The Emperor interrupted him.
His father, also named Rainer, the seventh son of the Emperor Leopold II.
But the talk in every group was chiefly about the Emperor Alexander.
In 1451 the emperor Frederick III., as guardian of the young king Ladislas, entrusted Podébrad with the administration of Bohemia.
But the Emperor smiled and interrupted him.
On July 29, 1014, Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in the Battle of Kleidion.
You know the Emperor spoke to him most graciously.
Amid these sounds, only the youthful kindly voice of the Emperor Alexander was clearly heard.
When Henry, however, came into conflict with Robert of Naples, Clement supported Robert and threatened the emperor with ban and interdict.
"Oh God, what would happen to me if the Emperor spoke to me?" thought Rostov.
"How can the Emperor be undecided?" thought Rostov, but then even this indecision appeared to him majestic and enchanting, like everything else the Tsar did.
With the help of the patricians and eunuchs he contrived to dethrone and exile Irene, and to be elected emperor in her stead.
The Emperor gave his consent.
Hurrah for Emperor Alexander!
The death of the emperor Maximilian on the 12th of January 1519 had seriously affected the situation.
Genius is not a retainer to any emperor, nor is its material silver, or gold, or marble, except to a trifling extent.
At midday he was admitted to the Emperor, and an hour later he rode off with Prince Dolgorukov to the advanced post of the French army.
Before the conversation began Prince Andrew was struck by the fact that the Emperor seemed confused and blushed as if not knowing what to say.
I saw the one through which Emperor Dom Pedro listened to the words, "To be, or not to be," at the Centennial.
"Tomorrow very likely I may be sent with some message to the Emperor," thought Rostov.
When Galen again attacked Holland six years later he was in alliance with Louis, but he soon deserted his new friend, and fought for the emperor Leopold I.
Rostov himself, his legs well back and his stomach drawn in and feeling himself one with his horse, rode past the Emperor with a frowning but blissful face "like a vewy devil," as Denisov expressed it.
Leo agreed to invest Charles with Naples, to crown him emperor, and to aid in a war against Venice.
Leo agreed to invest Charles with Naples, to crown him emperor, and to aid in a war against Venice.
In 106, the Roman Emperor Trajan celebrated his defeat over the Dacians by ordering 123 consecutive days of gladiatorial games in the Roman Coliseum.
Worship of an emperor during his lifetime, except as the worship of his genius, was, save in the cases of Caligula and Domitian, confined to the provinces.
Denouncing the temporal power of the pope he implored the emperor to deliver Italy, and especially Rome, from their oppressors; but, heedless of his invitations, Charles kept him in prison for more than a year in the fortress of Raudnitz, and then handed him over to Clement, who had been clamouring for his surrender.
Leo then formally excommunicated Luther by bull of the 3rd of January 1521; and in a brief directed the emperor to take energetic measures against heresy.
The matter was mentioned to the Emperor, an exception made, and Boris transferred into the regiment of Semenov Guards with the rank of cornet.
NICEPHORUS emperor 802-811, was a native of Seleucia in Pisidia, who was raised by the empress Irene to the office of logothetes or lord high treasurer.
On hearing this indifferent voice, Rostov grew frightened at what he was doing; the thought of meeting the Emperor at any moment was so fascinating and consequently so alarming that he was ready to run away, but the official who had questioned him opened the door, and Rostov entered.
"We must distinguish between the Vienna cabinet and the Emperor of Austria," said Mortemart.
Smallpox affected the rich and the poor and it changed the course of history: It killed Queen Mary II of England in 1694, King Louis I of Spain in 1724, Emperor Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1774, and changed the succession to the thrones of nations a dozen more times.
Leo at once formed a new league with the emperor and the king of Spain, and to ensure English support made Wolsey a cardinal.
He was murdered at the bridge of Kelheim on the 15th of September 1231, and the emperor was generally suspected of complicity in the deed.
The Emperor, frowning slightly, bent his ear forward as if he had not quite heard.
That the emperor sincerely sympathized with Alexius, and suspected Peter of harbouring murderous designs against his son, is plain from his confidential letter to George I.
It is said that the Emperor was reluctant to give Kutuzov those powers.
But on the descent of the emperor Henry VII., Frederick entered into an alliance with him, and in violation of the pact of Caltabellotta made war on the Angevins again (1313) and captured Reggio.
It struck him as a surprise that Alexander treated Bonaparte as an equal and that the latter was quite at ease with the Tsar, as if such relations with an Emperor were an everyday matter to him.
54), Apocolocyntosis (" pumpkinification"), is evidence that, as early as Seneca's lifetime, apotheosis was in use for the recognition of a departed emperor as a god.
Towards the end of the 12th century the town was in the hands of the Servian prince Stephen Nemanya, who there received hospitably the German emperor Frederic Barbarossa and his Crusaders.
The emperor of Austria continues to nominate to bishoprics by virtue of rights anterior to this concordat.
The fires and shouting in the enemy's army were occasioned by the fact that while Napoleon's proclamation was being read to the troops the Emperor himself rode round his bivouacs.
The Emperor said a few words to him and took a step toward his horse.
If the Emperor pleases to recognize Bonaparte as Emperor and to conclude an alliance with him, it means that that is the right thing to do.
And even if they did arrest me for being here, what would it matter? thought he, looking at an officer who was entering the house the Emperor occupied.
I'll go in and hand the letter to the Emperor myself so much the worse for Drubetskoy who drives me to it!
Only I am sorry for the Emperor that he entrusts our fine army to such as he.
The Mahrattas at this time had got possession of the person of the Mogul emperor, Shah Alam, from whom Clive obtained the grant of Bengal in 1765, and to whom he assigned in return the districts of Allahabad and Kora and a tribute of 30o,000.
This unpleasant impression merely flitted over the young and happy face of the Emperor like a cloud of haze across a clear sky and vanished.
But the Emperor Francis continued to look about him and did not listen.
Saddled horses were standing before the house and the suite were assembling, evidently preparing for the Emperor to come out.
"To whom shall it be given?" the Emperor Alexander asked Koslovski, in Russian in a low voice.
With the emperor in their camp, the Mahrattas were threatening the province of Oudh, and causing a large British force to be cantoned along the frontier for its defence.
Our dear Emperor has left Petersburg and it is thought intends to expose his precious person to the chances of war.
The Emperor is gracious, and I shan't forget you if you deserve well.
"When speaking to the Emperor, try as far as you can to praise the way that provisions are supplied and the routes indicated," said Bilibin, accompanying him to the hall.
The Emperor drew level with Rostov and halted.
The Emperor Francis, a rosy, long faced young man, sat very erect on his handsome black horse, looking about him in a leisurely and preoccupied manner.
"You know, Michael Ilarionovich, we are not on the Empress' Field where a parade does not begin till all the troops are assembled," said the Tsar with another glance at the Emperor Francis, as if inviting him if not to join in at least to listen to what he was saying.
The Emperor at once received this messenger in his study at the palace on Stone Island.
In the orders issued it was stated, not that the Emperor would take command, but only that he would be with the army.
But this was only the external condition; the essential significance of the presence of the Emperor and of all these people, from a courtier's point of view (and in an Emperor's vicinity all became courtiers), was clear to everyone.
An Angevin fleet and army, under Robert's son Charles, was defeated at Palermo by Giovanni da Chiaramonte in 1325, and in 1326 and 1327 there were further Angevin raids on the island, until the descent into Italy of the emperor Louis the Bavarian distracted their attention.
At headquarters and among the troops near by the news spread that the Emperor was unwell.
The Emperor was in very good spirits after his ride through Vilna, where crowds of people had rapturously greeted and followed him.
Immediately after the accession of the Emperor Francis Joseph all the concessions of March had been revoked and Kossuth with his colleagues outlawed.
Emerging from his solitude Rienzi journeyed to Prague, which he reached in July 1350, and threw himself upon the protection of the emperor Charles IV.
He refused to use his full influence in favour of the candidacy of Charles of Valois, brother of Philip IV., lest France became too powerful; and recognized Henry of Luxemburg, whom his representatives crowned emperor at the Lateran in 1312.
Warren Hastings, as a deliberate measure of policy, withheld the tribute due to the emperor, and resold Allahabad and Kora to the wazir of Oudh.
and the emperor Frederick I.
The emperor Frederick III., and King Matthias of Hungary, Podebrad's former ally, joined the insurgent Bohemian nobles.
Though the emperor Julian improved its defences, the town was destroyed by the Huns under Attila, in the 5th century, but Justinian did his best to restore it.
