These were the two Emperors followed by their suites.
On the thirteenth of June the French and Russian Emperors arrived in Tilsit.
The Roman emperors recognized it as a free state, and in the middle ages it was called Stampalia, and belonged to the noble Venetian family of Quirini.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
Built under the emperors Valentinian I.
The vivid narrative of his career given by Lucian might be taken as fictitious but for the corroboration of certain coins of the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius (J.
It is rough in form and the author shows no power of discriminating between important and unimportant events; yet the chronicle is an excellent authority for the history of Saxony during the reigns of the emperors Otto III.
Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal owing to the emperors opposition, backed by the presence of French armies in Lombardy; at a word from Napoleon there might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, invasion of central Italy.
Growing rivalry between Austria and Russia in the Balkans rendered the continuance of the League of the Three Emperors a practical impossibility.
In the 9th century Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, in his work, De ordine palatii et regni, speaks of a summus cancellarius, evidently an official at the court of the Carolingian emperors and kings.
This was the Emperors' suites.
If they were permanently congealed, and small enough to be clutched, they would, perchance, be carried off by slaves, like precious stones, to adorn the heads of emperors; but being liquid, and ample, and secured to us and our successors forever, we disregard them, and run after the diamond of Kohinoor.
Kutuzov, affecting the manners of an old soldier at the front, gave the command "Attention!" and rode up to the Emperors with a salute.
By this means it was able to defy both the Seljuks and the Ottomans, and to maintain its independence against the emperors of Nicaea and Constantinople.
From time to time the emperors of Trebizond paid tribute to the Seljuk sultans of Iconium, to the grand khans of the Mongols, to Timur the Tatar, to the Turkoman chieftains, and to the Ottomans; but by means of skilful negotiations they were enabled practically to secure their independence.
After his death, his son, Valentinian Ii., an infant of four years of age, with his half-brother Gratian a lad of about seventeen, became the emperors of the West.
The German Emperors.
Ta-tu continued to be the residence of the emperors till the fall of the Mongol power (1368).
Baldwin raised them to great prosperity by his energy and foresight, and chiefly as a result of the active political and military support he rendered to the emperors Henry VII., Louis the Bavarian and Charles IV.
In the palace which he built on the Aventine, Otto sought to surround himself with the splendour and ceremonial of the older emperors of Rome, and dreamed of making Rome once more the centre of a universal empire.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
The war between the rival emperors, Frederick of Austria and Louis of Bavaria, and the interdict under which the latter was placed in 1324 inflicted extreme misery upon the unhappy people.
After Tiberius's death the island seems to have been little visited by the emperors, and we hear of it only as a place of banishment for the wife and sister of Commodus.
Boris was among the few present at the Niemen on the day the two Emperors met.
At the moment the Emperors went into the pavilion he looked at his watch, and did not forget to look at it again when Alexander came out.
The Emperors rode up to the flank, and the trumpets of the first cavalry regiment played the general march.
Boissier, La Religion romaine; Renier, Inscriptions d'Algiers, 2510.) The Greek term Apotheosis, probably a coinage of the Hellenistic epoch, becomes more nearly technical for the deification of dead emperors.
It was one of the oldest cities of Etruria, but does not appear in history till the Roman colonization of 247 B.C., and was never of great importance, except as a resort of wealthy Romans, many of whom (Pompey, the Antonine emperors) had villas there.
Cicero may have had villas both at Portus Caietae and at Formiae' proper, and the emperors certainly possessed property at both places.
Later emperors built other castles and palaces, the latest in date being that of the Negus Yesu II.
below Trent—that city and its territory, which previous to the treaty of LunÃ©ville in 1801 was governed by sovereign archbishops, subject only to the German emperors, being now included in the Austrian empire.
Odoacer, a chief of the Herulians, deposed Romulus, the last Augustus of the West, and placed the peninsula beneath the titular sway of the Byzantine emperors.
At its close the provinces of Italy were placed beneath Greek dukes, controlled by a governor-general, entitled exarch, who ruled in the Byzantine emperors name at Ravenna.
The discords which followed on the break-up of the Carolingian power, and the weakness of the so-called Italian emperors, who were unable to control the feudatories (marquises of Ivrea and Tuscany, dukes of Friuli and Spoleto), from whose ranks they sprang, exposed Italy to ever-increasing misrule.
The emperors real weakness was in Germany, where his subjects openly expressed their discontent.
In the next place, the antagonism of the popes to the emperors, whicl became hereditary in the Holy College, forced the former tc - assume the protectorate of the national cause.
Though the communes gained so much by the war of investitures, the division of the country between the popes and emperors parties was no small price to pay for inde- Munlelpendence.
Neither Swablan Lothar nor Conrad was strong at home; the former emperors.
In the emperors absence, Raven.na, Rimini, Imola and Foril joined the league, which now called itself the Society of Venice, Lombardy, the March, Romagna and Alessandria.
Left to themselves by absentee emperors and exiled popes, the Italians pursued their own course of development unchecked.
datory expeditions of Bertrand du Poiet and Robert of Geneva were as ineffective as the descents of the emperors; and, though the cardinal Albornoz conquered Romagna and the March in 1364, the legates who resided in those districts were not long able to hold them against their despots.
When they might have won national independence, after their warfare with the Swabian emperors, they let the golden opportunity slip. Pampered with commercial prosperity, eaten to the core with inter-urban rivalries, they submitted to despots, renounced the use of arms, and offered themselves in the hour of need, defenceless and disunited to the shock of puissant nations.
In June 1805 there came a last and intolerable affront to the emperors of Austria and Russia, who at that very time were seeking to put bounds to Napoleons ambition and to redress the balance of power.
By an instrument signed on the 24th of April 1815, the Austrian territories in north Italy were erected into the kingdom of Lombardo-Venetia, which, though an integral part of the Austrian empire, was to enjoy a separate administration, the symbol of its separate individuality being the coronation of the emperors with the ancient iron crown of Lombardy (Proclamation de lempereur dAutriche, &c., April 7, 1815, State Papers, ii.
But a sacred character was ascribed to the emperors.
The germ of this dealing with a major causa may be found in the practice of the Arian emperors in the 4th century.
" Century IX.") Since these transactions patriarchs have been deposed by the Byzantine emperors; and the Turkish sultans since the 15th century have assumed to exercise the same prerogative.
The tsar Theodore in 1587 exercised the power of the Byzantine emperors by deposing the metropolitan, Dionysius Grammaticus (Mouravieff, p. 125).
This was the first time that Rome had two emperors as colleagues.
Naturally he felt that the prevalence of Christianity was incompatible with his ideal of Roman prosperity, and therefore that the policy of the Flavian emperors was the only logical solution of an important problem.
It contains the magnificent coronation hall of the emperors.
in 1531 the sacring of the German kings took place at Aix, and as many as thirty-two emperors and kings were here crowned.
Others had done a kindred work in a more distant field as helpers of the Eastern emperors against the Turks of Asia.
When emperors became converts, the church, so lately a victim and a pleader for liberty, readily learned to persecute.
The Russian emperors, having established themselves as heads of the Church and the Holy Synod as a state department, were not likely willingly to tolerate their existence.
Lake Ilmen and the river Volkhov, on which stands Novgorod, Rurik's capital, formed part of the great waterway from the Baltic to the Black Sea, and we know that by this route travelled from Scandinavia to Constantinople the tall fair-haired Northmen who composed the famous Varangian bodyguard of the Byzantine emperors.
From the earliest times the term tsar - a contraction of the word Caesar - had been applied to the kings in Biblical history and the Byzantine emperors, and Ivan III.
He compressed into a single chapter the domestic history and policy of the emperors from the son of Heraclius to Isaac Angelus; and did no justice to the remarkable ability and the indefatigable industry shown in the service of the state by most of the sovereigns from Leo III.
From this date (404) to the fall of the Western Empire in 476 Ravenna was the chief residence of the Roman emperors.
Odoacer, like the emperors who had gone before him, made Ravenna his chief place of residence, and here he shut himself up when Theodoric the Ostrogoth had invaded Italy and defeated him in two battles.
They were often on terms of intimate friendship with the emperors, who scarcely interfered with their jurisdiction.
Religion under the Christian emperors became a significant source of discrimination in legal status, and non-conformity might reach so far as to produce complete loss of rights.
In 553 he interdicted the use of the Talmud (which had then not long been completed), and the Byzantine emperors of the 8th and 9th centuries passed even more intolerant regulations.
thick; the market church, in the Romanesque style, restored since its partial destruction by fire in 1844, and containing the town archives and a library in which are some of Luther's manuscripts; the old town hall (Rathaus), possessing many interesting antiquities; the Kaiserworth (formerly the hall of the tailors' gild and now an inn) with the statues of eight of the German emperors; and the Kaiserhaus, the oldest secular building in Germany, built by the emperor Henry III.
It was often the meeting-place of German diets, twenty-three of which are said to have been held here, and was frequently the residence of the emperors.
The island, having been at first the property of Neapolis, and later of the emperors, never had upon it any community with civic rights.
In 687 Cagliari rose against the East Roman emperors, under Gialetus, one of the citizens, who made himself king of the whole island, his three brothers becoming governors of Torres (in the N.W.), Arborea (in the S.W.) and Gallura (in the N.E.
He is accordingly friendly to the Goths, even apart from the influence of Cassiodorus; but he is also prepossessed in favour of the eastern emperors in whose territories this confederation lived and whose subject he himself was.
In the beginning of the 12th century the country was divided between the two landgraviates of Upper and Lower Alsace, but to counteract the power of the nobles the emperors established in Alsace a great number of free towns.
For some five months past the two emperors had been exchanging their views as to the future of the world.
It remained in the hands of the Byzantine emperors until it was taken by Robert Guiscard in 1068.
If the author or promoter of the work is one of the emperors, it is most likely to be Antoninus Caracalla.
