As the couple climbed to higher elevations, more caution was necessary as icy patches became more frequent.
Fred understood this and volunteered to ski with Donnie while the others took a couple of runs from the higher elevations.
The general conclusion would appear to be that, while as seen from the earth's surface much of the light from the sky is due to comparatively gross suspended matter, yet an appreciable proportion is attributable to the molecules of air themselves, and that at high elevations where the blue is purer, the latter part may become predominant.
This elevated region is known as the plateau of Matto Grosso, and its elevations so far as known rarely exceed 3000 ft.
The lowland elevations in this part of the state range from 300 to 400 ft.
Past elevations of land, however (and doubtless equally great subsidences) have taken place in South America since the Eocene, and the conclusion that extensive areas of land have subsided in the Indian Ocean has long been based on a somewhat similar distribution of giant tortoises in the Mascarene region.
The so-called Great Palace consists of a group of detached buildings, apparently ten in number, standing on two platforms of different elevations.
On the higher elevations it is generally stony and sterile, but in the valleys and on many of the lower hills, where it consists largely of clay and sand, it is quite productive.
mountains of Europe and North America they grow only at moderate elevations, and none approach the arctic circle.
It runs a remarkably straight course westward through a narrow trough from Daolatyar to Obeh, amidst the bleak wind-swept uplands of the highest central elevations in Afghanistan.
High elevations reproduce the physical conditions of high latitudes.
The primary distinction of the forms of the crust is that between elevations and depressions.
Attempts have been made to bring it into more general use, but without success; and it is only in particular circumstances that navigation, with the aid either of locks or inclined planes to surmount the elevations, will not present a more convenient medium for an extended trade."
On the one hand he may make the line follow the natural inequalities of the ground as nearly as may be, avoiding the elevations and depressions by curves; or on the other he may aim at making it as nearly straight and level as possible by taking it through the elevations in cuttings or tunnels and across the depressions on embankments or bridges.
The highest elevations, from 800 to moo ft.
The highest elevations in the state, so far as known, are Itatiaya (8898 ft.) in the Serra da Mantiqueira, and Caraga (6414 ft.), near Ouro Preto, in the Serra do Espinhago.
Many of them are at high elevations (Lake Victoria, 13,400 ft., being probably the most elevated), and are undoubted vestiges of an ancient period of glaciation.
The highest mountain rises to nearly 14,000 ft., but the ordinary elevations do not exceed 4000 or 5000 ft.
On the west coast of the Indian peninsula the fall at the sea-level varies from about 75 to 100 in., and at certain elevations on the mountains more than 250 in.
The genera common to the Himalaya and Europe are much more abundant, and extend throughout the chain, and to all elevations.
The truly tropical flora of the hotter and wetter regions of eastern India is continuous with that of the Malayan peninsula and islands, and extends along the lower ranges of the Himalaya, gradually becoming less marked and rising to lower elevations as we go westward, where the rainfall diminishes and the winter cold increases.
The vegetation of the higher and therefore cooler and less rainy ranges of the Himalaya has greater uniformity of character along the whole chain, and a closer general approach to European forms is maintained; an increased number of species is actually identical, among these being found, at the greatest elevations, many alpine plants believed to be identical with species of the north Arctic regions.
Assemblages of marine plants form another remarkable feature of Tibet, these being frequently met with growing at elevations of 14,000 to 15,000 ft.
A similar forest flora extends along the mountains of eastern India to the Himalaya, where it ascends to elevations varying from 6000 to 7000 ft.
A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.
The Armenian highlands, which run generally parallel to the Caucasus, though at much lower elevations (5000-6000 ft.), are a plateau region, sometimes quite flat, sometimes gently undulating, clothed with luxuriant meadows and mostly cultivable.
It is divided into six provinces, and covers a broken, mountainous region, partially barren in its higher elevations but traversed by deep, warm, fertile valleys.
Towards the centre the almost treeless plain presents a monotonous aspect, broken only by a few rocky elevations that rise abruptly from the black soil.
This phenomenon occurs among species found at high elevations, among others found in arid or desert regions, and in some cases in the female sex only, the male being winged and the female wingless.
The more rugged districts and higher elevations are clad with such tropical forest trees as ebony, Spanish cedar, sandalwood, rosewood and mahogany.
At their feet, the flat green valley floors of the higher elevations give place in the lower parts to lovely woods.
It is of Tertiary formation (Miocene), and has a chain of volcanic elevations along the axis, reaching a height of 2600 ft.
Beginning with elevations of about 400 ft.
The city commands pleasant views from its position on a plateau, which, at places on bluffs along the shore, has elevations of about 75 ft.
Its narrow but fertile territory consisted of a plain shut in on all sides except towards the sea by considerable elevations, among which the most remarkable were Mount Arachnaeon and Titthion.