"I can tell you more," continued Prince Vasili, seizing her hand, "that letter was written, though it was not sent, and the Emperor knew of it.
Lemarrois had just arrived at a gallop with Bonaparte's stern letter, and Murat, humiliated and anxious to expiate his fault, had at once moved his forces to attack the center and outflank both the Russian wings, hoping before evening and before the arrival of the Emperor to crush the contemptible detachment that stood before him.
The Emperor! was suddenly heard among the hussars.
Just at the time Prince Andrew was living unoccupied at Drissa, Shishkov, the Secretary of State and one of the chief representatives of this party, wrote a letter to the Emperor which Arakcheev and Balashev agreed to sign.
The Emperor looked smilingly down the room.
Stopping beside his horse, with his hand on the saddle, the Emperor turned to the cavalry general and said in a loud voice, evidently wishing to be heard by all:
The Emperor rode to the square where, facing one another, a battalion of the Preobrazhensk regiment stood on the right and a battalion of the French Guards in their bearskin caps on the left.
The Emperor knit his brows with dissatisfaction and, glancing back, remarked:
The Emperor, though he met him twice, did not favor him with a single word.
Suddenly everybody stirred, began talking, and pressed forward and then back, and between the two rows, which separated, the Emperor entered to the sounds of music that had immediately struck up.
The Emperor noticed her and honored her with a dance.
Judging by the calmly moderate and amicable tone in which the French Emperor spoke, Balashev was firmly persuaded that he wished for peace and intended to enter into negotiations.
The Emperor has deigned to summon us and the merchants.
When she had left the room the prince again began speaking about his son, about the war, and about the Emperor, angrily twitching his brows and raising his hoarse voice, and then he had a second and final stroke.
"But that's the Grand Duke, and I want the commander-in-chief or the Emperor," said Rostov, and was about to spur his horse.
And here, where at any moment the Emperor may see them....
It became particularly animated toward the end of the evening when the rewards bestowed by the Emperor were mentioned.
"I am speaking, Prince, of the Emperor Napoleon," he replied.
The Emperor was with the first army, but not as commander-in-chief.
The adjutant bent his head affirmatively and began to report, but the Emperor turned from him, took a couple of steps, stopped, came back, and called Berthier.
The city contains a fine statue of Schiller, designed by Thorvaldsen; a bronze statue of Christopher, duke of Wurttemberg; a monument to the emperor William I.; an equestrian statue of King William I.
When the kingdom of Burgundy or Arles was acquired by the emperor Conrad II.
This office did not become hereditary, however, and his descendants bore simply the title of counts of Scheyern until about 1116, when the emperor Henry V.
He now obtained the alliance of the emperor, and forced Odo to cede part of Neustria.
269 the great battle in which Emperor Claudius destroyed the army of the Goths.
He is the well-known Prince Bolkonski who had to retire from the army under the late Emperor, and was nicknamed 'the King of Prussia.'
If not, then as soon as all is over," and Prince Vasili sighed to intimate what he meant by the words all is over, "and the count's papers are opened, the will and letter will be delivered to the Emperor, and the petition will certainly be granted.
Mademoiselle Bourienne, here's another admirer of that powder-monkey emperor of yours, he exclaimed in excellent French.
He again vividly recalled the details of the battle, no longer dim, but definite and in the concise form in which he imagined himself stating them to the Emperor Francis.
So don't be surprised if not only the Minister of War but also his Most August Majesty the Emperor and King Francis is not much delighted by your victory.
Recalling his recent impressions, the first thought that came into his mind was that today he had to be presented to the Emperor Francis; he remembered the Minister of War, the polite Austrian adjutant, Bilibin, and last night's conversation.
Besides, unless His Majesty the Emperor derogates from the principle of our alliance...
But after it was over, the adjutant he had seen the previous day ceremoniously informed Bolkonski that the Emperor desired to give him an audience.
Inform him that the general who signed that capitulation had no right to do so, and that no one but the Emperor of Russia has that right.
The Emperor will teach your Suvara as he has taught the others...
Stopping in front of the Pavlograds, the Tsar said something in French to the Austrian Emperor and smiled.
When the Emperor had passed nearly all the regiments, the troops began a ceremonial march past him, and Rostov on Bedouin, recently purchased from Denisov, rode past too, at the rear of his squadron--that is, alone and in full view of the Emperor.
My brother knows him, he's dined with him--the present Emperor--more than once in Paris, and tells me he never met a more cunning or subtle diplomatist--you know, a combination of French adroitness and Italian play-acting!
The Emperor was wounded, the battle lost.
No one whom Rostov asked could tell him where the Emperor or Kutuzov was.
The soldiers who had carried Prince Andrew had noticed and taken the little gold icon Princess Mary had hung round her brother's neck, but seeing the favor the Emperor showed the prisoners, they now hastened to return the holy image.
His passion for the Emperor had cooled somewhat in Moscow.
"To the health of our Sovereign, the Emperor!" he cried, and at the same moment his kindly eyes grew moist with tears of joy and enthusiasm.
The Emperor of Austria can never have thought of such a thing, it is only the cabinet that says it.
This threefold division of the office of imperial archchancellor was acknowledged in 1356 by the Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV., but the duties of the office were performed by the elector of Mainz.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
This threefold division of the office of imperial archchancellor was acknowledged in 1356 by the Golden Bull of the emperor Charles IV., but the duties of the office were performed by the elector of Mainz.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.
One day our Emperor gives it and next day Napoleon.
Tomorrow our Emperor will send a St. George's Cross to the bravest of the French Guards.
That same August the Emperor was thrown from his caleche, injured his leg, and remained three weeks at Peterhof, receiving Speranski every day and no one else.
His Majesty the Emperor has deigned to send your excellency a project submitted by me...
This was Speranski, Secretary of State, reporter to the Emperor and his companion at Erfurt, where he had more than once met and talked with Napoleon.
He did not say that the Emperor had kept him, and Prince Andrew noticed this affectation of modesty.
The diplomatic corps and the Emperor himself were to be present.
The Emperor passed on to the drawing room, the crowd made a rush for the doors, and several persons with excited faces hurried there and back again.
Then the crowd hastily retired from the drawing-room door, at which the Emperor reappeared talking to the hostess.
Everyone moved back, and the Emperor came smiling out of the drawing room leading his hostess by the hand but not keeping time to the music.
She was not concerned about the Emperor or any of those great people whom Peronskaya was pointing out--she had but one thought: Is it possible no one will ask me, that I shall not be among the first to dance?
At the next review, they say, the Emperor did not once deign to address him.
Before leaving, Napoleon showed favor to the emperor, kings, and princes who had deserved it, reprimanded the kings and princes with whom he was dissatisfied, presented pearls and diamonds of his own--that is, which he had taken from other kings--to the Empress of Austria, and having, as his historian tells us, tenderly embraced the Empress Marie Louise--who regarded him as her husband, though he had left another wife in Paris--left her grieved by the parting which she seemed hardly able to bear.
I ought to know the Emperor by now, after the times I've seen him in Petersburg.
If the Emperor is wounded, am I to try to save myself? he thought.
Some said the report that the Emperor was wounded was correct, others that it was not, and explained the false rumor that had spread by the fact that the Emperor's carriage had really galloped from the field of battle with the pale and terrified Ober-Hofmarschal Count Tolstoy, who had ridden out to the battlefield with others in the Emperor's suite.
Having said this, Napoleon rode on to meet Marshal Lannes, who, hat in hand, rode up smiling to the Emperor to congratulate him on the victory.
The first words he heard on coming to his senses were those of a French convoy officer, who said rapidly: "We must halt here: the Emperor will pass here immediately; it will please him to see these gentlemen prisoners."
They say this one is the commander of all the Emperor Alexander's Guards, said the first one, indicating a Russian officer in the white uniform of the Horse Guards.
"You are the commander of the Emperor Alexander's regiment of Horse Guards?" asked Napoleon.
The Emperor without waiting for an answer turned away and said to one of the officers as he went: Have these gentlemen attended to and taken to my bivouac; let my doctor, Larrey, examine their wounds.
On the previous evening at the Lodge, he had heard that a rumor of his duel had reached the Emperor and that it would be wiser for him to leave Petersburg.
Then he bursts into one of his wild furies and rages at everyone and everything, seizes the letters, opens them, and reads those from the Emperor addressed to others.
The field marshal is angry with the Emperor and he punishes us all, isn't it logical?