Peter, grandson of King Louis VI., obtained that dignity in 1217 as brother-in-law of the two previous emperors, Baldwin, count of Flanders, and his brother Henry.
As early as 970 the recovery of the territories lost to Mahommedanism in the East had been begun by emperors like Nicephoras Phocas and John Zimisces: they had pushed their conquests, if only for a time, as far as Antioch and Edessa, and the temporary occupation of Jerusalem is attributed to the East Roman arms. At the opposite end of the Mediterranean, in Spain, the Omayyad caliphate was verging to its fall: the long Spanish crusade against the Moor had begun; and in 1018 Roger de Toeni was already leading Normans into Catalonia to the aid of the native Spaniard.
The West had already its grievances against the East: the Greek emperors had taken advantage of their protectorate of the Holy Places to lay charges Godfrey's army numbered some 30,000 infantry and 10,000 cavalry (Rohricht, Erst.
On the death of Malik Shah, the last of the great Seljukian emperors (1092), the empire dissolved.
4 But there were two powers which aided Fulk, and impeded the progress of Zengi - the amirate of Damascus and the emperors of Constantinople.
The alliance of the emperors of Constantinople was of far more dubious value to the kings of Jerusalem.
We have already seen that it was the theory of the Eastern emperors - a theory which logically followed from the homage of the crusaders to Alexiusthat the conquests of the crusaders belonged to their empire, and were held by the crusading princes as fiefs.
Crusades appear to have been dignified by numbers when they followed some crushing disaster - the loss of Edessa in 1144, or the fall of Jerusalem in 1187 - and were led by kings and emperors; or when, like the Fourth and Fifth Crusades, they achieved some conspicuous success or failure.
emperors against the "upstart" emperor of the West; he had also allied himself with Saladin, in order to acquire for his empire the patronage of the Holy Places and religious supremacy in the Levant.
Through them the popes had deposed the emperors of the West from their headship of the world, partly because through the Crusades the popes were able to direct the common Christianity of Europe in a foreign policy of their own without consultation with the emperor, partly because in the 13th century they were ultimately able to direct the Crusade itself against the empire.
Honorius was one of the feeblest emperors who ever occupied the throne, and the dismemberment of the West was only temporarily averted by the efforts of Stilicho, and, later, of Constantius, a capable general who overthrew the usurpers and was rewarded with a share in the government.
He was without doubt one of the most capable emperors who ever occupied the throne, and devoted his great and varied talents to the interests of the state.
All attempts to induce Pippin to throw over his new protege failed, and from this time onward the nominal dependence of Rome and the papacy on emperors at Constantinople ceased.
Under the emperors the senate continued to have at least the nominal management of the aerarium, while the emperor had a separate exchequer, called fiscus.
But after a time, as the power of the emperors increased and their jurisdiction extended till the senate existed only in form and name, this distinction virtually ceased.
The later emperors had a separate aerarium privatum, containing the moneys allotted for their own use, distinct from the fiscus, which they administered in the interests of the empire.
The climax of Mahommedan work in India is reached in that of the Mogul emperors at Agra, Delhi and Fatehpur-Sikri, in which there is a very close resemblance in design to the mosques of Syria, Egypt, and Persia; the four-centred arch, which is in the Mogul style, finds general acceptance, and was probably derived from Persian sources.
The three Gond principalities of Garha-Mandla, Deogarh and Chanda were nominally subject to the Mogul emperors.
Like other parts of Germany during the 9th century Hesse felt the absence of a strong central power, and, before the time of the emperor Otto the Great, several counts, among whom were Giso and Werner, had made themselves practically independent; but after the accession of Otto in 936 the land quietly accepted the yoke of the medieval emperors.
He used his influence with the emperor of Russia, as also with the emperors of China and Japan and with the shah of Persia, to secure the free practice of their religion for Roman Catholics within their respective dominions.
Leo (Emperors) >>
The military vocation of Rome was now felt to have reached its normal limits; and the emperors, understanding that, in the future, industrial activity must prevail, prepared the abolition of slavery as far as was then possible, by honouring the freedmen, by protecting the slave against his master, and by facilitating manumissions.
And its influence is to be seen in the legislation of the Christian emperors, which softened some of the harshest features that still marked the institution.
Under the emperors of the 4th century the name designated a cultivator who, though personally free, was attached to the soil, and transmitted his condition to his descendants; and this became the regular status of the mass of Roman cultivators.
In Constantinople itself sedition and profligacy were rampant, the emperors were the tools of faction and cared but little for the interests of their subjects, whose lot was one of hopeless misery and depravity.
When, on the death of Cantacuzenus, John Palaeologus remained sole occupant of the imperial throne, Murad declared war against him and conquered the country right up to Adrianople; the capture of this city, the second capital of the emperors, was announced in official letters to the various Mussulman rulers by Murad.
After the conquest of the imperial city the sultans began to adopt the pomp and splendour of eastern sovereigns, and largely copied the system, ready to hand, of the Byzantine emperors.
One of the chief objects of the emperors being to weaken the influence of the senate by the opposition of the equestrian order, the practice was adopted of elevating those equites who had reached a certain stage in their career to the rank of senator by adlectio.
The emperors, too, continued to make counts palatine under this title long after the Lateran had ceased to be an imperial palace.
From the end of the 2nd century the emperors encouraged Mithraism, because of the support which it afforded to the divine right of monarchs.
The emperors, however, favoured the cult, which was the army's favourite until Constantine destroyed its hopes.
COUNCIL OF SARDICA, an ecclesiastical council convened in 343 by the emperors Constantius and Constans, to attempt a settlement of the Arian controversies, which were then at their height.
Thereupon, to spite the rival republic, the Sienese took the Ghibelline side, and the German emperors, beginning with Frederick Barbarossa, rewarded their fidelity by the grant of various privileges.
It was a rich and prosperous place under the Roman emperors, and Marcus Aurelius promoted it to the rank of a colonic as Colonia Victrix Sequanorum.
The intervention of the Greek emperors had important consequences for Hungary.
To begin with, there can be no doubt that from 1558, when the German imperial crown was transferred from the Spanish to the Austrian branch of the Habsburg family, royal Hungary 1 was regarded by the emperors as an insignificant barrier province yielding far more trouble than profit.
Their reigns synchronized with the Thirty Years' War, during which the emperors were never in a position seriously to withstand the attacks of the malcontent Magyars, the vast majority of whom were still Protestants, who naturally looked upon the Transylvanian princes as their protectors and joined them in thousands whenever they raided Moravia or Lower Austria, or threatened to advance upon Vienna.
Carinus has the reputation of having been one of the worst of the emperors.
That important legal work, The Laws of the Emperors Constantine, Theodosius and Leo, which was composed in Greek about 475, and " which lies at the root of all subsequent Christian Oriental legislation in ecclesiastical, judicial and private matters" (Wright), must have been repeatedly translated into Syriac. The oldest form is contained in a British Museum MS. which dates from the earlier part of the 6th century, and this was edited by Land (Anecd.
Its hero is Jovian, one of the feeblest of Roman emperors, and Julian is everywhere exhibited in flaming colours as the villain of the story.
Throughout Egyptian history the official costume was conventionalized, and the latest kings and even the Roman emperors are arrayed like their predecessors of the IVth Dynasty.
The emperors wore it on occasions of special importance.
Henry, who continued his father's policy, was followed in 1018 by his brother Adalbert and in 1055 by his nephew Ernest, whose marked loyalty to the emperors Henry III.
The historians of the Roman Empire have left us some particulars of the visits of emperors and generals to Britain, but little or nothing about what happened in London, and we should be more ignorant than we are of the condition of Londinium if it had not been that a large number of excavations have been made in various parts of the city which have disclosed a considerable amount of its early history.
His tyrannical and barbarous conduct had made him obnoxious at home as well as abroad, and indeed many of his actions recall the worst passages of the history of the later Roman emperors.
Florence is the capital of a province of the same name, and the central government is represented by a prefect (prefetto), while local government is carried on by a mayor (sindaco) Under the Carolingian emperors Tuscany was a March or margraviate, and the marquises became so powerful as to be even a danger to the Empire.
The Sicilian Vespers by weakening Charles strengthened the commune, which aimed at complete independence of emperors, kings and popes.
With him expired the office, which had already been robbed of its privileges by a decree of the emperors Honorius and Theodosius II.
Histrio-mastix, published in 1633, was a violent attack upon stage plays in general, in which the author pointed out that kings and emperors who had favoured the drama had been carried off by violent deaths, which assertion might easily be interpreted as a warning to the king, and applied a disgraceful epithet to actresses, which, as Henrietta Maria was taking part in the rehearsal of a ballet, was supposed to apply to the queen.
Large estates in Pisidia and the adjoining parts of Phrygia belonged to the Roman emperors; and their administration has been investigated by Ramsay and others.
This was partly due to the influence of Christianity, which sought to include as objects of sacrilege all forms of church property, rather than merely those things consecrated in pagan cults, partly to the efforts of the later emperors to surround themselves and everything emanating from them with highest sanctions.
In Upper Pannonia were Vindobona (Vienna), probably founded by Vespasian; Carnuntum (Petronell); Arrabona (Raab), a considerable military station; Brigetio; Savaria or Sabaria (Stein-am-Anger), founded by Claudius, a frequent residence of the later emperors, and capital of Pannonia prima; Poetovio (Pettau); Siscia, a place of great importance down to the end of the empire; Emona (Laibach), later assigned to Italy; Nauportus (Ober-Laibach).
6, also a frequent residence of the later emperors; Sopianae (Fiinfkirchen), seat of the praeses of Valeria, and an important place at the meeting of five roads; Aquincum, the residence of the dux of Valeria, the seat of legio ii adjutrix.
