Like Victor Emmanuel, Pius IX.
In Greek literature his master was Emmanuel Chrysoloras.
He was the second son of Emmanuel Scrope Howe, 2nd Viscount Howe, who died governor of Barbadoes in March 1735, and of Mary Sophia Charlotte, a daughter of the baroness Kilmansegge, afterwards countess of Darlington, the mistress of George I.
[[[Ranieri Carlo Emanuele Giovanni Humbert|CARLO EMANUELE]]] (1562-1630), duke of Savoy, succeeded his father, Emmanuel Philibert, in 1580.
We next find Charles Emmanuel aspiring to the imperial crown in 1619, but without success.
His father, Emmanuel Mendel, is said to have been a Jewish pedlar, but August adopted the name of Neander on his baptism as a Christian.
The second Marguerite (1523-1574), daughter of Francis I., was born on the 5th of June, 1523, at St Germain-en-Laye, and, at an age the lateness of which caused lampoons, married Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, in 1559 Like her aunt and her niece she was a good scholar and strongly interested in men of letters.
He was ordained in 1836, and two years later was elected senior tutor of Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
He pointed out that if France drove Austria out of Italy she might annex Savoy, but could not prevent the restoration of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel.
He was of French extraction, his great grandfather, a cavalry captain, having passed from the service of France to that of Sardinia, and settled in Turin under Emmanuel II.
Disembarking at Marsala on the 11th, Crispi on the 13th, at Salemi, drew up the proclamation whereby Garibaldi assumed the dictatorship of Sicily, with the programme: "Italy and Victor Emmanuel."
The remains of Victor Emmanuel were interred in the Pantheon instead of being transported to the Savoy Mausoleum at Superga.
For many years Usher was actively employed both in the government of his diocese and in the publication of several learned works, amongst which may be specified Emmanuel (a treatise upon the Incarnation), published in 1638, and Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates, in 1639.
There he became a convert from republicanism to monarchism, being convinced that only under the auspices of King Victor Emmanuel could Italy be freed, and together with Giorgio Pallavicini and Giuseppe La Farina he founded the Societd Nazionale Italiana with the object of propagating the idea of unity under the Piedmontese monarchy.
In 1860 he acted as mediator between Victor Emmanuel's government and the republic of San Marino, and arranged a treaty by which the latter's liberties were guaranteed.
della monarchia di Savoia (Turin, 1854); Degli ordini cavallereschi (Turin, 1846); Degli ordini religiosi (Turin, 1845); and the Memorie Segrete of Charles Albert, written by order of Victor Emmanuel but afterwards withdrawn.
Dr Johnson's Jacobite sympathies are well known, and on the death of Victor Emmanuel I., the ex-king of Sardinia, in 1824, Lord Liverpool wrote to Canning saying "there are those who think that the ex-king was the lawful king of Great Britain."
Gibson and begun in 1883; St Peter's Episcopal Church (French Gothic), of Hudson River bluestone; Emmanuel Baptist Church, of white granite; the Madison Avenue Reformed Church; and St Joseph's (Roman Catholic), of bluestone and Caen stone with marble trimmings.
It was founded in 1737 by Charles Emmanuel III.
It was sent from India to Emmanuel, king of Portugal, in 1513; and from a sketch taken in Lisbon, Albert Diirer composed his celebrated but fanciful engraving, which was reproduced in so many old books on natural history.
I Charles Emmanuel III.
Charles Emmanuel IV.
I Victor Emmanuel II.
After the defeat of the French by the Austro-Russian armies during Bonaparte's absence in Egypt, Charles Emmanuel landed at Leghorn, hoping to regain his kingdom; but Napoleon returned, and by his brilliant victory at Marengo he reaffirmed his position in Italy.
Victor Emmanuel I.
The latter being without a son, the succession devolved upon Charles Albert, of the cadet line of the princes of Carignano, who were descended from Thomas, youngest son of Charles Emmanuel I.
Charles Albert abdicated, on the evening of his defeat at Novara (April 20, 1849), in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II.
Victor Emmanuel had married in 1842 Maria Adelaide, daughter of the archduke Rainer, who bore him several children, viz.
Humbert, who in 1868 had married Princess Margherita of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel's brother, the duke of Genoa, became king of Italy on his father's death in 1878.
He was succeeded by his only son, Victor Emmanuel III., bornborn in 1869, who during his father's lifetime had ul borne the title of prince of Naples.
The second son of Victor Emmanuel II., Amadeus, duke of Aosta, was offered the crown of Spain by the Cortes in 1870, which he accepted, but, finding that his rule was not popular, he voluntarily abdicated in 1873 rather than cause civil war.
(1666-1732), duke of Savoy and first king of Sardinia, was the son of Duke Charles Emmanuel II.
After her death, much against the advice of his remaining son arrd heir, Carlino (afterwards Charles Emmanuel III.), he married the Contessa di San Sebastiano, whom he created Marchesa di Spigno, abdicated the crown and retired to Chambery to end his days (1730).
