The emigration to Siberia varies much from year to year.
The marquis fled abroad with his second son Louis at the time of the emigration of the nobles.
Webster has observed ants, foreseeing this emigration, to carry aphids from apple trees to .grasses.
The Mobile Militia will not, however, at that date have felt the effects of the scheme, and the Territonial Militia (setting the drain of emigration against the increased population) will probably remain at about the same figure as in 1901.
there was a considerable emigration of Arabs into the country.
From the Transylvanian counties there is an emigration to Rumania and the Balkan territories of 4000 or 5000 persons yearly.
On the 12th 1 The Mussulman population, 88,000 in 1895, had sunk to 40,00e in 1907, and the emigration was still continuing.
But this was followed, during the next fourteen years, by the wholesale emigration of thousands upon thousands of Circassians, who sought an asylum in Turkish territory, leaving their native region almost uninhabited and desolate, a condition from which it has not recovered even at the present day.
Emigration is a comparatively new phenomenon in Sardinia, which began only in 1896, but is gaining ground.
Owing to emigration, the population appears to be steadily diminishing, and is now only about 6000, or less than half what it was in 1857.
From the next table will be seen the direction of emigration in the years specified :
There is also some emigration from central Russia to the S.
Unfavourable political and economic conditions of a temporary character influence the emigration movement.
According to his view, the seeds of the peach, cultivated for ages in China, might have been carried by the Chinese into Kashmir, Bokhara, and Persia between the period of the Sanskrit emigration and the Graeco-Persian period.
There is consequently much emigration, the Christian surplus going mainly to Egypt, and to America, the Druses to the latter country and to the Hauran.
Emigration has, however, recently assumed such proportions as to lead to scarcity of labor and rise of wages in Italy itself.
The Latin element in Africa and the Christian faith almost disappeared in a single generation; 1 the Berbers of the [1 The North African Church was not utterly swept away by the Moslem conquest, though its numbers at that time were very greatly diminished, and thereafter fell gradually to vanishing point, partly by emigration to Europe.
Hence from the 10th to the 12th centuries there was great intercourse with Iceland and Greenland on the part of the English, Swedish and Danish, but at the end of the 13th century some change occurred, resulting in the southerly emigration of the Eskimos and the extinction of European civilization in Greenland.
Under external migration are comprised emigration and immigration, denoting simply direction from and to.
In the "emigration" he found himself without proper place and influence.
The first great emigration of the London merchants westward was about the middle of the 18th century, but only those who had already secured large fortunes ventured so far as Hatton Garden.
migrare) may be either external - that is, from one country to another, including emigration from mother country to colony; or it may be internal - that is, within the limits of a single country.
In 1904 official estimates, based on immigration and emigration returns and upon registered births and deaths, both of which are admittedly defective, showed a population increased to 5,410,028, and a small diminution in the rate of annual increase from 1895 to 1904 as compared with 18.69-1895.
The ravages of the war from 1821 to 1830, and the emigration that followed, caused a great diminution, and the population was estimated by Pashley in 1836 at only about 130,000.
Nevertheless, emigration continued even on a larger scale than in 1406, and the real history of Pisa may be said to have ended.
The value of the foreign orders paid in Italy increased from 1,280,000 to ~2,356,oo0owing to the increase of emigration and of the savings sent home by emigrants.
On the other hand, in the six years, 1892-97, the excess of Russian emigration over immigration was 207,353, as compared with an excess of foreign immigration over emigration of only 136,740.
In 1847 he was temporarily occupied with ideas of emigration, and with this object made a journey to Algiers, but returned to Baden and resumed his former position as the Radical champion of popular rights, later becoming president of the Volksverein, where he was destined to fall still further under the influence of the agitator Gustav von Struve.
In 1908 the government introduced a bill to provide for the cessation of Indian emigration at the end of three years; it was not proceeded with, but a strong commission was appointed to inquire into the whole subject.
Despite a huge emigration of Jews from Russia, the congestion within the pale is the cause of terrible destitution and misery.
The period as a whole had some anxious moments; emigration to the gold-fields and the strife which afflicted Wesleyan Methodism brought loss and confusion between 1853 and 1860.
This was the result of the Armenian massacres, the wholesale emigration of Armenians of all classes, the accompanying profound political unrest throughout the country, and the great extension of contraband which ensued from it.
In health these cells, belonging to our first army of defenders, are found continually circulating in the blood stream in fairly large numbers; they are ever ready to rush to the point of attack, where they at once leave the blood stream by passing through the vessel walls - emigration - into the tissues of the danger zone.
The horrors of war and of religious persecution, and the consequent emigration or expulsion of its inhabitants, had wrecked the prosperity of Ghent, the recovery of which was made impossible by the closing of the Scheldt.
The statistics of these show that there was during the thirty-two years, 1856-88, an excess of emigration over immigration of 1,146,052 in the case of Russians, and a surplus of immigration of 2,304,717 foreigners.
Louis, marquis de La Rochejacquelein, the younger brother of Henri, accompanied his father in the emigration, served in the army of Conde, and entered the service of England in America.
