Unlike the giraffe, the length of the limbs is due to the elongation of their upper segments, and that of the neck to the lengthening of only the hinder vertebrae.
This order can be traced with certainty back to the early Jurassic epoch, while the Permian fossil Eugereon, and the living order - specially modified in many respects - of the Thysanoptera indicate steps by which the aberrant suctorial and piercing mouth of the Hemiptera may have been developed from the biting mouth of primitive Isopteroids, by the elongation of some parts and the suppression of others.
- The Rhynchophora are a group of beetles easily recognized by the elongation of the head into a beak or snout, which carries the feelers at its sides and the jaws at its tip. The third tarsal segment is broad and bi-lobed, and the fourth is so small that the feet seem to be only four-segmented.
in., with an elongation of at least 5 per cent.), the separate wires being first covered with a firm coating of tape and Chatterton's compound (a FIG.
In other cases this growing-point becomes active at once, there being little or no elongation of the hypocotyl and tbe cotyledon or cotyledons remaining in the seed.
It may be due to insufficient illumination (Etiolation), as seen in geraniums kept in too shaded a situation, and is then accompanied by soft tissues, elongation of internodes, leaves usually reduced in size, &c. The laying of wheat is a particular case.
The formation of the conducting tubes or secretory sacs which occur in all parts of the higher plants is due either to the elongation of single cells or to the fusion of cells together in rows by the absorption of the cell-walls separating them.
Tubes formed by the elongation of single cells are found in bast fibres, tracheides, and especially in laticiferous cells.
Later followed the appearance of lights; quasi-human voices; musical sounds, produced, it is said, without instruments; the "materialization" or presence in material form of what seemed to be human hands and faces, and ultimately of complete figures, alleged to be not those of any person present, and sometimes claimed by witnesses as deceased relatives; "psychography," or "direct writing and drawing," asserted to be done without human intervention; "spirit-photography," or the appearance on photographic plates of human and other forms when no counterpart was visible before the camera to any but specially endowed seers; 3 unfastening of cords and bonds; elongation of the medium's body; handling of red-hot coals; and the apparent passage of solids through solids without disintegration.
In place of the six stamens we commonly find but one (two in Cypripedium), and that one is raised together with the stigmatic surfaces on an elongation of the floral axis known as the "column."
This may consist simply in attaching one end of the wire to an index lever and the other to a fixed support, or the elongation of the wire may cause a rotation in a mirror from which a ray of light is reflected, and the movement of this ray over a scale will then provide the necessary means of indication.
To render the elongation evident, another wire is attached to its centre S2, this last having a thread fixed to its middle of which the other end is twisted round the shaft of an index needle or in some way connected to it through a multiplying gear.
The Angora rabbit is characterized by the extreme elongation and fineness of the fur, which in good specimens reaches 6 or 7 in.
ELONGATION, strictly "lengthening"; in astronomy, the apparent angular distance of a heavenly body from its centre of motion, as seen from the earth; designating especially the angular distance of the planet Mercury or Venus from the sun, or the apparent angle between a satellite and its primary.
The greatest elongation of Venus is about 45°; that of Mercury generally ranges between 18° and 27°.
According to Joule's observations, the length of a bar of iron or soft steel was increased by magnetization, the elongation being proportional up to a certain point to the square of the intensity of magnetization; but when the " saturation point " was approached the elongation was less than this law would require, and a stage was finally reached at which further increase of the magnetizing force produced little or no effect upon the length.
The elongation is generally found to reach a maximum under a magnetizing force of 50 to 120 units, and to vanish under a force of 200 to 400, retraction occurring when still higher forces are applied.
merely has the effect of diminishing the maximum elongation and hastening the contraction; with the two greatest loads used in the experiment there was indeed no preliminary extension at all.'
Knott on magnetic twist, which will be referred to later, led him to form the conclusion that in an iron wire carrying an electric current the magnetic elongation would be increased.
The effect produced by a current is exactly opposite to that of tension, raising the elongation curve instead of depressing it.
in diameter the maximum elongation was nearly doubled when a current of two amperes was passing through the iron, while the " critical value " of the field was increased from 130 to 200.
Some experiments were next undertaken with the view of ascertaining how far magnetic changes of length in iron were dependent upon the hardness of the metal, and the unexpected result was arrived at that softening produces the same effect as tensile stress; it depresses the elongation curve, diminishing the maximum extension, and reducing the " critical value " of the magnetizing force.
