Thus we acquire a bodyof empirical generalizations as to social phenomena, and then we connect the generalizations with the positive theory of human nature.
The declared aim of the author 1 was to offer a complete solution of the great mechanical problem presented by the solar system, and to bring theory to coincide so closely with observation that empirical equations should no longer find a place in astronomical tables.
The smallest empirical formula for cellulose (q.v.) may certainly be written C6H1005.
Wolff tells us that six Latin works contain his system: - Ontology, General Cosmology, Empirical Psychology, Rational Psychology,.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
His method was empirical, and the laws which he established were generally the result of repeated experiment.
"I don't have any empirical evidence to suggest—" "Don't use that fed speak on me," Elise said with an exasperated sigh.
But the starting-point of the argument in question is the purely empirical evidence of a single fact or set of facts; it proceeds by way of analogy, not of strict demonstration; and it claims for its results nothing more than probability.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Montpellier became distinguished for the practical and empirical spirit of its medicine, as contrasted with the dogmatic and scholastic teaching of Paris and other universities.
We may therefore conclude that the molecular volume depends more upon the internal structure of the molecule than its empirical content.
Augustine was the first who ventured to teach that the catholic church, in its empirical form, was the kingdom of Christ, that the millennial kingdom had commenced with the appearing of Christ, and was;therefore an accomplished fact.
Anything short of this is merely descriptive and empirical, and affords no rational basis for inquiry into the mode in which the distribution of plant-life has been brought about.
The isomerism which occurs as soon as the molecule contains a few carbon atoms renders any classification based on empirical molecular formulae somewhat ineffective; on the other hand, a scheme based on molecular structure would involve more detail than it is here possible to give.
A large number of cobalt compounds are known, of which the empirical composition represents them as salts of cobalt to which one or more molecules of ammonia have been added.
So persistently does the human ear rebel against the division of the tetrachord into two greater tones and a leimma or hemitone, as represented by the fractions 9, 9, 26, that, centuries before the possibility of reconciling the demands of the ear with those of exact science was satisfactorily demonstrated, the Aristoxenian school advocated the use of an empirical scale, sounding pleasant to the sense, in preference to an unpleasing tonality founded upon immutable proportions.
In the 2nd century the school became closely connected with the philosophical sect of the Sceptics, whose leader, Sextus (200 B.C.), was an empirical physician.
It was found that the results were capable of expression by the empirical relation CaH2b= 104.3b+49'09m+105.47n, where C a H 2b denotes the formula of the hydrocarbon, m the number of single carbon linkings and n the number of double linkings, m and n being calculated on the Kekule formulae.
His writings, said to have numbered four hundred and fifty-three, were in the style of Aristotle, and dealt with philosophy, ethics and music. The empirical tendency of his thought is shown in his theory that the soul is related to the body as harmony to the parts of a musical.
This knowledge, however, is by no means positivistic or empirical, but on the contrary it is dialectical and a priori synthetic, brought about by the spiritual categories; and from it there constantly arise new problems, an ever new position of the fundamental categories.
The selection of the topics of mathematical inquiry among the infinite variety open to it has been guided by the useful applications, and indeed the abstract theory has only recently been disentangled from the empirical elements connected with these applications.
The value of k, however, does not keep constant so satisfactorily in the case of highly dissociated substances, and empirical formulae have been constructed to represent the effect of dilution on them.
The properties of caoutchouc clearly show, however, that its actual molecular structure is considerably more complex than is represented by the empirical formula, and that it is to be regarded as the polymer of a terpene or similar hydrocarbon and composed of a cluster of at least ten or twenty molecules of the formula C5H8.
The Epicureans, on the other hand, were empirical pessimists.
If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.
It is impossible here to give even a list of the names of the many observers who in recent times have made empirical study of the effects of growth-forces and of the symmetrical limitations and definitions of growth.
We may here notice an empirical rule formulated by Nietzski in 1879: - the simplest colouring substances are in the greenish-yellow and yellow, and with increasing molecular weight the colour passes into orange, red, violet, blue and green.
Naturally he selects fire, according to him the most complete embodiment of the process of Becoming, as the principle of empirical existence, out of which all things, including even the soul, grow by way of a quasi condensation, and into which all things must in course of time be again resolved.
While, therefore, the logical development of algebraic reasoning must depend on certain fundamental relations, it is important that in the early study of the subject these relations should be introduced gradually, and not until there is some empirical acquaintance with the phenomena with which they are concerned.
The weakness of the NeoLamarckian view lies in its interpretation of heredity; its strength lies in its zealous study of the living world and the detection therein of proximate empirical laws, a strength shared by very many bionomical investigations, the authors of which would prefer to call themselves Darwinians, or to leave themselves without sectarian designation.
1906), fellow of Queen's College, in which the doctrine of the "English" or "empirical" philosophy was exhaustively examined.
The great work that is going on is the simplification of the facts to be explained by grouping them under empirical laws; and the most general statement relating to these that can yet be made is that no single one of these laws has as yet shown signs of taking rank as a vera causa comparable with the Darwinian principle of natural selection.
area containing all dry land, the transitional area including the submarine slopes down to 1000 fathoms, and the abysmal area consisting of the floor of the ocean beyond that depth; and Mill proposed to take the line of mean-sphere level, instead of the empirical depth of moo fathoms, as the boundary between the transitional and abysmal areas.
In reasserting and amplifying the empirical conclusions of his predecessors, especially in the sphere of ethics, Mill's chief function was the introduction of the humanist element.
Enough, however, has already been done to show the vast importance of the method in grouping and codifying the empirical facts of life, and in so preparing the way for the investigation of ultimate " causes."