Victor Emmanuel II >>
In 1842-1855 he was pastor of the South Congregational Church of Boston, and in 1855-1860 was preacher to the university and Plummer professor of Christian Morals at Harvard; he then left the Unitarian Church, with which his father had been connected as a clergyman at Hadley, resigned his professorship and became pastor of the newly established Emmanuel Church of Boston.
CHARLES ALBERT [CARLO ALBERTO] (1798-1849), king of Sardinia (Piedmont), son of Prince Charles of Savoy-Carignano and Princess Albertine of Saxe-Courland, was born on the 2nd of October 1798, a few days before the French occupied Piedmont and forced his cousin King Charles Emmanuel to take refuge in Sardinia.
In 1802 King Charles Emmanuel abdicated in favour of his brother Victor Emmanuel I.; the latter's only son being dead, his brother Charles Felix was heir to the throne, and after him Charles Albert.
Thereupon, feeling himself to be the obstacle to better conditions, Charles Albert abdicated in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel.
AMEDEO FERDINANDO MARIA DI SAVOIA, duke of Aosta (1845-1890), third son of Victor Emmanuel II., king of Italy, and of Adelaide, archduchess of Austria, was born at Turin on the 30th of May 1845.
restored the marquisate to Charles Emmanuel I.
The Congregation de Propaganda Fide established, in 1650, a local council in Turin, which exercised a powerful influence on Duke Charles Emmanuel II., who ordered that the Vaudois should be reduced within the limits of their ancient territory.
Emmanuel Augustin Dieudonne Marin Joseph, marquis Las Cases >>
in January 1859 with the princess Marie Clotilde of Savoy, daughter of Victor Emmanuel, a prelude to the war for the liberation of Italy.
He did not refuse to speak of Mary as being the mother of Christ or as being the mother of Emmanuel, but he thought it improper to speak of her as the mother of God, and Leo in the Letter to Flavian which was endorsed at Chalcedon uses the term "Mother of the Lord" which was exactly what Nestorius wished.
In the course of the discussion Sir Richard Jebb drew attention to the statistics collected by the master of Emmanuel, Mr W.
After being at school at Ashford, Tenterden and Felsted, and being instructed in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, he was in 1632 sent to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and afterwards was chosen fellow of Queens' College.
ARMAND EMMANUEL SOPHIE SEPTEMANIE DU PLESSIS, DUC DE RICHELIEU (1766-1822), French statesman, was born in Paris on the 25th of September 1766, the son of Louis Antoine du Plessis, duc de Fronsac and grandson of the marshal de Richelieu (1696-1788).
The work was done by a committee presided over first by Herbert Palmer, master of Queens', Cambridge, and then by Anthony Tuckney, master of Emmanuel.
His family was poor, and the register of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, testifies to his entry as sizar on the r8th of May 1632.
In the meanwhile Garibaldi had invaded Sicily with his Thousand, and King Victor Emmanuel decided at last that he too must intervene; Fanti was given the chief command of a strong Italian force which invaded the papal states, seized Ancona and other fortresses, and defeated the papal army at Castelfidardo, where the enemy's commander, General Lamoriciere, was captured.
He used his family relations with the English court, derived through the marriage of Count Emmanuel Mensdorff-Pouilly (1777-1862) with Queen Victoria's aunt, Princess Sophia of Saxe-Coburg, his friendship with Edward VII.
In 1831 he was married to Anna, daughter of Victor Emmanuel I.
Of the secular buildings the more interesting are the Palazzo Madama, first erected by William of Montferrat at the close of the 13th century on the Roman east gate of the town, remains of the towers of which were incorporated in it, and owing its name to the widow of Charles Emmanuel II., who added the west façade and the handsome double flight of steps from Juvara's designs; and the extensive royal palace begun in the 17th century.
Under Emmanuel Philibert it became the usual residence of the ducal family, and in 1515 the bishopric was raised to metropolitan rank by Leo X.
By Marie he left a daughter, Anne Marie, duchesse de Montpensier; and by Marguerite he left three daughters, Marguerite Louise (1645-1721), wife of Cosimo III., grand duke of Tuscany; Elizabeth (1646-1696), wife of Louis Joseph, duke of Guise; and Francoise Madeleine (1648-1664), wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy.
On the withdrawal of the French garrison Rome was occupied by the troops of Victor Emmanuel.
The hitherto unpublished correspondence of the pope with Victor Emmanuel contains remarkable proofs in support of this contention, and a further corroboration can also be preceived in the conciliatory attitude of Pius IX.
His son and successor, Emmanuel Philibert, made further modifications in the statute and the costume.
The church of the order was originally the Carthusian monastery of Pierre-chatel in the district of Bugey, but after Charles Emmanuel I.
It was re-established at the instance of Emmanuel Philibert by Pope Pius V.
The statutes were published in 1816, by which date the order had lost its military character; it was reformed first by Charles Albert (1831), and later by Victor Emmanuel II., king of Italy (1868).