Its importance, however, dates from the time of Rao Surjan, who succeeded to the chieftainship in 1554 and by throwing in his lot with the Mahommedan emperors of Delhi (1569) received a considerable accession of territory.
Later on a second mission arrived, many churches were built and several emperors patronized the faith.
The Bharatpur chiefs took an active part in the disturbances consequent on the declining power of the Mogul emperors, sometimes on the imperial side, and at others with the Mahrattas.
Among its most striking features are the fine and lofty tower (450(450 ft.), rebuilt in 1860-64; the extensive catacombs, in which the emperors were formerly interred; the sarcophagus (1513) of Frederick III.; the tombs of Prince Eugene of Savoy; thirtyeight marble altars; and the fine groined ceiling.
AURANGZEB (1618-1707), one of the greatest of the Mogul emperors of Hindustan, was the third son of Shah Jahan, and was born in November 1618.
But he displays a superstitious regard for miracles and prophecies; he has nothing to say against the arbitrary acts of the emperors, which he seems to take as a matter of course; and his work, although far more than a mere compilation, is not remarkable for impartiality, vigour of judgment or critical historical faculty.
It was crossed no fewer than 66 times by various emperors, between 793 and 1402.
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
Its origin dates back to 747, when the city of Mainz was made the seat of an archbishop, and a succession of able and ambitious prelates, obtaining lands and privileges from emperors and others, made of the district under their rule a strong and vigorous state.
This building, in which the Roman emperors were formerly elected and, since 1562, crowned, was founded in 852 by King Louis the German, and was later known as the Salvator Kirche.
It was here, in the Wahlzimmer (or election-chamber) that the electors or their plenipotentiaries chose the German kings, and here in the Kaisersaal (emperors' hall) that the coronation festival was held, at which the new king or emperor dined with the electors after having shown himself from the balcony to the people.
The Kaisersaal retained its antique appearance until 1843, when, as also again in 1904, it was restored and redecorated; it is now furnished with a series of modern paintings representing the German kings and Roman emperors from Charlemagne to Francis II., in all fifty-two, and a statue of the first German emperor, William I.
By the rest of the Carolingian kings it was less frequently visited, and this neglect was naturally greater during the period of the Saxon and Salic emperors from 919 to 1137.
These internecine disturbances had been unfavourable to any new departure in art, except in matters appertaining to arms and armour, and the strife between two puppet emperors for a shadow of authority in the 14th century brought another distracting element.
In the division of the Roman empire it belonged to the emperors of the East; and in A.D.
In spite of his partial failures, Heraclius must be regarded as one of the greatest of Byzantine emperors, and his early campaigns were the means of saving the realm from almost certain destruction.
The Historia Augusta, which includes the lives of the emperors from Hadrian to Numerianus (117-284), is the work of six writers, four of whom wrote under Diocletian and two under Constantine.
EXARCHATE OF RAVENNA, the official name of that part of Italy which remained in the allegiance of the Roman emperors at Constantinople from the closing years of the 6th to the middle of the 8th century.
The reorganization of the province of Italy into the exarchate was forced on the emperors by the Lombard invasion, which began in 568, and their permanent settlement.
These fragments of the "province of Italy," as it was when reconquered by Justinian, were almost all lost either to the Lombards, who finally conquered Ravenna itself about 750, or by the revolt of the pope, who separated from the empire on account of the iconoclastic reforms. The intervention of Pippin the Carolingian, who was called in by the popes to protect them against the Lombards and the Eastern emperors alike, made a revival of the exarchate impossible.
Step by step, and in spite of the efforts of the emperors at Constantinople, the great imperial officials became landowners, the owners of land - kinsmen or at least associates of these officials - intruded on the imperial administration, while the necessity for providing for the defence of the imperial territories against the Lombards led to the formation of local militias, who at first were attached to the imperial regiments, but gradually became independent.
In the Western Church the title was hardly known before the 7th century, and did not become common until the Carolingian emperors revived the right of the metropolitans to summon provincial synods.
beneficium, benefit), a term first applied under the Roman empire to portions of land, the usufruct of which was granted by the emperors to their soldiers or others for life, as a reward or beneficium for past services, and as a retainer for future services.
Under the Roman emperors Metz was connected by military roads with Toul, Langres, Lyons, Strassburg, Verdun, Reims and Trier.
Since the accession of the emperors of the Han dynasty, 206 B.C., the civil year of the Chinese has begun with the first day of that moon in the course of which the sun enters into the sign of the zodiac which corresponds with our sign Pisces.
In the beginning of his reign he adopted a prudent policy of amity with his two most powerful neighbours, the emperors of the East and West, but the death of Manuel in 1180 gave Hungary once more a free hand in the affairs of the Balkan Peninsula, her natural sphere of influence.
When the Parthian War (162-5) broke out, Polyaenus, too old to share in the campaign, dedicated to the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus a work, still extant, called Strategica or Strategemata, a historical collection of stratagems and maxims of strategy written in Greek and strung together in the form of anecdotes.
His Strategica seems to have been highly esteemed by the Roman emperors, and to have been handed down by them as a sort of heirloom.
Having a good title to military distinction himself, he could afford, as the unwarlike emperors could not, to be generous to his officers.
When Trajan was deified, he appropriately retained, alone among the emperors, a title he had won for himself in the field, that of "Parthicus."
At the end of the 10th century the bishops were granted by the emperors the right to exercise temporal jurisdiction over their see, which became one of the most considerable of the ecclesiastical principalities of the Empire.
Various solutions have been offered as to the seven emperors designed by the seven heads of the beast, xiii.
On the coins of the later Roman emperors she is frequently represented holding a cornucopia, from which she shakes her gifts, thereby at the same time in dicating the liberality of the emperor or empress.
The city was loyally Ghibelline in its sympathies, and was a favourite residence of the emperors.
Some of the emperors wore crowns on occasion, as Caligula and Domitian, at the games, and stellate or spike crowns are depicted on the heads of several of the emperors on their coins, but no idea of imperial sovereignty was indicated thereby.
The exceptional position thus accorded to Egypt was due to a regard on the part of the emperors to the peculiar character of the population, the strategic strength of the country, and its political importance as the granary of Rome.
These prefects were at first soldiers, but later mostly lawyers who relieved the emperors of various civil and criminal jurisdiction.
A small Roman temple, dedicated to Trajan and other deified emperors, stood on the left bank, adjoining the bridge.
All will admit who study the post-Nicene Church, that the Christian sacraments have stolen the clothes of the pagan mysteries, dethroned and forbidden by the Christian emperors.
He may depose emperors and absolve the subjects of the unjust from their allegiance.
The Saxony policy of Lothair during these years had been to make himself independent, and to extend his authority; to this end he allied himself with the papal party, and easily revived the traditional hostility of the Saxons to the Franconian emperors.
1559), while in the crypt are preserved the hearts of the German emperors Conrad II.
At intervals are circular spaces, called " glorietas," with statues (the famous bronze equestrian statue of Charles IV., and monuments to Columbus, Cuauhtemoc the last of the Aztec emperors, and Juarez).
It owes most of its interest to the peace signed here in July 1807, the preliminaries of which were settled by the emperors Alexander and Napoleon on a raft moored in the Memel.
Baiae was a favourite residence of the emperors.
Kaln6ky's special influence was seen in the improvement of Austrian relations with Russia, following on the meeting of the three emperors in September 1884 at Skiernevice, at which he was present.
high with double frieze, connected with the cella walls by a coffered ceiling, which contained slabs with heads of gods and emperors.
The territory of Schwiebus originally belonged to the principality of Glogau, and in the 16th and 17th centuries was a bone of contention between the electors of Brandenburg and the emperors.
There is no doubt that it contains an element of truth; as among the Romans the gradual deification of ancestors and the apotheosis of emperors were prominent features of religious development, so among primitive peoples it is possible to trace the evolution of family and tribal gods from great chiefs and warriors.
During the century which followed the death of Hermann Billung, there had been constant warfare with the Slays, but although the emperors had often taken the field, the Saxons had been driven back to the Elbe, which was at this time their eastern boundary.
He belonged to a senatorial family, which had attained considerable distinction under the emperors, his father and grandfather having been well-known jurists.
1123), who took part in the Saxon risings against the emperors Henry IV.
in the treasury of the emperors of the Tang dynasty.'
There exists a series of its coins with heads of emperors from Domitian to Alexander Severus.
Regarding himself and his land as still under the authority of the Roman empire, he dates his Chronicon according to the years of the Roman consuls and of the East Roman emperors.
Two of the most powerful of the German emperors, Frederick I.
THEODOSIUS, the name of three Roman emperors of the East.
The year 690 is regarded as the date of the temporary extinction of Greek in Italy, but, in the first quarters of the 8th and the 9th centuries, the iconoclastic decrees of the Byzantine emperors drove many of the Greek monks and their lay adherents to the south of Italy, and even to Rome itself.
So great was the general decline that this Neoplatonic philosophy offered a welcome shelter to many earnest and influential men, in spite of the 1 It was condemned by an edict of the emperors Theodosius II.
A similar treatment was meted out to the ancient magistracies of the republic; and thus began the process by which the emperors undermined the self-respect of their subjects and eventually came to rule over a nation of slaves.
During the middle ages it was a considerable centre of commerce and shipping, and under the Hohenstaufen emperors was raised to the rank of a free imperial city.
1219), a sister of Baldwin and Henry of Flanders, who were afterwards the first and second emperors of the Latin Empire of Constantinople.
Two of his sons, Robert and Baldwin, became in turn emperors of Constantinople.
Their name again figures in Indian history at the break up of the Mogul empire, when two Sayad brothers created and dethroned emperors at their will (1714-1720).
This policy was continued by the early emperors and extended to the whole Empire, but in spite of opposition the gilds in the provincial towns grew and flourished.
