Empiricism sentence example
It is a system of empiricism and materialism, remarkable only for teaching free will.
This is as far removed as possible either from dualism or from empiricism.
The simplest basis for philosophy 2 is empiricism.
It finds its chance in the misadventures of empiricism.
But once again in his political writings he breaks away from empiricism in appealing to natural law - an intuitionalist or conceivably an idealist tradition.Advertisement
Empiricism is restated by Paley, who is Kant's younger contemporary as a man and also on the whole as a writer.
When Otto Ritschl interprets values hedonistically - recoiling from Hegel's idealism the whole way to empiricism - he brings again to our minds the doubt whether hedonist ethics can serve as a foundation for any religious belief.
Alterna- Empiricism may lead to this conclusion; or it may lead to materialism..
Once again, empiricism may lead to some qualified and restricted form of agnosticism, religious or antireligious.
Empiricism, hitherto the only guide, if indeed a guide at all, was replaced by exact scientific knowledge; the connexion of each phenomenon with a controllable cause was established, and rule-of-thumb and quackery banished for ever by the free gift to the world of the results of his researches.Advertisement
Hume's empiricism, combined with a belief in biological evolution (derived from Herbert Spencer), was the chief feature in English thought during the third quarter of the 10th century.
A cosmopolitan on principle, and a convinced disbeliever in the ethics of his day, he comes very near to modern empiricism and especially to the modern Hedonist school.
Among the drawbacks of this temper, which on the whole made for progress, was the rise of a school of excessive scepticism, which, forgetting the value of the accumulated stores of empiricism, despised those degrees of moral certainty that, in so complex a study and so tentative a practice as medicine, must be our portion for the present, and even for a long future, however great the triumphs of medicine may become.
To the theory of knowledge Spencer contributes a "transfigured realism," to mediate between realism and idealism, and the doctrine that "necessary truths," acquired in experience and congenitally transmitted, are a priori to the individual, though a posteriori to the race, to mediate between empiricism and apriorism.
But Leibnitz's conception of the priority of spirit had too little foundation, and the different elements he sought to combine were too loosely related to one another to stand the strain of the two forces of empiricism and materialism that were opposed to his idealism.Advertisement
As empiricism had foundered on the difficulty of showing how our thoughts could be an object of sense experience, so Leibnitzian formalism foundered on that of understanding how the material of sense could be an object of thought.
In taking root in England idealism had to contend against the traditional empiricism represented by Mill on the one hand and the pseudo-Kantianism which was rendered current by Mansel and Hamilton on the other.
The defect of English empiricism from the outset had been the uncritical acceptance of the metaphysical dogma of a pure unadulterated sense-experience as the criterion of truth.
Hume's scepticism thus really arises from his thoroughgoing empiricism.
The progress of thought may show it to be, in truth, relative, as when the nerve of Hume's scepticism is shown to be his thoroughgoing empiricism, or when the scepticism of the Critique of Pure Reason is traced to the unwarrantable assumption of things-in-themselves.Advertisement
Sunt Cogitationes has been regarded by thinkers who profess themselves Berkeleians as the one proposition warranted by consciousness; the empiricism of his philosophy has been eagerly welcomed, while the spiritual intuition, without which the whole is to Berkeley meaningless, has been cast aside.
Such ideas of relation are in truth the stumbling-block in Locke's philosophy, and Berkeley's empiricism is equally far from accounting for them.
In this theory there can strictly be no "causation"; one thing is observed to succeed another, but observations cannot assert that it is "caused" by that thing; it is post hoc, but not propter hoc. The idea of necessary connexion is a purely mental idea, an a priori conception, in which observation of empirical data takes no part; empiricism in ethics likewise does away with the idea of the absolute authority of the moral law as conceived by the intuitionalists.
In the first instance, then, Hume's philosophical work is to be regarded as the attempt to supply for empiricism in psychology a consistent, that is, a logically developed theory of knowledge.
The weak points in Hume's empiricism are so admirably realized Negative by the author himself that it is only fair to quote his own Negativ of summary in the Appendix to the Treatise.Advertisement
In the beginning of the Encyklopadie he discusses the defects of dogmatism, empiricism, the philosophies of Kant and Jacobi.
Both in theory and practice it here seemed to supply precisely the counteractive to prevailing tendencies towards empiricism and individualism that was required.
The whole system of Telesio shows lacunae in argument, and ignorance of essential facts, but at the same time it is a forerunner of all subsequent empiricism, scientific and philosophical, and marks clearly the period of transition from authority and reason to experiment and individual responsibility.
Unconsciously, however, he fell away from the pure Scottish tradition and made concessions both to moderate empiricism and to the French ideologists (Laromiguiere, Cabanis and Destutt de Tracy).
The materialism of Hobbes, the pantheism of Spinoza, the empiricism of Locke, the determinism of Leibnitz, Collins' necessitarianism, Dodwell's denial of the natural immortality of the soul, rationalistic attacks on Christianity, and the morality of the sensationalists - all these he opposed with a thorough conviction of the truth of the principles which he advocated.