The military Order of Savoy was founded in 1815 by Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia; badge modified 1855 and 1857.
The Order of the Crown of Italy was founded in 1868 by Victor Emmanuel II.
In front of the cathedral rises a colossal bronze equestrian statue of Victor Emmanuel II.
Emmanuel (1679-1726), whose far-reaching ambition set him warring against the Turks and, on the side of France, in the great struggle of the Spanish succession.
Untaught by Maximilian Emmanuel's experience, his son, Charles Albert (1726-1745), devoted all his energies to increasing the European prestige and power of his house.
Charles Emmanuel I >>
Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron Von Ketteler >>
Emmanuel Felix de Wimpffen >>
east of Brescia, supplied material for the monument to Victor Emmanuel II.
He was educated at the grammarschool of Brewood and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
EMMANUEL PHILIBERT (1528-1580), duke of Savoy, son of Charles III.
Prince Emmanuel took service with the emperor in 1545 and distinguished himself in Germany, France and the Low Countries.
The chief events of the campaign were the successful resistance of Cuneo, held for the duke by Count Luserna, and the victory of St Quentin (1557), won by Emmanuel Philibert himself against the French.
At last in 1558 the powers agreed to an armistice, and in 1559 the peace of Cateau-Cambresis was made, by which Emmanuel regained his duchy, but on onerous terms, for France was to occupy several Piedmontese fortresses, including Turin and Pinerolo, for not more than three years, and a marriage was arranged between the duke and Margaret, duchess of Berry, sister of the French king; while Spain was to garrison Asti and Vercelli (afterwards exchanged for Santhia) until France evacuated the above-mentioned fortresses.
Emmanuel reformed the currency, reorganized justice, prepared the way for the emancipation of the serfs, raised the standing army to 25,000 men, and fortified the frontiers, ostensibly against Huguenot raids, but in reality from fear of France.
of France in 1 574 the new king, Henry III., passed through Piedmont on his way from Poland; Emmanuel gave him a magnificent reception, and obtained from him a promise that Pinerolo and Savigliano should be evacuated, which was carried out at the end of the year.
He died on the 30th of August 1580, and was succeeded by his son Charles Emmanuel I.
As a statesman Emmanuel Philibert was able, business-like and energetic; but he has been criticized for his duplicity, although in this respect he was no worse than most other European princes, whose ends were far more questionable.
The most accurate biography of Emmanuel Philibert is contained in E.
In 1866, with the rank of colonel, he assisted Garibaldi in Tirol, in 1867 fought at Mentana, and in 1870 conducted the negotiations with Bismarck, during which the German chancellor is alleged to have promised Italy possession of Rome and of her natural frontiers if the Democratic party could prevent an alliance between Victor Emmanuel and Napoleon.
The Via Roma, another important centre of traffic which gives on to the Via Carlo Felice near the Piazza Ferrari, leads to the Piazza Corvetto, in the centre of which stands the colossal equestrian statue of Victor Emmanuel II.
Three years later the full reconciliation with Italy followed, when Francis Joseph consented to visit Victor Emmanuel in Venice.
The Abbe Emmanuel H.
Victor Emmanuel, king of Sardinia, wrote to the new king proposing an alliance for the division of Italy, but Francis refused.
In April 1860 Victor Emmanuel again proposed an alliance whereby Naples, in return for help in expelling the Austrians from Venetia, was to receive the Marche, while Sardinia would annex.
Salemi, whence he issued a proclamation assuming the dictatorship of Sicily in the name of Victor Emmanuel, with Crispi as secretary of state.
met at Turin and proclaimed Victor Emmanuel king of Italy.
territory with Victor Emmanuel at its head.
On the 26th he met Victor Emmanuel at Teano and hailed him king of Italy, and subsequently handed over his conquests to him.
On the 3rd of November a plebiscite was taken, which resulted in an overwhelming majority in favour of union with Sardinia under Victor Emmanuel.
Resumed in 1827, the excavations at Herculaneum were shortly after suspended, nor were the new attempts made in 1866 with the money bestowed by King Victor Emmanuel attended with success, being impeded by the many dangers arising from the houses built overhead.
In 1872 he accepted a fellowship and lectureship at Emmanuel College; in 1878 he was made Hulsean professor of divinity, and in 1887 Lady Margaret reader in divinity.
VICTOR EMMANUEL III.
In the square before it is a monument (1891) to Charles Emmanuel I.
Pierre Emmanuel Albert, Baron Ducasse >>
Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
WILHELM EMMANUEL KETTELER, BARON VON (1811-1877), German theologian and politician, was born at Harkotten, in Bavaria, on the 25th of December 1811.
He allied himself with Victor Emmanuel, and marched into Italy in 1859, with the object of expelling the Austrians from the peninsula.
Two years later Victor Emmanuel was master of the whole country, except Venice and the " Patrimony of St Peter."
In the following September, ten days after the final collapse of Louis Napoleon at Sedan, the troops of Victor Emmanuel entered Rome; and the temporal power of Pius came to an end.