Generally a low altitude is desirable, but good results have been obtained in Ceylon in sheltered positions at elevations of 3000 ft.
Farther east, on the southern shore of Lake Baikal, Khamar-daban rises to 6900 ft., and the bald dome-shaped summits of the Barguzin and southern Muya Mountains attain elevations of 6000 to 7000 ft.
The rainfall is exceptionally large, and snow lies on some of the loftier elevations for a considerable portion of the year.
The Pegu Yoma range separates it from Toungoo district, and forms the water-parting between the rivers Irrawaddy and Sittang; there are also many small elevations.
A relief map of Brazil shows two very irregular divisions of surface: the great river basins, or plains, of the Amazon-Tocantins and La Plata, which are practically connected by low elevations in Bolivia, and a huge, shapeless mass of highlands filling the eastern projection of the continent and extending southward to the plains of Rio Grande do Sul and westward to the Bolivian frontier.
A thick sandstone sheet once covered the greater part if not all of it, remains of which are found on the elevated chapadas of the interior and on isolated elevations extending across the republic toward its western frontier.
These chapadas and elevations, which are usually described as mountain ranges, are capped by horizontal strata of sandstone and show the original surface, which has been worn away by the rivers, leaving here and there broad flat-topped ridges between river basins and narrower ranges of hills between river courses.
The southern margin of this plateau breaks down abruptly toward the south and overlooks the Parana and Paraguay basins from elevations of 2600 to 3000 ft.
The mountain slopes are still masses of dense forest, though their lower elevations and neighbouring valleys have been cleared for cultivation and by dealers in rosewood and other valuable woods.
The black wattle has been extensively planted and flourishes at elevations of from 1000 to 3000 ft.
The greatest elevations are in the Tatra mountains of the north of Hungary proper, in the east and south of Transylvania (the Transylvanian Alps) and in the eastern portion of the Banat.
It is grown at elevations of 1600 to 3000 ft., and the yield is reported to be a to 2 lb per tree, which is much less than the yield in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Coffee-planting is a new industry on the Pacific slope of the Sierra Madre at elevations of 2000 to 4000 ft., and has met with considerable success.
Among them may be mentioned the aperea or restless cavy (C. porcellus or C. aperea) of Brazil; the Bolivian C. boliviensis, found at great elevations in the Andes; the Brazilian rock-cavy (C. rupestris), characterized by its short blunt claws; and the Peruvian C. cutleri.
The lower valleys produce dates in abundance, and at higher elevations wheat, barley, millets and excellent fruit are grown, while juniper forests are said to cover the mountain slopes.
At higher elevations the rainfall is no doubt heavier; Manzoni mentions that at Sana there was constant rain throughout August and September 1878, and that the thermometer during August did not reach 65°.
Among the first wild shrubs and trees that are met with are the chilca (Baccharis Feuillei), with a pretty yellow flower, the Mutisia acuminata, with beautiful red and orange flowers, several species of Senecio, calceolarias, the Schinus molle, with its graceful branches and bunches of red berries, and at higher elevations the lambras (Alnus acuminata), the sauco (Sambucus peruviana), the quenuar (Buddleia incana), and the Polylepis racemosa.
Quinua is an indigenous plant, growing at elevations of 13,500 ft.
The dried dung of the llama (taquia) is generally used as fuel, as in pre-Spanish times, for roasting ores, as also a species of grass called ichu (Stipa incana), and a singular woody fungus, called yareta (Azorella umbellifera), found growing on the rocks at elevations exceeding 12,000 ft.
Mr Gardiner regarded these banks as plateaus rising to different elevations beneath the surface of the sea from a main plateau rising steeply from the great depths of the Indian Ocean.
The principal elevations in this range are Shiranesanwith three summits, NOdori (9970 ft.), Ai-no-take (10,200 ft.) and Kaigane (10,330 ft.)and HOOzan (9550 ft.).
The Rhine valley is the warmest district in Germany, but the higher elevations of the Black Forest record the greatest degrees of cold experienced in the south.
This species inhabits forests, and ascends hills to considerable elevations; it is shy and timid, but easily tamed even when adult.
A branch of the Sierra Madre extends northward from the vicinity of Salinas, but its elevations are low.
The higher elevations have a dry, temperate, healthful climate.
Yak have the great disadvantage that they will not eat corn, and the large pure-bred animals will not live at low elevations.
In general the main elevations of the two ranges form pairs lying opposite one another; the forms of both ranges are monotonous, but the colouring is splendid, especially when viewed from a distance; when seen close at hand only a few valleys with perennial streams offer pictures of landscape beauty, their rich green contrasting pleasantly with the bare brown and yellow mountain sides.
Several of the lesser elevations near the lake are especially famous as view-points, such as Castle Head, Walla Crag, Ladder Brow and Cat Bells.
