16 by ellipses of stress and by diagrams of stress on vertical and horizontal sections.
Most of the orbits are remarkably eccentric ellipses, the average eccentricity being about 0.5.
- Employ the elliptic coordinates n,, and -=n+Vi, such that z=cch?, cchncos,y=cshnsin-; (1) then the curves for which n and are constant are confocal ellipses and hyperbolas, and -d(n,) =c 2 (ch 2 n - cost) = 2c 2 (ch2n-cos2) = r i r 2 = OD 2, (2) if OD is the semi-diameter conjugate to OP, and ri, r 2 the focal distances, rl,r2 = c (ch n cos 0; r 2 = x2 +y2 = c 2 (ch 2 n - sin20 = 1c 2 (ch 2 7 7 +cos 2?).
Hence the locus of J relative to AB, and the locus relative to CD are equal ellipses of which A, B and C, D are respectively the foci.
To illustrate this subject, it may be mentioned that an ellipse rotating about one focus rolls completely round in outside gearing with an equal and similar ellipse also rotating about one focus, the distance between the axes of rotation being equal to the major axis of the ellipses, and the velocity ratio varying from to I ~eccentricitY an hyperbola rotating about its further focus rolls in inside gearing, through a limited arc, with an equal and similar hyperbola rotating about its nearer focus, the distance between the axes of rotation being equal to the axis of the hypereccentricity + I
We receive, therefore, in no single intercepting plane behind the system, as, for example, a focussing screen, an image of the object point; on the other hand, in each of two planes lines 0' and 0" are separately formed (in neighbouring planes ellipses are formed), and in a plane between 0' and 0" a circle of least confusion.
As a result of this theory, in the case of a retaining wall supporting a vertical face of earth beneath an extended horizontal plane level with the top of the wall, we get p _ wx 2 1 - sin ii 2 I +sin P' [[Reservoir Empty Reservoir Full Ellipses Of Vertical Pressures On Horizontal Joints]].
If the whole globe were covered with a uniformly deep ocean, and if there were no difference of density between one part and another, the surface would form a perfect ellipsoid of revolution, that is to say, all the meridians would be exactly equal ellipses and all parallels perfect circles.