He has, indeed, described in graphic terms the greatest of the more superficial changes he underwent; how he had " carried into logical and ethical problems the maxims and postulates of physical knowledge," and had moved within the narrow lines drawn by the philosophical instructions of the class-room " interpreting human phenomena by the analogy of external nature "; how he served in willing captivity " the ` empirical ' and ` necessarian ' mode of thought," even though " shocked " by the dogmatism and acrid humours " of certain distinguished representatives "; 1 and how in a period of " second education " at Berlin, " mainly under the admirable guidance of Professor Trendelenburg," he experienced " a new intellectual birth" which " was essentially the gift of fresh conceptions, the unsealing of hidden openings of self-consciousness, with unmeasured corridors and sacred halls behind; and, once gained, was more or less available throughout the history of philosophy, and lifted the darkness from the pages of Kant and even Hegel."
He may, in fact, be regarded as the final exponent of that empirical school of philosophy which owed its impulse to John Locke, and is generally spoken of as being typically English.
That is tp say, his gnosis neutralizes all that is empirical and historical, if not always as to its actuality, at least absolutely in respect of its value.
For the complete determination of the chemical structure of any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (I) the empirical chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e.
These have often been employed as empirical formulae (e.g.
2 Compound radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to characterize them.
But their constitution is not yet solved, there even being some divergence of opinion as to their empirical formulae.
Though nominalism is properly a medieval theory, the tendency has passed over into modern philosophy: the term "nominalist" is often applied to thinkers of the empirical, sensationalist school, of whom J.
The idea of transmutation, in the country of its origin, had a philosophical basis, and was linked up with the Greek theories of matter there current; thus, by supplying a central philosophical principle, it to some extent unified and focussed chemical effort, which previously, so far as it existed at all, had been expended on acquiring empirical acquaintance with a mass of disconnected technical processes.
A consequence of this empirical division was that marsh gas, ethylene and cyanogen were regarded as inorganic, and at a later date many other hydrocarbons of undoubtedly organic nature had to be included in the same division.
By actual observations it has been shown that ether, alcohol, many esters of the normal alcohols and fatty acids, benzene, and its halogen substitution products, have critical constants agreeing with this originally empirical law, due to Sydney Young and Thomas; acetic acid behaves abnormally, pointing to associated molecules at the critical point.
The empirical data on which the hydrodynamical investigations are based are: (I) observed velocities and directions of oceanic currents and drifts; (2) salinity; (3) density; (4) temperature of the sea water in situ; (5) oceanic soundings.
Glanvill supported a much more honourable cause when he undertook the defence of the Royal Society of London, under the title of Plus Ultra, or the Progress and Advancement of Science since the time of Aristotle (1668), a work which shows how thoroughly he was imbued with the ideas of the empirical method.
The Erasistrateans paved the way for what was in some respects the most important school which Alexandria produced, that known as the empiric, which, though it recognized no master by name, may be considered to have been founded by Philinus of Cos (280 B.C.), a pupil of Herophilus; but Serapion, a great name in antiquity, and Glaucias of Tarentum, who traced the empirical doctrine back to the writings of Hippocrates, are also named among its founders.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
On the other hand there were movements, such as the Waldensian, the Wycliffite and Hussite,which are often described as "reformations anticipating the Reformation" which "set out from the Augustinian conception of the Church, but took exception to the development of the conception," and were pronounced by the medieval church as heretical for (1) "contesting the hierarchical gradation of the priestly order; or (2) giving to the religious idea of the Church implied in the thought of predestination a place superior to the conception of the empirical Church; or (3) applying to the priests, and thereby to the authorities of the Church, the test of the law of God, before admitting their right to exercise, as holding the keys, the power of binding and loosing" (Harnack's History of Dogma, vi.
The values are for the Ha line: The empirical formula (n2-I)/(n2-1-o 4)d apparently gives more constant values with change of temperature than the LorenzLorentz form.
This law-purely empirical in origin-was strengthened by Berzelius, who redetermined many specific heats, and applied the law to determine the true atomic weight from the equivalent weight.
Hess also stated another principle on empirical grounds, which, although admitting of many exceptions, is of considerable utility and significance.
On the other hand, if laws of social phenomena, empirically generalized from history, can, when once suggested, be affiliated to the known laws of human nature; if the direction actually taken by the developments and changes of human society, can be seen to be such as the properties of man and of his dwelling-place made antecedently probable, the empirical generalizations are raised into positive laws, and sociology becomes a science."
rational and empirical.
Their necessity was discovered and proved in a manner which might be called empirical.
So long as bridge building was an empirical art, great waste of material was unavoidable.
Kant's transcendental teaching is summarily as follows: " Transcendental " is his epithet for what is neither empirical - i.e.
His criticism is empirical and unmethodic, based on immense and careful reading, and applied only when he feels a difficulty; and he is most successful when he has a large mass of tolerably homogeneous_ literature to lean on, whilst on isolated points he is often at a loss.
The desire to learn what the future has in store is nearly as old as the sense of responsibility in mankind, and has been the parent of many empirical systems of fortune-telling, which profess to afford positive knowledge whereby the affairs of life may be regulated, and the dangers of failure foretold.
By the method of empirical psychology, he examined man first as a unit in himself and secondly in his wider relations to the larger units of society and the universe of mankind.
But this empirical tendency as regards science never modified his metaphysical outlook.
But Leibnitz also anticipated Kant in seeking to correct the empirical point of view of the English philosophers.
By sceptics the word " dogma " is generally used contemptuously, for an opinion grounded not upon evidence but upon assertion; and this attitude is so far justified from the purely empirical standpoint that theological dogmas deal with subjects which, by their very nature, are not susceptible of demonstration by the methods of physical science.
First there is a medical usage - empirical versus dogmatic medicine.
These antinomies are four - two mathematical, two dynamical - connected with (I) the limitation of the universe in respect of space and time, (2) the theory that the whole consists of indivisible atoms (whereas, in fact, none such exist), (3) the problem of freedom in relation to universal causality, (4) the existence of a universal being - about each of which pure reason contradicts the empirical, as thesis and antithesis.
The margin of uncertainty which must be met by empirical allowances on the side of safety has been steadily diminished.
Waddell (De Pontibus) gives the following convenient empirical relations.