The policy adopted by the early emperors of encouraging, within the limits of a uniform system, the independence and civic patriotism of the towns, was superseded in the 3rd and 4th centuries by a deliberate effort to use the towns as instruments of the imperial government, under the direct control of the emperor or his representatives in the provinces.
The Christian Byzantine and Roman emperors, from Valens onwards, enacted strict laws against the Manichaeans.
From 1411 to 1511 it grew in size and wealth; from 1512 to 1572 it declined with the decay of the dynasty of Gujarat; from 1572 to 1709 it renewed its greatness under the Mogul emperors; from 1709 to 1809 it dwindled with their decline; and from 1818 onwards it has again increased under British rule.
(1887-1888), maintains that the Constitutum was forged at Rome between 813 and 875, in connexion with the papal claim to crown the emperors; H.
An imperial palace was constructed here, in which the emperors after the time of Diocletian frequently resided; and the city often played a part in the struggles between the rulers of the 4th century.
This period is not astronomical, like the two former, but has reference to certain judicial acts which took place at stated epochs under the Greek emperors.
During his reign - he died in I 155 - the Greek emperors undertook various expeditions in Asia Minor and Armenia; but the Seljuk was cunning enough to profess himself their ally and to direct them against his own enemies.
HOHENSTAUFEN, the name of a village and ruined castle near Lorsch in Swabia, now in the kingdom of Wurttemberg, which gave its name to a celebrated Swabian family, members of which were emperors or German kings from 1138 to 1208, and again from 1214 to 1254.
The emperors of Russia and Austria were still far away at the time of Napoleon's second abdication, and it was with Wellington that the commissioners of the provisional government opened negotiations preliminary to the surrender of Paris.
In the 14th century the peninsula became the chosen retreat of several of the emperors, and the monasteries were thrown into commotion by the famous dispute over the mystical Hesychasts.
The muniment rooms of the monasteries contain a marvellous series of documents, including chrysobulls of various emperors and princes, sigilla of the patriarchs, typica, irades and other documents, the study of which will throw an important light on the political and ecclesiastical history and social life of the 852 East from the middle of the 10th century.
Petersburg to confer with the Tsar and his ministers about the Franco-Russian Alliance and the new developments of the Eastern question, a visit which countered the somewhat depressing effect in France of the meeting of the German and Russian Emperors at Baltic Port on July 4.
He acquired much influence with the emperor Hadrian, who adopted him as his son and successor on the 25th of February 138, after the death of his first adopted son Aelius Verus, on condition that he himself adopted Marcus Annius Verus, his wife's brother's son, and Lucius, son of Aelius Verus, afterwards the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Aelius Verus (colleague of Marcus Aurelius).
By the marriage, in 1149, of Adela of Vohburg with the emperor Frederick I., Eger came into the possession of the house of Swabia, and remained in the hands of the emperors until the 13th century.
The use of specially consecrating cemeteries among Christians is first mentioned by Gregory of Tours (c. 570); but under the Roman law they had, like those of the Pagans, been held inviolable by pagan emperors like Gordian and Julian and defined as "res religioni destinatae quin immo (iam) religionis effectae" (Cod.
At the end of the Republican period it became a resort of wealthy Romans, and the Julian and Claudian emperors frequently visited it; both Caligula and Nero were born there.
His father declined the throne on the abdication of Isaac, who was accordingly succeeded by four emperors of other families between that date and 1081.
Under one of these emperors, Romanus Diogenes (1067-1071), he served with distinction against the Seljuk Turks.
The Eastern Church had soon de facto as its head the Eastern emperors.
However, any danger that menaced the prestige of Rome disappeared when the emperor Honorius removed the imperial residence to Ravenna, and still more so when the Western emperors were replaced in the north of Italy by barbarian sovereigns, who were Arians.
When Rome, abandoned by the distant emperors, was placed under the protection of the Franks (754), relations between her and the Greek tinopie.
There was no lack of o p ppor the Roman Church possessed property in all parts of the empire; but gradually, whether because the confiscations of the barbarian emperors had curtailed its extent, or because the popes had made efforts to concentrate it nearer to themselves, the property of the Holy See came to be confined almost entirely to Italy.
This had not 'been required under the old Latin emperors nor under the Gothic kings, and it disappeared of its own accord with the Byzantine regime.
The same was the case with the Saxon emperors (Otto I., II.
And, again, if this transaction settled the investiture question, it did not solve the problem of the reconciliation of the universal power of the popes with the claims of the emperors to the government of Europe; and the conflict subsisted - slumbering, it is true, but ever ready to awake under other forms. Nevertheless, the two great Christian agitations directed by the papacy at the end of the nth century and the beginning of the 12th - the reformation and the crusade - were of capital importance for the foundation of the immense religious monarchy that had its centre in Rome; and it is from this period that the papal monarchy actually dates.
refused to truckle to the municipality, placed it under an interdict (1155), and allied himself with Frederick Barbarossa to quell an insurrection which respected the rights of emperors no more than the rights of popes.
Y g P relations with most of the powers, but also of having entered into a convention with the great powers of the North, which accorded him, in conjunction with the three emperors, a leading position as champion of the conservative interests of humanity.
The worship of images never seems to have taken root among Armenians; indeed they supplied the Greek world with iconoclast soldiers and emperors.
Its origin is almost certainly the richly embroidered dalmatic that formed part of the consular insignia, which under the name of sakkos became a robe of state special to the emperors.
After the division of the empire, Lemnos passed under the Byzantine emperors; it shared in the vicissitudes of the eastern provinces, being alternately in the power of Greeks, Italians and Turks, till finally the Turkish sultans became supreme in the Aegean.
It does not follow that a similar ceremony extended to personages less exalted than the sons of kings and emperors.
The Saxon emperors also held diets in the city, which about the year 1000 was surrounded with walls.
Here St Ambrose baptized St Augustine; here he closed the doors against the emperor Theodosius after his cruel massacre at Thessalonica; here the Lombard kings and the early German emperors caused themselves to be crowned with the iron crown of Lombardy, and the pillar at which they took their coronation oaths is preserved under the lime-trees in the piazza.
The successive emigrations and occupation of the Alpine region by divers Teutonic tribes from the 5th to the 6th centuries are, too, known to us only in outline, while to them, as to the Frankish kings and emperors, the Alps offered a route from one place to another rather than a permanent residence.
This led to a coalition, formed in March 1167, between the cities of Cremona, Mantua, Bergamo and Brescia to confine Frederick to the rights which the emperors had enjoyed for the past hundred years.
Taking advantage of the opportunity which circumstances offered, he boldly stepped into the place which the emperors had left vacant and the Lombard kings had not the strength to seize.
The emperors Claudius, Nerva and Trajan turned their attention to the district, and under their example and exhortation the Roman aristocracy erected numerous villas within its boundaries, and used them at least for summer residences.
On the death of their father in 211 they were proclaimed joint emperors; and after the failure of a proposed arrangement for the division of the empire, Caracalla pretended a desire for reconciliation.
Furs have constituted the price of redemption for royal captives, the gifts of emperors and kings, and the peculiar badge of state functionaries.
At an early age he rose to distinction, and ultimately became commander of the French mercenaries in the employment of the emperors of Nicaea.
The employment of barbarians as foederati, which became a common practice with the emperors in the 4th century, was both a symptom of disease in the body politic of the empire and a hastener of its impending ruin.
The provincial population, crushed under a load of unjust taxation, could no longer furnish soldiers in the numbers required for the defence of the empire; and on the other hand, the emperors, ever fearful that a brilliantly successful general of Roman extraction might be proclaimed Augustus by his followers, preferred that high military command should be in the hands of a man to whom such.
This privilege, by which the archbishop was lord of the city and his Vogt its judge, was frequently confirmed by subsequent emperors, ending under Frederick I.
The inscription on the work describes it as the "Embassy of Athenagoras, the Athenian, a philosopher and a Christian concerning the Christians, to the Emperors Marcus Aurelius Antoninus and Lucius Aurelius Commodus, &c."
Aix-la-Chapelle was fixed upon as the place of coronation of the German emperors, and the ecclesiastical principalities of the Rhine bulk largely in German history.
Nicephorus was also the author of lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, of a poem on the capture of Jerusalem, and of a synopsis of the Scriptures, all in iambics; and of commentaries on liturgical poems.
In all the mosque contains 439 columns, including two of alabaster given by one of the Byzantine emperors.
Both Vitellius and Trajan were at Cologne when they became emperors.
Emperors and kings and the most illustrious men in church and state were commonly confraters of one or other of the great Benedictine abbeys.
The victories of the Delhi emperors, Akbar, Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb, crushed the rest.
The rule of the Delhi emperors in the Deccan did not, however, long survive..
Thus he thinks it possible that Peter survived until c. 80, and was martyred under the Flavian emperors.
In 1397 the whole of Behar became part of the kingdom of Jaunpur; but a hundred years later it was annexed by the Delhi emperors, by whom - save for a short period - it continued to be held.
The disorders of his conduct, though tolerated by the emperors, Conrad II.
The executive power is in the emperors hands.
The sovereigns of the chief states are entitled to nominate the lower grades of officers, and the king of Bavaria has reserved to himself the special privilege of superintending the general administration of the three Bavarian army corps; but all appointments are made subject to the emperors approval.
At a later date, however, probably under the Flavian emperors, the frontier of upper Germany was advanced somewhat beyond the Rhine, and a fortification, the Pfahlgraben, constructed to protect it.
The German kings, as emperors, had duties which often took them away for long periods from Germany.
But the emperors were not merely absent, they had to engage in struggles in which they exhausted the energies necessary to enforce obedience at home; and, in order to obtain help, they were sometimes glad to concede advantages to which, under other conditions, they would have tenaciously clung.
The emperors idea was that, as church lands and offices could not be hereditary, their holders would necessarily favor the crown.
were vehemently opposed, and in July 982 he suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the East Roman emperors subjects and their Saracen allies.
