There's elements to consider.
Initially, we plan to use the Dublin core metadata elements to index the pages on the superjournal web site.
If all were as it seems, and men made the elements their servants for noble ends!
It contained the essential minerals, including the trace elements for the lambs.
Parkside was nothing more than an innocent battleground for disreputable elements of our society, at war with one another.
these two elements are associated with a third, sometimes affords a very good test for the theory.
The world is developing a shared popular culture with elements drawn from around the globe.
I had learned only the elements of speech.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
Let me sum up a few of the elements that made Helen Keller what she is.
By adopting smaller and smaller elements of motion we only approach a solution of the problem, but never reach it.
The Trinity--the three elements of matter--are sulphur, mercury, and salt.
Every chain of events starts with one push, a catalyst, the perfect mix of different elements that craft a path and make an outcome more likely.
The "symbols" for the elements used by Dalton, apparently suggested by those of the alchemists, have been rejected in favour of those which were introduced by Berzelius.
As I walk along the stony shore of the pond in my shirt-sleeves, though it is cool as well as cloudy and windy, and I see nothing special to attract me, all the elements are unusually congenial to me.
Nor is it true that, after I had learned these elements, I did the rest of the work myself.
Amongst the elements of our thought there are some which we can make and unmake at our pleasure; there are others which come and go without our wish; there is also a third class which is of the very essence of our thinking, and which dominates our conceptions.
Climate and a fertile soil have been important elements in this growth.
It contains all the essential elements of the hammer-headed crane, of which it may be considered to be the parent; in fact, the only essential difference is that the Titan is portable and the hammer-head crane fixed.
Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 ° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.
This simple form of crane thus embodies the essential elements of foundation, post, framework, jib, tie-rods and gearing.
Imagine it has a million elements in it.
He had some knowledge of authentic history, and rejected the more marvellous elements of the story.
The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.
His manual on Graphical Statics and his Elements of Projective Geometry (translated by C. Leudesdorf), have been published in English by the Clarendon Press.
The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution.
He then made the acquaintance of Aaron Solomon Gumperz, who taught him the elements of French and English.
Some elements only exist in nature in pairs of atoms, including hydrogen, nitrogen, and iodine.
We think of things not in the abstract elements of the things themselves, but in connexion with, and in language which presupposes, other things.
Each problem was something unique; the elements of transition from one to another were wanting; and the next step which mathematics had to make was to find some method of reducing, for instance, all curves to a common notation.
He received the first elements of his artistic education from Cosimo Roselli; and after leaving him, devoted himself to the study of the great works of Leonardo da Vinci.
Miss Sullivan, who knows her pupil's mind, selects from the passing landscape essential elements, which give a certain clearness to Miss Keller's imagined view of an outer world that to our eyes is confused and overloaded with particulars.
The views of Becher on the composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt, mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the combustible earths.
The heterogeneous elements of the new organization could not be made to unite on a man who for so many years had devoted his energies to purely Whig measures, and he was considered less "available" than Fremont in 1856 and than Lincoln in 1860.
cn, N, o.c, x, b, the 1.0¦6 From Gegenbaur's Elements of Comparative Anatomy.
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
The first contains many original elements.
Other elements of the problem there are none, except mere numbers and angles, which do not depend upon the fundamental measurements of space, time and mass.
The somewhat remarkable resemblance between the diurnal variation for the two elements, first remarked on by J.
The Different Elements Potential Gradient, Dissipation, Ionization And Radioactivityare Clearly Not Independent Of One Another.
Thus unfortunate in his birth, young Hastings received the elements of education at a charity school in his native village.
This large influx of Europeans, however, is modifying the population by reducing the Indian and mestizo elements to a minority, although they are still numerous in the mesopotamian, northern and north-western provinces.
It rapidly absorbs the elements of water wherever possible, so that a strip of paper plunged into the gas is rapidly charred.
16), and recent excavation has shown how far the cultus of these cities was removed from Mosaic religion and ritual and how long the grosser elements persisted.'
His writings include: Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices (1892); Elements of Geometry (with A.
To study the laws of history we must completely change the subject of our observation, must leave aside kings, ministers, and generals, and study the common, infinitesimally small elements by which the masses are moved.