Indeed, many prominent French and German divines still denied papal infallibility altogether; and Louis Napoleon had regularly fallen back on Richelieu's old device of stirring up the embers of Gallicanism, whenever the French clergy grew restive about his alliance with Victor Emmanuel.
On the conclusion of peace he entered the Piedmontese foreign office; he accompanied Victor Emmanuel and Cavour to Paris and London in 1855, and in the following year he took part in the conference of Paris by which the Crimean War was brought to an end.
He was instrumental in negotiating the marriage between Victor Emmanuel's daughter Clothilde and Napoleon's nephew, and during the war of 1859 he was always with the emperor.
A list of his works will be found in Bibliotheque des ecrivains de la congregation de Saint-Maur, by C. de Lame (1882), and in the article in the Nouvelle biographie generale, which gives an account of their scope and character; see also Emmanuel de Broglie, La Societe de l'abboye de St-Germain-des-Pres au 18 e siecle: Bernard de Montfaucon et les bernardins (2 vols., Paris, 1891).
162 4), rector of Aller, formerly fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
EMMANUEL, or Immanuel, a Hebrew symbolical proper name, meaning "God (is) with us."
Emmanuel Philibert >>
Modern authorities are Fenelon a Cambrai (Paris, 1885), by Emmanuel de Broglie; Fenelon, by Paul Janet (Paris, 1892); Bossuet et Fenelon, by L.
archbishop of Philiberl Emmanuel, Antonio, duke of Savoy.
Alexandre Emmanuel Louis de Bauffremont (1773-1833), a prince of the Holy Roman Empire, was created a peer of France in 1817, and duke in 1818.
Maximilian Emmanuel Ainmuller >>
NEW Jerusalem Church, or NEW Church, the com munity founded by the followers of Emmanuel Swedenborg.
In 1686 Marie Jeanne Baptiste, duchess of Nemours and of Aumale, and wife of Charles Emmanuel II., duke of Savoy, sold Aumale to Louis XIV., who gave it to his natural son, the duke of Maine.
PIERRE EMMANUEL ALBERT DUCASSE, Baron (1813-1893), French historian, was born at Bourges on the 16th of November 1813.
He was educated at Oakham grammar school, and Emmanuel College, Cambridge, taking the degree of M.A., and entering holy orders in 1835.
The other strange feature is that from near Isola in the upper Tinee valley southwards the political frontier does not coincide with the physical frontier, or the main watershed of the Alpine chain; the reason (it is said) is that in 1860 all the higher valleys of the Maritime Alps (on both sides of the watershed) were expressly excepted from the treaty of cession, in order that Victor Emmanuel II.
(Bourbon) of Naples (1744); Gioacchino Murat (1808); and Victor Emmanuel II.
Rinehart, and John Eager Howard by Emmanuel Fremiet; and bronze pieces representing Peace, War, Force and Order, and a figure of a lion by Antoine L.
Andrea, in its present form comparatively modern), and a triumphal arch erected in honour of the marriage of Charles Emmanuel I.
Emmanuel, king of Portugal; whose descendants have reigned in that country ever since.
Proceeding afterwards to Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he came under the spell of Sedgwick, and henceforth devoted all his leisure time to geology.
Emmanuel, marquis de Grouchy >>
At the close of the same year, a new ministry was formed, headed by Gioberti; but with the accession of Victor Emmanuel in March 1849, his active life came to an end.
in Savoy and Piedmont, occupied by the French and claimed by Philibert Emmanuel, Charles V.s ally; in Navarre, unlawfully conquered by Ferdinand the Catholic and claimed by the family of Albret; in Italy, where, aided and abetted by Pope Paul III., Henry II.
wanted to be declared the protector of the kingdom in order that he might dismember it, and when Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, a grandson of Francis I., and Charles III., duke of Lorraine, a son-in-law of Henry II., were both of them claiming the crown.
There was a division of opinion between the moderates, who favoured a constitutional Tuscany under Leopold, but forming part of an Italian federation, and the popular party, who aimed at the expulsion of the house of Lorraine and the unity of Italy under Victor Emmanuel.
Victor Emmanuel was obliged to recall the royal commissioners, but together with Cavour he secretly encouraged the provisional governments to resist the return of the despots, and the constituent assemblies of Tuscany, Romagna and the duchies voted for annexation to Sardinia.
At last, in August of .~5VOY 1870, Prince Amadeo of Savoy, second son of Victor accepts the Emmanuel II., consented to become candidate.
MATTHEW POOLE (1624-1679), English Nonconformist theologian, was born at York, educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, and from 1649 till the passing of the Act of Uniformity (1662) held the rectory of St Michael le Querne, London.
WILLIAM SANCROFT (1616-1693), archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Fressingfield in Suffolk 30th January 1616, and entered Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in July 1634.
On his retreat from Legnano in 1176 Barbarossa set fire to Susa; but the town became more than ever important when Emmanuel Philibert'fortified it at great expense in the 16th century.
Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc >>
VICTOR EMMANUEL II.