The Saxons were able to cope with the Danes and the German boundary was pushed forward in the south-east; but the Slays fought with such courage and success that during the reigns of the emperors Otto II.
Imbued by his mother with the extravagant ideas of the East Roman emperors he introduced into his court an amount of splendour and ceremonial hitherto unknown in western Europe.
The heir of the western emperors and the grandson of an eastern emperor, he spent most of his time in Rome, and fancied he could unite the world under his rule.
Great kings and emperors came after him, but none of them possessed the direct, absolute authority which he freely wielded; even in the case of the strongest the forms of feudalism more and more interposed themselves between the monarch and the nation, and at last the royal authority virtually disappeared.
The nation now plucked bitter fruit from the seed planted by Otto the Great in assuming the imperial crown and by a long line of kings and emperors in lavishing worldly power upon tile church.
In Italy his son, Conrad, was a~n5P~~e stirred up against him and in 1093 was crowned king at Monza; then ten years later, when Germany was more peaceful than it had been for years and when the emperors authority was generally acknowledged, his second son, Henry, afterwards the emperor Henry V., was induced to head a dangerous rebellion.
Lotbair was humbled in 1112, but he took advantage of the emperors difficulties to rise again and again, the twin pillars of his strength being the Saxon hatred of the Franconian emperors and an informal alliance with the papal see.
Although on the emperors side this struggle was conducted mainly with German troops t falls properly under the history of Italy.
But Alexander soon found partisans among the German clergy, hitherto the most loyal of the emperors friends; and Frederick retaliated by driving the offending prelates from their sees, a proceeding which tended to disturb the peace of the land.
In the later years of his reign the emperors chief enemy was Henry the Lion.
While they were thus employed the friends of the house of Hohenstaufen, convinced that Fredericks kingship was not possible, chose the late emperors brother, Philip, duke of Swabia, to fill the vacant throne; soon afterwards the enemies of the house found a candidate in the person of.
While Engelbert lived the country was in a fairly peaceable condition, although, thanks to the emperors concessions, the spiritual princes were predominant, and all possible means were taken to check the growth of the towns, whose interests and aspirations were not favorable to this state of affairs.
The emperors attitude with regard to the Mongol invasion is explained by events in Italy where Frederick was engaged in a new and, if possible, a more virulent struggle with Frederick the Lombard cities and with Gregory IX.
The age of the Hohenstaufen emperors is, in many respects, the most interesting in the medieval history of Germany.
For a short time after the emperors return to Germany there was peace.
very unpopular in Tirol, where his wife soon, counted herself among his enemies, and in 1341 he was driven from the land, while Margaret announced her intention of repudiating him and marrying the emperors son Louis, margrave of Brandenburg.
Nothing more was needed to unite together all the emperors foes, including Pope Clement VI., who, like his predecessors, had rejected the advances of Louis; but in 1345, before the gathering storm broke, the emperor took possession of the counties of Holland, Zealand and Friesland, which had been left without a ruler by the death of his brother-in-law, Count William IV.
If the Golden Bull be excepted, the true interest of this reign is in the movements beyond the range of the emperors influence.
Now the protection of the Church had always been regarded as one of the chief functions of the emperors; Charles could not, therefore, desert it when it was so greatly in need of his services.
The rising in the other parts of northern Germany was also put down, and the two leaders of political Lutheranism were prisoners in the emperors hands.
Thus all Germany seemed to lie at the emperors feet.
This peace was concluded not by Rudolph, but by his brother, the archduke Matthias, who owing to the emperors mental incapacity had just been declared by his kinsman the head of the house of Habsburg.
England, although its leading member was Christian IV., king of Denmark, who as duke of Holstein was a prince of the Empire, and who like other Lutherans was alarmed at the emperors successes.
1552, and, as several archbishoprics and bishoprics had become Protestant, it struck a tremendous blow at the emperors foes and stirred among them intense and universal opposition.
So utterly had he shattered the emperors power that he could doubtless have marched straight to Vienna; he preferred, however, to proceed through central into southern Germany, while his Saxon ally, the elector John George, recovered Silesia and Lusatia and invaded Bohemia.
The conditions, however, upon which Wallenstein consented to come to the emperors aid were remarkably onerous, but Ferdinand had perforce to assent to them.
Instead of attacking the enemy with his accustomed vigour, he withdrew into Bohemia and was engaged in lengthy negotiations with the Saxon soldier and diplomatist, Hans Georg von Arnim (1581-1641); his object being doubtless to come to terms with Saxony and Brandenburg either with or without the emperors consent.
By skill, foresight and courage Frederick William managed to add largely to his territories; and in an age of degenerate sovereigns he was looked upon as an almost model ruler~ His son, Frederick, aspired to royal dignity, and in 1701, having obtained the emperors assent, was crowned king of Prussia.
The communication of the French emperors original proposals to the South German governments, whose traditional policy had been to depend on France to save them from the ambitions of the German great powers, was enough to throw them into the arms of Prussia.
The great personal qualities of the reigning emperors and the widely extended family connections of the house of Hohenzollern have enabled them to hold with ease their position as leaders among the ruling families.
The close union of the three empires which had existed since the meeting of the emperors in 1872 did not survive the outbreak of disturbances in the East.
In 1884 there was a meeting of the three emperors, and at the same time Bismarck came to a close understanding with France on colonial questions.
The note was given in a speech of the emperors on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the foundation of the empire, in which he said, the German empire has become a world empire.
The emperors characteristically rhetorical speeches on this occasionparticularly his identification of his brother with the mailed fist of Germanyexcited considerable comment.
(1) Official documents issued by the emperors and other German rulers.
Much useful information on the history of different periods is contained in the lives of individual emperors and others.
JULIUS NEPOS, the last but one of the Roman emperors of the West (474-475).
The empire of Austria, as the official designation of the territories ruled by the Habsburg monarchy, dates back only to 1804, when Francis II., the last of the Holy Roman emperors, proclaimed himself emperor of Austria as Francis I.
The main lines of Austrian policy under the Babenbergs were warfare with the Hungarians and other eastern neighbours, and a general attitude of loyalty towards the emperors.
The traditional loyalty to the emperors, which was cemented by several marriages between the imperial house and the Babenbergs, was, however, departed from by the margrave Leopold II., and by Duke Frederick II.
Few emperors visited Sicily; Hadrian was there, as everywhere, in A.D.
Euphemius, a puppet emperor, was led about by his Saracen allies much as earlier puppet emperors had been led about by Alaric and Ataulf, till he was slain in one of the many sieges.
The emperors never gave up their claims to Sicily or their hopes of recovering it.
First of four Western emperors who wore the Sicilian crown, Henry died in 1197, leaving the kingdom to his young son Frederick, heir of the Norman kings through his mother.
Two emperors had now held the Sicilian crown.
They consist of: (1) the Persian Wars,- in two books, giving a narrative of the long struggle of the emperors Justin and Justinian against the Persian kings Kavadh and Chosroes Anushirvan down to 550; (2) the Vandal War, in two books, describing the conquest of the Vandal kingdom in Africa and the subsequent events there from 532 down to 546 (with a few words on later occurrences); (3) the Gothic War, in three books, narrating the war against the Ostrogoths in Sicily and Italy from 536 till 552.
and the emperors.
No senator therefore was permitted to take office or even to set foot in the country without the emperors special leave, and by way of precaution the highest position, that of prefect, was filled by a Roman of equestrian rank only.
Under weak emperors, the rest of Egypt was exposed to the inroads of savages, and left to fall into a condition of barbarism.
succeeded in recovering the lordship, which he established as a duchy under the suzerainty of the East Roman emperors.
Nor does it occur in any of the charters granted to the dukes of Austria by the emperors; though in that creating the first duke of Austria the archiduces palatii, i.e.
Flavius Anicius Justinianus, surnamed the Great, the most famous of all the emperors of the Eastern Roman Empire, was by birth a barbarian, native of a place called Tauresium in the district of Dardania, a region of Illyricum,' and was born, most probably, on the 11th of May 483.
The first of these comprised: (i.) all such of the statutes (leges) passed under the republic and early empire as had not become obsolete; (ii.) the decrees of the senate (senatus consulta) passed at the end of the republic and during the first two centuries of the empire; (iii.) the writings of the jurists of the later republic and of the empire, and more particularly of those jurists to whom the right of declaring the law with authority (jus respondendi) had been committed by the emperors.
emperors Theodosius II.
The new law (jus novum), which consisted of the ordinances of the emperors promulgated during the middle and later empires (edicta, rescripta, mandata, decreta, usually called by the general name of constitutiones), was in a condition not much better.
One of the three contains 168 (together with 13 Edicts), but some of these are by the emperors Justin II.
The Corpus Juris of Justinian continued to be, with naturally a few additions in the ordinances of succeeding emperors, the chief law-book of the Roman world till the time of the Macedonian dynasty when, towards the end of the 9th century, a new system was prepared and issued by those sovereigns, which we know as the Basilica.
The emperors Zeno and Anastasius had been strongly suspected of it, and the Roman bishops had refused to communicate with the patriarchs of Constantinople since 484, when they had condemned Acacius for accepting the formula of conciliation issued by Zeno.
In the same work interesting details are given as to the importance of salt in the financial system of the Mongol emperors (ii.
MISSI DOMINICI, the name given to the officials commissioned by the Frankish kings and emperors to supervise the administration of their dominions.
Under the Empire, the statues of the emperors and the eagles of the legions were made refuges against acts of violence.
The two emperors met at Tilsit on the 25th of June.
He would divide with Alexander the empire of the world; as a first step he would leave him in possession of the Danubian principalities and give him a free hand to deal with Finland; and, afterwards, the emperors of the East and West, when the time should be ripe, would drive the Turks from Europe and march across Asia to the conquest of India.