The free use of discords and of wider intervals, together with the influence of the florid elements of solo-singing, enlarged the bounds of choral expression almost beyond recognition, while they crowded into very narrow quarters the subtleties of 16th-, century music. These, however, by no means disappeared; :and such devices as the crossing of parts in the second Kyrie of Bach's B Minor Mass (bars 7, 8, 14, 15, 22, 23, 50) abundantly show that in the hands of the great masters artistic truths are not things which a change of date can make false.
Inside, out in the elements.
It's important whatever garments you wear, that you get good protection against the elements.
The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
Regular observations were made of both elements.
Such are the four points of Cartesian method: (1) Truth requires a clear and distinct conception of its object, excluding all doubt; (2) the objects of knowledge naturally fall into series or groups; (3) in these groups investigation must begin with a simple and indecomposable element, and pass from it to the more complex and relative elements; (4) an exhaustive and immediate grasp of the relations and interconnexion of these elements is necessary for knowledge in the fullest sense of that word.4 " There is no question," he says in anticipation of Locke and Kant, " more important to solve than that of knowing what human knowledge is and how far it extends."
BORON (symbol B, atomic weight ii), one of the non-metallic elements, occurring in nature in the form of boracic (boric) acid, and in various borates such as borax, tincal,.
Boron bromide BBr 3 can be formed by direct union of the two elements, but is best obtained by the method used for the preparation of the chloride.
Here also he wrote Lucinde (1799), an unfinished romance, which is interesting as an attempt to transfer to practical ethics the Romantic demand for complete individual freedom, and Alarcos, a tragedy (1802) in which, without much success, he combined romantic and classical elements.
There are numerous and important variations of these two types, but the above contain the elements out of which most cranes of the class are built.
34 shows the effect of the interpolator in dissecting the consecutive elements of any letter combination.
As the direction and intensity of this induced current are a function of the position of the second coil in its field, and as this position is determined by its mechanical connexion with the recorder coil, it is evident that, by a suitable choice of the electrical elements of the second coil and its alternating field, the indications on the siphon recorder can be magnified to any reasonable extent.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.
Each provincial administrative junta is composed, in part, of government nominees, and in larger part of elective elements, elected by the provincial council for four years, half of whom require to be elected every two years.
The war against the castles became a war against the palaces; and the system of government by consuls proved inefficient to control the clashing elements within the state.
On the 15th of November he was assassinated, and as no one was punished for this crime the insolence of the disorderly elements increased, and shots were exchanged with the Swiss Guard.
He ended by dominating the cabinet, but owing to his having negotiated a union of the Right Centre and the Left Centre (the Con nubio) in the conviction that the country needed the moderate elements of both parties, he quarrelled with DAzeglio (who, as an uncompromising conservative, failed to see the value of such a move) and resigned.
His disappearance snapped the chief link with the heroic period, and removed from the helm of state a ruler of large heart, great experience and civil courage, at a moment when elements of continuity were needed and vital problems of internal reorganization had still to be faced.
The men of the Left believed themselves subtle enough to retain the confidence and esteem of all foreign powers while coquetting at home with elements which some of these powers had reason to regard with suspicion.
Firmness such as this secured for him the support of all constitutional elements, and after three years premiership his position was infinitely stronger than at the outset.
Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.
This result was most satisfactory to all the best elements in the country, and great hopes were entertained that the 1909.
Moral elements must enter into theism at some point: and, as against empiricism, intuitionalism is morally strong.
Thirdly: we cannot explain how these three elements - sensation; time anfl space; thought - work together.
Alongside of this there are other elements in Spencer's composite system of " Naturalism and Agnosticism " (J.
From them are developed two distinct types of histological elements; the genital cells and the cnidoblasts or mothercells of the nematocysts.
Schulze.) elements, more especially by nervous (ganglion) cells and musclecells derived from the epithelial layer.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
The buds may all become detached after a time and give rise to separate and independent individuals, as in the common Hydra, in which only polyp-individuals are produced and sexual elements From Allman's Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of are developed the Council of the Ray Society.
on the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.
After a time the polyps, or certain of them, produce by budding medusa-individuals, which sooner or later develop sexual elements; in some cases, however, the founder_ polyp remains solitary, that is to say, does not produce polypbuds, but only medusa-buds, from the first (Corymorpha, fig.