The experiments were not sufficiently numerous to indicate whether, as is possible, there is a critical degree of hardness for which the height of the elongation curve is a maximum.
The complicated hysteresis effects which attend magnetic elongation and retraction have been studied by H.
sample containing 25% of nickel no appreciable change was detected; others containing larger percentages, and tested in fields up to 2000, all exhibited elongation, which tended to an asymptotic value as the field was increased.
Bidwell's results for iron and nickel were confirmed, and it was further shown that the elongation of nickel-steel was very greatly diminished by tension; when 2 Joule believed that the volume was unchanged.
Austin, who found continuous elongation with increasing fields, the curves obtained bearing some resemblance to curves of magnetization.
Should one of these teeth be destroyed the opposed one loses its natural means of attrition and becomes a remarkable, curved tusk-like elongation.
Division of the nucleolus by elongation, construction, and equilateral division of the nucleus.
Hence 1000Ã† is the elongation in millimetres per metre length per kilo.
Column 3 shows the charge causing a permanent elongation of 0.05 mm.
The tail is cylindrical, with some bushy elongation of the hairs near the end, but not forming a distinct tuft.
Three types of columns are employed: (I) the elongation is simply a straight or bulb tube; (2) the column, properly termed a "dephlegmator," is so constructed that the vapours have to traverse a column of previously condensed vapour; (3) the column is encircled by a jacket through which a liquid circulates at the same temperature as the boiling-point of the most volatile component.
Scelidotherium is another genus of large South American Pleistocene ground-sloths, characterized, among other features, by the elongation and slenderness of the skull, which thus makes a decided approximation to the anteater type, although retaining the full series of cheek-teeth, which were, of course, essential to an herbivorous animal.
in., and 22% elongation in 5 ft.
in the direction of rolling, and an ultimate elongation of 8 or io% in 8 in.
in., and the elongation 3% in 8 in.
in., and an elongation of 32 to 24% in 8 in.
in., and 28 to 25% elongation.
in., and 17% elongation.
in., and io% elongation.
and an elongation of 25%.
In very many cases the pollen is carried to the stigma by elongation, curvature or some other movement of the filament, the style or stigma, or corolla or some other part of the flower, or by correlated movements of two or more parts.
They resemble the latter in the elongation of the body, the large number of vertebrae (240 in Gymnotus), and the absence of pelvic fins; but they differ in all the more important characters of internal structure.
Un like the molluscs and annelids, however, the cloacal invagination lies outside this region, and the foot is formed by an elongation of the end of the body between the two apertures.
barbatus (=longirostris) of Borneo is a very distinct member of this group, distinguished by the great elongation of the skull, and the presence of a tuft of long hair near the muzzle.
They may be distinguished from the Neuroptera by the elongation of the head into a beak, the small prothorax, the narrow, elongate wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, the presence of abdominal cerci and the cruciform larva.
Australia is the home of the group of jumping species, known as jerboa-rats, characterized by the elongation of the hind limbs, arranged under the genera Notomys, Dipodillus, Ammomys and Conilurus, distinguished from one another by the structure of the molars and the number of teats and foot-pads, the second being further characterized by its long ears.
in., with an elongation of at least 20% in 8 in.
They show an elongation of forms and an excess of decoration in which the florid qualities predominate.
The aim of germination is the fixing of the embryo in the soil, effected usually by means of the root, which is the first part of the embryo to appear, in preparation for the elongation of the epicotyledonary portion of the shoot, and there is infinite variety in the details of the process.
The value of "one revolution of the screw in seconds of arc" can be determined either by observing at transit the difference of zenith distance of two stars of known declination in terms of the micrometer screw, the instrument remaining at rest between their transits; or by measuring at known instants in terms of the screw, the change of zenith distance of a standard star of small polar distance near the time of its greatest elongation.
In Asymmetron the caudal region is remarkable for the curious elongation of the notochord, which is produced far beyond the last of the myotomes.
Ebenezer Kinnersley (1711-1778) of Philadelphia made useful observations on the elongation and fusion of iron wires by electrical discharges (Phil.
The name tarsier refers to the great elongation of two of the bones of the tarsus, or ankle, and spectrum to the huge goggle-like eyes and attenuated form which constitute two of the most distinctive features of this weird little creature.
The genus agrees with Dorcopsis in the direction of the hair on the neck, but the muzzle is only partially hairy, and the elongation of the penultimate premolar is less.