The meeting took place at Erfurt in October 1808, and resulted in a treaty which defined the common policy of the two emperors.
From this time the relation between the two emperors gradually became more and more strained.
None was more the favourite of the emperors, nor the seat of a more active and flourishing commerce.
The portraits of the emperors Charles the Great and Sigismund (1512), in their present state at any rate, can hardly be recognized as being by the master's hand.
The Romans both felt and expressed boundless contempt for the hybrid Antiochenes; but their emperors favoured the city from the first, seeing in it a more suitable capital for the eastern part of the empire than Alexandria could ever be, thanks to the isolated position of Egypt.
The raj was founded in 1657 by Abu Ra Kapur, of the Kapur Khatri family of Kotli in Lahore, Punjab, whose descendants served in turn the Mogul emperors and the British government.
The Mogul emperors of India occasionally interfered in these provinces, notably Shah Jahan in 1646; but, finding the difficulty of maintaining so distant a frontier, they abandoned it to the Uzbeg princes.
especially Vassiliev, Anecdota Graeco-Byzantina) which follow the fortunes of the Byzantine emperors and their governments.
Under the later Roman Empire the name was revived by the Byzantine emperors as the title of a new order of nobility.
The emperor Zeno enacted that no one could become patricius who had not been praejectus militum, consul or magister militum, but less careful emperors gave the title to their favourites, however young and undistinguished.
subsequently conferred on Charlemagne at his coronation, and borne, as we gather from medieval documents, indiscriminately, not only by subsequent emperors, but also by a long line of Burgundian rulers and minor princes of the middle ages generally.'
(1207-1229) were lovers of peace and strong supporters of the Hohenstaufen emperors, through whose favour they were able to increase their territories by acquisitions in the districts of Veluwe and Betuwe.
The ceremony of the first day took place in Rome itself, in the house of the magister or his deputy, or on the Palatine in the temple of the emperors, where at sunrise fruits and incense were offered to the goddess.
Amid the struggles between Greek emperors and Western crusaders during the 12th century, Corfu, Cephalonia, Zante, &c., emerge from time to time; but it was not till the Latin empire was established at Constantinople in 1204 that the Venetians, who were destined to give the Ionian Islands their place in history, obtained possession of Corfu.
Erected to the honour of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and L.
The assumption of the style " vicar of Christ " by the popes coincided with a tendency on the part of the Roman chancery to insist on placing the pontiff's name before that of emperors and kings and to refuse to other bishops the right to address him as " brother " (Mas Latrie, s.
By the early emperors it was allowed to fall into decay, but was afterwards restored by Constantine, from whom it took its modern name.
The emperors of Russia and Austria were present in person, and with them were Counts Nesselrode and Capo d'Istria, Metternich and Baron Vincent; Prussia and France were represented by plenipotentiaries.
Bruchsal (mentioned in 937 as Bruxolegum) was originally a royal villa (Kiinigshof) belonging to the emperors and German kings.
It was the chief authority for the military writings of the emperors Maurice and Leo, and Maurice of Saxony, who consulted it in a French translation, expressed a high opinion of it.
Ten emperors after Aurangzeb are enumerated in the chronicles, but none of them has left any mark on history.
Campbell, Gazetteer of Bombay (1896); Stanley LanePoole, Medieval India (" Story of the Nations " series, 1903); The Mohammedan Dynasties (1894) and The Mogul Emperors (1892); H.
There were frequent struggles between the bishops and the citizens, who espoused the cause of the emperors against them, and were rewarded by privileges which fostered trade.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about German kings and emperors.
Under the Byzantine emperors they were the representatives in all causes of the central power.
Anc. 34), and borne by him as the first of the Roman emperors.
The title was adopted by all the succeeding Caesars or emperors of Rome long after they had ceased to be connected by blood with the first Augustus.
This was properly the name of the shellfish (Purpura, Murex) which yielded the famous Tyrian dye, the particular mark of the dress of emperors, kings, chief magistrates and other dignitaries, whence "the purple" still signifies the rank of emperors or kings.
It was already a municipium in the time of Augustus, and enjoyed great prosperity under later emperors.
In spite of this partial failure Leo must be reckoned as one of the greatest of the later Roman emperors.
On the east of the town is the beautiful park called the Valkhof, which marks the site of the old palace of the Carolingian emperors.
It is adorned with the effigies of kings and emperors who were once benefactors of Nijmwegen.
In the 10th century it became the policy of the German emperors to hand over to the bishops full jurisdictional and administrative powers within their cities.
of Jerusalem, while more particularly Pisa with great constancy placed her fleet at the disposal of the Hohenstaufen emperors for warfare with Sicily.
In the long struggle with the emperors over investiture, he zealously carried on the Hildebrandine policy, but with only partial success.
There is no doubt that, had Alexander's many excellent qualities been supported by the energy and strength of will necessary for the government of a military empire, he would have been one of the greatest of the Roman emperors.
But the tide of conquest was stemmed by the iconoclast emperors, and the Arab expeditions, excepting those of Harun al-Rashid, 781 and 806, and of elMotasim, 838, became simply predatory raids.
The jealousy between Pavia and Milan having in 1056 broken out into open war, Pavia had recourse to the hated emperors, though she seems to have taken no part in the battle of Legnano; and for the most part she remained attached to the Ghibelline party till the latter part of the 14th century.
The struggle proceeded for more than twenty-five years, the difficulties of Stephen being materially increased by the assistance rendered to the rebels by the Greek emperors, his neighbours since their reconquest of Bulgaria.
The necessity of christianizing his heathen kingdom by force of arms engrossed all the energies of Stephen and compelled him to adopt a pacific policy towards the emperors of the East and West.
JELLALADIN MAHOMMED AKBAR,' 'AKHBAR or AKBER (1542-1605), one of the greatest and wisest of the Mogul emperors.
The greater part of the population of Central India is of the Hindu religion, but a few Mahommedan groups still exist, either traces of the days when the Mogul emperors extended their sway from the Punjab to the Deccan, or else the descendants of those northern adventurers who hired out their services to the great Mahratta generals.
M.) Modern History After the division of the Roman empire Cyprus naturally passed, with all the neighbouring countries, into the hands of the Eastern or Byzantine emperors, to whom it continued subject, with brief intervals, for more than seven centuries.
The island was recovered by the Greek emperors and, though again conquered by the Arabs in the reign of Harun al-Rashid (802), it was finally restored to the Byzantine empire under Nicephorus Phocas.
It covered all the northern Netherlands between the Scheldt and the Ems. The bishops, in fact, as the result of grants of immunities by a succession of German kings, and notably by the Saxon and Franconian emperors, gradually became the temporal rulers of a dominion as great as the neighbouring counties and duchies.
BAHADUR SHAH II., the last of the Mogul emperors of Hindustan, 1837-1857.
Four of the latter are poetical accounts of the reigns of the emperors of Delhi, Ala-uddin Khilji (1296-1316), his predecessor Feroz Shah and his successor J~utb-uddin MubArek Shahthe Miftah-ulfutuh, or Key of Victories, the Kirnussadain, or The Conjunction of the Two Lucky Planets, the Nub Sipi/ir, or Nine Spheres, and the love-story of Khjdrkhn if Duwalrnf.
Soon it became a favourite residence of the Saxon emperors and was the scene of several diets.
Roman emperors vied with wealthy natives in lavish gifts, one Vibius Salutaris among the latter presenting a quantity of gold and silver images to be carried annually in procession.
Ephesus contested stoutly with Smyrna and Pergamum the honour of being called the first city of Asia; each city appealed to Rome, and we still possess rescripts in which the emperors endeavoured to mitigate the bitterness of the rivalry.
There are no remains of buildings of importance, except the theatre, in which many inscriptions and statues of emperors were found.
His most important extant works are: in prose, Gratiarum Actio, an address of thanks to Gratian for his elevation to the consulship; Periochae, summaries of the books of the Iliad and Odyssey; and one or two epistolae; in verse, Epigrammata, including several free translations from the Greek Anthology; Ephemeris, the occupations of a day; Parentalia and Commemoratio Professorum Burdigalensium, on deceased relatives and literary friends; Epitaphia, chiefly on the Trojan heroes; Caesares, memorial verses on the Roman emperors from Julius Caesar to Elagabalus; Ordo Nobilium Urbium, short poems on famous cities; Ludus Septem Sapientum, speeches delivered by the Seven Sages of Greece; Idyllia, of which the best-known are the Mosella, a descriptive poem on the Moselle, and the infamous Cento Nuptialis.
If the delator lost his case or refused to carry it through, he was liable to the same penalties as the accused; he was exposed to the risk of vengeance at the hands of the proscribed in the event of their return, or of their relatives; while emperors like Tiberius would have no scruples about banishing or putting out of the way those of his creatures for whom he had no further use, and who might have proved dangerous to himself.
Under the better emperors a reaction set in, and the severest penalties were inflicted upon the delators.
He may have done so as an exile or in a military command; but it seems hardly consistent with the importance which the emperors attached to the security of Egypt, or with the concern which they took in the interests of the army, that these conditions were combined at an age so unfit for military employment.
The third satire, imitated by Samuel Johnson in his London, presents such a picture as Rome may have offered to the satirist at any time in the 1st century of our era; but it was under the worst emperors, Nero and Domitian, that the arts of flatterers and foreign adventurers were most successful, and that such scenes of violence as that described at 2 77 seq.
It is true that he finds the most typical examples of lust, cruelty, levity and weakness in the emperors and their wives - in Domitian, Otho, Nero, Claudius and Messalina.
This indeed is characteristic of his Byzantine Christian point of view; church history becomes metamorphosed into a history of the emperors and of the state, because a special church history is at bottom impossible.