There is a wide variation of climate for so small a territory, the higher elevations of the Sierra de Ajusco being cold and humid (the Mexican Central crosses the range at an elevation of 9974 ft.); the lower spurs mild, temperate and healthy, the lower valleys subtropical, hot and unhealthy.
The Scottish shore, however, is not continuously flat, and such elevations as Criffell (1866 ft.), Bengairn (1250) and Cairnharrow (1497), above Wigtown Bay, rise close to it.
Wild hogs are met with even at great elevations.
The nature of the change of temperature with depth below 2500 fathoms is entirely dependent on the position of the sub-oceanic elevations, for the rises and ridges act as true submarine watersheds.
prevail right northwards across the equator into the Bay of Biscay, showing a steady rise of bottom temperature as successive submarine elevations restrict communication with 'the Antarctic. On the other hand, in the more open Argentine Basin, which carries deep water far to the south, the bottom temperature in 40° S.
Elevations above the sea range from between 1200 to 1675 ft.
The northern half is more broken and irregular; elevations, usually rounded, mingle with depressions some of which are occupied by small shallow lakes or ponds, the characteristic physical features of this region being due to glaciation.
The timber trees found towards the interior, and on the higher elevations, are of great size and beauty, the most valuable being teak (Tectona grandis), then-gan (Hopea odorata), ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus laevis), &c. The coast-line of the district, off which lies an archipelago of two hundred and seven islands, is much broken, and for several miles inland is very little raised above sea-level, and is drained by numerous muddy tidal creeks.
East of this valley the country continues more or less hilly and rocky, but the elevations eastward become increasingly slight and of little consequence.
The Blue Hills in Milton are the nearest elevations to the coast, and are conspicuous to navigators approaching Boston.
At greater elevations than this the muzzle notch is used; to align on the target at lesser angles the dispart sight is so used.
Guns without dispart sights cannot be layed at elevations below the clearance angle.
This was of wood; the third sight, also of wood, was for guns without a dispart patch, which consequently could not be layed at elevations below the dispart.
Parts of the crystalline area are worn down to a condition of low relief, but in the main mountain mass, although greatly worn, there are still elevations of truly mountainous proportions.
Elevations of between 1500 and 2000 ft.
In this part of the plateau, summit elevations of from 3000 to 4000 ft.
region, even on the higher elevations.
The higher elevations are mostly either Archean or Paleozoic formations projecting above Tertiary deposits.
This is succeeded by an outcrop of the Lower Greensand - including the Folkestone, Sandgate and Hythe beds with the thin Atherfield Clay at the base - which extends across the country from west to east with a breadth of from 2 to 7 m., and rises into the picturesque elevations of the Ragstone hills.
APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS, the general name given to a vast system of elevations in North America, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, extending as a zone, from ioo to 300 m.
The northern section includes the Shickshock Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec, scattered elevations in Maine, the White Mountains and the Green Mountains; the central comprises, besides various minor groups, the Valley Ridges between the Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York-New Jersey Highlands and a large portion of the Blue Ridge; and the southern consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, the Unaka Range, and the Valley Ridges adjoining the Cumberland Plateau, with some lesser ranges.
The Blue Ridge, rising in southern Pennsylvania and there known as South Mountain, attains in that state elevations of about 2000 ft.; southward to the Potomac its altitudes diminish, but 30 m.
Although they all decrease in altitude from west to east, they nevertheless reach elevations of 19,000 ft., with individual peaks ascending some2000-2500ft.
A large portion of the county is hilly, especially in the east, where the highest elevations are attained, though these are nowhere great.
High Angle and Curved Fire.-" High angle fire," as defined officially, " is fire at elevations greater than r 5°," and " curved fire is fire from howitzers at all angles of elevation not exceeding 15°."
It is greatest, about 53 in., on the east slope of Catoctin Mountain, owing to the elevations which obstruct the moisture-bearing winds, and is above the average along the middle of the shores of the Chesapeake.
The island of Mare shows evidence of three such elevations, three distinct cliffs alternating with level tracts.
The Highland Rim Plateau, lying to the south, east and west of the escarpment, embraces fully one-half of the state, slopes from elevations of1000-1200ft.
Deperet points also that we owe to Cuvier the first clear expression of the idea of the increasing organic perfection of all forms of life from the lower to the higher horizons, and that, while he believed that extinctions were due to sudden revolutions on the surface of the earth, he also set forth the pregnant ideas that the renewals of animal life were by migration from other regions unknown, and that these migrations were favoured by alternate elevations and depressions which formed various land routes between great continents and islands.
Similarly secular elevations of temperature, either accompanied by moisture or desiccation, by increasing droughts or by disturbance of the balance of nature, have been followed by great waves of extinction of the Mammalia.
