
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  • The colour produced is generally of a greenish shade; for example, nitrosobenzene is green when fused or in solution (when crystalline, it is colourless), and dinitrosoresorcin has been employed as a dyestuff under the names " solid green " and " chlorine."
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  • Accepting this, he remained actively employed until 1839, when he made his first visit to Paris, taking with him an unfinished opera based on Bulwer Lytton's Rienzi, and, like his earlier attempts, on his own libretto.
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  • They are an extension of the principle on which gongs and cymbals and all instruments without notes of determinate pitch are employed in otherwise polyphonic music.
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  • Iranian troops seem to have been employed on a large scale by the earlier Seleucids.
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  • Natives were employed, as we have seen, in the army, and Iranians are found under the Seleucids holding high commands, e.g.
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  • The next ten years were spent in France, where he was connected with Georges de la Tremoille, and afterwards entered the household of Pierre de Breze, at that time seneschal of Poitou, by whom he was employed on missions to the duke of Burgundy, in an attempt to establish better relations between Charles VII.
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  • He was continually employed on diplomatic errands until 1455, when, owing apparently to ill-health, he received apartments in the palace of the counts of Hainaut at Salle-le-Comte, Valenciennes, with a con siderable pension, on condition that the recipient should put in writing "choses nouvelles et morales," and a chronicle of notable events.
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  • From the greater value of the fur, silver greys have been frequently employed to stock warrens, as they breed true to colour in the open if the ordinary wild rabbits are excluded.
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  • He ought not to be satisfied with compiling his map from existing maps, but should subject each explorer's account to an independent examination, when he will frequently find that either the explorer himself, or the draughtsman employed by him, has failed to introduce into his map the whole of the information available.
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  • The second method is still employed in many cases, and we find thus: In cases where the draughtsman has omitted to indicate the scale we can ascertain it by dividing the actual length of a meridian degree by the length of a degree measure upon the map. Thus a degree between 50° and 51° measures 111,226,000 mm.; on the map it is represented by i r r mm.
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  • Two methods are employed to attain this: the first distinguishes the strata or layers by colours; the second indicates the varying slopes by shades or hachures.
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  • Ravenstein's map of Ben Nevis (1887) first employed the colours of the spectrum, viz.
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  • Instead of shading lines following the greatest slopes, lines following the contours and varying in their thickness and in their intervals apart, according to the slope of the ground to be represented, may be employed' This method affords a ready and expeditious means of sketching the ground, if the draughtsman limits himself to characteristically indicating its features by what have been called " form lines."
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  • A pantograph armed with cutting-files a which carve the relief out of a block of gypsum, was employed in1893-1900by C. Perron of Geneva, in producing his relief map of Switzerland on a scale of 1: ioo,000.
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  • Another process, photoor heliogravure, for obtaining an engraved image on a copper plate, was for the first time employed on a large scale for producing a new topographical map of the Austrian Empire in 718 sheets, on a scale of I: 75,000, which was completed in seventeen years (1873-1890).
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  • The production of these charts employed numerous licensed draughtsmen in the principal seaports of Italy and Catalonia, and among seamen these MS. charts remained popular long after the productions of the printing-press had become available.
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  • The cylindrical and modified conical projections of Marinus and Ptolemy were still widely used, the stereographical projection of Hipparchus, was for the first time employed for terrestrial maps in the 16th century, but new projections were introduced in addition to these.
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  • Colour-printing is employed since 1901.
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  • In the Rocky Mountains surveys photographic apparatus is successfully employed.
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  • He entered the United States navy in 1812, and was actively employed till the beginning of the Civil War.
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  • The hairless dogs of Central Africa are greyhounds employed chiefly in hunting antelopes, and there are somewhat similar varieties in China, Central and South America.
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  • These strains seem to be now extinct, having been replaced by foxhounds, a large variety of which is employed in stag-hunting.