There was no repugnance to the idea on the queen's part, but Sir Robert Peel thought unfavourably of it as an "empirical" plan, and the question of expense was always mooted as a serious consideration.
Bailey can hardly be classed as belonging either to the strictly empirical or to the idealist school, but his general tendency is towards the former.
(3) With regard to general and abstract ideas and general propositions, his opinions are those of the empirical school, but his analysis frequently puts the matter in a new light.
is divine in its nature, God is the absolute Ego and the empirical egos are his instruments.
But all agree in giving the central place to the realization of a real effective kingship of Yahweh; in fact the conception of the religious subject as the nation of Israel, with a national organization under Yahweh as king, is common to the whole Old Testament, and connects prophecy proper with the so-called Messianic psalms and similar passages which speak of the religious relations of the Hebrew commonwealth, the religious meaning of national institutions, and so necessarily contain ideal elements reaching beyond the empirical present.
from the empirical standpoint the statement of such a "law" does not contain the word "must"; it merely asserts that such and such series have been invariably observed.
In this theory there can strictly be no "causation"; one thing is observed to succeed another, but observations cannot assert that it is "caused" by that thing; it is post hoc, but not propter hoc. The idea of necessary connexion is a purely mental idea, an a priori conception, in which observation of empirical data takes no part; empiricism in ethics likewise does away with the idea of the absolute authority of the moral law as conceived by the intuitionalists.
besides the biographies of the empirical philosophers.
Hence the modern sense of empirical as applied to the guess work of an untrained quack or charlatan.
Three acids of this empirical formula are known, viz.
This is used as the sulphate, which has the empirical formula of (C15H21N302)2, H 2 SO 4, plus an unknown number of molecules of water.
Riehl, who in Der philosophische Kriti .cis- mus (1876, &c.) proposes the non-Kantian hypothesis that, though things in themselves are unknowable through reason alone, they are knowable by empirical intuition, and therefore also by empirical thought starting from intuition.
Avenarius (q.v.) is the hypothesis of the inseparability of subject and object, or, to use his own phraseology, of ego and environment, in purely empirical, or a posteriori form.
Not, says Wundt, by association, as Hume said, but by thinking; not, however, by a priori thinking, as Kant said, but by logical thinking, by applying the logical principle of ground and consequent (which Leibnitz had called the principle of sufficient reason) as a causal law to empirical appearances.
Now, Wundt is aware that this is not always possible, for he holds that the logical principle of ground belongs generally to the connexion of thoughts, the causal law to the combination of empirical appearances.
Nevertheless he believes that, when we can apply measures to the combination of empirical appearances, then we can apply the logical principle as causal law to this combination, and say that one appearance is the cause of another, thus adding a notion of causality not contained in the actual observations, but specializing the general notion of causality.
A further correction may be made by adding more empirical terms to the equation, but a more promising idea, due to J.
More generally, philosophic rationalism is opposed to empirical theories of knowledge, inasmuch as it regards all true knowledge as deriving deductively from fundamental elementary concepts.
A priori concepts there are, but if they are to lead to the amplification of knowledge, they must be brought into relation with empirical data.
In the Treatise of Human Nature, which is in every respect the most complete exposition of Hume's philosophical conception, we have the first thorough-going attempt to apply the fundamental principles of Locke's empirical psychology to the construction of a theory of knowledge, and, as a natural consequence, the first systematic criticism of the chief metaphysical notions from this point of view.
In certain of the later writings, pre-eminently in the Dialogues on Natural Religion, Hume brings the result of his speculative criticism to bear upon the problems of current theological discussion, and gives in their regard, as previously with respect to general philosophy, the final word of the empirical theory in its earlier form.
In order to make perfectly clear the full significance of the principle which Hume applied to the solution of the chief philosophical questions, it is necessary to render somewhat more precise and complete the statement of the psychological view Theory which lies at the foundation of the empirical theory, and to distinguish from it the problem of the theory of knowledge upon which it was brought to bear.
This solution presupposes a peculiar conception of the general relation between the mind and things which in itself requires justification, and which, so far at least as the empirical theory was developed by Locke and his successors, could not be obtained from psychological analysis.
Such, in substance, is Hume's restatement of Locke's empirical view.
With regard to geometry, he holds emphatically that it is an empirical doctrine, a science founded on observation of concrete facts.
Hume's theory of mathematics - the only one, perhaps, which is compatible with his fundamental principle of psychology - is a practical condemnation of his empirical theory of perception.
It is because Kant alone perceived the full significance of the change required in order to meet the difficulties of the empirical theory that we regard his system as the only sequel to that of Hume.
So far as metaphysic is concerned, Hume has given the final word of the empirical school, and all additions, whether from the specifically psychological side or from the general history of human culture, are subordinate in character, and affect in no way the nature of his results.
If he could get potent drugs to cure disease he was content, and he worked very hard in an empirical way to make them.
The principles which govern the preparation and setting of the other class of calcium sulphate cements, that is, cements of the Keene class, are not fully understood, but there is a fair amount of knowledge on the subject, both empirical and scientific. The essential difference between the setting of Keene's cement and that of plaster of Paris is that the former takes place much more slowly, occupying hours instead of minutes, and the considerable heating and expansion which characterize the setting of plaster of Paris are much less marked.
So far, our knowledge of correlation is almost entirely empirical, and the arrangement of the observed facts cannot be brought into exact harmony with our guesses at their causation.
Hume's attitude to the empirical is entirely supported by Maimon.
Hamilton's Philosophy, and there is no doubt that the empirical school owed a great deal to his sound, accurate thinking, untrammelled by any reverence for authority, technique and convention.
Between these extremes there is room for a third theory, empirical yet providing a knowledge of the really necessary.
The former belong to the school of empirical logic, the latter to the school of conceptual and formal logic. Both have started from points which Aristotle indicated without developing them.