The Emperor proposes to give all commanders of divisions the right to shoot marauders, but I much fear this will oblige one half the army to shoot the other.
In it was the petition to the Emperor drawn up by the auditor, in which Denisov, without alluding to the offenses of the commissariat officials, simply asked for pardon.
An institution upholding honor, the source of emulation, is one similar to the Legion d'honneur of the great Emperor Napoleon, not harmful but helpful to the success of the service, but not a class or court privilege.
The Emperor, moreover, had with him not a commander-in-chief's staff but the imperial headquarters staff.
The Emperor! a sudden cry resounded through the halls and the whole throng hurried to the entrance.
The Emperor entered the hall through a broad path between two lines of nobles.
Pierre stood rather far off and could not hear all that the Emperor said.
After the Emperor had left Moscow, life flowed on there in its usual course, and its course was so very usual that it was difficult to remember the recent days of patriotic elation and ardor, hard to believe that Russia was really in danger and that the members of the English Club were also sons of the Fatherland ready to sacrifice everything for it.
There was running to and fro and whispering; another troyka flew furiously up, and then all eyes were turned on an approaching sleigh in which the figures of the Emperor and Volkonski could already be descried.
The Allies defeated Napoleon, entered Paris, forced Napoleon to abdicate, and sent him to the island of Elba, not depriving him of the title of Emperor and showing him every respect, though five years before and one year later they all regarded him as an outlaw and a brigand.
./ lfwald then became king, but Eardwulf was restored in 808 or 809 after appealing to the emperor and the pope.
He paid frequent visits to the court of his godfather the emperor Frederick II., and his loyalty to Frederick and to his son Conrad IV.
In November 1274 it was decided by the diet at Nuremberg that all crown estates seized since the death of the emperor Frederick II.
In 467 the emperor Anthemius rewarded him for the panegyric which he had written in honour of him by raising him to the post of prefect of Rome, and afterwards to the dignity of a patrician and senator.
Rather than face this ordeal Alexius fled to Vienna and placed himself under the protection of his brother-in-law, the emperor Charles VI., who sent him for safety first to the Tirolean fortress of Ahrenberg, and finally to the castle of San Elmo at Naples.
Rupert, who from 1353 to 1390 was sole ruler, gained the electoral dignity for the Palatinate of the Rhine in 1356 by a grant of some lands in upper Bavaria to the emperor Charles IV.
7539), dedicated to an emperor, probably Commodus - but the inscription is only in part preserved.
The Pisans and Genoese now disputed about the ownership of Sardinia, but the pope and the emperor decided in favour of Pisa.
I ask an opportunity to atone for my fault and prove my devotion to His Majesty the Emperor and to Russia!
The Emperor Francis received him standing in the middle of the room.
The Minister of War came up and congratulated him on the Maria Theresa Order of the third grade, which the Emperor was conferring on him.
But it will please our sovereign the Emperor Napoleon if we take this bridge, so let us three go and take it!' 'Yes, let's!' say the others.
A few minutes after the Emperor had passed, the Pavlograd division was ordered to advance.
In Wischau itself, a petty German town, Rostov saw the Emperor again.
"Not 'our Sovereign, the Emperor,' as they say at official dinners," said he, "but the health of our Sovereign, that good, enchanting, and great man!
The next day the Emperor stopped at Wischau, and Villier, his physician, was repeatedly summoned to see him.
The Emperor was pale, his cheeks sunken and his eyes hollow, but the charm, the mildness of his features, was all the greater.
Rostov was happy in the assurance that the rumors about the Emperor being wounded were false.
The Emperor was dissatisfied with him.
Having become an Emperor he again went out to kill people in Italy, Austria, and Prussia.
The second governorship of Clive was marked by the transfer of the diwani or financial administration from the Mogul emperor to the Company, and by the enforcement of stringent regulations against the besetting sin of peculation.
and the emperor Henry V.
The emperor renounced investiture by ring and staff, and permitted canonical elections; the pope on his part recognized the king's right to perform lay investiture and to assist at elections.
and the emperor Ferdinand II.
The Emperor had only just fallen asleep and so Savary had to wait.
That arousing of the people by their sovereign and his call to them to defend their country--the very incitement which was the chief cause of Russia's triumph in so far as it was produced by the Tsar's personal presence in Moscow--was suggested to the Emperor, and accepted by him, as a pretext for quitting the army.
With unbending dignity, however, he retained his antagonism; and shortly afterwards he was one of the thirteen cardinals who refused to attend the ceremony of the emperor's marriage with Marie Louise.
The expense of enlisting io,000 Swiss was to be borne equally by pope and emperor.
Anyway, he expired two days later in the guardhouse of the citadel of St Petersburg, two days after the senate had condemned him to death for imagining rebellion against his father, and for hoping for the co-operation of the common people and the armed intervention of his brother-in-law, the emperor.
The most significant was the liberation, at the moment of kindling the funeral pyre, of an eagle which was supposed to bear the emperor's soul to heaven.
of France and the emperor Maximilian being proposed as suitable husbands for the young widow, when the queen privately married Archibald Douglas, earl of Angus, on the 6th of August 1514.
The palace contains a picture gallery and collections of natural history and antiquities, and in front of it are two monumental fountains and a monument to the emperor William I.
He was accused of desiring to make himself pope; more probably he thought of serving as a papal condottiere against the emperor Henry IV.
MAXIMILIAN I (1459-1519), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Frederick III.
The king set out for Rome to secure his coronation, but Venice refused to let him pass through .her territories; and at Trant, on the 4th of February 1508, he took the important step of assuming the title of Roman Emperor Elect, to which he soon received the assent of pope Julius II.
The treaty of Blois had contained a secret article providing for an attack on Venice, and this ripened into the league of Cambray, which was joined by the emperor in December 1509.
In 1500 the diet had divided Germany into six circles, for the maintenance of peace, to which the emperor at the diet of Cologne in 1512 added four others.
The emperor's share in the work is not clear, but it seems certain that the general scheme and many of the incidents are due to him.
The Weisskunig was long regarded as the work of the emperor's secretary, Marx Treitzsaurwein, but it is now believed that the greater part of the book at least is the work of the emperor himself.
A complaint having been made to the emperor that he was needlessly protracting hostilities, he was recalled, but he was consul (for the second time) in 66.
"The Romans," writes Dr Hamilton, "were probably the original introducers of this cat, and as the final evacuation of Britain by that nation took place under the emperor Valentinian about A.D.
That emperor constructed a large new harbour on the right bank, 22 m.
might have experienced much difficulty in reducing it, had it not been for the pusillanimous conduct of David, the last emperor, who surrendered the place almost unconditionally.
An antiquity of 150o years is claimed for the foundation of the monastery, but it is certain that the first person who raised it to importance was the emperor Alexius Comnenus III.
The golden bull of that emperor, which became thenceforth the charter of its foundation, is still preserved; it is one of the finest specimens of such documents, and contains portraits of Alexius himself and his queen.
The word itself represents the Mongol Khan-Balik, "the city of the khan," or emperor, the title by which Peking continues, more or less, to be known to the Mongols and other northern Asiatics.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
He then returned to Bavaria, and his absence bringing him into ill odour at Vienna, he complained of the incompetence of the council of commerce and dedicated a tract on trade (CommercienTractat) to the emperor Leopold.
In 1 533 it was raised to a margraviate by the emperor Charles V., and wds held by various families until in 1799 it passed, through the Sultzbach branch of the Wittelsbachs, to the royal house of Bavaria, by whom it was renounced in favour of the Batavian republic in 1801.
Auxiliary sources for the medieval romance-writers were: - the opuscule (4th century) known as Alexandri magni iter ad Paradisum, a fable of Eastern origin directed against ambition; the Itinerarium Alexandri (340), based partly on Julius Valerius and dedicated to Constans, son of the emperor Constantine; the letter of Alexander to Aristotle (Epist.
The first, The Gestes of the Worthy King and Emperor Alisaunder of Macedoine (ed.
Gregorovius, The Emperor Hadrian, trans.
Shishman's son Samuel (976-1014) captured Durazzo; he extended his sway over a great part of the Balkan Peninsula, but was eventually defeated in 1014 by the emperor Basil II., who put out the eyes of 1.5,000 Bulgarian prisoners.
The Servians again installed themselves in Upper Albania about 1180, and the provinces of Scutari and Prizren were ruled by kings of the house of Nemanya till 1360; Stefan Dushan (1331-1358), the greatest of these monarchs, included all Albania in his extensive but short-lived empire, and took the title of Imperator Romaniae Slavoniae et Albaniae (emperor of the Greeks, Slays and Albanians).