Near the 10th parallel the great chain again divides, the eastern part crossing the southern end of the plateau, and the western, or Sierra Madre del Sur, following the shore line closely to Tehuantepec. The Sierra Madre Occidental has but few noteworthy elevations, its culminating points being the Nevado de Colima (14,363 ft.) and Volcan de Colima (12,750 ft.) in the state of Jalisco.
Their elevations, according to the Comision Geografica Exploradora, are 17,888 and 17,343 ft.
vivipara, which is found chiefly in the warmer and lower elevations of the Pacific slope.
Oaks are to be found over a wide area and at lower elevations of the sub-tropical zone as well.
In southern Mexico the pine is found at even lower elevations where the tropical growth has been destroyed by cultivation and fire.
at only moderate elevations in the White Mountain region and farther N.
The principal merchantable timber of the state is red spruce, and this is found chiefly in the virgin forests which remain in the north, especially in those on the steep mountain slopes between elevations of 1800 ft.
trend to crustal deformations which in very early geological time gave a beginning to what later came to be the Appalachian mountain system; but this system had Its climax of deformation so long ago (probably in Permian time) that it has since then been very generally reduced to moderate or low relief, and owes its present altitude either to renewed elevations along the earlier lines or to the survival of the most resistant rocks as residual mountains.
On the Pacific coast marine Quaternary formations occur up to elevations of a few scores of feet, at least, above the sea.
The Cleveland hills rise sharply southward, to elevations sometimes exceeding 1000 ft., and are scored with deep and picturesque glens.
Though once consisting of great mountain ranges there are now no lofty elevations in the region except along the Atlantic border in Labrador, where summits of the Nachvak Mountains are said to reach 6000 ft.
The musk-deer inhabits the forest districts in the Himalaya as far west as Gilgit, always, however, at great elevations - being rarely found in summer below 8000 ft.
Its elevations range from 400 to 1800 ft.
The higher elevations are covered by dense forests of fir and larch, and the lower slopes with deciduous trees.
They are most common between elevations of 2000 and 8000 ft.; there are only a few species below 2000 ft., and above 8000 ft.
The koa (Acacia koa), from the wood of which the natives used to make the bodies of their canoes, and the only tree of the islands that furnishes much valuable lumber (a hard cabinet wood marketed as " Hawaiian mahogany "), forms extensive forests on Hawaii and Maui between elevations of 2000 and 4000 ft.
In many districts between elevations of 2000 and 6000 ft., where there is only a moderate amount of moisture, occur mixed forests of koa, koaia (Acacia koaia), kopiko (Straussia oncocarpa and S.
The kukui (Aleurites triloba) and the algaroba (Prosopis juliflora) are the principal species of forest trees that occur below elevations of 2000 ft.
On the leeward side, from near the sea level to elevations of 1500 ft., and on ground that was formerly barren, the algaroba tree has formed dense forests since its introduction in 1837.
About the only indigenous fruit-bearing plants are the Chilean strawberry (Fragaria chilensis) and the ohelo berry (Vaccinium reticulatum), both of which grow at high elevations on Hawaii and Maui.
Coffee of good quality is grown at elevations ranging between moo to 3000 ft.
Among the loftier elevations in advance of this southern barrier the most conspicuous is the Zobten (2356 ft.).
The islands, which are long and narrow (the long axis lying parallel with the coast of the mainland), rise rather abruptly to elevations of a few hundred feet, while on the mainland, notably in the magnificent inlet of the Bocche di Cattaro, lofty mountains often fall directly to the sea.
from a low level, and sometimes reach considerable elevations in the form of eruptive prominences.
Generally the lower valleys of the rivers lie at elevations of 600 to woo ft.; higher up they rise to 2500 or 3000 ft.; the mountain chains rise to 5500 ft.; the volcanoes tower up from 6500 to nearly ro,000 ft.
They inhabit the desolate plateau of Tibet, at elevations of between 13,000 and 18,000 ft., and, like all Tibetan animals, have a firm thick coat, formed in this instance of close woolly hair of a grey fawn-colour.
o The crystals often display triangular markings, either elevations or pits, upon - ' g ?
The finest teas are produced at high elevations in Darjeeling and Ceylon and in the plains of Assam, but the quality from individual estates varies much from season to season, and even from week to week.
The finely wooded heights which surround the bays of the east coast of Holstein and Schleswig may be regarded as a continuation of these Baltic elevations.
lying between elevations of ioo and.
The limestones of which they are mostly composed act like a sponge, absorbing the rain-water through their innumerable pores and fissures, and thus storing it up in the interior, afterwards to allow it to well forth in springs at various elevations lower down.
See Plans, Elevations, Sections and Details of the Alhambra; from drawings taken on the spot by J.