But we shall find that his true descendants are the empirical logicians.
r9) with a detailed system of empiricism, according to which sense is the primary knowledge of particulars, memory is the retention of a sensation, experience is the sum of many memories, induction infers universals, and intelligence is the true apprehension of the universal principles of science, which is rational, deductive, demonstrative, from empirical principles.
This empirical groundwork of Aristotle's logic was accepted by the Epicureans, who enunciated most distinctly the fundamental doctrine that all sensations are true of their immediate objects, and falsity begins with subsequent opinions, or what the moderns call " interpretation."
Beneath deductive logic, in the logic of Aristotle and the canonic of the Epicureans, there already lay the basis of empirical logic: sensory experience is the origin of all inference and science.
The consilience of empirical and deductive processes was an Aristotelian discovery, elaborated by Mill against Bacon.
On the whole, however, Aristotle, Bacon and Mill, purged from their errors, form one empirical school, gradually growing by adapting itself to the advance of science; a school in which Aristotle was most influenced by Greek deductive Mathematics, Bacon by the rise of empirical physics at the Renaissance, and Mill by the Newtonian combination of empirical facts and mathematical principles in the Principia.
From studying this succession of empirical logicians, we cannot doubt that sense, memory and experience are the real origin of inference, analogical, inductive and deductive.
Aristotle's logic has often been called formal logic; it was really a technical logic of syllogism analysed into linguistic elements, and of science rested on an empirical basis.
Thus has logic drifted further and further from the real and empirical logic of Aristotle the founder and Bacon the reformer of the science.
Empirical logic, the logic of Aristotle and Bacon, is on the right way.
The fact is that the uniformity of nature stands to induction as the axioms of syllogism do to syllogism; they are not premises, but conditions of inference, which ordinary men use spontaneously, as was pointed out in Physical Realism, and afterwards in Venn's Empirical Logic. The axiom of contradiction is not a major premise of a judgment: the dictum de omni et nullo is not a major premise of a syllogism: the principle of uniformity is not a major premise of an induction.
Venn, Symbolic Logic (2nd ed., London, 1894); The Principles of Empirical or Inductive Logic (London, 1889); J.
The class is either constituted by enumeration of its members, and, passing by the difficulty involved in the thought of " its " members, is an empirical universal of fact merely, or it is grounded in the class-concept.
The universal is the ground of the empirical " all " and not conversely.
Since they are not empirical they must be structural and belong to " the mind " - i.e.
Zeuner, at a later date (La Chaleur, p.441) employing the empirical, formula pv= BO +Cp 25 for saturated steam, found the value S = 568, which further increased the discrepancy.
(18) but such fomulae are much too complicated to be of any practical use, and are too empirical in their nature to permit of the direct physical interpretation of the constants they contain.
The values of the saturation-pressure have been ver y accurately determined for the majority of stable substances, and a large number of empirical formulae have been proposed to represent the relation between pressure and temperature.
The formulae of Young and Roche are purely empirical, but give very fair results over a wide range.
The empirical formulae above quoted must be compared and tested in the light of the theoretical relation between the latent heat and the rate of increase of the vapour-pressure (dp/d0), which is given by the second law of thermodynamics, viz.
It was employed as a purely empirical formula by Bertrand and Barus, who calculated the values of the coefficients for several substances, so as to obtain the best general agreement with the results of observation over a wide range, at high as well as low pressures.
But in order to deduce the values of c by the Joule-Thomson method, it is necessary to assume an empirical formula, and the type c=co(6019) n is chosen as being the simplest.
The values of the saturation-pressure given in the last column are calculated by formula (25), which agrees with Regnault's observations better than his own empirical formulae.
Although it is not possible to represent the properties of steam in this manner up to the critical temperature, the above method appears more satisfactory than the adoption of the inconsistent and purely empirical formulae which form the basis of most tables at the present time.
An immense mass of material has been collected on the subject of vapour-pressures and densities, the greater part of which will be found in Winkelmann's Handbook, in Landolt's and Bornstein's Tables, and in similar compendiums. The results vary greatly in accuracy, and are frequently vitiated by errors of temperature measurement, by chemical impurities and surface condensation, or by peculiarities of the empirical formulae employed in smoothing the observations; but it would not be within the scope of the present article to discuss these details.
The following table contains the most probable values for a few of these points which have been determined with the greatest care or frequency: Table of Boiling-Points at Atmospheric Pressure on Centigrade Scale Alphabetical Index of Symbols Empirical constants in formulae; section 14.
He gave currency, moreover, to the empirical rule known as "Bode's Law," which was actually announced by Johann Daniel Titius of Wittenberg in 1772.
The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.
Each succeeding thinker had more or less assumed the methods of Thales, and had approached the problem of existence from the empirical side.
It is a purely empirical orn Guided by experience, we are able to frame rules which enable us to say with more or less accuracy what will be the consequences, or what were the antecedents, of a given state of things.
lhe usual empirical law of sliding friction is that the mutual action between two plane surfaces in contact, or between a particle and a curve or surface, cannot make with the normal an angle exceeding a certain limit X called the angle of friction.
The usual empirical assumption is that u21ui= e(ufui), (41) where e is a proper fraction which is constant for the same two bodies.
The following empirical formulae for the stiffness of hempen ropes have been deduced by Mono from the experiments of Coulomb: Let F be the stiffness in pounds avoirdupois; d the diameter of the rope In inches, fl = 48d2 for white ropes and 35d2 for tarred ropes; r the effectire radius of the pulley in inches; T the tension in pounds.
Trans., 1894) investigated the question for the cases of loaded and unloaded shafts, and, owing to the complication arising from the application of the general theory to the cases of loaded shafts, devised empirical formulae for the critical speeds of shafts loaded with heavy pulleys, based generally upon the following assumption, which is stated for the case of a shaft carrying one pulley: If Ni, N1 be the separate speeds of whirl of the shaft and pulley on the assumption that the effect of one is neglected when that of the other is under consideration, then the resulting speed of whirl due to both causes combined may be taken to be of the form N1N2~!