The Gothic chapel contains the remains of the emperor Maximilian I., who was born here in 1459.
It was at Neustadt that the emperor Rudolf II.
Extending the area of his activities, he entered into communication with the emperor Henry III., addressed to Pope Leo IX.
After a period of retirement at Fonte Avellana, he proceeded in 1069 as papal legate to Germany, and persuaded the emperor Henry IV.
In 1685 the fort was taken by the emperor Aurangzeb, and Dharwar, on the break-up of the Mogul empire, fell under the sway of the peshwa of Poona.
During the sedition of the "green" and "blue" parties of the circus (known as the Nika sedition, 532) he did Justinian good service, effectually crushing the rebels who had proclaimed Hypatius emperor.
THIETMAR (DIETMAR or Dithmar) of Merseburg (975 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great.
In 1906 the president announced that permission had been given by the German emperor for 30 Argentine officers to enter the German army each year and to serve eighteen months, and also for five officers to attend the Berlin Military Academy.
Four years later (1520) the Portuguese seaman, Ferdinand Magellan, entered the estuary in his celebrated voyage round the world, undertaken in the service of the king of Spain (Charles I., better known as the emperor Charles V.).
Here, by the emperor's orders, the assembled Spaniards proceeded to the election of a captain-general, and their choice fell almost unanimously on Domingos Martinez de Irala, who was proclaimed captain-general of the Rio de la Plata (August 1538).
HERACLEONAS, east-Roman emperor (Feb.
At the end of Heraclius' reign he obtained through his mother's influence the title of Augustus (638), and after his father's death was proclaimed joint emperor with his half-brother Constantine III.
It was first employed by the Milanese in 1038, and played a great part in the wars of the Lombard league against the emperor Frederick Barbarossa.
In 939 Louis became involved in a struggle with the emperor Otto the Great on the question of Lorraine, the nobles of which district had sworn an oath of fidelity to the king of France.
When Louis married Gerberga, sister of Otto, and widow of Giselbert, duke of Lorraine, there seemed to be a The emperor Louis I.
It was the birthplace of both Morelos and Iturbide, and was captured by Hidalgo at the beginning of the revolutionary outbreak of 1810-1 1, and by Iturbide in 1821 when on his march to Mexico City, where he was crowned emperor.
He was accused of extortion and treachery to the state, and denounced by Gaius to the emperor.
The emperor Hadrian, when he rebuilt the city, changed the name to Aelia Capitolina.
About 130 the emperor Hadrian decided to rebuild Jerusalem, and make it a Roman colony.
In the 6th century the emperor Justinian erected a magnificent basilica at Jerusalem, in honour of the Virgin Mary, and attached to it two hospitals, one for the reception of pilgrims and one for the accommodation of the sick poor.
After a severe struggle the Persians were defeated by the emperor Heraclius, who entered Jerusalem in triumph in 62 9 bringing with him the holy cross, which had been carried off by Chosroes.
When he died three years later Lauenburg passed to his nephew, George Louis, elector of Hanover, afterwards king of Great Britain as George I., whose rights were recognized by the emperor Charles VI.
In 1613 he led a large army against his persecutor, on whose murder by two of his officers that year Bethlen was placed on the throne by the Porte, in opposition to the wishes of the emperor, who preferred a prince who would incline more towards Vienna than towards Constantinople.
In 1615 Gabor was also officially recognized by the emperor Matthias.
LUCIUS VOLUSIUS MAECIANUS (2nd cent.) Roman jurist, was the tutor in law of the emperor Marcus Aurelius.
But when Artabanus invaded Armenia, Vonones fled to Syria, and the emperor Tiberius thought it prudent to support him no longer.
Vitellius (the father of the emperor) to restore the Roman authority in the East.
The emperor Caracalla, wishing to make use of this civil war for a conquest of the East in imitation of his idol, Alexander the Great, attacked the Parthians in 216.
As early as the beginning of the 9th century Ameland was a lordship of the influential family of Cammingha who held immediately of the emperor, and in recognition of their independence the Amelanders were in 1369 declared to be neutral in the fighting between Holland and Friesland, while Cromwell made the same declaration in 1654 with respect to the war between England and the United Netherlands.
It is heard of first as the residence of Asoka (afterwards emperor), when viceroy of, the western provinces.
Impelled by his convictions and talent, supported by the emperor Napoleon III.
In the triple partition of the Carolingian empire at Verdun in 843, the central portion was assigned to the emperor Lothaire, separating the kingdoms of East Francia (the later The duchy Germany) from West Francia (the later France).
On the death of the emperor, his son Lothaire II.
The emperor, Charles the Fat, was roused to collect a large army, with which he surrounded the main body of the Northmen under their leader Godfrey in the camp at Elsloo.
That same year she gave birth at Ghent to a son, :afterwards the emperor Charles V.
The claim of the emperor Maximilian to be regent during the minority of his grandson was recognized by the states-general.
Maximilian nominated his daughter Margaret, widow of Austria, was elected emperor.
The emperor himself was obliged to intervene.
Already the emperor was beginning to feel weary of the heavy burdens which the government of so many realms had imposed upon him, and in 1549 he presented Philip to the states of the Netherlands, that they might take the oath of allegiance to him, and Philip swore to maintain all ancient rights, privileges and customs. The abdication of Charles V.
On the 6th of October, at the secret invitation of the Catholic nobles headed by the duke of Aerschot, the archduke Matthias, brother of the emperor, arrived in Brussels to assume the sovereignty of the Netherlands.
These were removed to Paris, and when Napoleon was crowned emperor a century and a half later he chose Childeric's bees for the decoration of his coronation mantle.
Lothair was crowned emperor at the Lateran in June 1133, and as a further reward Innocent gave him the territories of the Countess Mathilda as a fief, but refused to surrender the right of investiture.
A second expedition of Lothair expelled Roger of Sicily (to whom Anacletus had given the title of king in return for his support) from southern Italy, but a quarrel with Innocent prevented the emperor attacking Rome.
In the next year the sultan received the visit of the German emperor and empress.
In 934 it was passed by the German king Henry I., after which it was extended by King Harold Bluetooth (940-986), but was again stormed by the emperor Otto II.
After a brief embassy to the emperor in the spring of 1538, Bonner superseded Gardiner at Paris, and began his mission by sending Cromwell a long list of accusations against his predecessor (ib.
He became a staunch Conservative, and, apart from his embassy to the emperor in 1524-1543, was mainly occupied during the last years of Henry's reign in brandishing the "whip with six strings."
In October 1541 the emperor Charles V.
Not long after it had been sacked by Totila Benevento became the seat of a powerful Lombard duchy and continued to be independent until 1053, when the emperor Henry III.
In 1806 he was appointed secretary and archivist to the cabinet particulier of the emperor, whom he attended on his campaigns and journeys.
Of still greater importance for the history of Napoleon are Fain's Memoires, which were published posthumously in 1908; they relate more particularly to the last five years of the empire, and give a detailed picture of the emperor at work on his correspondence among his confidential secretaries.
MICHAEL called Psellus, "the stammerer," emperor 820-829, was a native of Amorium in Phrygia, who began life as a private soldier, but rose by his talents to the rank of general.
In 1868 it was much injured by the emperor Theodore, who did not spare either the castle or the churches.
Fabian was martyred during the persecution under the emperor Decius, his death taking place on the 10th of January 250, and was buried in the catacomb of Calixtus, where a memorial has been found.
He is said to have baptized the emperor Philip and his son, to have done some building in the catacombs, to have improved the organization of the church in Rome, to have appointed officials to register the deeds of the martyrs, and to have founded several churches in France.
PHOCAS, East Roman emperor (602-610), was a Cappadocian of humble origin.
A revolt within the city soon afterwards resulted in the abdication of the reigning emperor Maurice, and in the elevation of Phocas to the throne, which seems to have been accomplished by one of the circus factions against the wish of the troops.
Nicaean emperor, Theodore Lascaris, whom his own father brought home with him from his crusade.
A little later Lingen was sold to the emperor Charles V., from whom it passed to his son, Philip II.
VALENTINIAN I., Roman emperor of the West from A.D.
He was chosen emperor in his forty-third year by the officers of the army at Nicaea in Bithynia in 364, and shortly afterwards named his brother Valens colleague with him in the empire.
As emperor of the West, Valentinian took Italy, Illyricum.
The emperor's chief work was guarding the frontiers and establishing military positions.