The young couple led a somewhat dreary life, hidebound by court etiquette, which Victor Emmanuel hated.
In having Cavour as his chief adviser Victor Emmanuel was most fortunate, and but for that statesman's astounding diplomatic genius the liberation of Italy would have been impossible.
The following year Victor Emmanuel was stricken with a threefold family misfortune; for his mother, the Queen Dowager Maria Teresa, his wife, Queen Adelaide, and his brother Ferdinand, duke of Genoa, died within a few weeks of each other.
At the end of 1855, while the allied troops were still in the East, Victor Emmanuel visited Paris and London, where he was warmly welcomed by the emperor Napoleon III.
Victor Emmanuel's object now was the expulsion of the Austrians from Italy and the expansion of Piedmont into a North Italian kingdom, but he did not regard the idea of Italian unity as coming within the sphere of practical politics for the time being, although a movement to that end was already beginning to gain ground.
Victor Emmanuel, realizing that he could not continue the campaign alone, agreed most unwillingly to the armistice of Villafranca.
As a result of the events of 1859-60, those provinces were all annexed to Piedmont, and when Garibaldi decided on the Sicilian expedition Victor Emmanuel assisted him in various ways.
of Naples, Victor Emmanuel foreseeing international difficulties wrote to the chief of the red shirts asking him not to cross the Straits; but Garibaldi, although acting throughout in the name of His Majesty, refused to obey and continued his victorious march, for he knew that the king's letter was dictated by diplomatic considerations rather than by his own personal desire.
The whole peninsula, except Rome and Venice, was now annexed to Piedmont, and on the 18th of February 1861 the parliament proclaimed Victor Emmanuel king of united Italy.
When war with Prussia appeared imminent he tried to obtain Italian assistance, and Victor Emmanuel was very anxious to fly to the assistance of the man who had helped him to expel the Austrians from Italy, but he could not do so unless Napoleon gave him a free hand in Rome.
On the 10th of September 1870, the French troops having been withdrawn, the Italian army entered Rome, and on the 2nd of July 1871 Victor Emmanuel made his solemn entry into the Eternal City, which then became the capital of Italy.
Victor Emmanuel devoted himself to his duties as a constitutional king with great conscientiousness, but he took more interest in foreign than in domestic politics and contributed not a little to improving Italy's international position.
On the 9th of January 1878, Victor Emmanuel died of fever in Rome, and was buried in the Pantheon.
Victor Emmanuel III >>
Emmanuel has a superb boathouse, with its own gym.
In 1608 the youngest son of wealthy woolen draper left Manchester to study at Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
Emmanuel Kant brought the enlightenment to its head by insisting on the moral autonomy of man.
Beyond Emmanuel, Hort's fame rests of course on his New testament scholarship.
(who had in 1820 married Theresa, daughter of Victor Emmanuel of Sardinia) abdicated in favour of his son Charles III., on the 14th of March, 1849.
In 1730 Victor Amadeus abdicated in favor of his son Charles Emmanuel III.
The king, who had sought death in vain all day, had to ask terms of Radetzky; the latter demanded Accession a slice of Piedmont and the heir to the throne (Victor of Victor Emmanuel) as a hostage, without a reservation for Emmanuel the consent of parliament.
On the 1st of January 1859, Napoleon astounded the diplomatic world by remarking to Baron Hubner, the Austrian ambassador, at the New Years reception at the Tuileries, that he regretted that relations between France and Austria were not so good as they had been; and at the opening of the Piedmontese parliament on the 10th Victor Emmanuel pronounced the memorable words that he could not be insensible to the cry of pain (ii grido di dolore) which reached him from all parts of Italy.
Consequently, to the surprise of all Europe, while the allied forces were drawn up ready for battle, Napoleon, without consulting Victor Emmanuel, sent General Fleury on the 6th of July to Francis Joseph to ask for an armistice, which was agreed to.
But Garibaldi, who wished to keep a free hand, distrusted Cavour and scorned all counsels of expediency, refused to agree; Sicily was the necessary base for his projected invasion of Naples; it would be time enough to announce its union with Piedmont when Victor Emmanuel had been proclaimed king of United Italy in Rome.
dmont, On the 15th of October King Victor Emmanuel giv ssed the Neapolitan border at the head of his troops.
The powers having engaged to abstain from intervention in italian affairs, Victor Emmanuel addressed a letter to Pius IX.
The rise of the Tiber and the flooding of Rome in December 1870 (tactfully used by Victor Emmanuel as an opportunity for a first visit to the new capital) illustrated the imperative necessity of reorganizing the drainage of the city and of constructing the Tiber embankment.
Nevertheless the royal journey contributed notably to the establishment of cordial relations between Italy and the central powers, relations which were further strengthened by the visit of the emperor Francis Joseph to Victor Emmanuel at Venice in April 1875, and by that of the German emperor to Milan in October of the same year.
His influence decided the choice of the Roman Pantheon as the late monarchs burial-place, in spite of formidable pressure from the Piedmontese, who wished Victor Emmanuel II.