Two acids corresponding to this empirical formula are known - namely ethylene succinic acid, H0 2 C CH 2 CH 2 CO 2 H and ethylidene succinic acid CH3 CH(C02H)2.
He never really establishes a relation between pure reason and things-in-themselves (Dinge an sick), but rather seeks refuge in a dualism within consciousness, the transcendental and the empirical.
Since Kant there are, therefore, two streams of dualism, dealing, one with the radical problem of the relation between mind and matter, the other with the relation between the pure rational and the empirical elements within consciousness.
To the second problem there are two main answers, that of Associationism which denies to the mind any a priori existence and asserts that sensation is the only source of knowledge, and that which admits the existence of both transcendental and empirical knowledge.
The philosophies which are " redargued " are divided into three classes, the sophistical, of which the best example is Aristotle, who, according to Bacon, forces nature into his abstract schemata and thinks to explain by definitions; the empirical, which from few and limited experiments leaps at once to general conclusions; and the superstitious, which corrupts philosophy by the introduction of poetical and theological notions.
Into questions of metaphysics, as commonly understood, Bacon can hardly be said to have entered, but a long line of thinkers have drawn inspiration from him, and it is not without justice that he has been looked upon as the originator and guiding spirit of what is known as the empirical school.
In the sphere of ethics he is similarly regarded as a forerunner of the empirical method.
This is the step of advance which is required alike by Fichte when he asks his reader to rise from the empirical ego to the ego which is subject-object (i.e.
This plan of treatment is termed empirical.
It is a useful method, and is often very satisfactory, but it has the disadvantage that it admits of but little progress, and when a trusted empirical remedy fails we do not know precisely in what direction to look for a substitute.
In contradistinction to empirical we have rational therapeutics, by which we mean the application of a remedy, whose mode of action we know more or less perfectly, in diseased conditions, the nature of which we also understand more or less fully.
Here we notice one of the greatest advantages of rational over empirical therapeutics.
But it must be kept within limits, lest it should of itself cause death, and here again we see the difference between empirical and rational medicine.
Next comes the mathematical world of space, then the corporeal world, and finally the empirical world with its ]imitations of space and time.
Thus Campanella, though neither an original nor a systematic thinker, is among the precursors, on the one hand, of modern empirical science, and on the other of Descartes and Spinoza.
That these alkaloids are closely related may be suspected from their empirical formulae, viz.morphine = C17H19N03, codeine = C18H21N03, thebaine = C19H21N03.
Thus Kant distinguished the two selves as rational and empirical, just as he distinguished the two egos as the noumenal or real and the phenomenal from the metaphysical standpoint.
At this point the epistemologist takes up the question of empirical knowledge and considers the kind of validity, if any, which it can possess.
It is with hedonistic and other empirical theories that egoism is generally associated.
The impulse towards natural science and the systematizing of empirical details which distinguished Aristotle from Plato was shared by Theophrastus (q.v.).
In Kantian terminology apperception is (1) transcendental - the perception of an object as involving the consciousness of the pure self as subject, and (2) empirical, - the cognition of the self in its concrete existence.
This study gives us the science of empirical psychology, or, as it is now termed, psychology sans phrase.
He defined his problem as the quid juris or the question of the validity of knowledge, not its quid facti or the laws of the empirical genesis and evolution of intellection (to use Croom Robertson's phraseology).
Speaking of this transcendental consciousness, Kant goes so far as to say that it is not of the slightest consequence "whether the idea of it be clear or obscure (in empirical consciousness), no, not even whether it really exists or not.
For empirical phenomenal knowledge, however, which is all that man can look for, materialism with its exact scientific methods has done most valuable service.
Empirical rules have grown up assigning to each district, according to its average rainfall, a particular number of days' supply, independently of any inflow, as the contents of the reservoir necessary to secure a given yield throughout the driest seasons.
The empirical individualism of the work, tending necessarily to limit the province of reason and extend that of faith, together with scattered utterances on special points, which gained for Biel the title of Papista Antipapista, had considerable influence in giving form to the doctrines of Luther and Melanchthon.
The subtle agnostic, who doubted reason because reason could not be supported in the end by empirical evidence, was less in his view than persons blindly resting on authority or prejudice.
Associative tendency, individual or inherited, has since been the favourite constructive factor of human experience in Empirical Philosophy.
worlds, the sensuous and the intelligible, the pheno menal and the noumenal, Kant allows no freedom to the natural will determined by the succession of motives, desires and appetites which form the empirical and sensuous self.
But in contrast with the phenomenal world governed by empirical laws Kant sets the noumenal and intelligible world in which by a timeless act of will man is free to accept the moral command of an unconditional imperative for no reason other than its own rational necessity as the deliverance of his highest nature.
Self-consciousness, if it be conceived as distinguishing itself from its past history or from the natural world, must be conceived also as in some sense related to the empirical self which has a history in time and to the natural organism in which it finds a home.
This empirical psychology had not indeed been neglected by previous writers.
Every one, it would seem, can tell what value he sets on the pleasures of alimentation, sex, the senses generally, wealth, power, curiosity, sympathy, antipathy (malevolence), the goodwill of individuals or of society at large, and on the corresponding pains, as well as the pains of labour and organic disorders; 1 and can guess the rate at which they are valued by others; therefore if it be once granted that all actions are determined by pleasures and pains, and are to be tried by the same standard, the art of legislation and private conduct is apparently placed on an empirical basis.
Finally, side by side with a theory of the nature of moral obligation thus fundamentally empirical and a posteriori in its outlook, he maintains in his account of justice the existence of the idea of justice as distinct from a mere sentiment, carrying with it an a priori belief in its existence and identical in its a priori and intuitive character with the ultimate criterion of Utilitarianism itself.
p. 4) that his object is to show that " ethics is as independent of metaphysical speculation for its principles and methods as any of the so-called ` natural sciences '; that its real basis must be sought not in philosophical theories about the nature of the Absolute or the ultimate constitution of the Universe, but in the empirical facts of human life as they are revealed to us in our concrete everyday experience of the world and mankind, and sifted and systematized by the sciences of psychology and sociology..