The phenomenon of emigration in Sicily cannot altogether be explained by low wages, which have risen, though prices have done the same.
There was no longer within the Russian land any independent principality in which an asylum could be found, and emigration to a principality beyond the frontier, such as Lithuania, was regarded as treason, for which the property of the fugitive would be confiscated and his family might be punished.
From choice or compulsion large numbers settled in Egypt in the time of the Ptolemies, and added an appreciable element to Alexandrine culture, while gradual voluntary emigration established Jewish communities in Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, who facilitated the first spread of Christianity.
New and direct services were started to East Africa, Central America and Mexico; the service to India and the Far East, as well as that to the Mediterranean ports, was much improved; and lastly, Trieste was made the centre of the large emigration from Austria to America by the inauguration (June 1904) of a direct emigrant service to New York.
Meditating, it is probable, emigration upon his release, he turned his attention while in prison to colonial subjects, and acutely detected the main causes of the slow progress of the Australian colonies in the enormous size of the landed estates, the reckless manner in which land was given away, the absence of all systematic effort at colonization, and the consequent discouragement of immigration and dearth of labour.
Czacki (Pol.) (Cracow, 1854); Letters written during Emigration, 1792-1794 (Pol.) (Posen, 1872).
The most serious drain on the population is caused by emigration, due partly to the grinding poverty of the mass of the peasants, partly to the resentment of the subject races against the process of " Magyarization " to which they have long been subjected by the government.
Proposing to seek his fortune abroad, he went on foot to Nantes, but was there prostrated by an illness so severe that all thoughts of emigration were perforce abandoned.
His brother, Charles Washington Baird (1828-1887), a graduate of New York University (1848) and of the Union Theological Seminary (1852), and the minister in turn of a Dutch Reformed church at Brooklyn, New York, and of a Presbyterian church at Rye, New York, also was deeply interested in the history of the Huguenots, and published a scholarly work entitled The History of the Huguenot Emigration to America (2 vols., 1885), left unfinished at his death.
As a result, however, partly of the usual want of work on the grasslands in certain seasons, there has been a considerable emigration to America.
The flow of emigration is mainly to the United States, and a certain number of the emigrants return (27,612 in 1906) bringing with them much wealth, and Americanized views which have a considerable effect on the political situation.
Consequently for a long time there was a continual stream of emigration from Pisa.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
- The earliest Presbyterian emigration consisted of French Huguenots under the auspices of Admiral Coligny, led to Port Royal, South Carolina, by Jean Ribaut in 1562, and to Florida (near the present St Augustine) by Rene de Laudonniere in 1564, and by Ribaut in 1565.
A considerable proportion of the emigrants are miners who proceed to Tunis, and remain only a few years, but emigration to America is increasing.
There appears to be no foundation for the statement that he was stopped by an order of council when on the point of abandoning England for America, though there can be little doubt that the thoughts of emigration suggested themselves to his mind at this period.
There was a tendency towards increased emigration during, the last quarter of the 19th century.
Daudet, Hisroire de ?emigration (3 vols., Paris,1886-1890and 1904-1905), and La Police et les chouans sous le consulat et l'empire (Paris, 1895); G.
All this, however, must necessarily be of the nature of the purest speculation, and the only facts which we are able to deduce in the present state of our knowledge of the subject may be summed up as follows: (a) That the Malays ethnologically belong to a race which is allied to the Polynesians; (b) that the theory formerly current to the effect that the Sakai and other similar races of the peninsula and archipelago belonged to the Malayan stock cannot be maintained, since recent investigations tend to identify them with the Mon-Annam or Mon-Khmer family of races; (c) that the Malays are, comparatively speaking, newcomers in the lands which they now inhabit; (d) that it is almost certain that their emigration took place from the south; (e) and that, at some remote period of their history, they came into close contact with the Polynesian race, probably before its dispersion over the extensive area which it now occupies.
Cloete, Emigration of the Dutch Farmers from the Cape and their Settlement in Natal ...
This great emigration movement is the more serious in view of the very slow increase of the population through excess of births over deaths.
The movement of emigration may be divided into two currents, temporary and permanentthe former going chiefly towards neighboring European countries and to North Africa, and consisting of manual laborers, the latter towards trans-oceanic countries, principally Brazil, Argentina and the United States.
The emigration department, although a development of the Darkest England Scheme, has no connexion with the rescue work; in 1907 the passage money received amounted to £85,014, and in 1909 to £38,179.
Wheatears were flying around as well, prior to emigration and the Mute Swan couple were accompanied by nine dirty gray cygnets.
THE EMIGRANT RETURNS TO ALBANIA Returning at last from far emigration I saw my country: a wrinkled old crone.
emigration of children under the Children Act, 1908, ch.
emigration of 21 million people who settled in the United States, Australia and Europe.
In 1844 the Swiss government began to encourage emigration to the United States.
Afterwards he became imperial commissioner of emigration to the emperor Maximilian of Mexico, and started building "New Virginia" and a "Carlotta" colony in Mexico.