The remains of King ~ Humbert were laid to rest in the Pantheon at Rome beside those of his father, Victor Emmanuel II.
Franco-Italian friendship was officially cemented by the visit of King Victor Emmanuel and Queen Elena in October 1903 to Paris where they received a very cordial welcome.
Henrietta's daughter, Anne Marie (1669-1728), became the wife of Victor Amadeus II., duke of Savoy, afterwards king of Sardinia; her son was King Charles Emmanuel III., and her grandson Victor Amadeus III.
The latter's son, King Victor Emmanuel I., left no sons, and his eldest daughter, Marie Beatrice, married Francis IV., duke of Modena, Rupert, prince Charles of Bavaria (b.
He induced both France and Spain to evacuate the fortresses which they still held in Piedmont, made a profitable exchange of territory with the Bernese, and acquired an extension of seaboard by the purchase of Tenda and Oneglia (see Emmanuel Philibert of Savoy).
In 1628 he sided with Spain against France; the armies of the latter overran the duchy, and Charles Emmanuel died in 1630 (see Charles Emmanuel).
I I I Victor Emmanuel III., Emmanuel Philibert, Victor Emmanuel, Louis Amadeus, Humbert, king of Italy (b.
Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Aosta (b.
1869), commanding an Italian army corps; Victor Emmanuel, count of Turin; and Louis Amadeus, duke of Abruzzi, an Italian naval officer and a distinguished traveller, explorer and man of science.
Charles Albert was summoned to Turin, given tutors to instruct him in legitimist principles, and on the 1 st of October 1817 married the archduchess Maria Theresa of Tuscany, who, on the 14th of March 1820, gave birth to Victor Emmanuel, afterwards king of Italy.
Of the secular buildings the more interesting are the Palazzo Madama, first erected by William of Montferrat at the close of the 13th century on the Roman east gate of the town, remains of the towers of which were incorporated in it, and owing its name to the widow of Charles Emmanuel II., who added the west faÃ§ade and the handsome double flight of steps from Juvara's designs; and the extensive royal palace begun in the 17th century.
Victor Emmanuel himself wrote to Garibaldi urging him to abstain from an attack on Naples, but Garibaldi refused to obey, and on the 19th of August he crossed with 4500 men and took Reggio by storm.
The prevalent theory, universally accepted till a few years ago, was that of Vicomte Emmanuel de Rouge, first propounded to the Academie des Inscriptions in 1859, but unnoticed by the world at large till republished, after de Rouge's death, by his son in 1874.
Coolidge, Walks and Excursions in the Valley of Grindelwald (also in French and German) (Grindelwald, 1900); Emmanuel Friedli, Beirndiitsch als Spiegel bernischen Volkstums,, vol.
Victor Emmanuel repaired to Radetzky's camp, where he was received with every sign of respect, and the field-marshal offered not only to waive the claim that Austria should occupy a part of Piedmont, but to give him an extension of territory, provided he revoked the constitution and substituted the old blue Piedmontese flag for the Italian tricolour, which savoured too much of revolution.
Beyond Emmanuel, Hort 's fame rests of course on his New Testament scholarship.
Ray has a younger brother named Emmanuel (Manny) and an older sister named Maria.
Emmanuel House Residence offers safe and affordable assisted living in an active retirement community that includes meal plans, security, and individual plans for independent living.
Emmanuel DelCour - Emmanuel is from France and began cooking at a young age.
He was particularly friendly with King Emmanuel of Portugal on account of the latter's missionary enterprises in Asia and Africa.
By his first wife he had three children: Henri, who became insane; Louis Emmanuel, who succeeded his father as duke of Angouleme and was colonel-general of light cavalry and governor of Provence; and Francois, who died in 1622.
Returning to Messina, Garibaldi found a letter from Victor Emmanuel II.
On the 7th of November Garibaldi accompanied Victor Emmanuel during his solemn entry into Naples, and on the morrow returned to Caprera, after disbanding his volunteers and recommending their enrolment in the regular army.
Matters improved considerably under Charles Emmanuel III., in whose reign of forty-three years (1730-1773) the prosperity of the island was much increased.
In 1799 Charles Emmanuel IV.
In 1802 he abdicated in favour of his brother Victor Emmanuel I., who in 1806 returned to Cagliari and remained there until 1814, when he retired, leaving his brother, Carlo Felice, as viceroy.
According to this, Duke Charles Emmanuel of Savoy, who succeeded his more tolerant father in 1580, was determined to reduce the Chablais to the Catholic religion, by peaceful means if possible, by force if necessary.
Emmanuel Philibert, duke of Savoy, represented the oldest and not the least illustrious reigning house in Europe, and his descendants were destined to achieve for Italy the independence which no other power or prince had given her since the fall of ancient Rome.
When Emmanuel Philibert succeeded to his father Charles III.
But the princes of the house of Savoy were a race of warriors; and what Emmanuel Philibert lost as sovereign he regained as captain of adventure in the service of his cousin Philip II.