It is a notable feature of the new movement, that except verbally, in a certain licence of nominalist expression, due to the swing of the pendulum away from the realist doctrine of universals, there is little that we can characterize as Empiricism.
At first he followed Beneke's empiricism, and strongly opposed the subjectivistic tendency of the Kantian system, maintaining in particular the objectivity of space and time, which involved him in a somewhat violent controversy.
It has been criticized as if it was a speculative controversy between empiricism and intellectualism.
The truth is that neither Locke, on the one hand, nor the intellectualists of the 17th century, on the other, expressed their meaning with enough of precision; if they had, Locke's argument would probably have taken a form less open to the charge of mere empiricism.
Yet Locke's ethical opinions have been widely misunderstood; since from a confusion between " innate ideas " and " intuitions," 'which has been common in recent ethical discussion, it has been supposed that the founder of English empiricism must necessarily have been hostile to " intuitional " ethics.
The objections to Descartes - one of which at least, through Descartes's statement of it in the appendix of objections in the Meditationes has become famous - have no speculative value, and in general are the outcome of the crudest empiricism.
Along with strong expressions of empiricism we find him holding doctrines absolutely irreconcilable with empiricism in any form.
This is the true view of the scientific or inductive universal (as opposed to that of nominalism or pure empiricism).
In the early essays we find the principles of the current philosophies, those of Leibnitz and English empiricism, applied in various directions to those problems which serve as tests of their truth and completeness; we note the appearance of the difficulties or contradictions which manifest the one-sidedness or imperfection of the principle applied; and we can trace the gradual growth of the new conceptions which were destined, in the completed system, to take the place of the earlier method.
Each man considers himself to be the genuine champion of inductive empiricism in the attempt to relate faith to history.
Out of their discussions developed the initial ideas of logical Positivism, or Logical empiricism.
One likely error is the error of naive empiricism.
Introduction John Locke might be regarded as ' the father of modern empiricism ' .
In the Grammar, Newman makes his case for a radically new understanding of human reason, rejecting both Cartesian rationalism and Lockean empiricism.
The argument does not necessarily imply empiricism in philosophy; still, it is peculiarly characteristic of empiricism.
Hence, early empiricism makes ethics simply a calculus of pleasures (" hedonism ").
Its history is not so much that of a single evolving doctrine, but and ignorance," and as " an authoritative imposture."' Later ethical empiricism is more refined.
Thomas Hobbes, a rough and anomalous but vigorous thinker, is the fountainhead of a more formidable empiricism.
The third is the type of completed empiricism or scepticism, holding that no argument, either from reason or experience, can transcend experience, and consequently that no proof of God's existence is at all possible.
Here, as in his ethical doctrine (see Ethics), Whewell was moved by opposition to contemporary English empiricism.
This was the favorite Victorian depiction of fairies, tiny beings that delighted the eye but were impossible to catch.This downsizing of the Fae Folk was perhaps a result of Victorian Empiricism.
He published works on Leibnitz, empiricism and scepticism in Hume's philosophy, modern pessimism, Kantic criticism, English philosophy, Heraclitus of Ephesus and many other subjects.
In ethics empiricism begins by recognizing that man possesses sensations, and so is liable to pleasures and pains.
Hence, early empiricism makes ethics simply a calculus of pleasures ("hedonism").
Here then characteristically intuitionalism occupies a half-way house between empiricism, with its appeal to real given fact, and idealism, with its appeal to necessity.
It is a problem for empiricism; given a world where nothing but phenomenal sequences exist, to account for moral ideals.
We have already remarked that the difficulties of empiricism constitute the strength of intuitionalism.
Sense alone will never create orderly experience, as empiricism supposed; but a group of sensations reacted on by thought does so; it becomes, it is, a percept.
The element of givenness, dominant in empiricism, and partially surviving through intuitionalism even into Kant, is sublimated in Hegel's thinking.
On the critical side this teaching is now admittedly valid against the older empiricism, and the cogency of the reasoning by which his constructive theory is supported is generally recognized.
It is easy to understand how English empiricism issued at once in the trenchant naturalism of Hobbes.
The extremity to which philosophy had been brought by empiricism on the one hand and formalism on the other was Kant's opportunity.
Of his spiritual empiricism one side only has been accepted by later thinkers, and looked upon as the whole.
The fundamental objection to empiricism is that it fails to give an accurate explanation of experience; individual impressions as such are momentary, and their connexion into a body of coherent knowledge presupposes mental action distinct from mere receptivity.
Empiricism was characteristic of all early speculation in Greece.
The Logic of Empiricism The path followed by English thought was a different one.
Stuart Mill's System of Logic marked a fresh stage in the history of empiricism, for the reason that it made the effort to hold an even balance between the two moments in the thought of the school.
Gomperz in his Herkulanische Studien, and in contributions to the Vienna Academy (Monatsberichte), has tried to evolve from the fragments more approximation to modern empiricism than they seem to contain.