Of the primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols having the same empirical formula, the primaryhave the highest, and the tertiary the lowest boiling point; this is in accordance with the fairly general rule that a gain is symmetry is attended by a fall in the boiling point.
In China, Egypt and Babylonia, strength and continuity were lent to this native tendency by the influence of a centralized authority; considerable proficiency was attained in the arts of observation; and from millennial stores of accumulated data, empirical rules were deduced by which the scope of prediction was widened and its accuracy enhanced.
Empirical knowledge scarcely deserves the name.
Before Newton the problem was that of devising empirical curves to formally represent the observed inequalities in the motion of the moon around the earth.
Knowledge has under both forms the same object, the relative difference of the two being that when the conceptual form predominates we have speculative science and when the form of judgment prevails we have empirical or historical science.
It was the period of revolt against the Aristotelianism of the schools, and Gassendi shared to the full the empirical tendencies of the age.
In these objections Gassendi's tendency towards the empirical school of speculation appears more pronounced than in any of his other writings.
The first part contains the specially empirical positions which Gassendi afterwards neglects or leaves out of account.
In this sense the term may be applied to empirical philosophers in general.
Philosophy, according to Herbart, begins with reflection upon our empirical conceptions, and consists in the reformation and elaboration of these - its three primary divisions being determined by as many distinct forms of elaboration.
In the Ontology this method is employed to determine what in reality corresponds to the empirical conceptions of substance and cause, or rather of inherence and change.
He struck out for himself the happy middle path between the a priori and the empirical systems, and exemplified with brilliant success the method by which experimental science has wrested from nature so many of her secrets.
In the majority of cases it is found that the observations can be represented within the limits of experimental error by a fairly simple empirical formula, at least for moderate ranges of temperatures.
This is the equation to a parabola, and is equivalent to the empirical formula of Avenarius, with this difference, that in Tait's formula the constants have all a simple and direct interpretation in relation to the theory.
Trent") insisted indeed that it was a mistake to confuse astrology with fortune-telling, and maintained that it was a "physical science just as much as geology," depending like them on ascertained facts, and grossly misrepresented by being connected with magic. Dr Garnett himself looked upon the study of biography in relation to the casting of horoscopes as an empirical investigation, but it is difficult in practice to keep the distinction clear, to judge by present-day text-books such as those of Dr Wilde (Primer of Astrology, &c.).
But if the progress of physical science has not prevented the rehabilitation of much of ancient alchemy by the later researches into chemical change, and if psychology now finds a place for explanations of spiritualism and witchcraft which involve the admission of the empirical facts under a new theory (as in the case of the diviningrod, &c.), it is at least conceivable that some new synthesis might once more justify part at all events of ancient and medieval astromancy, to the extent of admitting the empirical facts where provable, and substituting for the supposed influence of the stars as such, some deeper theory which would be consistent with an application to other forms of prophecy, and thus might reconcile the possibility of dipping into futurity with certain interrelations of the universe, different indeed from those assumed by astrological theory, but underlying and explaining it.
If this is ever accomplished it will need the patient investigation of a number of empirical observations by competent students unbiassed by any parti pris - a difficult set of conditions to obtain; and even then no definite results may be achieved.
In the second place, the astronomical knowledge presupposed and accompanying early Babylonian astrology is essentially of an empirical character.
He wrote Rational Psychology (1848), System of Moral Science (1853), Empirical Psychology (1854), Rational Cosmology (1858), Creator and Creation, or the Knowledge in the Reason of God and His Work (1872), Humanity Immortal (1872), Logic of Reason (1874).
Chandler has constructed empirical formulae representing the motion, with the results already given, while Albrecht has determined the motion of the pole from observation simply, without trying to represent it either by a formula or by theory.
THE Writings Of Kant No other thinker of modern times has been throughout his work so penetrated with the fundamental conceptions of physical science; no other has been able to hold with such firmness the balance between empirical and speculative ideas.
On the Different Races of Men (1775); Determination of the Notion of a Human Race (1785); Conjectural Beginning of Human History (1786): three tracts containing some points of interest as regards the empirical grounds for Kant's doctrine of teleology.
It will be observed that, in the Leibnitzian as in the empirical individualism, the fundamental notion is still that of the abstract separation of the thinking subject from the materials of conscious experience.
It is a solution, in fact, which must have been impossible had the purport of Hume's empirical doctrine been present to Kant's mind.
Thus neither the formal nor the material aspect of conscious experience, when regarded from the individualist point of view, supplied any foundation for real knowledge, whether a priori or empirical.
Knowledge is regarded as a mechanical product, part furnished by the subject, part given to the subject, and is thus viewed as mechanically divisible into a priori and a posteriori, into pure and empirical, necessary and contingent.
The thing-in-itself to which the empirical order and relations of sense-experience are referred is the divine order, which is not matter of knowledge, but involved in our practical or moral beliefs.
Kant, indeed, was mainly influenced by his strong opposition to the Leibnitzian rationalism, and therefore assigns the categories to understanding, the logical faculty, without consideration of the question, - which might have been suggested by the previous statements of the Dissertation, - what relation these categories held to the empirical notions formed by comparison, abstraction and generalization when directed upon representations of objects.
For in man self-determination and mechanical determination by empirical motives coexist, and only in so far as he belongs and is conscious of belonging both to the sphere of sense and to the sphere of reason does moral obligation become possible for him.
The supreme end prescribed by reason in its practical aspect, namely, the complete subordination of the empirical side of nature to the prescripts of morality, demands, as conditions of its possible realization, the permanence of ethical progress in the moral agent, the certainty of freedom in self-determination, and the necessary harmonizing of the spheres of sense and reason through the intelligent author or ground of both.