In 368 Theodosius was sent to drive back the invaders; in this he was completely successful, and established a new British province, called Valentia, in honour of the emperor.
But so great was his popularity that the court was decidedly worsted in the contest, and the emperor's authority maLerially shaken.
The emperor and his mother fled to Theodosius, the emperor of the East and husband of Galla, Valentinian's sister.
Under Tiberius mention is made of Treballia in Moesia, and the Emperor Maximin (2 35237) had been commander of a squadron of Triballi.
The Turks and the Venetians threatened it from the south, the emperor Frederick III.
In the following year there was a fresh rebellion, when the emperor Frederick was actually crowned king by the malcontents at Vienna-Neustadt (March 4, 1 459); but Matthias drove him out, and Pope Pius II.
Having come to an understanding with his father-in-law Podébrad, he was able to turn his arms against the emperor Frederick, and in April 1462 Frederick restored the holy crown for 60,000 ducats and was allowed to retain certain Hungarian counties with the title of king; in return for which concessions, extorted from Matthias by the necessity of coping with a simultaneous rebellion of the Magyar noble in league with Podebrad's son Victorinus, the emperor recognized Matthias as the actual sovereign of Hungary.
All the neighbouring princes, the emperor, Casimir IV.
On the 3rd of May the Czech Catholics elected Matthias king of Bohemia, but this was contrary to the wishes of both pope and emperor, who preferred to partition Bohemia.
During the interval between these peaces, Matthias, in self-defence, again made war on the emperor, reducing Frederick to such extremities that he was glad to accept peace on any terms. By the final arrangement made between the contending princes, Matthias recognized Ladislaus as king of Bohemia proper in return for the surrender of Moravia, Silesia and Upper and Lower Lusatia, hitherto component parts of the Czech monarchy, till he should have redeemed them for 400,000 florins.
The endless tergiversations and depredations of the emperor speedily induced Matthias to declare war against him for the third time (1481), the Magyar king conquering all the fortresses in Frederick's hereditary domains.
In 488 Theodoric, king of the East Goths, received commission from the Greek emperor, Zeno, to undertake the affairs of Italy.
Three separate capitals must be discriminated Pavia, the seat of the new Lombard kingdom; Ravenna, the garrison city of the Byzantine emperor; and Rome, the rallying point of the old nation, where the successor of St Peter was already beginning to assume that national protectorate which proved so influential in the future.
The relations between the new emperor and the pope were ill defined; and this proved the source of infinite disasters to Italy and Europe in the sequel.
The cities of Gaeta and Naples, Sicily and the so-called Theme of Lombardy in South Apulia and Calabria, still recognized the Byzantine emperor.
By this slender tie the crown of Italy was joined to that of Germany; and the formal right of the elected king of Germany to be considered king of Italy and emperor may be held to have accrued from this epoch.
Otto entered Lombardy Saxon in 961, deposed Berengar, assumed the crown in San and FranAmbrogio at Milan, and in 962 was proclaimed conlan emperor by John XII.
Within those precincts the bishops and the citizens were independent of all feudal masters but the emperor.
The condition of the church seemed desperate, unless it could be purged of crying scandals of the subjection of the papacy to the great Roman nobles, of its subordination to the German emperor and of its internal demoralization.
Henry IV., king o Germany, but not crowned emperor, convened a diet in th~
By the concordat of Worms, 1122, the emperor surrendered the right of investiture by ring and staff, and granted the right of election to the clergy.
On the other hand the pope ceded to the emperor the right of investiture by the sceptre.
They remained independent of the emperor, but the emperor had still to seek the crown at their hands.
During the forty-seven years war, when pope and emperor were respectively bidding for their affiance, and offering concessions to secure their support, the communes grew in self-reliance, strength and liberty.
The title of patrician was revived and offered to Conrad, king of Italy, but not crowned emperor.
Opposed by an anti-pope whom the emperor favored, Alexander found it was his truest policy to rely for support upon the antiimperialist communes.
Here, as upon neutral ground, the emperor met the pope, and a truce for six years was concluded with the Lombard burghs.
The supremacy of the emperor is not called in question.
Alessandria della Paglia, glorious by ~ her resistance to the emperor in 1174, had even changed her name to Cesarea!
The emperor retained the supreme courts of appeal within the cities, and his claim for sustenance at their expense when he came into Italy.
Italy seemed to lie prostrate before the emperor, who commanded her for the first time from the south as well as from the north, In 1227 Frederick, who h1d promised to lead a crusade, was excommunicated by Gregory IX.
Forced to fly to France, he there, at Lyons, in 1245, convened a council, which enforced his condemnation of the emperor.
Five times king and emperor as he was, Frederick, placed under the ban of the church, led henceforth a doomed existence.
The nation had outgrown dependence upon foreigners, and after his death no German emperor interfered with anything but miserable failure in Italian affairs.
The quarrels of the church and empire lend pretexts and furnish war-cries; but the real question at issue is not the supremacy of pope or emperor.
Ghibelline aristocracy and immobility idealize the emperor.
Louis of Bavaria, the next emperor, made a similar excursion in the year 1327, with even greater loss of imperialprestige.
Castruccio Castracane was nominated by him duke of Lucca; and this is the first instance of a dynastic title conferred upon an Italian adventurer by the emperor.
Seven years before his death Gian Galeazzo bought the title of duke of Milan and count of Pavia from the emperor Wenceslaus, and there is no doubt that he was aiming at the sovereignty of Italy.
Three years later, unlessoned by this experience, Louis signed the treaty of Blois (1504), whereby be invited the emperor Maximilian to aid him in the subjugation of Venice.
An army of mixed German and Spanish troops, pretending to act for the emperor, but which may rather be regarded as a vast marauding party, entered Italy under their leader Frundsberg.
As an immediate result of this catastrophe, Florence shook off the Medici, and established a republic. But Clement, having made peace with the emperor, turned the remnants of the army which had sacked Rome against his native city.
By the treaty of Barcelona in 1529 the pope and emperor made terms. By that of Cambray in the same year France relinquished Italy to Spain.
Charles V., it must be remembered, achieved his conquest and confirmed his authority far less as emperor than as the heir of Castile and Aragon.
In the next year Ferdinand, brother of Charles, was elected emperor.
Charles of Austria, now emperor, took Milan, Mantua, Naples and Sardinia for his portion of the Italian spoil.
Worse complications ensued for the Italians when the emperor Charles VI., father of Maria Theresa, died in i74o.
But Francis of Lorraine, elected emperor in that year, sent an army to the kings support, which in 1746 obtained a signal victory over the Bourbons at Piacenza.
On the death of Maria Theresa in 1780, the emperor Joseph II.
The emperor Francis I.
Ten days earlier, namely on the 4th of June, Massna had been compelled by hunger to capitulate at Genoa; but the success at Marengo, followed up by that of Macdonald in north Italy, and Moreat~ at Hohenlinden (December 2, 1800), brought the emperor Francis to sue for peace which was finally concluded -.
The legislature at Milan having ventured to alter some details of taxation, Eugene received the following rule of conduct from his step-father: Your system of government is simple: the emperor wills it to be thus.
The little republic of Lucca, along with Piombino, was now awarded as a principality by the emperor to Elisa Bonaparte and her husband, Bacciocchi.
The French emperor, at the supposed request of the doge of Genoa, declared the Ligurian Republic to be an integral part of the French empire.
Already, in the negotiations with England during the summer of 1806, the emperor had shown his sense of the extreme importance of gaining possession of that island, which indeed caused the breakdown of the peace proposals then being considered; and now he ordered French squadrons into the Mediterranean in order to secure Corfu and Sicily.
This arrangement pleased King of neither of the relatives of the emperor; but his will Naples, now was law on the continent.
A fortnight later his consort Caroline arrived, and soon showed a vigour and restlessness of spirit which frequently clashed with the dictates of her brother, the emperor and the showy, unsteady policy of her consort.
For some time past the relations between Napoleon and the pope, Pius VII., had been Napoleon severely strained, chiefly because the emperor insisted ~pacj~ on controlling the church, both in France and in the kingdom of Italy, in a way inconsistent with the traditions of the Vatican, but also because the pontiff refused to grant the divorce between Jerome Bonaparte and the former Miss Patterson on which Napoleon early in the year 1806 laid so much stress.
Your Holiness (he wrote) is sovereign of Rome, but I am its emperor; and he threatened to annul the presumed donation of Rome by Charlemagne, unless the pope yielded implicit obedience to him in all temporal affairs.