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  • They were employed as animated roasting jacks, turning round and round the wire cage in which they were confined, but with the employment of mechanical jacks their use ceased and the race appears to be extinct.
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  • They appear to have been produced in Normandy and the Vendee, where they were employed for sporting purposes, and originally were no very definite breed.
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  • The dachshund, or badger hound, is of German origin, and like the basset hound was originally an elongated distorted hound with crooked legs, employed in baiting and hunting badgers, but now greatly improved and made more definite by the arts of the breeder.
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  • Pointers are employed to mark game for guns, and are especially' useful in low cover such as that afforded by turnip fields.
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  • Mastiffs are employed for fighting or as watchdogs, and for the most part are of uncertain temper and not high intelligence.
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  • Bulldogs were formerly employed in bull-baiting, and the tenacity of their grip is proverbial.
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  • The German boarhound is one of the largest races of dogs, originally used in Germany and Denmark for hunting boars or deer, but now employed chiefly as watchdogs.
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  • He was then employed on a survey of the Scottish coast and two years later was made a fellow of the Royal Society.
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  • Manning, and small numbers of British and Boer mounted infantry, Indian and African troops were employed, while an Abyssinian force held the line of the Webi Shebeli.
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  • The male slaves were employed in the tillage of the land and the tending of cattle, and the females in domestic work and household manufactures.
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  • The slaves were employed either in domestic service - as household managers, attendants or personal escorts - or in work of other kinds, agricultural or urban.
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  • Speculators either directly employed slaves as artisans or commercial and banking agents, or hired them out, sometimes for work in mines or factories, sometimes for service in private houses, as cooks, flute-players, &c., or for viler uses.
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  • There were also public slaves; of these some belonged to temples, to which they were presented as offerings, amongst them being the courtesans who acted as hieroduli at Corinth and at Eryx in Sicily; others were appropriated to the service of the magistrates or to public works; there were at Athens 1200 Scythian archers for the police of the city; slaves served, too, in the fleets, and were employed in the armies, - commonly as workmen, and exceptionally as soldiers.
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  • Those employed in workshops, whose overseers were themselves most commonly of servile status, had probably a harder lot than domestics; and the agricultural labourers were not unfrequently chained, and treated much in the same way as beasts of burden.
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  • Though slaves were obtained by the early victories of Rome over her Italian neighbours, no large number was employed on the small holdings of those periods.
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  • Certain offences reduced the guilty persons to slavery (servi poenae), and they were employed in public work in the quarries or the mines.
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  • Under him were the several groups employed in the different branches of the exploitation and the care of the cattle and flocks, as well as those who kept or prepared the food, clothing and tools of the whole staff and those who attended on the master in the various species of rural sports.
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  • Those who were not inmates of the household, but were employed outside of it as keepers of a shop or boat, chiefs of workshops, or clerks in a mercantile business, had the advantage of greater freedom of action.
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  • Antony, Octavius, and Sextus Pompeius employed them in the Second Civil War; and it is recorded by Augustus on the Monumentum Ancyranum that he gave back to their masters for punishment about 30,000 slaves who had absconded and borne arms against the state.
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  • In the wars from Otho to Vespasian they were employed, as Tacitus tells us, even by the most scrupulous generals.
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  • Antoninus directed that slaves treated with excessive cruelty, who had taken refuge at an altar or imperial image, should be sold; and this provision was extended to cases in which the master had employed a slave in a way degrading to him or beneath his character.
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  • It is true that, when the barbarian invasions began in the 3rd century, many captives were made, who, when not enrolled in the army, were employed in agriculture or domestic service; but the regular importation was increasingly diminished.
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  • Freemen had always been to some extent employed in the public service.
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  • In the factories or workshops kept by wealthy persons slave labour was mainly employed; but free artisans sometimes offered their services to these establishments or formed associations to compete with them.
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  • We have seen that free persons had all along been to some extent employed in the cultivation of land as hired labourers, and, as we shall presently find, also as tenants on the great estates.
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  • Slavery had disappeared; the b