- Whatever the shape and size of the individual cell, cell-filament or cell-colony, the immediate visible results of active nutrition are elongation of the cell and its division into two equal halves, t;o?.
In the first case the separated A cells assume the character of the parent cell whose division a $ °° ° gave rise to them; in the second case they o se form filaments, or, if the further elongation and divisions of the cells proceed in different directions, plates or spheroidal or other shaped colonies.
The growth of an ordinary bacterium consists in uniform elongation of the rodlet until its length is doubled, followed by division by a median septum, then by the simul- Measure- taneous doubling in length of each daughter cell, again ment of followed by the median division, and soon (figs.
If the cells remain connected the resulting filament repeats these processes of elongation and subsequent division uniformly so long as the conditions are maintained, and very accurate measurements have been obtained on such a form, e.g.
With the elongation of the body, the dorsal shield begins to project posteriorly as a shell-fold, which may increase in size to envelop more or less of the body or may disappear altogether.
The Fata Morgana, frequently seen in the Straits of Messina, consists of an apparent vertical elongation of an object situated on the opposite shore.
in., and an elongation before fracture of not less than 25% in 8 in.
In Ephedra helvetica, as described by Jaccard, no proembryo or suspensor is formed; but the most vigorous fertilized egg, after undergoing several divisions, becomes attached to a tissue, termed the columella, which serves the purpose of a primary suspensor; the columella appears to be formed by the lignification of certain cells in the central region of the embryo-sac. At a later stage some of the cells in the upper (micropylar) end of the embryo divide and undergo considerable elongation, serving the purpose of a secondary suspensor.
Instead of confining himself, as before, to the fruitless integration of three differential equations of the second degree, which are furnished by mathematical principles, he reduced them to the three co-ordinates which determine the place of the moon; and he divided into classes all the inequalities of that planet, as far as they depend either on the elongation of the sun and moon, or upon the eccentricity, or the parallax, or the inclination of the lunar orbit.
The elongation of the mouth and stomodaeum confer a bilateral symmetry on the body of the zooid, which is extended to other organs of the body.
The forward portion of the anterior coelom shared in the constriction and elongation of the preoral lobe; but its hinder portion was dragged up along with the water-pore and formed a canal lying moccth ive along the outer wall (the gerei tatpore parietal canal).
ing cavity on the right was *Alit pressed down by the stomach towards the fixed end of the WO/ animal and became involved in the elongation of that 1SP region.
Before the latter plates arose, the stem had developed by the elongation and constriction of the fixed end of the theca, the gradual regularization of the plates involved, and their coalescence into rings.
In this case, as might be expected, the greatest modifications occur in the limbs, but correlated with this is also an elongation of the head and neck in long-legged types.
When mature, the sporangia are raised above the margin of the indusium by the elongation of the receptacle, thus facilitating the dispersion of the spores.
A common modification of the chief ramus of the Arthropod parapodium is the chela or nipper formed by the elongation of the penultimate joint of the ramus, so that the last joint works on it FIG.
If we put g for the moon's anomaly or distance from the perigee, and D for its elongation from the sun, the inequalities in question as now known are 6.29° sin g (equation of centre) +1.27° sin (2D-g) (evection).
Till recently the galagos have been included in the family Lemuridae; but this is restricted to the lemurs of Madagascar, and they are now classed with the lorises and pottos in the family Nycticebidae, of which they form the section Galaginae, characterized by the great elongation of the upper portion of the feet (tarsus) and the power of folding the large ears.
These are usually densely crowded upon the thalamus, but in some instances, after apical growth has ceased in the axis, an elongation of portions of the receptacle by intercalary growth occurs, by which changes in the position of the parts may be brought about.
Thus in Lychnis an elongation of the axis betwixt the calyx and the corolla takes place, and in this way they are separated by an interval.
carpellary leaves, and that in the progress of development these leaves separated from them, leaving the placentas and ovules free in the centre; or by supposing that the placentas are not marginal but axile formations, produced by an elongation of the axis, and the carpels verticillate leaves, united together around the axis.
Mercury in the morning sky early October Mercury reaches greatest western elongation on September 27th.
Physical Insights Ceramics have very low elongations (Metals have moderate elongation to failure (1-50 %) with deformation occurring by plastic flow.
It is a negative regulator of telomerase activity and thus inhibits the elongation of telomere length.
Excessive heat will induce elongation of the internodal stem, spoiling the whole shape of the plant.
elongation at break: 8% for the 2+1 mix.