The outbreak of war in Spain, followed by the rupture with Austria in the spring of 1809, distracted the attention of the emperor.
Parma and Piacenza were assigned to Marie Louise, daughter of the Austrian emperor and wife of Napoleon, on behalf of her son, the little Napoleon, but by subsequent arrangements (1816-1817) the duchy was to revert at her death to the Bourbons of Parma, then reigning at Lucca.
The brutalities of Austrias white coats in the north, the unintelligent repression then characteristic of the house of Savoy, the petty spite of the duke of Modena, the medieval obscurantism of pope and cardinals in the middle of the peninsula and the clownish excesses of Ferdinand in the south, could not blot out from the minds of the Italians the recollection of the benefits derived from the just laws, vigorous administration and enlightened aims of the great emperor.
i Among the insurgents of Romagna was Louis Napoleon, after wards emperor of the French.
He then requested Charles Albert to take the papal troops under his command, and also wrote to the emperor of Austria asking him voluntarily to relinquish Lombardy and Venetia.
Austrian mediation was now imminent, as the Vienna revolution had been crushed, and the new emperor, Francis Joseph, refused to consider any settlement other than on the basis of the treaties of 1815.
In 1856 the emperor and empress visited their Italian dominions, but were received with icy coldness; the following year, on the retirement of Radetzky at the age of ninety-three, the archduke Maximilian, an able, cultivated and kind-hearted man, was appointed viceroy.
The emperor Napoleon, almost alone among Frenchmen, had genuine Italian sympathies.
The attempt failed and its author was caught and executed, but while t appeared at first to destroy Napoleons Italian sympathies and led to a sharp interchange of notes between Paris and Turin, the emperor was really impressed by the attempt and by Orsinis letter from prison exhorting him to intervene in Italy.
There it was agreed that France should supply 200,000 men and Piedmont 100,000 for the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy, that Piedmont should be expanded into a kingdom of North Italy, that central Italy should form a separate kingdom, on the throne of which the emperor contemplated placing one of his own relatives, and Naples another, possibly under Lucien Murat; the pope, while retaining only the Patrimony of St Peter (the Roman province), would be president of the Italian confederation.
The question of the cession of Nice and Savoy had not been raised; for the emperor had not fulfilled his part of the bargain, that he would drive the Austrians out of Italy, since Venice was yet to be freed.
Although he had resigned, he remained In reality the emperor was contemplating an Etrurian kingdom with the prince at its head.
His rapid success, meanwhile, inspired both the French emperor and the government of Turin with misgivings.
a Negotiations were resumed with Napoleon for the evacuation ad Rome by the French troops; but the emperor, though he saw by wee that the temporal power could not for ever be supported sti Jy and by French bayonets, desired some guarantee that the Pr Roman evacuation should not be followed, at all events wa, stion.
Thiers had consistently opposed the emperor Napoleons pro-Italian policy.
At this juncture the emperor of Austria invited Victor Emmanuel to visit the Vienna Exhibition, and the Italian government received a confidential intimation that acceptance of the invitation to Vienna would be followed by a further invitation from Berlin.
Ever since Venetia had been ceded by ~ Austria to the emperor Napoleon, and by him to Italy, ~ after the war of 1866, secret revolutionary committees had been formed in the northern Italian provinces to prepare for the redemption of Trent and Trieste.
The German emperor shared this desire, but Bismarck and the Austrian emperor wished to substitute for the imperial league some more advantageous combination.
At the beginning of August 1881 the Austrian press mooted the idea of a visit from King Humbert to the emperor Francis Joseph.
Robilants opposition to a precipitate acceptance of the Austrian hint was founded upon fear lest King Humbert at Vienna might be pressed to disavow Irredentist aspirations, and upon a desire to arrange for a visit of the emperor Francis Joseph to Rome in return for King Humberts visit to Vienna.
At the request of Kalnky, Mancini defined his proposal in a memorandum, but the illness of himself and Depretis, combined with an untoward discussion in the Italian press on the failure of the Austrian emperor to return in Rome King Humberts visit to Vienna, caused negotiations to drag.
Meanwhile the enthusiastic reception accorded to the young German emperor on the occasion of his visit to Rome in October 1888, and the cordiality shown towards King Humbert and Crispi at Berlin in May 1889, increased the tension of FrancoItalian relations; nor was it until after the fall of Prince Bismarck in March 1890 that Crispi adopted towards the Republic a more friendly attitude by sending an Italian squadron to salute President Carnot at Toulon.
In the summer of 1531 he accordingly proceeded to Germany as sole ambassador to the emperor.
In August 1532 Archbishop Warham died, and the king almost immediately afterwards intimated to Cranmer, who had accompanied the emperor in his campaign against the Turks, his nomination to the vacant see.
Here he came into contact with the Magyar refugees, who had great hopes of the high-born, high-gifted youth who was also a fellow sufferer, a large portion of his immense estates having been confiscated by the emperor.
In 1681, reinforced by 10,000 Transylvanians and a Turkish army under the pasha of Nagyvarad, he compelled the emperor to grant an armistice.
ThbkOly's distrust of the emperor now induced him to turn for help to the sultan, who recognized him as prince of Upper Hungary on condition that he paid an anuual tribute of 40,000 florins.
In the course of the same year Thokoly captured fortress after fortress from the emperor and extended his dominions to the Waag.
But the campaign of 1685 was a series of disasters, and when he sought help from the Turks at Nagyvarad they seized and sent him in chains to Belgrade, possibly because of his previous negotiations with Leopold, whereupon most of his followers made their peace with the emperor.
GNAEUS DOMITIUS CORBULO (1st century A.D.), Roman general, was the half-brother of Caesonia, one of the wives of the emperor Caligula.
He punished the Frisii who refused to pay the tribute, and was on the point of advancing against the Chauci, but was recalled by the emperor and ordered to withdraw behind the Rhine.
At Rhandea he laid down his diadem at the foot of the emperor's statue, promising not to resume it until he received it from the hand of Nero himself in Rome.
With his mercenaries behind him he met with some small successes in his fight for Normandy, but on the 27th of July he and his ally, the emperor Otto IV., met with a crushing defeat at Bouvines at the hands of Philip Augustus, and even the king himself was compelled to recognise that his hopes of recovering Normandy were at an end.
In 306 the emperor Constantine the Great caused multitudes of Frankish prisoners to be thrown to the beasts here, and in 313 made a similar spectacle of the captive Bructeri.
Towards the end of the 3rd century, the inroads of the Franks having been repelled by the emperor Probus, the city rapidly acquired wealth and importance.
This prince, a brother of the emperor Henry VII., ruled from 1307 to 1354, and was the real founder of the power of Trier.
(980-1002), Roman emperor, son of the emperor Otto II.
and Theophano,daughter of the eastern emperor Romanus II., was born in July 980, chosen as his father's successor at Verona in June 983 and crowned German king at Aix-la-Chapelle on the 25th of the following December.
A strong opposition was quickly aroused, and when Theophano and Adelaide, widow of the emperor Otto the Great, appeared in Germany, Henry was compelled to hand over the young king to his mother.
Before he reached Rome, Pope John XV., who had invited him to Italy, had died, whereupon he raised his own cousin Bruno, son of Otto duke of Carinthia, to the papal chair as Pope Gregory V., and by this pontiff Otto was crowned emperor on the 21st of May 996.
On his return to Germany, the emperor learned that Gregory had been driven from Rome, which was again in the power of John Crescentius, patrician of the Romans, and that a new pope, John XVI., had been elected.
A visit to southern Italy, where many of the princes did homage to the emperor, was cut short by the death of the pope, to whose chair Otto then appointed his former tutor Gerbert, who took the name of Sylvester II.
Returning to Rome, trouble soon arose between Otto and the citizens, and for three days the emperor was besieged in his palace.
The judicial authorities requested a rescript from the emperor Aurelian for the decision of the cause.
The episcopal judgment was to be equivalent to that of the emperor and irreversible, and the civil authorities were to see to its execution.
Hence the practice, immediately after Nicaea I., of superadding banishment by the emperor to synodical condemnation.
Any bishop, priest or deacon " importuning " the emperor, instead of exerting his right of appeal to synods, is to lose all right of appeal and never to be restored or pardoned.
But if the bishop think the evidence insufficient, the affair shall be referred to the emperor, by way of appeal both from bishop and judge.
The cause of Ignatius and Photius was dealt with in the 9th century by various synods; those in the East agreeing with the emperor's view for the time being, while those in the West acted with the pope.