We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
The force which brings the atoms together in the forms of objects is inherent in the elements, and all their motions are necessary.
The origin of things, which is also their substance, is thus laid in the simplest and most homogeneous elements or principles.
In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."
He is indeed careful to keep right with the orthodox doctrine of creation by saying that he does not believe the world actually arose in this mechanical way out of the three kinds of elements which he here supposes, but that he simply puts out his hypothesis as a mode of conceiving how it might have arisen.
Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law, New York, i.
Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law (New York, 1889-1890); S.
He was the first to discover uranium, zirconium and titanium, and to characterize them as distinct elements, though he did not obtain any of them in the pure metallic state; and he elucidated the composition of numerous substances till then imperfectly known, including compounds of the then newly recognized elements: tellurium, strontium, cerium and chromium.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
There was little of originality in Luria's doctrines; the theory of emanations, the double belief in the process of the Divine Essence as it were self-concentrating (Zimzum) and on the other hand as expanding throughout creation; the philosophical " sceptism '° which regards God as unknowable but capable of direct intuition by feeling - these were all common elements of mystical thought.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
In later times Orphic theology engaged the attention of Greek philosophersEudemus the Peripatetic, Chrysippus the Stoic, and Proclus the Neoplatonist, but it was an especially favourite study of the grammarians of Alexandria, where it became so intermixed with Egyptian elements that Orpheus came to be looked upon as the founder of mysticism.
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
This consists of a few xylem elements, e a a segment of phloem, pericycle, and usually an arc of h~s endodermis, which closes round the bundle as it detaches ~
13, 23), the xylem of which is usually wedgeshaped in cross-section with the protoxylem elements at the inner extremity, while the phloem forms a band on the outer side of the xylem, and separated from it by a band of conjunctive tissue (mesodesm).
In the very frequent cases where the bundles have considerable individuality, the fibrous pericyclic cap very clearly has a common origin from the same strand of tissue as the vascular elements themselves.
The parenchyma is often arranged in tangential bands between the layers of sievetubes and tracheal elements.
The xylem parenchyma is often found in strands associated with the tracheal elements.
In a few cases some of the tracheids have very thick walls and reduced cavities, functioning as mechanical rather than as waterconducting elements.
The stereom is furnished either by cortical cells or by the tracheal elements, in a few cases by fibres which arc probably homologous with sievetubes.
In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.
The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.
The living elements die, and the walls of all the cells often become hardened, owing to the deposit in them of special substances.
There is at present also a want of agreement among botanists as to the path which the water takes in the structural elements of the tree, two views being held.
The layers appear to be made up of elements which are arranged radially.
While so many conspicuous Australian elements are wanting in New Zealand, one-eighth of its flora belongs to South American genera.
The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
The so-called alkaline earth-metals are the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.
The alkaline earths were assumed to be elements until 1807, when Sir H.
It is homologous with the distal ends of the ceratohyals or ventral elements of the hyoidean or second visceral arch.
This pad varies much; it is morphologically the homologue of the pair of basiventral elements which by their lateral extension give origin to the corresponding ribs.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
18 (1903); C. Tiele, Elements of the Science of Religion (Gifford lectures,lect.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
In biology conception is the coalescence of the male and female generative elements, producing pregnancy.
In correcting the elements of Delambre's solar tables he had been led to suspect an inequality overlooked by their constructor.
In each case the Arab or the Norman was the kernel, the centre round which all other elements gathered and which gave its character to the whole.
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
Out of these elements the Saracens of Sicily had formed a noble and beautiful style, grand and simple in its construction, rich and graceful in its characteristic detail.
At Bari, Trani and Bitonto we see a style in which Italian and strictly Norman elements are really mingled.
GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead.
Sulphur also combines directly with most of the elements to form sulphides.
It reacts most energetically with many organic compounds, removing the elements of water in many cases and leaving a carbonized mass.
It combines directly with many elements and compounds and frequently acts as energetic oxidizing agent.
Condillac's sensationalism - Locke's philosophy purged of its more ideal if less logical elements - leading on to materialism in J.
One of his most important works was the Elements de Philosophic published in 1759, in which he discussed the principles and methods of the different sciences.