Emmanuel Philibert was succeeded by his son Charles Emmanuel I., who married Catherine, a daughter of Philip II.
Charles Emmanuel now attempted the acquisition of Montferrat, which was soon to become vacant by the death of Francesco Gonzaga, who held it together with Mantua.
Charles Emmanuel was now checkmated by France, as he had formerly been by Spain.
On this occasion Charles Emmanuel acquired Tortona and Novara.
Charles Emmanuel now threatened Genoa.
Charles Emmanuel made his will law, and erased the remnants of free institutions from his state.
Further, at the close of 1798 they virtually compelled the young king of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel IV., to abdicate at Turin.
To the kingdom of Sardinia, now reconstituted under Victor Emmanuel I., France ceded its old provinces, Savoy and Nice; and the allies, especially Great Britain and Austria, insisted on the addition to that monarchy of the territories of the former republic of Genoa, in respect of which the king took the title of duke of Genoa, in order to strengthen it for the duty of acting as a buffer state between France and the smaller states of central Italy.
The reaction, which was dull and heavy in the dominions of the pope and of Victor Emmanuel, systematically harsh in the Austrian states of the north, and comparatively mild in Parma and Tuscany, excited the greatest loathing in southern Italy and Sicily, because there it was directed by a dynasty which had aroused feelings of hatred mingled with contempt.
Victor Emmanuel I., the king of Sardinia, was the only native ruler in the peninsula, and the Savoy dynasty was popular with all classes.
Both King Victor Emmanuel and his brother Charles Felix had no sons, and the heir presumptive to the throne was Prince Charles Albert, of the Carignano branch of the house of Savoy.
Victor Emmanuel went in person to treat with Radetzky on the 24th of March.
It was now evident that the federal idea was impossible, for none of the princes except Victor Emmanuel could be trusted, and that unity and freedom could not be achieved under a republic, for nothing could be done without the Piedmontese army, which was royalist to the core.
One section of public opinion desired to make Piedmonts co-operation subject to definite promises by the Powers; but the latter refused to bind, themselves, and both Victor Emmanuel and Cavour realized that, even without such promises, participation would give Piedmont a claim.
The decline of Mazzinis influence was accompanied by the rise of a new movement in favor of Italian unity under Victor Emmanuel, inspired by the Milanese marquis Giorgio New Pallavicini, who had spent 14 years in the Spielberg, Unio~lsi and by Manin, living in exile in Paris, both of them moveex-republicans who had become monarchists.
All who accepted the motto Unity, Independence and Victor Emmanuel were admitted into the society.
At the opening of the Piedmontese parliament in 1859, Victor Emmanuel pronounced the memorable words that he could not be insensible to the cry of pain (ii grido di dolore) which reached him from all parts of Italy.
To this course Napoleon consented, to the despair of King Victor Emmanuel and Cavour, who saw in this a proof that he wished to back out of his engagement and make war impossible.
But Victor Emmanuel on this occasion proved the greater statesman of the two; he understood that, hard as it was, he must content himself with Lombardy for the present, lest all be lost.
Victor Emmanuel regretfully signed the peace preliminaries, adding, however, pour ce qui me concerne (which meant that he made no undertaking with regard to central Italy), and Cavour resigned office.
Victor Emmanuel, at the request of the people, assumed the protectorate over Tuscany, where he was represented by the Sardinian minister Boncompagni.
The municipality of Bologna formed a Giunta, to which Romagna and the Marches adhered, and invoked the dictatorship of Victor Emmanuel; at Perugia, too, a provisional government was constituted under F.
Constituent assemblies met and voted for unity under Victor Emmanuel, but the king could not openly accept the proposal owing to the emperors opposition, backed by the presence of French armies in Lombardy; at a word from Napoleon there might have been an Austrian, and perhaps a Franco-Austrian, invasion of central Italy.
But to Napoleons statement that he could not agree to the unification of Italy, as he was bound by his promises to Austria at Villafranca, Victor Emmanuel replied that he himself, after Magenta and Solferino, was bound in honor to link his fate with that of the Italian people; and Genetal Manfredo Fanti was sent by the Turin government to organize the army of the Central League, with Garibaldi under him.
King Victor Emmanuel and Cavour both wrote to Garibaldi urging him not to spoil all by aiming at too much.
On the 2gth Victor Emmanuel and Garibaldi met, for:
On the 18th of February the first Italian at~ ~liament met at Turin, and Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed shi~ g of Italy.
Jictor Emmanuel took the supreme command of the Italian sy, and La Marmora resigned the premiership (which was umed by Ricasoli), to become chief of the staff.
Victor Emmanuel was sincerely anxious to assist Napoleon, for in spite of Nice and Savoy and Mentana he felt a chivalrous desire to help the man who had fought for Italy.
Then it was too late; Victor Emmanuel asked Thiers if he could give his word of honor that with 100,000 Italian troops France could be saved, but Thiers remained silent.