Meyer (1905); Code and Novells of Emperor Justinian, ed.
It has a cast-iron steeple (restored in 1854), on the top of which is a gold dragon which, according to tradition, was brought from Constantinople either by the Varangians or by the emperor Baldwin after the Latin conquest.
The château of the later counts, in which the emperor Charles V.
This was captured in 949 by the emperor Otto I.
They were less fortunate in their opposition to Maximilian's son, the emperor Charles V.
But Wratyslaus of Bohemia speedily appealed to the emperor for help, and a war between Poland and the Empire was only prevented by the sudden rupture of Henry IV.
with the Holy See and the momentous events which led to the humiliating surrender of the emperor at Canossa.
MARCUS AURELIUS ANTONINUS (121-180), Roman emperor and Stoic philosopher, was born in Rome A.D.
In the first year of his reign Faustina gave birth to twins, one of whom became the emperor Commodus.
give relief, while the Christians attributed it to the prayers of their brethren in a legion to which, they affirmed, the emperor then gave the name of "The Thundering."
There news reached him that Avidius Cassius, the commander of the Roman troops in Asia, had revolted and proclaimed himself emperor (175).
Ramsay, however, doubts this (The Church in the Roman Empire, London, 1893), and argues that it was due to a long series of instructions to provincial governors (mandata, not decreta) who interpreted their duty largely in conformity with the attitude of the reigning emperor.
According to Suetonius (Augustus, 94) he foretold the greatness of the future emperor on the day of his birth, and Apuleius (Apologia, 42) records.
He went with the emperor to Tunis and fought for him in France.
GAIUS MESSIUS QUINTUS TRAJANUS DECIUS (201-251), Roman emperor, the first of the long succession of distinguished men from the Illyrian provinces, was born at Budalia near Sirmium in lower Pannonia in A.D.
About 245 the emperor Philip the Arabian entrusted him with an important command on the Danube, and in 249 (or end of 248), having been sent to put down a revolt of the troops in Moesia and Pannonia, he was forced to assume the imperial dignity.
Its commander, Priscus, declared himself emperor under Gothic protection.
The choice was left to the senate, who unanimously selected Valerian (afterwards emperor).
His restless and turbulent nature marked him out for a military career; and having collected a small band of soldiers, he assisted the emperor Charles V.
Sharing in the attack on the Saxon electorate, Albert was taken prisoner at Rochlitz in March 1547 by John Frederick, elector of Saxony, but was released as a result of the emperor's victory at Miihlberg in the succeeding April.
He then followed the fortunes of his friend Maurice, the new elector of Saxony, deserted Charles, and joined the league which proposed to overthrow the emperor by an alliance with Henry II.
Having extorted a large sum of money from the burghers of Nuremberg, he quarrelled with his supporter, the French king, and offered his services to the emperor.
It is narrated by Pliny and Seneca that the emperor Nero sent out two centurions on such a mission towards the source of the Nile (probably about A.D.
The emperor Justinian (483-565), in whose reign the greatness of the Eastern empire culminated, sent two Nestorian monks to China, who returned with eggs of the silkworm concealed in a hollow cane, and thus silk manufactures were established in the Peloponnesus and the Greek islands.
Del Cano was received with great distinction by the emperor, who granted him a globe for his crest, and the motto Primus circumdedisti me.
They first prepared a map of the country round Peking, which was submitted to the emperor Kang-hi; and, being satisfied with the accuracy of the European method of surveying, he resolved to have a survey made of the whole empire on the same principles.
This great work was begun in July 1708, and the completed maps were presented to the emperor in 1718.
The title of "dictator" was revived and Sulla was in fact emperor of Rome.
After being almost entirely wrecked by Norman raiders it was rebuilt, on the original lines, in 983, by the emperor Otto III.
in 1000, disclosed the body of the emperor, vested in white coronation robes and seated on a marble chair.
The casket was opened in 1906, at the instance of the emperor William II., and the draperies enclosing the body were temporarily removed to Berlin, with a view to the reproduction of similar cloth.
The Gothic choir, forming the more modern portion of the cathedral, was added during the latter half of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and contains the tomb of the emperor Otto III.
There are many fine streets and squares and some handsome public monuments, notably among the last the fountain on the market square surmounted by a statue of Charlemagne, the bronze equestrian statue of the emperor William I.
It was not, however, till late in the 12th century (1172-1176) that the city was surrounded with walls by order of the emperor Frederick I., to whom (in 1166) and to his grandson Frederick II.
A relapse of the city led to a new ban of the emperor Matthias in 1613, and in the following year Spinola's Spanish troops brought back the recalcitrant city to the Catholic fold.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
He was elected through the intervention of a representative of the emperor, Count Sicco, who drove out the intruded Franco (afterwards Pope Boniface VII.).
By this time the rising had attained the dimensions of a revolution; all the feudal levies of the kingdom were called out against it; and mercenaries were hired in haste from Venice, Bohemia and the emperor.
MARCUS CLAUDIUS TACITUS, Roman emperor from the 25th of September A.D.
Ibrahim, emperor of Delhi, had made himself detested, even by his Afghan nobles, several of whom called upon Baber for assistance.
Agrippa made the fine natural harbour into the main naval station of the Mediterranean fleet, and founded a colony there probably in 31 B.C. The emperor Tiberius died in his villa here.
The emperor Marcian approved the doctrinal decrees of the council and enjoined silence in regard to theological questions.
The whole area, often collectively styled "Gallia Comata," often "Tres Provinciae," was divided into three provinces, each under a legatus pro praetore appointed by the emperor, with a common capital at Lugudunum (Lyons).
In particular, they eagerly accepted the worship of "Augustus and Rome," devised by the first emperor as a bond of state religion connecting the provinces with Rome.
After the Eusebians had, at a synod held in Antioch, renewed their deposition of Athanasius they resolved to send delegates to Constans, emperor of the West, and also to Julius, setting forth the grounds on which they had proceeded.
When the Crimean War broke out he offered his services to the emperor Nicholas, by whom he was appointed general of the VI.
The emperor Nicholas found that his ambassador at Vienna, Baron Meyendorff, was not a sympathetic instrument for carrying out his schemes in the East.
The colony of Serdica, founded here by the emperor Trajan, became a Roman provincial town of considerable importance in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D., and was a favourite residence of Constantine the Great.
The town successfully resisted the attacks of the emperor Basil II.
Before this date the fundamental laws of Russia described the power of the emperor as " autocratic and unlimited."
The imperial style is still " Emperor and Autocrat of All the Russias "; but in the fundamental laws as remodelled between the imperial manifesto of 17/30 October and the opening of the first Duma 1 See A.
84 of the fundamental laws (" The empire is governed on the immutable basis of laws issued according to the established order "), argued that the emperor himself could only act within the limits of the order established by those laws.
Popularly, however, the emperor is known by his old Russian title of tsar.
28 a descends entire in order of primogeniture, and by preference to the male heir; the emperor and his consort must belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church; the emperor can wear no crown that entails residence abroad.
By the manifesto of the 17/30th of October 1905 the emperor voluntarily limited his legislative power by decreeing that no measure was to become law without the consent of the Imperial Duma, a freely elected national assembly.
By the law of the 20th of February 1906 the Council of the Empire was associated with the Duma as a legislative Upper House; and from this time the legislative power has been exercised normally by the emperor only in concert with the two chambers.
The Council of the Empire, or Imperial Council (Gosudarstvenniy Sovyet), as reconstituted for this purpose, consists of 196 members, of whom 98 are nominated by the emperor, The while 98 are elective.
Chasles suggests 3 - as " a limited monarchy under an autocratic emperor."
At the head of the government is the emperor, 4 whose power is limited only by the provisions of the fundamental laws of the empire.
It shares with the emperor the legislative power, including the discussion and sanctioning of the budget.
Ministers are responsible, moreover, not to parliament but to the emperor.
If by a two-thirds majority the action of a minister be arraigned, the president of the Imperial Council lays the case before the emperor, who decides.
If the budget be not sanctioned by the emperor, that of the previous year remains in force, and the government has power, motu proprio, to impose the extra taxes necessary to carry out new laws.
In certain circumstances, too, the emperor reserves the right to raise fresh loans.
Further, the emperor has the power to issue ordinances having the force of law, i.e.
Since, however, the emperor has the power of proroguing or dissolving the Duma as often as he pleases, it is clear that these temporary ordinances might in effect be made permanent.