Emigration is occurring concurrently, tho not driving, expansion of unsustainable coastal aquaculture.
Their departure is known as the first emigration.
In 1846 came the Irish potato famine, and an enormous emigration began, followed by a very large German emigration from similar causes.
In 1955 the National Trust for Scotland succeeded him as landlord and helped islanders to step emigration and revitalize the community.
Such was the extent of this emigration that by 1776 there were over 250,000 Scotch-Irish Presbyterians in North America.
Emigration and Immigration The Scots-Irish Early migration from Scotland to Ireland was often driven by religious persecution.
Fact categories make it easier to keep track of important facts such as deaths, marriages, emigration or births.
5.1 Births, Marriages, Deaths 5.2 Occupations 5.3 Emigration
The Greek constitution admits no religious disabilities, but anti-Semitic riots in Corfu and Zante in 1891 caused much distress and emigration.
In 1847 he wrote his biographies of Simon, Lord Lovat, and of Duncan Forbes, and in 1849 prepared for Chambers's Series manuals of political and social economy and of emigration.
Hence it is proper to separate emigration from immigration.
1,621,624 15.7 1,334,635 12'9 Emigration from various Countries of Europe.
The general direction of emigration from Europe is shown in the following table: Scandinavians Denmark Norway Sweden Statistics of Immigration.-The statistics of the United States are the most important and the most complete.
Even in particular districts where emigration is heavy the loss is made up by births.
The county is among those least seriously affected by emigration.
It is lowest, naturally, in the mining districts, as Glamorgan, Monmouth, Durham, Northumberland; but an exception may be noted in the case of Cornwall, where a high proportion of females is attributed to the emigration of miners consequent upon the relative decrease in importance of the tin-mines.
In such instances of assisted emigration, the parish usually provided any necessary shoes and clothing.
Some landlords resorted to forced emigration of their tenants in an effort to'solve ' the problem in Ireland.
The failed German revolution in 1848 stimulated emigration to America.
large-scale emigration of Cornish miners to new mining fields overseas begins 1876.
Maya was the only student to think about Irish emigration.
For example, net emigration from Scotland in recent years has been much lower than in the 1960s or even the 1980s.
They had all settled in Paris - the ' second ' center of Russian emigration at that time.
Leave aside the mass emigration of the famine years.
emigration agents who were responsible for selecting the ships.
emigration trade, by focusing on the specific case of mid-nineteenth-century Cornwall.
emigration schemes, which continued right up the 1960's.
emigration records emigrate Do not expect to find centrally or locally held records of emigrants in Scotland itself.
Return to top of page emigration and Immigration Some Emigrants from Derbyshire to Australia and New Zealand - brief biographical details of known emigrants.
injurious influences of the emigration.
Mr. Doyle remained insistent in his belief that no children should be sent to Canada under Miss Rye's present system of emigration.
intercession of friends led to his emigration to the United States in 1933.
The subsequent abolition of the Irish self-government was one of the reasons for the huge growth in emigration in the nineteenth century.
The enigmatic term ' inner emigration ' is often applied to the fate of the great German symphonist Karl Amadeus Hartmann.
Antoine Louis Francois, comte d'Avaray, son of the above, distinguished himself during the Revolution by his devotion to the comte de Provence, afterwards Louis XVIII., whose emigration he assisted.
The population henceforth dwindled in consequence of pestilence and emigration, and although the island recovered somewhat in the 18th century under a comparatively lenient rule it was brought to a very low ebb owing to the severity of its governor during the Greek revolution.
Furtherand this case no legislation can coverthe contingent, and (what is more serious) the reserves, are being steadily weakened by emigration.
Owing to the havoc wrought during repeated insurrections, the impoverishment of the peasants, the desolation of the districts formerly inhabited by the Moslem agricultural population, and the drain of gold resulting from the sale of Moslem lands and emigration of the former proprietors, together with other causes, the financial situation has been unsatisfactory.
2 No wonder that a stream of emigration set towards the East, such as would in modern times flow towards a newly discovered gold-field - a stream carrying in its turbid waters much refuse, tramps and bankrupts, camp-followers and hucksters, fugitive monks and escaped villeins, and marked by the same motley grouping, the same fever of life, the same alternations of affluence and beggary, which mark the rush for a gold-field to-day.
Altogether, since 1896 Hungary has lost about a million of its inhabitants through this cause, a serious source of weakness in a sparsely populated country; in 1907 an attempt was made by the Hungarian parliament to restrict emigration by law.
The population (72,286 in 1891; 65,619 in 1901) shows a heavy decrease, though emigration affects it less seriously than the majority of Irish counties.