In July 1872 King Victor Emmanuel made hi~ solemn entry into Rome, which was then declared the capita of Italy.
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.
The refusal of Victor Emmanuel II.
At this juncture the emperor of Austria invited Victor Emmanuel to visit the Vienna Exhibition, and the Italian government received a confidential intimation that acceptance of the invitation to Vienna would be followed by a further invitation from Berlin.
Hardly had he assumed office when the unexpected death of Victor Emmanuel II.
and years Victor Emmanuel had been the centre point Pius IX.
Before the commotion caused by the death of Victor Emmanuel had passed away, the decease of Pius IX (7th February 1878) placed further demands upon Crispis sagacity and promptitude.
Notwithstanding the pontiffs bestowal of the apostolic benediction in articulo mortis upon Victor Emmanuel, the attitude of the Vatican had remained so inimical as to make it doubtful whether the conclave would be held in Rome.
Humbert was succeeded by his only son, Victor Emmanuel III.
The remains of King Humbert were laid to rest in the Pantheon at Rome beside those of his father, Victor Emmanuel II.
Two days later Victor Emmanuel III.
In October 1908 came the bombshell of the Austrian annexation of Bosnia, announced to King Victor Emmanuel and to other rulers by autograph letters from the emperor-king.
Among the more delicate negotiations of his later years were those of 1580, which had for their object the ultimate union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, and those of 1584, which resulted in a check to France by the marriage of the Spanish infanta Catherine to Charles Emmanuel, duke of Savoy.
So great was his reputation that when Sir Walter Mildmay founded Emmanuel College in 1584 he chose Chaderton for the first master, and on his expressing some reluctance, declared that if he would not accept the office the foundation should not go on.
At this period he made provision for twelve fellows and above forty scholars in Emmanuel College.
STEPHEN MARSHALL (c. 15941 655), English Nonconformist divine, was born at Godmanchester in Huntingdonshire, and was educated at Emmanuel College, Cambridge (M.A.
CHARLES EMMANUEL I.
The next few years were filled with negotiations and intrigues with Spain and France which did not lead to any particular result, but on the death in 1612 of Duke Francesco Gonzaga of Mantua, who was lord of Monferrato, Charles Emmanuel made a successful coup de main on that district.
Charles Emmanuel achieved a great reputation as a statesman and warrior, and increased the prestige of Savoy, but he was too shifty and ingenious, and his schemes ended in disaster.
After graduating at Cambridge (Emmanuel College) and taking holy orders, he officiated for several years as curate at Mitcham.
He was educated at the free grammar school of his native town, and in 1631 was nominated to the Lynn scholarship in Emmanuel College, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A.
But he protested energetically against tlae loss of the pope's temporal power in 1870, against the confiscation of the property of the religious orders, and against the law of civil marriage established by the Italian government, and he refused to welcome Victor Emmanuel in his diocese.
In 1705 he entered as a sizar at Emmanuel College, Cambridge; in 1711 he was elected fellow of his college and was ordained.
In 1859 Siena was the first Tuscan city that voted for annexation to Piedmont and the monarchy of Victor Emmanuel II., this decision (voted 26th June) being the initial step towards the unity of Italy.
On January 9, 1878, the death of Victor Emmanuel and the accession of King Humbert enabled Crispi to secure the formal establishment of a unitary monarchy, the new monarch taking the title of Humbert I.
and by him to King Victor Emmanuel.
His verses to King Charles Albert, then prince of Carignano, on the birth of his son Victor Emmanuel, attracted the prince's attention and proved the beginning of a long intimacy.
Garibaldi landed in Sicily in 1860, and Messina was the last city in the island taken from the Bourbons and made a part of united Italy under Victor Emmanuel.
of France and of the Emperor Charles V., while his son and successor, Emmanuel Philibert (1553-1580), was serving in the Spanish armies.
Emmanuel could not take possession of the duchy at once, but continued to serve the emperor as governor-general of the Low Countries.
Under Emmanuel Philibert Savoy lost all traces of constitutional government and became an absolute despotism of the type then predominating throughout the greater part of Europe.
Charles His son and successor, Charles Emmanuel I., surnamed the Great, strengthened the tendency of Savoy to become less of a French and more of an Italian Power.
His eldest son, Francis Giacinto, a minor, lived only a year, and his second son, Charles Emmanuel II., also a minor, remained under the regency of his mother.
In 1730 he abdicated in favour of his son, Charles Emmanuel, retired to Chambery, and married the countess of San Sebastiano (afterwards Marchioness of Spigno).
Charles Emmanuel III.
He was succeeded in turn by his three sons, Charles Emmanuel IV., Victor Emmanuel I., and Charles Felix.
Charles Emmanuel (1796-1802), believing in Bonaparte's promises, was induced to enter into a confederation with France and give up the citadel of Turin to the French, which meant the end of his country's independence.
In the end the duchess succeeded in patching up these feuds and saving the dynasty, and in 1648 Charles Emmanuel II.
I I Francis Hyacinth Charles Emmanuel II.
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