By the law of the 18th of October (November i) 1905, to assist the emperor in the supreme administration a Council of Ministers (Sovyet Ministrov) was created, under a ministerresident the first a earance of a rime P, PP P minister in Russia.
directing or governing senate), originally established by Peter the Great, consists of members nominated by the emperor.
Its most famous development was the so-called " Third Section " (of the imperial chancery) instituted by the emperor Nicholas I.
These powers were, however, severely restricted by the emperor Alexander III.
In 1771 their headquarters were fixed at Moscow, in the Rogoshkiy cemetery assigned to them during the plague; here they had a monastery, seminary and consistory, until they were ejected by the emperor Nicholas I.
In November 1906, however, the emperor Nicholas II.
Byzantine territory, threatened Constantinople with a fleet of small craft, obtained as consort for one of their princes, Vladimir I, (q.v.), a sister of the Byzantine emperor on condition of the prince becoming a Christian, adopted Christianity for themselves and their subjects, learned to hold in check the nomadic hordes of the steppe, and formed matrimonial alliances with the reigning families of Poland, Hungary, Norway and France.
One of his successors, half a century later, married a daughter of the Byzantine emperor, and gave his own daughter in marriage to a Russian prince.
married a niece of the emperor Constantine Palaeologus, who had fallen fighting when his capital was taken by the Turks (1453).
Now the tsar of Muscovy and of all Russia adopted the airs and methods of a Tatar khan and surrounded himself with the pomp and splendours of a Byzantine emperor.
The emperor, the governments of England, Holland, France and Sweden, and even the Grand Turk made advances to the tsar.
On the other hand the great nobles of more conservative tendencies wished to get the young son of the cesarevich Alexius made emperor under their own control.
Having no male issue, she chose as her successor the infant son of her niece, Anna Leopoldovna, duchess of Brunswick, and at her death the child was duly proclaimed emperor, under the name of Ivan VI., but in little more than a year he was dethroned by the partisans of the Princess Elizabeth, a daughter of Peter the Great and Catherine I.
Catherine had conceived an ambitious plan of solving radically the Eastern Question by partitioning Turkey as she and her allies had partitioned Poland, and she had persuaded the emperor Joseph II.
The heir to the throne was the late tsar's eldest brother, Constantine, but he declined, for private reasons, to accept the succession, and a few days elapsed before the second brother, I., Nicholas, was proclaimed emperor.
During the revolutionary ferment of 1848-49 he urged the Prussian king to refuse the imperial crown, co-operated with the Austrian emperor in suppressing the Hungarian insurrection, and compelled the Prussians to withdraw their support from the insurgents in Schleswig-Holstein.
As these acts of terrorism had quite the opposite of the desired effect, repeated attempts were made on the life of the emperor, and at last the carefully laid plans of the conspirators were successful.
It was not without secret satisfaction, therefore, that Prince Gorchakov watched the repeated defeats of the Austrian army in the Italian campaign of 1859, and he felt inclined to respond to the advances made to him by Napoleon III.; but the germs of a Russo-French alliance, which had come into existence immediately after the Crimean War, ripened very slowly, and they were completely destroyed in 1863 when the French emperor wounded Russian sensibilities deeply by giving moral and diplomatic support to the Polish insurrection.
When Nicholas an influential deputation from the province of Tver, which had long enjoyed a reputation for liberalism, ventured to hint in a loyal address that the time had come for changes in the existing autocratic regime, they received a reply which showed that the emperor had no intention of making any such changes.
3 In 1864, however, the emperor Alexander II.
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
The emperor, however, whatever his own views, was surrounded by reactionary influences, of which the most powerful were the empress-mother, Pobedonostsev the procurator of the Holy Synod, Count Muraviev and the Grandduke Sergius.
Petitions continued to flow in to the emperor's cabinet, praying for a national representation, from the zemstvos, from the nobles and from the professional classes, and their moral was enforced by general agitation, by partial strikes, and by outrages which culminated at Moscow in the murder of the Grand-duke Sergius (February 4th, 1 9 05).
A commission of inquiry, under the emperor's presidency, was now established to elaborate the means for carrying this promise into effect.
On the 6th of June, in reply to a deputation of the second congress of zemstvos headed by Prince Trubetzkoi, the emperor promised the speedy convocation of a National Assembly.
The elections were held in March 1906, and on the 27th of April the emperor Nicholas II.
Even the remnant of the " Cadets " had by this time renounced their sympathy with Polish aspirations, and in the matter of Finland the Duma proved itself even more imperial than the emperor himself.
The principal one, as the inscription intimates, is Pariswanath, or Parswanath, carved in the reign of the emperor Akbar; the black one has the date of 1651 inscribed.
had made a surrender to the emperor Henry V., Guido called a council at Vienne, which declared against lay investiture, and excommunicated Henry.
Soon after his consecration he opened negotiations with the emperor with a view to settling the dispute over investiture.
Terms of peace were arranged, but at the last moment difficulties arose and the treaty was abandoned; and in October 1119 both emperor and anti-pope were excommunicated at a synod held at Reims. The journey of Calixtus to Rome early in 1120 was a triumphal march.
Through the efforts of some German princes negotiations between pope and emperor were renewed, and the important Concordat of Worms made in September 1122 was the result.
Falling into disgrace with Berengar on his return, he attached himself to the emperor Otto I., whom in 961 he accompanied into Italy, and by whom in 962 he was made bishop of Cremona.
He was frequently employed in missions to the pope, and in 968 to Constantinople to demand for the younger Otto (afterwards Otto II.) the hand of Theophano, daughter of the emperor Nicephorus Phocas.
Immediately after his coronation, he hastened to his newly won territories, accompanied by the principal civil and ecclesiastical dignitaries of Denmark, and was solemnly acknowledged lord of Northalbingia (the district lying between the Eider and the Elbe) at Lubeck, Otto IV., then in difficulties, voluntarily relinquishing all German territory north of the Elbe to Valdemar, who in return recognized Otto as German emperor.
Valdemar at once cultivated the friendship of the new emperor; and Frederick, by an imperial brief, issued in December 1214 and subsequently confirmed by Innocent III.
Later Nicolas held an influential position in the Netherlands, and from 1530 until his death he was one of the emperor's most trusted advisers in Germany.
of Spain, to whom, in 1555 on the abdication of the emperor, he transferred his services, and by whom he was employed in the Netherlands.
When the servile Athenians, feigning to share the emperor's displeasure with the sophist, pulled down a statue which they had erected to him, Favorinus remarked that if only Socrates also had had a statue at Athens, he might have been spared the hemlock.
It was founded in 1004 by the emperor Henry II., finished in 1012, afterwards partially burnt, and rebuilt in the 13th century.
Of its many works of art may be mentioned the magnificent marble tomb of the founder and his wife, the empress Cunigunde, carved by Tilman Riemenschneider between 1499 and 1513, and an equestrian statue of the emperor Conrad III.
of Bavaria, the emperor Henry II.
On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house, and in 1007 the emperor Henry II.
at the top, while those of the Chinese city, which were built by the emperor Kia-tsing in 1543, measure 30 ft.
Enclosed within the Tatar city is the Hwang ch' eng, or "Imperial city," which in its turn encloses the Tsze-kin ch' eng, or "Forbidden city," in which stands the emperor's palace.
The bell is one of five which the emperor Yung-lo ordered to be cast.
On the central stone, which is a perfect circle, the emperor kneels.
Nieder-Ingelheim is, according to one tradition, the birthplace of Charlemagne, and it possesses the ruins of an old palace built by that emperor between 768 and 774.
It was extended by Frederick Barbarossa, and was burned down in 1270, being restored by the emperor Charles IV.
and the emperor Titus, the history of the Black Prince, the life of Sir Philip Sidney, that of Montrose, and finally that of Sir W.
Clement continued the struggle of his predecessors with the emperor Louis the Bavarian, excommunicating him after protracted negotiations on the 13th of April 1346, and directing the election of Charles of Moravia, who received general recognition after the death of Louis in October 1347, and put an end to the schism which had long divided Germany.
He also carried on fruitless negotiations for church unity with the Armenians and with the Greek emperor, John Cantacuzenus.
The present cathedral contains several early Christian marble sarcophagi, a silver cross of the 6th century (that of Agnellus), and the so-called throne of the Archbishop Maximian (54655 2), adorned with reliefs in ivory, which, however, was really brought to Ravenna in iooi by John the Deacon, who recorded the fact in his Venetian chronicle, as a present from the Doge Pietro Orseolo to the Emperor Otho III.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.