The empirical details of nature, which are not determined by the categories of understanding, are judged as being arranged or ordered by intelligence, for in no other fashion could nature, in its particular, contingent aspect, be thought as forming a complete, consistent, intelligible whole.
In the first place, the adaptation may be merely subjective, when the empirical condition for the exercise of judgment is furnished by the feeling of pleasure or pain; such adaptation is aesthetic. In the second place, the adaptation may be objective or logical, when empirical facts are given of such a kind that their possibility can be conceived only through the notion of the end realized in them; such adaptation is teleological, and the empirical facts in question are organisms.
"I don't have any empirical evidence to suggestâ€”" "Don't use that fed speak on me," Elise said with an exasperated sigh.
He presented abstract concepts with empirical data.
The latter point has to be stressed since we did not address the question of empirical adequacy at all.
Many empirical studies have been conducted to investigate the emotional aftermath of abortion, and there is not space here to detail them all.
Instead an empirical approach was used with a very small initial aliquot that was increased in weight as the experiment proceeded.
Supply empirical support a number of even game show port Allen got.
ascription of knowledge is supposed to be an empirical proposition which is informative in so far as it excludes an alternative.
behaves in a fashion that generally agrees with the empirical evidence.
circumscribed empirical phenomenon is a not so difficult undertaking.
Standards are not the only means of demonstrating conformity - codes of practice, empirical design or other suitable methods are acceptable equivalents.
The idea that it might be something more is a mixture of empirical and conceptual confusion.
These members of staff have strengths in both theoretical criminology and in conducting empirical research projects.
With the exception of Lewisham, no empirical data is available OBV was very active in Lewisham.
Supply empirical support come back downtown on full houses.
Reports 6 Workload: conceptualisation, empirical investigation, obscurity and action 11 does excessive workload cause dropout?
Treatment of uninvestigated dyspepsia is either to test for and eradicate Helicobacter pylori or to use empirical treatment with a PPI for one month.
emergent literacy: The role of empirical evidence.
emphasize that the book model the market more from an empirical point of view.
empirical evidence on the cos... .
empirical investigation in scientific history.
empirical findings may be found in two main strands of class analysis.
empirical studies are likely to involve a panel data analysis based on a give data set.
empirical formulae can be for the total damping moment or for the components.
The law is purely empirical; it makes no attempt to explain the phenomenon.
Current decision-making is largely empirical, and can lead to excessive conservatism.
His discovery was, as far as we can tell, entirely empirical: lots of trials and lots of errors led to it.
There is little empirical evidence to guide practitioners on this point.
Accepting (or rejecting) a naturalistic theory requires only empirical observation and analysis -- evidence that can be accepted on its own merits.
Evolution is not empirical science but is a method of comparison and of explanation by comparison.
Quote D5 ), it seems that Empirical Modeling is associated with Radical empiricism rather than traditional empiricism.
The Society aims at promoting the exchange of knowledge and opinions concerning human ethology with all the other empirical sciences of human behavior.
In this particular case, I'd rather not have empirical evidence for my argument!
explicit empirical reference in the paper is to Blundell, et al.
Such instances provide us with our empirical experiences of ' logical falsehood ' .
An explanation for the empirical findings may be found in two main strands of class analysis.
In other words, developing empirical generalizations informed by abstract theory.
hysteresis effects were represented by empirical models based on two-phase flow.
Lam D H (1991) psychosocial family interventions in schizophrenia: a review of empirical studies.
The artist's studio becomes a science laboratory, the creative process an empirical investigation.
At present irradiated graphite properties are based on empirical data obtained on samples irradiated in a material test reactor (MTR ).
A methodological monism of empirical science assumes that everything is essentially matter.
It has no direct reference to any empirical observation.
theoretical preconceptions used in qualitative analysis often do not represent explicit propositions about empirical facts.
The dissertation is an empirical research project in the area of developmental psychopathology or developmental psychology that is carried out throughout the year.
So the question arises of whether RCT has real-world empirical support.
The empirical referents of these concepts have to be specified on the basis of theorizing.
The Sociolinguistics module provides the basis for independent empirical research in a specified area of sociolinguistics module provides the basis for independent empirical research in a specified area of sociolinguistics.
We report an empirical analysis of the responses of the supply and demand for secondary care to waiting list size and waiting times.
However, it is also possible that some emergent therapies have an inbuilt resistance to empirical verification and its obvious corollary: falsification.
She is currently doing empirical work into the way the popular arts shape the worldview of young people today.
Published as they were during the years when the modern school of German materialism was at its height,' these works of Lotze were counted among the opposition literature which destroyed the phantom of Hegelian wisdom and vindicated the independent and self-sufficing position of empirical philosophy.
In the volume on Empirical Psychology, Wolff discusses free will.
The prosecution of such inquiries is beginning to make unnecessary much ingenious speculation of a kind that was prominent from r880 to 'goo; much futile effort has been wasted in the endeavour to find on Darwinian principles special " selection-values " for phenomena the universality of which places them outside the possibility of having relations with the particular conditions of particular organisms. On the other hand, many of those who have been specially successful in grouping diverse phenomena under empirical generalizations have erred logically in posing their generalizations against such a vera causa as the preservation of favoured individuals and races.
The height or length of the arm of a human being, for instance, is the result of many factors, some inherent, some due to environment, and until these have been sifted out, numerical laws of inheritance or of correlation can have no more than an empirical value.
The segregation may be geographical, or may be the result of preferential mating, or of seasonal mating, and its effects plainly can be made no more of than proximate or empirical laws of differentiation, of great importance in codifying and simplifying the facts to be explained.
Formulae which merely express the relative number of atoms of the different elements present in a compound are termed empirical formulae, and the formulae of all compounds whose molecular weights are undetermined are necessarily empirical.
In addition to empirical and molecular formulae, chemists are in the habit of employing various kinds of rational formulae, called structural, constitutional or graphic formulae, &c., which not only express the molecular composition of the compounds to which they apply, but also embody certain assumptions as to the manner in which the constituent atoms are arranged, and convey more or less information with regard to the nature of the compound itself, viz.