In the Outer Hebrides most of the ground is low, rocky and plentifully dotted over with lakes; but it rises into mountainous heights in Harris, some of the summits attaining elevations of 2600 ft.
The first part consists of an alluvial, low-lying plain formed in great part by the detritus brought down by the mountain streams. It is irregular in form and is broken by isolated elevations and spurs from the Cordillera.
It rises from a plain somewhat lower than the neighbouring central plateau and stands free from the surrounding elevations, except on the south, which give it an exceptionally imposing appearance.
part of the great central plateau is arid and has a very light rainfall; it has no streams, therefore, except from melting snows, and the higher elevations which receive the impact of the easterly winds.
The highest elevations are generally covered with ice and snow, and glaciers, according to Whymper, are to be found upon no less than nine of the culminating peaks, and possibly upon two or three more.
The condor (Sarcorhamphus gryphus) is commonly found between the elevations of 6000 and 16,000 ft., rarely, if ever, descending to the lowland plains or rising above the lower peaks.
On Cotopaxi, at elevations of 13,000 to 15,800 ft., 18 species of the genus Colpodes were collected, of which 16 were new.
The best grazing lands are on the lower elevations west of the Cordilleras in certain districts of the plateau and on the slopes of some of the higher Andes, as on Chimborazo and Antisana.
The surface is for the most part undulating, but on the whole little above sea-level; the highest elevations are in the south-east, where Cretaceous hills (the oldest geological formation on the island) reach heights of upwards of 350 ft.
Potatoes thrive best on the higher elevations, such as the Khasi hills, the Nilgiris, the Mysore uplands, the Shan States, and the slopes of the Himalayas; but they are also grown even in lowland districts.
In at least two places sedimentary rocks are found at considerable elevations.
The climate is warm for the latitude, but the higher elevations of the vicinity are noted for their mild climate and healthfulness.
In 1804 he had an opportunity of prosecuting his researches on air in somewhat unusual conditions, for the French Academy, desirous of securing some observations on the force of terrestrial magnetism at great elevations above the earth, through Berthollet and J.
The magnetic observations, though imperfect, led him to the conclusion that the magnetic effect at all attainable elevations above the earth's surface remains constant; and on analysing the samples of air he could find no difference of composition at different heights.
trend to crustal deformations which in very early geological time gave a beginning to what later came to be the Appalachian mountain system; but this system had its climax of deformation so long ago (probably in Permian time) that it has since then been very generally reduced to moderate or low relief, and owes its present altitude either to renewed elevations along the earlier lines or to the survival of the most resistant rocks as residual mountains.
Gannet, " Dictionary of Elevations " (1898), and " River Profiles," publications of United States Geological Survey; G.
The greatest elevations occur in the west, where the mountain Tomahu reaches 8530 ft.
Shen-si is divided into two parts by a barrier of mountains, consisting of the Fu-niu Shan and the Tsingling Shan, which attain elevations of over I i,000 ft., and run across the southern portion of the province from east to west.
Notwithstanding these elevations, this portion of the state makes a distinct break in the continuity of the Northern and Southern Rockies, giving a broad, relatively low pass utilized by the Oregon Trail in early days, and by the Union Pacific railway at a later period.
The Southern Rockies end in broken ranges with elevations of 9000 ft.
the low basin of Jackson's Hole to elevations of Io,000 and I I,000 ft.,, form a striking feature.
Elevations under 6000 ft.
Winter temperatures as low as - 51° have been recorded, but these very low temperatures occur in the valleys rather than on the higher elevations.
East of the Kizil Irmak there is no single mountain chain, but there are several short ranges with elevations sometimes exceeding 9000 ft.
Red-headed and red-bellied woodpeckers, orchard orioles, yellowwinged sparrows, the cardinal, the blue grosbeak, the Carolina wren and the mocking-bird are characteristic of the lower elevations.
On the higher elevations the soil is light and sandy, and such areas remain relatively unproductive.
The greater elevations are for the most part formed of limestones, except in the south, where they are largely volcanic. The coasts of the Gulf of Akaba are steep, with numerous coral reefs on both sides.
The ridges lie in vast folds and wrinkles; and elevations in the valley are often found to be pierced by erosion.
The three main lake-basins of Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and flat hills only; but one sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 650 to 825 ft.
New Mexico has such a great range of elevations that all four of the zones of vegetation into which the South-West has been divided according to altitude are found within its limits; namely, the zone of cactus, yucca and agave (3000-3500 ft.), where grass is scanty; the zone of greasewood and sage-brush (3500-4900 ft.), where there is little grass, and the cactus species are less numerous; the zone of the cedar (4900-6800 ft.); and the zone of the pine and fir (6800 - 10,800 ft.), in which grass is more abundant.
on the mountain ranges at elevations of 10,000 ft.
to E., the chief elevations being the Carmarthen Van (2632 ft.), the Brecon Beacon (2862 ft.) and Pen-7-gader fawr (2660 ft.) near the English border.