The Civil Constitution of the Clergy, too, seemed to him not only to violate his rights as a king, but his faith as a Christian also; and when the emigration of the nobility and the death of Mirabeau (April 2, 1791) had deprived him of his natural supporters and his only adviser, resuming the old plan of withdrawing to the army of the marquis de Bouill at Metz, he made his ill-fated attempt to escape from Paris (June 20, 1791).
flight to Varennes, Monsieur also fled by a different route, and, in company with the comte d'Avaray ' - who subsequently replaced Mme de Balbi as his confidant, and largely influenced his policy during the emigration - succeeded in reaching Brussels, where he joined the comte d'Artois and proceeded to Coblenz, which now became the headquarters of the emigration.
(f) The movement of population, however, has continued under the form of emigration.
This movement is characterized firstly by its magnitude; secondly, by the fact that the emigrant changes his political allegiance, for by far the greater part of modern emigration is to independent countries, and even where it is to colonies the colonies are largely self-governing and self-regarding; and thirdly, it is a movement of individuals seeking their own good, without state direction or aid.
This is 20th-century emigration, differing from all preceding forms and having an importance of its own.
Statistics of Emigration.-The direction of the modern movement is from Europe to America, Australia and South Africa, as shown in the following table: Emigration from Certain States of Europe, 1890-1905.1 1 The figures relate only to the emigrants of each nationality emigrating from their own country to countries outside of Europe.
The greater part of this emigration has been to the United States of North America.
The history of emigration is well shown in the following table of emigration from Great Britain and Ireland.
Emigration from Great Britain and Ireland, 1815-1905.
The main figures have already been given in the table of emigration.
This is offset by a very heavy emigration, which sometimes exceeds the immigration in certain of the states.
Balance of Emigration and Immigration.-Even in the case of emigration from Europe to countries beyond the seas there is some return movement.
Thus, for Great Britain and Ireland, while the emigration of persons of British and Irish origin was, in 1905, 262,077, the immigration of persons of the same category was 122,712, leaving a net emigration of only 139,365.
Temporary Emigration.-In many European countries there is not only emigration beyond seas, but a very considerable movement to neighbouring countries in search of work, and generally with the intention of returning.
Thus in Italy, the "permanent" emigration (i.e.
to countries beyond seas) numbered, in 1905, 447, 08 3; the "temporary" emigration to European or Mediterranean countries amounted to 279,248.
This temporary emigration is strongest in the spring, and consists principally of adult males (agriculturists, farm and day labourers, bricklayers and masons) in search of work.
Effects of Emigration.-There are two views with regard to emigration: one unfavourable, viz., that it is a drain on population, reducing its economic strength and disturbing social and political relations; the second looking upon it as a relief from over-population and a congested labour market.
As a matter of fact, emigration has not succeeded in diminishing the population of Europe, which, on the contrary, doubled during the 19th century.
From 1851 to 1901 the total emigration from Ireland was 3,881,246 or 72.5% of the average population.
Emigration, by carrying off the young men and women, also reduced the Irish marriage and birth-rates, which were almost the lowest in Europe.
But hitherto the countries of strongest emigration (England, Germany, &c.) have shown practically undiminished birth and marriage-rates and a steady growth in population.
The intensity of emigration is measured not by the absolute number of emigrants, but by the number of emigrants to the total population.
This is shown in the following table (1905): It will be observed that, with the exception of Ireland and Italy, wherever there is a heavy emigration there is usually a considerable excess of births over deaths, i.e.
natural increase more than makes up for the loss by emigration.
Even taking Great Britain and Ireland together, the loss by emigration per annum has not been very large, as is shown by the following table :- Annual Emigration per moo of the Average Population of Great Britain and Ireland.
For instance, in 1891 the emigration from the provinces of West Prussia and Posen was extraordinarily heavy10.9 and Io 4 per mille respectively-but the excess of births over deaths was 19.6 per mille.
Emigration may give temporary relief to congested districts, but it is not in itself a remedy for so-called over-population.
It is difficult to analyse closely the economic effect of emigration, because so much depends upon the character of the emigrants and the condition of the labour market.
The following considerations have been urged at different times: Although emigration does not diminish population, yet, as the emigrants are in the most productive period of life (15 to 45), the country of emigration loses adults and replaces them with children.
In the same vein it is urged that voluntary emigration takes away the cream of the working-classes.
It is maintained that such emigration institutes a process of selection which is unfavourable to the home country.
Emigration affords a natural outlet for the superfluous labour force of a country.
Emigration is therefore an economic gain, both directly and indirectly.
The same remark would hold true in regard to the social and political effects of emigration.
In case of conquest the conquered nationality takes to emigration on an extensive scale, as after the absorption of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany in 1871.
Of such character have been the state-aided emigration from Ireland, and the assisted emigration of paupers, criminals and other persons in the effort to relieve a congested population, or simply from the desire to get rid of undesirable members of the community.
Effects of Immigration.-The effects of emigration are negative in character; those of immigration are positive.
- The statistics of migration are to be found in the official returns of different countries, especially the statistical tables relating to emigration and immigration published by the British Board of Trade, and the Reports (annual) of the CommissionerGeneral of Immigration of the United States.
Mayo-Smith, Emigration and Immigration, with bibliography (New York, 1890).