Dumas gave especial attention to such substitutions, named metalepsy (µeraXntks, exchange); and framed the following empirical laws to explain the reactions: - (1) a body containing hydrogen when substituted by a halogen loses one atom of hydrogen for every atom of halogen introduced; (2) the same holds if oxygen be present, except that when the oxygen is present as water the latter first loses its hydrogen without replacement, and then substitution according to (1) ensues.
This is an elastic solid, almost transparent in thin sheets, composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen, the empirical composition of which is represented by XXIII.
It is easy to imagine how, as men grew in sensuous appreciation of pleasant perfumes, and in empirical knowledge of the sources from which these could be derived, this advance would naturally express itself, not only in their domestic habits, but also in the details of their religious ceremonial, so that the custom of adding some kind of incense to their animal sacrifices, and at length that of offering it pure and simple, would inevitably arise.
A purely empirical allowance for impact stresses has been proposed, amounting to zo% of the live load stresses for floor stringers; 15 for floor cross girders; and for main girders, io% for 40-ft.
Launhardt, based on an empirical expression for Wohler's law, has been much used in bridge designing (see Proc. Inst.
They reject the allowance for fatigue (that is, the effect of repetition) and design bridge members for the total dead and live load, plus a large allowance for impact varied according to some purely empirical rule.
Spencer widens the empirical theory of the origin of knowledge by his brilliant hypothesis of inherited organized tendencies, which has influenced all later psychology and epistemology, and tends to a kind of compromise between Hume and Kant.
Or, if 1 It is true that he afterwards modifies this misleading identification by introducing the distinction between empirical psychology or the phenomenology of mind and inferential psychology' or ontology, i.e.
His writings, which are distinguished by clarity, vigour and rigid reasoning, rather than by any show of scholarship - in the extent of which, however solid in character Hamilton's might have been, he was surpassed by several of his contemporaries - are in general strikingly empirical in basis.
Existing strategy paradigms are incorporated into an integrational framework that enables empirical research to be more reflective of management practice.
The Sociolinguistics module provides the basis for independent empirical research in a specified area of sociolinguistics.
Empirical analyzes by the IMF 11 shows that aid flows tend to be more volatile than fiscal revenue or output, and highly unpredictable.
Empirical research is a vital component of dissertations in science and social science education.
This is a journal article that was the focus of a dissertation using empirical and observational research to answer educational concerns of educators and students alike.
While his dream research is not necessarily empirical, his theories and dream interpretations that have become popular and controversial theories.
Though there is no empirical data about how children learn to lie, parental honesty is recognized as a primary influence on the development of truthfulness in children.
Kohlberg's idea of the prerequisite significance of an understanding of gender constancy for gender typing has been controversial, and empirical support for the notion has been mixed.
Empirical treatment-Medical treatment that is given on the basis of the doctor's observations and experience.
Evidence-Based Treatment of Stuttering: Empirical Bases, Clinical Applications, and Remaining Needs.
A midwife without a nursing degrees is sometimes called an Empirical Midwife or lay midwife but this terms is often considered offensive by many in the profession.
It is reasonable to assume that these statements are not backed by empirical research.
Empirical evidence utilizes double-blind, placebo-controlled scientific studies to gage a product's efficacy, contraindications, and side effects.
The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; thus, the empirical formula of acetic acid is CH 2 O, and its molecular formula is C2H402, or twiceTCH 2 O.
Many complicated expressions have been suggested by subsequent writers in the attempt to represent the continuity of the gaseous and liquid states in a single formula, but these are of a highly empirical nature, and beyond the scope of the present inquiry.
An illustration of his empirical tendency is found in his attitude to the Absolute and the Self.
have seen it is by Kant, in his distrust of our ability and right to pass beyond the empirical sphere.
In any region of velocity where it is possible to represent p with sufficient accuracy by an empirical formula composed of a single power of v, say v m, the integration can be effected which replaces the summation in (to), (16), and (24); and from an analysis of the Krupp experiments Colonel Zabudski found the most appropriate index m in a region of velocity as given in the following table, and the corresponding value of gp, denoted by f (v)or v m lk or its equivalent Cr, where r is the retardation.
The last column in the Range Table giving the inches of penetration into wrought iron is calculated from the remaining velocity by an empirical formula, as explained in the article Armour Plates.
Empirical formulas based on practical experience are employed for an approximation to the result.
But as it is quite inconceivable that the Jews of the Dispersion should not have known beforehand at what full moon they were to present themselves at Jerusalem for the Passover, it must be assumed as true in fact, whether or no it was true in theory, that the old empirical methods must have been qualified, at least partially, by permanent, that is in effect by astronomical rules.
But in one of the two empirical tests of the value of these calculations that he was able to obtain (loc. cit.
Judged from the standpoint of empirical science, philosophy passed its meridian in Plato and Aristotle, declined in the post-Aristotelian systems, and set in the darkness of Neoplatonism.
From one-sided Platonism issued the various forms of scepticism, the attempt to undermine the trustworthiness of empirical knowledge.
Secondly, it is founded on scepticism; for it has neither interest in, nor reliance upon, empirical knowledge.
The instinctive certainty that there is a supreme good, lying beyond empirical experience, and yet not an intellectual good - this feeling, and the accompanying conviction of the utter vanity of all earthly things, were produced and sustained by Neoplatonism.
The empirical science of the Renaissance and the two following centuries was itself a new development of Platonism and Neoplatonism, as opposed to rationalistic dogmatism, with its contempt for experience.
Still more marked was his departure from Plato as regards rhetoric. Plato in the Gorgias, (501 A) had contended that rhetoric is not an art but an empirical practice (rpt/37) KaL Epirecpia); Aristotle in the Gryllus (Fragm.
Some question the validity of the condition in spite of empirical research that has unveiled the differences in brains of people with Aspergers from the brains of neurotypical individuals.
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