The elevations and platforms of the mountain are covered with elaborately sculptured shrines, temples and tombs.
The first district, thus defined, is much the largest, and includes the greatest elevations in the country and the finest scenery.
All lie at elevations between 900 and 1300 ft.
The desert region is an elevated arid plateau descending gradually from the Andes towards the coast, where it breaks down abruptly from elevations of 800 to 1500 ft.
Beginning with the province of Aconcagua the coast elevations crystallize into a range of mountains, the Cordillera Maritima, which follows the shore line south to the province of Llanquihue, and is continued still farther south by the mountain range of Chiloe and the islands of the western coast, which are the peaks of a submerged mountain chain.
In southern Chile the coast is highly mountainous, but the relation of these elevations to the Andes has not been clearly determined.
The coast range of central Chile has no noteworthy elevations, the culminating point in the province of Santiago being 7316 ft.
The Chilean Andes between Tacna and Valdivia are crossed by 24 passes, the majority of them at elevations exceeding 10,000 ft.
In some instances since European occupation, violent earthquake shocks have resulted in considerable elevations of certain parts of the coast.
The existence of sea-shells at elevations of 350 to 1300 ft.
South of the Toro there are no large rivers on this coast, but the narrow fjords penetrate deeply into the mountains and bring away the drainage of their snow-capped, storm-swept elevations.
from the coast and at elevations exceeding 2000 ft.
In Asia it abounds in Siberia and on the mountains of the Amur region; on the European Alps it occurs at a height of 5600 ft., and on the Pyrenees it is found at still higher elevations; on the northern side of Etna it is said to grow at above 7000 ft.
Some of these western ranges rise to considerable elevations; those forming the TurkoPersian frontier west of the lake of Urmia have peaks 11,000 ft.
In Gilan and Mazandaran the air contains much moisture up to considerable elevations and as far as 30 to 40 m.
It is often seen on the shores of the Pacific, especially during the rainy season, but its favourite haunts for roosting and breeding are at elevations of 10,000 to 16,000 ft.
Soc. is a_ native of the mountains of central Mexico at elevations of 8000 to 9000 ft.
The European flora, which is diffused from the Mediterranean along the high lands of Asia, extends to the Himalaya; many European species reach the central parts of the chain, though few reach its eastern end, while genera common to Europe and the Himalaya are abundant throughout and at all elevations.
At the greater elevations the species identical with those of Europe become more frequent, and in the alpine regions many plants are found identical with species of the Arctic zone.
In the less exposed localities, on northern slopes and sheltered valleys, the European forms become more numerous, and we find species of alder, birch, ash, elm, maple, holly, hornbeam, Pyrus, &c. At greater elevations in the interior, besides the above are met Corylus, the common walnut, found wild throughout the range, horse chestnut, yew, also Picea Webbiana, Pinus, excelsa, Abies Smithiana, Cedrus Deodara (which tree does not grow spontaneously east of Kumaon), and several junipers.
At the lower elevations rice, maize and millets are common, wheat and barley at a somewhat higher level, and buckwheat and amaranth usually on the poorer lands, or those recently reclaimed from forest.
Bats are numerous, but the species are for the most part not peculiar to the area; several European forms are found at the higher elevations.
Civets, the mungoose (Herpestes), and toddy cats (Paradoxurus) are only found at the lower elevations.
Deer of several kinds are met with, but do not ascend very high on the hillsides, and belong exclusively to Indian forms. The musk deer keeps to the greater elevations.
Three very characteristic ruminants, having some affinities with goats, inhabit the Himalaya; these are the " serow " (Nemorhaedus), " goral " (Cemas) and " tahr " (Hemitragus), the last-named ranging to rather high elevations.
The gallinaceous birds include the peacock, which everywhere adorns the forest bordering on the plains, jungle fowl and several pheasants; partridges, of which the chikor may be named as most abundant, and snowpheasants and partridges, found only at the greatest elevations.
Lizards are numerous, and as well as frogs are found at all elevations from the plains to the upper Himalayan valleys, and even extend to Tibet.
Many of the Himalayan forms are Indian fish which appear to go up to the higher streams to deposit their ova, and the Tibetan species as a rule are confined to the rivers on the table-land or to the streams at the greatest elevations, the characteristics of which are Tibetan rather than Himalayan.
Ants, bees and wasps of many species, and flies and gnats abound, particularly during the summer rainy season, and at all elevations.
The site of the city is very hilly and is completely dominated by a line of high rocky elevations that run like a crescent-formed background from N.E.
The mean temperature, according to official estimates, is 70° F., but this probably represents the average between the higher elevations and the low country.