At the end of the rule of the knights (1798) the population was estimated at roo,000; sickness, famine and emigration during the blockade of the French in Valletta probably reduced the inhabitants to 80,000.
Nothing is done to promote emigration or to introduce manufactures.
well-educated; and, owing to the uniformly high birth-rate, low death-rate, and very slight loss by emigration, their numbers increased rapidly during the latter part of the 19th century, until in 1900 the density of population (372.4 per sq.
On his return he was contemplating emigration to New England, when in June 1773 Lord North, on the recommendation of Lord Barrington, appointed him a member of the newly constituted supreme council of Bengal at a salary of io,000 per annum.
The emigration movement proved a failure, and Las Casas lived long enough to express his shame for having been so slow to see that Africans were as much entitled to freedom as were the natives of the New World.
About 1628 the religious troubles in England led to the emigration of a large number of Puritans; the colony of Massachusetts Bay was founded in 1628-1630 by settlers led by John Endicott and John Winthrop, and a church on congregational lines was founded at Salem in 1629, and another soon afterwards at Boston, which became the centre of the colony.
From time to time the emigration takes the shape of a mass movement, which the government stops by forcible measures.
The great event they dwell on is the bursting of the dam of Ma'rib, which led to the emigration northwards of the Yemenite tribes.
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
Posen, one of the oldest towns in Poland and the residence of some of the early Polish princes, including Boleslaus I., provincial colonization " and to prevent German emigration.
A fourth endeavoured to bind the peasantry more closely to the soil by forbidding emigration.
The immediate result of the third partition was an immense emigration of the more high-spirited Poles who, during] the next ten years, fought the battles of the French Republic and of Napoleon all over Europe, but principally against their own enemies, the partitioning powers.
The emigration to Massachusetts in 1629, which continued in a stream till 1640, was not composed of separatists but of episcopalians.
To protect these adventurers and to secure for itself the largest possible share in these new sources of wealth, the Spanish crown forbade the admission of foreigners into these colonies, and then harassed them with commercial and industrial restrictions, burdened them with taxes, strangled them with monopolies and even refused to permit the free emigration thither of Spaniards..
Temporary relief was administered in the shape of employment on roads and other works; and an emigration fund being raised, from 4000 to 5000 of the people in the most crowded districts were removed to Australia.
- The inhabitants of Guatemala, who tend to increase rapidly owing to the high birth-rate, low mortality, and low rate of emigration, numbered in 1903 1,842,134, or more than one-third of the entire population of Central America.
allowed her navy to decline and her people showed little inclination for emigration to the colonies.
The control of the public lands is retained by the general government on the ground that it has been responsible for the development of the country by railway construction and emigration.
During the Roman occupation of Britain, Irish pirates seem to have been an intermittent nuisance, and Irish emigrants may have settled occasionally in Wales; the best attested emigration is that of the Scots into Caledonia.
Then President Jackson, holding that Georgia was in the right on the Indian question, informed the Cherokees that their only alternative to submission to Georgia was emigration.
The problem is complicated by the fact that, from the Egyptian evidence, not only was there at this time no remarkable emigration of oppressed Hebrews, but Bedouin tribes were then receiving permission to enter Egypt and to feed their flocks upon Egyptian soil.
EMIGRATION (from Lat.
There is a considerable import of coal, cotton, iron and breadstuffs, the chief exports being butter, fish, timber and wood pulp. During the period of emigration, owing to political troubles with Russia, over 12,000 Finns sailed from Hangs in a single year (1901), mostly for the United States and Canada.
Apart, however, from self-defence, the main causes of war are four: (I) The desire for territorial expansion, due to the overgrowth of population, and insufficiency of the available food-supply; if the necessary territory cannot be obtained by negotiation, conquest becomes the only alternative to emigration to foreign lands.
The measures by which the government of India chiefly endeavours to reduce the liability of the country to famine are the promotion of railways; the extension of canal and well irrigation; the reclamation of waste lands, with the establishment of fuel and fodder reserves; the introduction of agricultural improvements; the multiplication of industries; emigration; and finally the improvement where necessary of the revenue and rent systems. In times of famine the function of the railways in distributing the grain is just as important as the function of the irrigation-canals in increasing the amount grown.
Its headquarters are in Bethnal Green, but it has branches in various parts of the country and an emigration depot in Canada.
An attempt was made to prevent the emigration of labourers, and finally the spiritual arm was invoked to secure obedience to these laws by threats of excommunication.
This, taken in conjunction with the advance in trade and shipping, the diminution in emigration, and the prosperity of the savings banks, points to a favourable state in the condition of the people.
Emigration to America, especially from the Volscian and Hernican towns, is now considerable.
Bremen also shares with Hamburg the position of being one of the two chief emigration ports of Germany.
There is also an extensive emigration system, under which many hundreds (3000 in 1906) of carefully tested men and families, of good character, chiefly of the unemployed class, are placed in permanent employment in Canada through the agency of the local clergy.
The emigration of Belgians from their country is small and reveals little variation.
The greater increase in the male population is attributable to diminished emigration and to the large increase in immigrants, who are mostly males.