A QuickCam picture of Mercury taken 21 April 2003, 5 days past greatest eastern elongation.
We unexpectedly demonstrate that all these genes play key roles in regulating Pol II transcriptional elongation and termination [44, 45] .
Venus's rapid motion outward from the Sun will come to a halt when the planet reaches maximum western elongation on August 17th.
elongation factor b kinase in vivo requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.
elongation rate (expressed per unit thermal time) in the absence of water deficit.
elongation zone of the primary root.
transcriptional activity of positive transcription elongation factor b kinase in vivo requires the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II.
Their effects include stem elongation, ethylene synthesis & root growth inhibition.
Auxins control a number of developmental processes in plants, including cell elongation, the formation of vascular tissue and meristem organization.
Many molecules that are capable of blocking neurite elongation in vitro are present in CNS tissue.
To achieve this, we carried out a QTL analysis of the parameters of a model of leaf elongation rate (Reymond et al.
elongation of the internodal length.
internode elongation on flowering stems begins in early May.
This sections starts by defining modulus, tensile strength, elongation at break and yield strength on a typical stress-strain graph.
turgor maintenance, potassium is essential to get maximum leaf extension and stem elongation.
This is a very well-marked tribe of beetles, characterized by the peculiar elongation and flattening of three or more of the terminal antennal segments, so that the feeler seems to end in a number of leaf-like plates, or small comb-teeth (fig.
The greatest elongation of Venus is about 45Ã‚°; that of Mercury generally ranges between 18Ã‚° and 27Ã‚°.
2 It was found that the curve showing the relation of transverse changes of dimensions to magnetizing force was similar in general character to the familiar elongation curves, but the signs were reversed; the curve was inverted, indicating at first retraction, which, after passing a maximum and vanishing in a critical field, was succeeded by elongation.
The curve showing the circumferential (or longitudinal) changes was also plotted, and from the two curves thus obtained it was easy, on the assumption that the metal was isotropic in directions at right angles to the magnetization, to calculate changes of volume; for if circumferential elongation be denoted by 1 1, and transverse elongation by 1 2, then the cubical dilatation (40r -) = l l 2/ 2 approximately.
The familiar illustration of Lamarck's hypothesis is that of the giraffe, whose long neck might, he suggested, have been acquired by the efforts of a primitively short-necked race of herbivores who stretched their necks to reach the foliage of trees in a land where grass was deficient, the effort producing a distinct elongation in the neck of each generation, which was then transmitted to the next.
Hence 1000Ãƒâ€ is the elongation in millimetres per metre length per kilo.
Frames used as bridge trusses should never be designed so that the elongation or compression of one member can elongate or compress any other member.
In the first case the separated A cells assume the character of the parent cell whose division a $ Ã‚°Ã‚° Ã‚° gave rise to them; in the second case they o se form filaments, or, if the further elongation and divisions of the cells proceed in different directions, plates or spheroidal or other shaped colonies.
The pollen-grains find their way between the carpophylls, which at the time of pollination are slightly apart owing to the elongation of the internodes of the flower-axis, and pass into the pollen-chamber; the large cell of the pollen-grain grows out into a tube (Pt), which penetrates the nucellar tissue and often branches repeatedly; the pollen-grain itself, with the prothallus-cells, projects freely into the pollen-chamber (fig.
If we put g for the moon's anomaly or distance from the perigee, and D for its elongation from the sun, the inequalities in question as now known are 6.29Ã‚° sin g (equation of centre) +1.27Ã‚° sin (2D-g) (evection).
The elongation of the embryo is accompanied by an elongation of the blastopore, which soon becomes dumb-bell shaped (fig.
Both the pre-mRNA processing reactions of capping and splicing were also subsequently shown to interconnect with transcription elongation.
Because of its importance in turgor maintenance, potassium is essential to get maximum leaf extension and stem elongation.
It results in the elongation of throat muscles, making swallowing more difficult.
Bone growth is more complicated than simple elongation or simple enlargement.
Elongation and Volume: A layered top and crown adds volume while elongating a round shaped face.
In addition to their excellent astronomy skills, they practiced a wide range of body modifications such as earlobe elongation, jeweled teeth and skull reshaping.
An elongation of the shelf to the south joins Tasmania with the mainland.
Medusae, so-called " meconidia," are budded but not liberated; each in turn, when it reaches sexual maturity, is protruded from the gonotheca by elongation of the stalk, and sets free the embryos, after which it withers and is replaced by another (Allman , p. 57, fig.
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