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
was pressed by the more reactionary elements to model his parliament on this rough equivalent of the Western states-general.
" the Union of the Russian People," began an organized extermination of the elements supposed to be hostile to the traditional regime.
The more moderate elements found a rallying cry in the manifesto of October, took the name of " the Party of 17 October," and became known as " Octobrists."
of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.
For other areas we have often no description of the procedure at all, but merely the briefest outline of the actual process of slaughter, and we are ignorant whether the form of the rite is in reality simple (either from a loss of primitive elements or from never having advanced beyond the stage at which we find it), or whether the absence of detail is due to the inattention or lack of interest of the observer.
The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
The sacrifices of sacralization and desacralization mentioned above find their analogues in the Hindu scheme of the rite; sacralization and desacralization, sometimes performed by means of subsidiary sacrifices, are the essential elements of the preparation for sacrifice and the subsequent lustration.
2 The elements of the form are preserved exactly in the liturgy of the Church of England.
The innumerable theories which were framed as to the precise nature of the offering and as to the precise change in the elements all implied that conception of it.
He took stern measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative.
the kadishtu of the temples of the Babylonian Ishtar) were foreign Canaanite elements which became imported into Hebrew worship during the period of the Hebrew settlement in Canaan.
For Amos and Isaiah were able to single out those loftier spiritual and ethical elements which lay implicit in Mosaism and to lift them into their due place of prominence.
The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.
The fetters of nationalism were to be broken, and the Hebrew religion in its essential spiritual elements was to become the heritage of all humanity.
In theology he was a Broad Churchman, seeking always to emphasize the permanent elements in religion, and ignoring technicalities.
In the Kulu and Ladakh country the tree is sacred to the deities of the elements.
The last eighteen months of this residence abroad saw the infusion of two new elements - one of them at least of considerable importance - into his life.
de Traytorrens, went through the elements of algebra and geometry, and the three fi r st books of the Marquis de l'Hopital's Conic Sections.
The task of constructing a system of government from the bottom, of reconciling the conflicting and often jealously sensitive elements, called for tact, firmness, industry and deep insight into human nature, all of which Governor Taft displayed in a marked degree.
It is no longer possible to distinguish clearly the Greek and Roman elements in this curious cult, though it is itself quite intelligible as that of an Earth-goddess with mysteries attached.
Among elements of unhealthiness is next to be reckoned the proximity of native villages, the inhabitants of which are infected.
expresses that under certain conditions the intrinsic energy of hydriodic acid is greater than the intrinsic energy of its component elements by 12200 cal., i.e.
that hydriodic acid is formed from its elements with absorption of this amount of heat.
Thus by transposition we may write the last equation as follows 2HI =H2+12+12200 cal., and thus express that hydriodic acid when decomposed into its elements evolves 12200 cal.
- For thermochemical calculations it is of great importance to know the heat of formation of compounds from their elements, even when the combination cannot be brought about directly.
But since the elements cannot be converted one into the other, we are absolutely without knowledge of the relative values of their intrinsic energy.
This assumption has the great advantage, that the intrinsic energy of a compound relatively to its elements now appears as the heat of formation of the compound with its sign reversed.
its heat of decomposition into its elements.
Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
The oxygen contained in the compound was deducted, together with the equivalent amount of hydrogen, and the heat of combustion of the compound was then taken to be equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in the residue.
Wilson, Elements of Thermal Chemistry (London, 1885); P. Duhem, Traite de Mecanique Chimique (Paris, 18 97-99); J.
The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
From a variety of independent reasons one is forced to conclude that, whatever historical elements they may contain, the stories of this remote past represent the form which tradition had taken in a very much later age.
Many of the elements lie outside questions of time and place and are almost immemorial.
that of " Israel " and " Samaria ") is involved with the incorporation of non-Judaean elements.
- The elements of the thought and religion of the Hebrews do not sever them from their neighbours; similar features of cult are met with elsewhere under different names.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
OLD] and ritualistic; the other, more cosmopolitan, extended a freer welcome to strangers, and tolerated the popular elements and the superstitious cults which are vividly depicted (Isa.