Emigralion.-There have been great oscillations in the actual emigration by sea.
Germany lost during these thirteen years more than 1,700,000 inhabitants by emigration.
The greater number of the more recent emigrants was from the agricultural provinces of northern GermanyWest Prussia, Posen, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, Schleswiz-Holstein and Hanover, and sometimes the emigration reached 1, ~ of the total population of these provinces.
In subsequent years the emigration of native Germans greatly decreased and, in 1905, amounted only to 28,075.
The ports of Hamburg and Bremen, which are the chief outlets for emigration to the United States of America, carry on a vast commercial trade with all the chief countries of the world, and are the main gates of maritime intercourse between the United Kingdom and Germany.
For the whole of Germany this was emphatically the period of petty despotism; and not only from Hesse, but from all parts of the country there was a vast stream of emigration, mainly to the New World.
But before 1550 the drain of military expeditions to the continent, the quarrels of civil, military and ecclesiastical powers, and of citizens, and the emigration of colonists to the Main (not in small part due to the abolition of the encomiendas of the Indians), produced a fatal decadence.
This emigration accounts in large measure for the slow increase of the population, though there has also been a slight decrease in the birth-rate.
The farming population in the older parts of the province tends to decline in numbers, owing to emigration, partly to the towns, but especially to the newer lands of Manitoba and the west.
Modern critics would place his birth later, - between 444 and 436 B.C.,- because, in Plato's Republic, of which the scene is laid about 430 B.C., Cephalus, the father of Lysias, is among the dramatis personae, and the emigration of Lysias to Thurii was said to have followed his father's death.
In 1905 the population was 3,568,124, the rate of increase being only 4.4% per annum; the low rate is due to emigration.
Emigration only attained serious proportions within the last decade of the 19th century.
In 1897 the permanent emigration from the island was 15,994, in 1898, 21,320, and in 1899, 24,604.
Emigration for some time in the 19th century at different periods, both in its early part and towards its close, seriously affected the population of Denmark.
It is diminishing in Thessaly; it has entirely dis appeared in the rest of Greece, almost entirely in Servia; and it continues to decrease in Bulgaria notwithstanding the efforts of the authorities to check emigration.
The Servian incursion was followed by a great Albanian emigration to the southern regions of the Peninsula.
The birth-rate is uniformly high and the death-rate low; and, despite the emigration of many families to South America and the United States, the census of 1900 showed that the population had increased by over 75,000 since 1877.
In the direct language of reproach and advice, with no disingenuous loading of the Crown's policy upon its agents, these resolutions attacked the errors of the king, and maintained that "the relation between Great Britain and these colonies was exactly the same as that of England and Scotland after the accession of James and until the Union; and that our emigration to this country gave England no more rights over us than the emigration of the Danes and Saxons gave to the present authorities of their mother country over England."
This was cutting at the common root of allegiance, emigration and colonization; but such radicalism was too thorough-going for the immediate end.
3 Among important but secondary measures of his second administration were the extinguishment of Indian titles, and promotion of Indian emigration to lands beyond the Mississippi; reorganization of the militia; fortification of the seaports; reduction of the public debt; and a simultaneous reduction of taxes.
An excellent harbour, sheltered against pirates, it became almost at once a competitor for the commerce of the Baltic. Its foundation coincided with the beginning of the advance of the Low German tribes of Flanders, Friesland and Westphalia along the southern shores of the Baltic - the second great emigration of the colonizing Saxon element.
Governor Estevan Miro of Louisiana, however, disapproved of the grant, on the ground that it would cause the province to be overrun by Americans; the settlers became restive under the restraints imposed upon them; Morgan himself left; and in December 1811 and January 1812 a series of severe earthquake shocks caused a general emigration.
A secret organization, the Katipunan, was therefore started to secure reforms by force of arms. It was founded by Andres and increased emigration to the islands.
The third stage in Sir George Grey's scheme contemplated the enforced emigration of released convicts, whom the discipline of separation and public works was supposed to have purged and purified, and who would have better hopes of entering on a new career of honest industry in a new country than when thrown back among vicious associations at home.
As a matter of fact the diminution in crime was traceable to general causes, such as a general exodus by emigration, the introduction of a poor law and an increase in the facilities for earning an honest livelihood.
There is little emigration, except into Russian and Chinese territory, but some Koreans have emigrated to Hawaii and Mexico.
A large emigration of famine-stricken Koreans and persecuted Christians into Russian territory followed.
Many interior towns lost half their population and some virtually all their population as a result of this emigration; and it precipitated a real estate crash in San Francisco that threatened temporary ruin.
The other Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, appear, like Sweden itself in the present day, to bear in their age-distribution distinct marks of the emigration of adults, or, at least, the temporary absence from home of this class at the time of enumeration.
The ratio in France was low throughout the r 9th century, and during the last half fell only from 273 to 261, raising the proportion of the old above that resulting in northern Europe and Italy from emigration.