Political insight is wholly wanting to Socrates; all the orthodox emperors blaze forth in a uniform light of dazzling splendour; even the miserable Arcadius is praised, and Theodosius II.
Detached details are given also in works upon Constantine (Manso), Julian (Mi eke, Rode, Neumann, Rendall), Damasus (Rade), Arianism (Gwatkin's Studies of Arianism, which gives a severe but trustworthy criticism of Rufinus and discusses the manner in which Socrates was related to him), the emperors after Julian (De Broglie, Richter, Clinton, the Weltgeschichte of Ranke, the Gesch.
At an early age he entered the army, where he distinguished himself under the emperors Valerian, Claudius and Aurelian.
What was unpardonable was that he treated the people about him like a shah, or one of the craziest of the Roman emperors.
Amongst them may be mentioned a history of the dispute with Palamas; biographies of his uncle and early instructor John, metropolitan of Heraclea, and of the martyr Codratus of Antioch; funeral orations for Theodore Metochita, and the two emperors Andronicus; commentaries on the wanderings of Odysseus and on Synesius's treatise on dreams; tracts on orthography and on words of doubtful meaning; a philosophical dialogue called Florentius or Concerning Wisdom; astronomical treatises on the date of Easter and the preparation of the astrolabe; and an extensive correspondence.
Leaving Rome in 168, he repaired to his native city, whence he was soon sent for to Aquileia, in Venetia, by the emperors Lucius Verus and Marcus Aurelius.
Its real history commences with Srong Tsan Gampo, who was born a little after 600 A.D., and who is said in the Chinese chronicles to have entered, in 634, into diplomatic relationship with Tai Tsung, one of the emperors of the Tang dynasty.
Thus was the foundation laid at one and the same time of the temporal sovereignty of the Lamas of Tibet, and of the suzerainty over Tibet of the emperors of China.
It brought the Langobards face to face, not merely with the emperors at Constantinople, but with the first of the great statesmen popes, Gregory the Great (590-604).
Gregory, who despaired of any serious effort on the part of the Greek emperors to expel the Lombards, endeavoured to promote peace between the Italians and Agilulf; and, in spite of the feeble hostility of the exarchs of Ravenna, the pope and the king of the Lombards became the two real powers in the north and centre of Italy.
Leagues and counterleagues were formed; and a confederacy of cities, with Milan at its head, challenged the strength of Germany under one of its sternest emperors, Frederick Barbarossa.
Though the title of king was only conferred on Vratislav g g y "kings" personally, the German king, Conrad III., conferred on the Bohemian prince Sobeslav (1125-1140) the title of hereditary cupbearer of the Empire, thus granting a certain influence on the election of the emperors to Bohemia, which hitherto had only obligations towards the Empire but no part in its government.
Michael Palaeologus ruled in Constantinople while Baldwin II., the last of the Latin emperors, was an exile in Europe.
He has great privileges and responsibilities as the recognized head of the Greek community in Turkey, and enjoys also many personal honours which have survived from the days of the Eastern emperors.
But it revived under the persecution of the Arian emperors.
From this time onwards Greek patriotism and Greek orthodoxy have been almost convertible terms, and this led naturally to revolts against Greek supremacy in the days of Justinian and other emperors.
While the Greek empire lasted the emperors had a right of investiture on the election of a new patriarch, and this right was retained by the Turkish sultans after the conquest of Constantinople.
The king had twelve lictors; each of the consuls (immediately after their institution) twelve, subsequently limited to the monthly officiating consul, although Caesar appears to have restored the original arrangement; the dictator, as representing both consuls, twenty-four; the emperors twelve, until the time of Domitian, who had twenty-four.
stayed north of the Danube, and passed under the Y P invaders and by rival emperors.
He was at once national king of the Goths, and successor, though without any imperial titles, of the Roman emperors of the West.
The sovereigns of Spain, too, made use of the same material; and in the Byzantine empire leaden bullae seem to have been universally employed, not only by emperors and state officials but also by private persons.
On special occasions golden bullae were issued by the Byzantine emperors, by the popes, FIG.
by the Carolings, although no actual examples of the last have survived, by the emperors of Germany, and by other sovereigns and rulers.
The popes attached golden bullae to their confirmations of the elections of the emperors in the 12th and 13th centuries; and they issued them on such occasions as when Leo X.
Salona under the early Roman emperors was one of the chief ports of the Adriatic, on one of the most central sites in the Roman world.
911) insisted on formal marriage as the only legal status; but in the Western Empire concubinage was still recognized even by the Christian emperors.
After Giovanni's death he remained in the court of Bernabe and Galeazzo Visconti, closing his eyes to their cruelties and exactions, serving them as a diplomatist, making speeches for them on ceremonial occasions, and partaking of the splendid hospitality they offered to emperors and princes.
Whether we regard him as a priest who published poem after poem in praise of an adored mistress, as a plebeian man of letters who conversed on equal terms with kings and princes, as a solitary dedicated to the love of nature, as an amateur diplomatist treating affairs of state with pompous eloquence in missives sent to popes and emperors, or again as a traveller eager for change of scene, ready to climb mountains for the enjoyment of broad prospects over spreading champaigns; in all these divers manifestations of his peculiar genius we trace some contrast with the manners of the, 4th century, some emphatic anticipation of the 16th.
His descendants called themselves lords of Weida, and some of them were men of note in their day, serving the emperors and German kings and distinguishing themselves in the ranks of the Teutonic order.
1228), emperor of Romania, or Constantinople, was a younger son of the emperor Peter of Courtenay, and was descended from the French king, Louis VI., while his mother Yolande was a sister of Baldwin and Henry of Flanders, the first and second emperors of Constantinople.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about Roman Emperors.
All the emperors have based their claims on their direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba; but it is needless to say that in many, if not in most, cases their success has been due more to the force of their arms than to the purity of their lineage.
Always on the march, in camps, or on the field of battle during more than fifty years, and under the reigns of three emperors, he had scarcely passed two years together without fighting.
It was the favourite residence of many of the emperors; Nero made his first appearance on the stage in one of its theatres; Titus assumed the office of its archon; and Hadrian became its demarch.
In 542 Totila besieged it and compelled it to surrender, but being soon after recovered by Narses, it remained long a dependency of the exarchate of Ravenna, under the immediate government of a duke, appointed by the East Roman emperors.
He was the first pope placed on the throne by the power of the German emperors, but his short pontificate was only signalized by the convocation of a council in which decrees were enacted against simony.
The emperors actually tried in their legislation to prevent the landowners from evicting their coloni and from raising their rents.
Other works of Guevara are the Decada de los Cesares (Valladolid, 1539), or "Lives of the Ten Roman Emperors," in imitation of the manner of Plutarch and Suetonius; and the Epistolas familiares (Valladolid, 1 5391 545), sometimes called "The Golden Letters," often printed in Spain, and translated into all the principal languages of Europe.
From about this date until 1340 Bengal was ruled by governors appointed by the Mahommedan emperors in the north.
Thus the Greek and Roman emperors were adored by bowing or kneeling, laying hold of the imperial robe, and presently withdrawing the hand and pressing it to the lips, or by putting the royal robe itself to the lips.
(on the succession of kings and emperors in the great monarchies of the world) and to "Warinus, a Briton" (on the early British kings, after Geoffrey of Monmouth).
Immediately afterwards he was sent to Paris to join the embassy of Count Peter Tolstoy, whom he accompanied in the spring of the next year to the meeting of the two emperors at Erfurt.
But the troops were also regarded as still retaining the right of saluting an imperator; and there were emperors who regarded themselves as created by such salutation and dated their reigns accordingly.
From the days of Diocletian one finds occasionally two emperors, but not, at any rate in theory, two Empires; the two emperors are the dual sovereigns of a single realm.
there are in reality (though not in theory) two Empires as well as two emperors, one of the East and one of the West.
(1558) and all succeeding emperors, immediately upon their coronation in Germany; and it was until 1806 their strict legal designation, and was always employed by them in proclamations and other official documents.
Two years later biographical studies of Theodore Beza and Peter Martyr Vermili (Leben des Theodor de Beza and des Peter Martyr Vermili, Heidelberg, 1809) revealed more genuine scholarship. In 1812 appeared his History of the Iconoclastic Emperors of the East (Geschichte der bilderstiirmenden Kaiser des ostromischen Reichs), in which he controverted some points in Gibbon and sought to avoid painting the past in present-day colours.
Bede notices the peaceful state of Britain at this time, and relates that Edwin was preceded on his progresses by a kind of standard like that borne before the Roman emperors.
AUGUSTAN HISTORY, the name given to a collection of the biographies of the Roman emperors from Hadrian to Carinus (A.D.
Marius Maximus, who lived about 165-230, wrote biographies of the emperors, in continuation of those of Suetonius, from Nerva to Elagabalus; Junius Cordus dealt with the less-known emperors, perhaps down to Maximus and Balbinus.
An English translation is included in The Lives of the Roman Emperors, by John Bernard (1698).
The emperors formed a single estate out of a considerable part of this district, including apparently the whole of the lake, and Domitian was especially fond of residing here.
The law of the Greek Church was in reality rather the work of the Byzantine emperors.'
The practice of commendation, by which - to meet a contemporary emergency - the revenues of the community were handed over to a lay lord, in return for his protection, early suggested to the emperors and kings the expedient of rewarding their warriors with rich abbeys held in commendam.
John, patriarch of Antioch, at the beginning of the 12th century, informs us that in his time most monasteries had been handed over to laymen, beneficiarii, for life, or for part of their lives, by the emperors.
And yet Justin Martyr, Tertullian and other apologists of the 2nd century had found nothing to conceal from the eye and ear of pagan emperors and their ministers.