70), it will be seen that the recurrence of similar causes leads to a similarity in the contemporary literary productions (with a reshaping of earlier tradition), the precise date of which depends upon delicate points of detail and not upon the apparently obvious historical elements.
" It was a necessity that Judaism should incrust itself in this manner; without those hard and ossified forms the preservation of its essential elements would have proved impossible.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
On account of the prejudices of her mother, who did not desire her to know more than was necessary for being useful in the family, she received in youth only the first elements of education.
Art was still by no means extinct, and its forms and decorative elements are simply later derivatives of the great palace style.
As to the character of the invading elements that hastened its close, and the date of their incursions, contemporary Egyptian monuments afford the best clue.
All the Semitic languages' are built up from triliteral roots: that is, the great majority of the words are derived from a simple verbal form, of which the essential elements are three consonants.
For example, the priests are not to be chosen by the people; penitents are not to be present at ordinations (lest they should hear the failings of candidates discussed); bishops are to be appointed by the metropolitan and his suffragan; sub-deacons may not distribute the elements of the Eucharist; clerics are forbidden to leave a diocese without the bishop's permission.
In either case it is of course open to anyone to maintain that the apparent completeness of synthesis really rests on the subtle intrusion of elements of feeling into the rational process.
Japan appears to have been formerly inhabited by the Ainus, who have traditions of an older but unknown population, but was invaded in prehistoric times by a race akin to the Koreans, which was possibly mingled with Malay elements after occupying the southern part of the islands.
Both China and Japan have felt through Buddhism the influence of Indian art, which contains at least two elements - one indigenous and the other Greco-Persian.
These excerpts, however, have been so pieced together, that it is often impossible to separate them with precision, and to distinguish accurately between earlier and later elements.
David was not only a great captain, he was a national hero in whom all the noblest elements of the Hebrew genius were combined.
7 6 5 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia, Ionia.
The commercial importance of the town dates from the second half of the r9th century; in 1870 its population had risen to 38,000, and after it was brought into railway connexion with Kharkov and Voronezh, and thus with the fertile provinces of south and south-east Russia, the increase was still more rapid, the number reaching 56,047 in 1885, and 58,928 in 1900 - Greeks, Jews, Armenians and West-Europeans being important elements.
A third account omits all the apocryphal elements in the story and says that Agrippa was assassinated by the Romans, who objected to his growing power.
Most of these were simple records of patient and laborious analytical operations, and it is perhaps surprising that among all the substances he analysed he only detected two new elements - beryllium (1798) in beryl and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia.
But it lacked the elements of true greatness.
The rebellious elements allied themselves instinctively with the Poles, who thus found the absorption of the greater part of the lands of the Order an easy task.
It brought Ladislaus little immediate gain; but it stimulated the elements of unrest in Prussia to fresh activity.
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east.
He wrote also Elements de metaphysique (1724), a "French Grammar on a new plan," and a number of historical essays.
Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
But it is doubtful whether the most complete investigation would ever enable us to include all the elements of the standard of life in a money estimate.
In the investigation of past times, the incommensurate elements of well-being are so numerous that merely money estimates are frequently misleading.
ganglia, rather than cord-like nerve- br', Parabranchia (= the tracts containing both nerve-cells or comb-like osphra ganglionic elements and nerve-fibres.
The detorted visceral commissure shows a tendency to the concentration of all its elements round the oesophagus, so that except in the Bullomorpha and in Aplysia the whole nervous system is aggregated in the cephalic region, either dorsally or ventrally.
To us, indeed, his conception of the universe, like that of Philo, seems a strange medley, and one may be at a loss to conceive how he could bring together such heterogeneous elements; but there is no reason to doubt that the harmony of all the essential parts of his system was obvious enough to himself.
He is, moreover, a judicious critic. The union of these four elements gives character to his theology, and in a certain degree to all subsequent theology.
Very many accepted these terms, rallied to the First Consul with more or less sincerity; and their return to France to strengthen the conservative elements in French society.
But the Arsacid kingdom never was a truly national state; with the Scythian and Parthian elements were united some elements of Greek civilization.
In 1881 and 1884 he printed some notes on the elements of vector analysis for the use of his students; these were never formally published, but they formed the basis of a text-book on Vector Analysis which was published by his pupil, E.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
Certain elements present themselves in feeling which seem stubbornly to resist any attempt to explain them in terms of thought.
religion compounded of Christian, heathen and Jewish elements on a type which is essentially that of ancient Gnosticism.