In Scandinavia, and perhaps in Italy, the rate may be affected by the emigration of adult males, but the later columns of the table indicate that this is not the cause of the low rate in Ireland, which appears to be mainly due to abstinence from marriage at the ages specified.
A similar result follows in a lesser degree a wave of emigration.
The net results of such exchange can be roughly estimated by comparing the rate of natural growth with that of the total increase of the community between one census and another, as set forth in Table VIII., in the last section of which the approximate loss by emigration, as calculated by Dr Sundbarg, is given.
In New Zealand the consequences of the cessation of special encouragement to emigration were still more marked, the foreign-born declining in proportion from 63 to 33%.
Emigration from the East was stimulated by the panic and hard times following 1857.
Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy.
These figures prove a steady upward tendency, but the increase itself is confined entirely to the industrial districts of the Principality, and in a special degree to Glamorganshire; while the agricultural counties, such as Pembroke, Merioneth, Cardigan or Montgomery, present a continuous though slight decrease owing to local emigration to the centres of industry.
Vital statistics: Reports of the registrars-general respectively for England, for Scotland (Edinburgh), for Ireland (Dublin); Census Reports (decennial, 1901, &c.), ditto; Education: Reports of the Board of Education for England and Wales; Report of the Commissioners of National Education in Ireland; Report of the Committee of Council on Education in Scotland; Electoral Statistics (London, 1905); Statistical Tables relating to Emigration and Immigration; Judicial Statistics of England and Wales, of Scotland, of Ireland; Local Government Reports, ditto; Statistical Abstract for the United Kingdom, in which the most important statistics are summarized for each of the fifteen years preceding the year of issue.
The average annual increase was 7.86 per thousand in the 19th century, reaching a maximum of 10.39 in 1841-1860, before the period of extensive emigration set in.
The periods of greatest emigration were1868-1873and 1879-1893; the decline in later years is regarded as a favourable sign.
Writing in 1879, a correspondent of The Times' stated that this emigration then averaged 8000 a year, and in bad times had reached as many as 30,000 in one year.
Cloete, Five Lectures on the Emigration of the Dutch Farmers to Natal (Cape Town, 1856), republished in London (1899), as The Great Boer Trek; J.
The disastrous economic results of the treaty were temporarily concealed by the influx of gold from Brazil, the check upon emigration from the wine-growing northern provinces, and the military advantages of alliance with Great Britain.
As in the 16th century immense quantities of bullion were imported by the treasury, and were lavished upon war, luxury and the Church, while agriculture and manufactures continued to decline, and the countryside was depopulated by emigration to Brazil.
In this case the deep water round the Dogger Bank acts as a barrier to the emigration of the small plaice from the shores.
(Many such changes are usually grouped together under the heading of " inflammation " of varying degree--acute, subacute and chronic.) Degeneration and death of cells, haemorrhages, serous and fibrinous exudations, leucocyte emigration, proliferation of connective tissue and other cells, may be mentioned as some of the fundamental changes.
The story of his emigration is post-Homeric, and set forth in its fullest development by Virgil in the Aeneid.
The prosperity of the residency was further affected by a cattle plague in 1879, followed by a fever epidemic which carried off 50,000 people, and except in the rice season there is a considerable emigration of natives.
Vital Statistics.-" The increase or decrease of population is governed by two factors: (I) the balance between births and deaths, and (2) the balance between immigration and emigration."
In the case of (2) the actual population has always been exceeded by the estimate based on natural increase, and this demonstrates an excess of emigration over immigration.
This excess of male births, which is usual, has been ascertained to find its equilibrium, through a higher rate of infant mortality among the males, about the tenth year of life, and is finally changed by perilous male occupations and other causes, including the stronger tendency of males to emigration.
The county council may, with the consent of the Local Government Board, borrow money on the security of the county fund or any of its revenues, for consolidating the debts of the county; purchasing land or buildings; any permanent work or other thing, the cost of which ought to be spread over a term 'of years; making advances in aid of the emigration or colonization of inhabitants of the county; and any purpose for which quarter sessions or the county council are authorized by any act to borrow.
Hence quinine stops the process of diapedesis or emigration of the leucocytes from the blood-vessels into the tissues, and if applied to the, extravascular spaces it arrests the leucocytic movements there.
Naples is the principal port for emigration, chiefly to North and South America; 281 emigrant ships sailed in 1905, carrying 216,103 emigrants.
But from 1896 onwards the uncertainty of the political position caused a falling off in the number of immigrants, while the emigration figures still continued to grow; thus in 1900 there were 2 9, 848 adult arrivals by sea, as compared with 21,163 departures.
In 1820, on the advice of Lord Charles, parliament voted £so,000 to promote emigration to the Cape, and 4000 British were sent out.
Intended primarily as a measure to secure the safety of the frontier, and regarded by the British government chiefly as a better means of affording a livelihood to a few thousands of the surplus population, this emigration scheme accomplished a far greater work than its authors contemplated.
Emigration beyond the colonial border had in fact been continuous for 1 so years, but it now took on larger proportions.