It contains nine Evangelical and two Roman Catholic churches, a stately modern town hall, a Hall of Fame (Ruhmes- halle), with statues of the emperors William I.
currus, " chariot"), in Roman antiquities, the epithet applied to the chair of office, sella curulis, used by the "curuie" or highest magistrates and also by the emperors.
the emperors decease she wedded as her second husband Geoffrey of Anjou (1127), to whom during her fathers last years she bore two sons.
The solid and wealthy realm of France proved able to make head against Spain and the Netherlands, even when they were backed by the emperors German vassals.
It is mainly a theological conception, blind to economic influences, and attaching excessive importance to the effects of the individual action of emperors and popes, kings and cardinals.
It was fortified by the East Roman emperors owing to its commanding strategic position and its valuable trade with Greece and Italy.
In two letters addressed to the emperors Constantine VIII.
In August 1885 a meeting took place here between the Austrian and the Russian emperors.
After their father's death (963) he and his younger brother Constantine were nominal emperors during the actual reigns of Nicephorus Phocas, their stepfather, and John Tzimisces.
The administration remained in the hands of the eunuch Basileios (an illegitimate son of Romanus I.), president of the senate, a wily and gifted man, who hoped that the young emperors would be his puppets.
There emperors were acclaimed or insulted; there military triumphs were celebrated; there criminals were executed, and there martyrs were burned at the stake.
The reservoirs in the forest of Belgrade have been enlarged and increased in number, and new aqueducts have been added to those erected by the Byzantine emperors.
and founded the line of Franconian or Salian emperors.
Rhenish Franconia gradually became a land of free towns and lesser nobles, and under the earlier Franconian emperors sections passed to the count palatine of the Rhine, the archbishop of Mainz, the bishops of Worms and Spires and other clerical and lay nobles; and the name Franconia, or Francia orientalis as it was then called, was confined to the eastern portion of the duchy.
The duchy was nominally retained by the emperors in their own hands until 1115, when the emperor Henry V., wishing to curb the episcopal influence in this neighbourhood, appointed his nephew Conrad of Hohenstaufen as duke of Franconia.
Of humble origin, he served with high distinction and held important military commands under the emperors Probus and Aurelian, and accompanied Carus to the Persian War.
This internal political process was complicated by the struggle between the Greek Church and Greek emperors on the one side, and the Roman Catholic Church and the Roman Catholic Powers (Venice and Hungary) on the other side, for the possession of exclusive ecclesiastical and political influence in the provinces occupied by the Serbs.
The Bulgarian danger, and probably the energetic and successful operations of the Greek emperor Basil the Macedonian (867-886), determined the Servian Zhupans to acknowledge again the suzerainty of the Greek emperors.
In 931 Chaslav, one of the princes of the Visheslav dynasty, liberated the largest part of the Servian territory from Bulgarian domination, but to maintain that liberty he had to acknowledge the Byzantine emperors as his suzerains.
About the middle of the 12th century all the Serb Zhupaniyas were acknowledging the suzerainty of the Byzantine emperors.
The destruction of relics and images and the establishment of a schismatic hierarchy is thus recorded: " Though great was the persecution of the Roman emperors against the church, scarcely had there ever come so great a persecution from Rome as this."
For ten months Boleslaus remained at Kiev, whence he addressed triumphant letters to the emperors of the East and West.
Powers of self-government were acquired by the council (Rat) of the town, the importance of which was enhanced during the 15th century by several grants of privileges from the emperors.
In fact, the imperial control over the election of bishops in Germany came later to be much curtailed in practice, partly by the tacitly changed relations between the empire and its feudatories, partly by explicit concessions wrung at various times from individual emperors, such as Otto IV.
The old warlike spirit found an outlet .chiefly in the vigorous but peaceful contests held in the gymnasium, the ball-place, and the arena before the temple of Artemis Orthia: sometimes too it found a vent in actual campaigning, as when Spartans were enrolled for service against the Parthians by the emperors Lucius Verus, Septimius Severus and Caracalla.
After Constantine the emperors of the East in the 4th century merely put in an occasional appearance at Rome; they resided at Milan.
It was in vain that the emperors tried to rivet the chains of the curia in this hereditary bondage, by attaching the small proprietor to his glebe, like the artisan to his gild and the soldier to his legion.
The emperors had now to make terms with these churches, which served to group together all sorts of malcontents, and this was the object of the edict of Milan (313), Triumph by which the Church, at the outset simply a Jewish of Chrisinstitution, was naturalized as Roman; while in 325 tlanity in the Council of Nicaea endowed her with unity.
The emperors Probus, Constantine, Julian and Valentinian, themselves foreigners, were worn out with repulsing these repeated assaults, and the general enervation of society did the rest.
From this time forward a great historic transformation was effected in the eyes of the bishops and of the Gallo-Romans; the Frankish chief took the Clovisar place of the ancient emperors.
He became their king, their new David, as the Christian emperors had formerly been; he built churches, endowed monasteries, protected St Vaast (Vedastus, d.
Like the emperors before him Clovis, too, reigned over the Church.
A great warrior and an upright ruler, his conquests recalled those of the great Christian emperors, and the Church completed the parallel by training him in her lore.
So when next year the king of the Franks went to Rome in person, on Christmas Eve of the year 8oo and in the basilica of St Peter the pope placed on his head the imperial crown and did him reverence after the established custom of the time of the ancient emperors.
The frequent convocations of military assemblies, far from testifying to political liberty, was simply a means of communicating the emperors commands to the various feudal groups.
A victory in the Dunes by Turenne, now reinstalled in honor, and above all the conquest of the Flemish seaboard, were the results (June 1658); but when, in order to prevent the emperors intervention in the Netherlands, Mazarin attempted, on the death of Ferdinand III., to wrest the Empire from the Habsburgs, he was foiled by the gold of the Spanish envoy Peflaranda (1657).
Representative of God upon earth, heir to the sovereignty of the Roman emperors, a universal suzerain and master over the goods and the lives of his vassals, he could conceive no other bounds to his authority than his own interests or his obligations towards God, and in this he was a willing believer of Bossuet.
The great empire of East and West fell in ruins with the emperors abdication at Fontainebleau.
The consequent struggle between the popes, who claimed the inheritance, and the emperors, who maintained that the countess had no right to dispose of imperial fiefs, enabled the principal cities of Tuscany gradually to assert their independence.
From the 10th century the place was associated with the Grimaldi, a powerful Genoese family who held high offices under the republic and the emperors; but not till a much later date did it become their permanent possession and residence.
Philip was the father of the emperors Charles V.
Ambrose was equally zealous in combating the attempt made by the upholders of the old state religion to resist the enactments of Christian emperors.
For his relations to the emperors Frederick and William II., and for the events connected with his dismissal from office in March 1890, we must refer to the articles under those names.
AURELIAN [Lucius Domitius AuRELIANus],one of the greatest of the Roman soldier emperors, was born at Sirmium in Pannonia between A.D.
Artavasdes, an Arsacid, usurped the Byzantine throne for two years; Leo V., an Ardzrunian, and John Zimisces, became emperors; whilst Manuel, the Mamegonian, and others were amongst the best generals of the empire.
The cross of the early Christian emperors was a labarum or token of victory in war, a standard for use in battle.
Theophilus, the last of the iconoclast emperors, was a devoted Mariolater and controversialist who invited the monks to discuss the question of images with him, and whipped or branded them when he was out-argued; he at length banished them from the cities, and branded on the hands a painter of holy pictures, Lazarus by name, who declined to secularize his art; he also raised to the patriarchal throne John Hylilas, chief instigator of the reaction of 815.
This idea that material representation involves a profanation of divine personages, while disallowing all religious art which goes beyond scroll-work, spirals, flourishes and geometrical designs, yet admits to the full of secular art; and accordingly the iconoclastic emperors replaced the holy pictures in churches with frescoes of hunting scenes, and covered their palaces with garden scenes where men were plucking fruit and birds singing amid the foliage.
The fury of the West against the iconoclastic emperors was such that the whole of Italy clamoured for war.
His ideas of government were those of an absolute monarch, and he probably wished to surround himself with some of the pomp which had encircled the older emperors of Rome.
A second fragment (now in the museum at Aix in Provence) was brought from Egypt in 1809; it supplements the preamble by specifying the titles of the emperors and Caesars and the number of times they had held them, whereby the date of publication can be accurately determined.
In the 11th century it passed to the Norman kings of Sicily; after the Fourth Crusade it belonged at various times to the despots of Epirus, the emperors of Constantinople, and the Orsini, counts of Cephalonia.
There was conspicuous consumption under the early emperors.
They saw the reigning emperors as gods.
Most of the early emperors, from Julius Caesar onwards were openly bisexual.
deify magistrates had to swear by Jupiter, the deified emperors and by whatever gods were worshiped locally.
That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.
Finally India learned the art from the Persian weavers, developing a style to suit the tastes of their mogul emperors.
He has employed a food taster for decades as did roman emperors of old.
In these years the soldier emperors were desperately trying to unite the empire against the external threat.
laureate wreath and dress of the emperors are very different to those on earlier coins.
What would the German emperors of the Middle Ages be without their cathedrals and their imperial palaces?
palatial residences of emperors.
Gareth the 1st pip Gobstyk's Treasurer Posts: 885 (10/4/05 10:30 am) Re: To all would be Emperors Yes thanks.
They include portrayals of demons, heroes, dragons and emperors in a style which combines realism and a ' vacant ' expression.
Over the gateway are Henry VIII's arms, and on the turrets more terracotta roundels of Roman emperors.
Beijing was always a walled city but the Forbidden City, seat of the great emperors, was the innermost sanctum of the city.
shrines dedicated to living emperors.
The soldier emperors were understandably unhappy at having a large minority of dubious loyalty in the threatened provinces of the east.
He was hospitably received by the Turkish authorities, who, supported by Great Britain, refused, notwithstanding the threats of the allied emperors, to surrender him and the other fugitives to the merciless vengeance of the Austrians.
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