The cabezera de valle, as the name indicates, includes the heads of the deep valleys above the valle zone, with elevations ranging from 95 00 to 11,000 ft.; its climate is temperate, is divided into regular seasons, and is favourable to the production of cereals and vegetables.
There are localities in the open country and on exposed elevations where healthy conditions prevail, but the greater part of this region is considered unhealthy.
The most prominent features of this part of the state are the arid Snake river plains and three mountain-like elevations - Big, Middle and East Buttes - that rise from their midst.
East of 94° the range is continued by a double series of mountain chains, all of which exhibit less sharply marked orographical features and are at considerably lower elevations.
Crossing the lower peninsula from Saginaw Bay west by south through the valleys of the Saginaw, Maple and Grand rivers, is a depression - the former channel of an old glacial river - in which elevations for a considerable area are less than loo ft.
Amongst the more important plateaus are the Assab or Kibyen country, having a general level of upwards of 4000 ft., and the Sura country, also reaching to elevations of from 3000 to 5000 ft.
The Aravalli hills send off rocky ridges in a north-easterly direction through the states of Alwar and Jaipur, which from time to time reappear in the form of isolated hills and broken rocky elevations to near Delhi.
They threw themselves from natural or artificial elevations, or, facing the wind, they ran or were dragged forwards against it until they got under way and the wind caught hold of their aeroplanes.
The Devonian strata on the south do not form such lofty elevations as those on the north, and are in consequence, like the plain of Hereford, very fertile and peculiarly adapted for fruit-growing and cider-making.
The " Waterstones," or Lower Keuper Sandstones, - forming gentle elevations above the softer marls, and usually charged with an abundant supply of water, which can be reached by wells, - form the site of many towns, such as Birmingham, Warwick and Lichfield, and of very numerous villages.
A few small elevations of gravel, or of underlying formations, rise above the level of 25 ft.; these were in former times islands, and now they form the sites of the infrequent villages.
These lakes are about 1600 in number, are scattered in all parts of the state, are especially numerous at high elevations, and have an aggregate area of more than 2000 sq.
Many of the spurs or broken segments of ranges thus formed abut steeply upon the Black Sea, so that this littoral region is on the whole very rugged and not readily accessible, especially as the general elevations are considerable.
from the snows, is marked by a limestone belt, lower and less continuous than that on the north, which frames the gorges of the Rion, and rises in the Kuamli (6352 ft.) and Nakarala 4774 ft.) near Kutais, its best known elevations."
The tacsonias, by some considered to form part of this genus, inhabit the Andes at considerable elevations.
The plateau summits rise to elevations of 9000, 10,000 and i i,000 ft., are generally forested, but are too difficult of access to be much inhabited.
This is due to a stratum of hot air at some distance above the sea level, the rays of light near the horizon being practically horizontal, while those at greater elevations are fairly concave.
The elevations of the crest in Missouri (the highest portion of the uplift is in Arkansas) vary from 1100 to 1600 ft.
The surface region which yields a continuous spectrum is called the photosphere; it possesses optically a sharp boundary, which is generally a perfect sphere, but shows occasionally at the rim slight depressions or more rarely elevations.
and average width of 320 m., may be inferred from the elevations of the Caqueta, or Japura river, which was explored by Crevaux in 1878-1879.
The higher plateaus are called paramos, cold, windswept, mist-drenched deserts, lying between the elevations of 10,000 and 15,000 ft., which are often the only passes over the Cordilleras, and yet are almost impassable because of their morasses, heavy mists, and cold, piercing winds.
Its elevations are low and heavily wooded.
Between Cocui and the southern frontier of Colombia there are no noteworthy elevations except the so-called Paramo de Suma Paz near Bogota, the highest point of which is 14,146 ft.
The elevated plateaus and summits of the Andes are responsible, however, for many important and profound modifications in climate, not only in respect to the lower temperatures of the higher elevations, but also in respect to the higher temperatures of the sheltered lowland valleys and the varying climatic conditions of the neighbouring plains.
Farther south, at elevations between 800 and 9500 ft., the year is divided into four distinct seasons - two wet and two dry - the former called inviernos (winters) and the latter veranos (summers).
The plains and valleys of lower elevation are used for the cultivation of coffee and other sub-tropical products, the former being produced in nearly all the departments at elevations ranging from 3500 to 6500 ft.
Rising at considerable elevations, the coast rivers fall thousands of feet in comparatively short courses, and many are little else than mountain torrents.
In this neighbourhood as well as to the south-east of Hjorring, slight elevations are seen, deserving the name of hills in this low-lying district.
It grows at considerable elevations in southern Europe, in the Alps, Apennines, Pyrenees and Sierra Nevada (4000 to 8000 ft.).
It also grows in Asia Minor, Persia, and at great elevations on the Himalayas.