The original population appears to have consisted of Illyrians, who after the great emigration of the Gauls became subordinate to various Celtic tribes, chief amongst them being the Taurisci, probably called Norici by the Romans from their capital Noreia (Neumarkt).
But with the establishment of prairie commerce to Santa Fe (New Mexico), the waves of emigration to the Mormon land and to California, the growth of traffic to Salt Lake, and the explorations for a transcontinental railway, Kansas became well known, and was taken out of that mythical " Great American Desert," in which, thanks especially to Pike and to Washington Irving, it had been supposed to lie.
Famine, mortality and emigration left their mark on Ireland.
Before the next census was taken the revolutionary movement of 1848 in Germany led to the emigration of thousands from that country to Wisconsin, and there was an increase of 886.9% in the population from 1840 to 1850.
From the reference to Asia in the tales of Tantalus, Niobe and Pelops it has been conjectured that Asia was the original seat of these legends, and that it was only after emigration to Greece that the people localized a part of the tale of Pelops in their new home.
The rest were either harmless fugitives from destruction or had never quitted France and had been placed on the list simply in order that they might incur the penalties of emigration.
Queenstown is a port of call for American mail steamers, and the mails are transmitted overland by express trains; it is also a port of embarkation for colonial troops, and a government emigration station.
This gave a new impetus to the emigration of the Huguenots, which had been going on for some years, and England, Holland and Brandenburg received numbers of thrifty and industrious French families.
The cause of the continuous though varying decrease which these figures reveal has been emigration.
Between 1851 and 1905 4,028,589 emigrants left Ireland2,092,154 males and 1,936,435 females, the proportion of females to males being extraordinarily high as compared with the emigration statistics of other countries.
Railways;] emigration that now flows from England and Scotland to British North America.
This is probably due to two causes - the emigration of the poorer classes who subsisted on that form of food, and the gradual introduction of a more varied dietary.
It is attributable to three chief reasons, the dearth of labour owing to emigration, the greater fall in prices of produce as compared with live stock, and the natural richness of the Irish pastures.
In order to improve the condition of affairs in congested districts, the board was empowered (I) to amalgamate small holdings either by directly aiding migration or emigration of occupiers, or by recommending the Land Commission to facilitate amalgamation, and (2) generally to aid and develop out of its resources agriculture, forestry, the breeding of live-stock, weaving, spinning, fishing and any other suitable industries.
As the result of emigration, which drains the Roman Catholic portion of the population more than any other, the Roman Catholics show a larger proportional decline in numbers than the Protestants; for example, between 1891 and 1901 the Roman Catholics decreased by over 6%, the Church of Ireland by a little over 3%, the Presbyterians by less than I %, while the Methodists actually increased by some I I %.
In the 8th and 9th centuries, when the great emigration of Irish scholars and ecclesiastics took place, the number of wandering bishops without dioceses became a reproach to the Irish church; and there can be no doubt that it led to much inconvenience and abuse, and was subversive of the stricter discipline that the popes had succeeded in establishing in the Western church.
The famine, emigration and the new poor law nearly got rid of starvation, but the people never became frankly loyal, feeling that they owed more to their own importunity and to their own misfortunes than to the wisdom of their rulers.
of carriage-roads, the most remarkable of these ' It is impossible to exclude Fiume from any survey of Croatian trade, although Fiume belongs politically to Hungary proper, and is the main outlet for Hungarian emigration and maritime commerce..
A very important factor in the movement of the population is the large over-sea emigration, mostly to the United States of America, which has grown very much during the last quarter of the 19th century, and which shows a tendency to become still larger.
In the course of the 6th century there was a considerable emigration of Basques to the north of the Pyrenees.
But when, owing to the disorganization of the army through emigration and desertion, the ill-prepared Belgian war was followed by invasion and the trouble in La Vende roc~e,d~ increased, all France suspected a betrayal.
She supported various schemes of emigration to the colonies; and in Ireland helped to promote the fishing industry by starting schools, and providing boats, besides advancing £250,000 in 1880 for supplying seed to the impoverished tenants.
After the Arab and Seljuk invasions, there was a large emigration of Aryan and Semitic Armenians to Constantinople and Cilicia; and all that remained of the aristocracy was swept away by the Mongols and Tatars.
The Turko-Russian War of 1828-29, which advanced the Russian frontier to the Arpa Chai, was followed by a large emigration of Armenians from Turkish to Russian territory, and a smaller exodus took place after the war of 1877-78, which gave Batum, Ardahan and Kars to Russia.
For various episodes, see Vicomte de Reiset, La Comtesse de Balbi (Paris, 1908; contains a long bibliography, chiefly of memoirs concerning the emigration, and is based on documents); J.
- See the histories of France, the Emigration, the Restoration and especially the very full bibliographies to chapters i., ii.
The annual marriage-rate was for many years considerably below the average of Australia generally, a condition sufficiently accounted for by the continued emigration of men unmarried and of marriageable ages; this emigration had ceased in 1900, and the marriage-rate may be taken as 7.8 per thousand.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.