The cheek-teeth are large, with broad flattened crowns surmounted either by simple transverse ridges, or complicated by elevations and infoldings.
The isthmus districts, however, have lower elevations and are distinctly tropical.
The lowest elevations are in the southern and central portions of the state, where the altitude averages between 580 and 600 ft.
The westernmost of these elevations separates the valleys of the Mississippi, and the St Croix from that of the Wisconsin river.
But beyond that of Anie (8215 ft.), on the meridian of Orthez, which marks the boundary of Beam, much loftier elevations appear, - Mourrous (9760 ft.), on the border of Hautes-Pyrenees, and the southern peak of Ossau (9465 ft.).
The climate is in winter inclement in the higher elevations, and, as the snow lies deep until the spring, the range is largely frequented by devotees of winter sport, ski, toboganning, &c. In summer the air is bracing, and many climatic health resorts have sprung into existence, among which may be mentioned Kipsdorf, Barenfels and Oberwiesenthal.
South of this last line of elevations comes the depression of Kulja or Ili, cutting deep and far into the outer edge of the great plateau of central Asia.
The Ferghana Mountains, which are cleft by the Naryn (upper Syr-darya) river, have a mean altitude of 10,000 ft., but attain elevations of 12,740 ft.
It cannot be stated with the same definiteness that we can assign heights to our terrestrial mountains, because there is no fixed sea-level on the moon to which elevations can be referred.
His papers, which are numerous, are devoted in great part to atmospheric electricity, waterspouts, cyanometry and polarization of skylight, the temperature of water in the spheroidal state, and the boilingpoint at great elevations.
The elevations above the sea range from 4700 ft.
Lumber and Timber Products.-The merchantable timber is mostly in that part of the state which formerly constituted Indian Territory, and consists largely of black walnut and other valuable hard woods in the bottom lands, of black jack and post oak on the uplands and of pine on the higher elevations S.
It lies in a level country east of the line of slight elevations known as the Wolds, near the river Hull, and has communication by canal with Hull.
in area, mainly consists of one large marsh covered with reeds, and intersected by channels, relieved in places by isolated elevations covered with oak, beech and willows, many of them marking the ancient coast-line.
occupying an unusually small part of the surface; while not only are the highest elevations inferior to those of Asia and South America, but the area of land over 10,000 ft.
Lastly there are the recent elevations of the northern coastal regions, the Barbary coast and along the east coast.
above sea-level) it ffeezes so hard in December and January that skating is carried on on the sheet of water in the Buen Retiro; and, as winter throughout Spain, except in the maritime provinces of the north and north-west, is the season of greatest atmospheric precipitation, snowfalls are frequent, though the snow seldom lies long except at high elevations, The summers, on the other hand, are not only extremely warm but almost rainless, the sea-winds being deprived of their moisture on the edge of the plateau.
Ibex are gregarious, feeding in herds of ten to fifteen individuals; but the old males generally live apart from, and usually at greater elevations than, the females and young.
These asses inhabit desert plains or open table-land; the kiang dwelling at elevations of about 14,000 ft.
It has even been said that observers at great elevations have failed to see the zodiacal light; but it is scarcely credible that this failure could arise from any other cause than not knowing what it was or where to look for it.
A special characteristic of the Yemen highlands is that fields and inhabited sites are found at the highest elevations, the mountain-tops forming extensive plateaux, often scarped on every side and only accessible by difficult paths cut in the cliffs which encircle them like the escarpments of a natural fortress; a remarkable example of this is Jebel Jihaf on the Aden border, 8000 ft.
m., which are dependents of Lake San Martin As to the specific elevations of many of the peaks mentioned in this article, various authorities differ, and it is impossible in many cases to rate one estimate as of greater value than another.
The surrounding matrix will of course show the mould of the cast, with its elevations and depressions reversed.
depressions appeared as elevations, and vice versa, or, as we must say after Charles Wheatstone, it presented a pseudoscopic impression; this quality, however, was not recognized by the microscopists of the time.
This theory, however, is not universally accepted, some authorities preferring to assume a succession of more strictly local elevations and depressions, connected with the recent volcanic activity of the Jaulan and Lija districts on the east bank, which brought the contours finally to their actual form.
The mountain traffic was at a peak with the massive influx of visitors, especially at the lower elevations.
As the couple climbed to higher elevations, more caution was necessary as icy patches became more frequent.
Fred understood this and volunteered to ski with Donnie while the others took a couple of runs from the higher elevations.
The evidence adduced for these timely elevations often raised eyebrows in the Vatican.
Baseline elevations of several liver function tests (especially elevated bilirubin) should preclude the use of riluzole (see section 4.8 ).
bilirubin elevations were observed between these patients and those without viral hepatitis.
Transient moderate elevations of ASAT, ALAT and alkaline phosphatases and/or bilirubin have been reported.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.