Into these regions descended Hibil the brilliant, in the power of Mana rabba, just as in the Manichaean mythology the "primal man," armed with the elements of the king of light, descends to a contest with the primal devil.
The Mandaeans observe also with the elements of bread (pehta) and wine (mambuha, lit.
The thoracic segments, as seen in an early stage of the ventral plate, display in a well-marked manner the essential elements of the insect segment.
These elements are a central piece or sternite, 12 and a lateral field on each side bearing the leg-rudi 1s ment.
The very elements now began to fight against the perishing but still unconquered host.
Of the foreign-born population these elements constituted respectively 35.6, 24 o, 7.6, 7 o, 6.7 and 5.3%.
Its characteristic civilization grew out of a mixture of various elements, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek and Roman.
A tenant is not responsible, under such a covenant, for deterioration due to diminution in value caused by lapse of time or by the elements.
The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.
Possessing soil, climate and apparently all the requisite elements from nature for the production of cotton to an almost boundless extent, and of a 1 Approximately.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about architectural elements.
As regards the first point, it is now generally held that miracles are exceptions to the order of nature as known in our common experience; and as regards the second, that miracles are constituent elements in the divine revelation, deeds which display, the divine character and purpose; but they are signs and not merely seals of truth.
This is the open place on which a power that commands in the name of this meaning can exert its influence; and if under this command the inner condition of the elements, the magnitudes of their relation and their opposition to each other, become altered, the necessity of the mechanical cause of the world must unfold this new state into a miraculous appearance, not through suspension but through strict maintenance of its general laws " (op. cit.
On the problem of evil and sin it is impossible here to enter; but this must be insisted on, that the miracles of Jesus at least express divine benevolence just under those conditions in which the course of nature obscures it, and are therefore, proper elements in a revelation of grace, of which nature cannot give any evidence.
Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.
The principal elements are found in various combinations, the hydrocarbons of the Pennsylvania oils being mainly paraffins (q.v.), while those of Caucasian petroleum belong for the most part to the naphthenes, isomeric with the olefines (q.v.).
The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
At a very early period - as early probably as the 16th century B.C.- Syria became the meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian elements, resulting in a type of western Asiatic culture peculiar to itself, which through the commerce of the Phoenicians was carried to the western lands of the Mediterranean basin.
They or their confederacy remained, however, the most powerful of the Syrian elements till the westward extension of Assyria about 1050 B.C., under Tiglath-Pileser I.
In Carinella, Cephalothrix, Polia and the Metanemertines the two tegumentary layers with their different glandular elements are fused into one; a thick layer of connective tissue is situated beneath them (instead of between them) and keeps the entire cutaneous system more definitely separate from the muscular (fi g s.
The histological elements of this portion remain distinct both by transmitted light and in actual sections.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
At the council of Tours (1054) he found a protector in the papal legate, the famous Hildebrand, who, satisfied himself with the fact that Berengar did not deny the real presence of Christ in the sacramental elements, succeeded in persuading the assembly to be content with a general confession from him that the bread and wine, after consecration, were the body and blood of the Lord, without requiring him to define how.
Philosophical sanction and explanation of this belief was then found by bringing it into relation with the theory of the prima materia, which was identical in all bodies but received its actual form by the adjunction of qualities expressed by the Aristotelian elements - earth, air, fire and water.
In the Greek alchemists it appears as the symbol at once of the art and of the universe, enclosing within itself the four elements; and there is sometimes a play of words between rï¿½dv and rï¿½c30v.
The prima materia was early identified with mercury, not ordinary mercury, but the " mercury of the philosophers," which was the essence or soul of mercury, freed from the four Aristotelian elements - earth, air, fire and water - or rather from the qualities which they represent.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
pp. The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
Two elements define the position of the plane passing through the attracting centre in which the orbit lies.
Hence the number of independent elements assigned to a planet or other body moving around the sun is commonly six.
In these cases therefore the mean distance and mean motion are regarded as different elements, and the whole number of the latter is seven.
The process by which the position of a planet at any time is determined from its elements may now be conceived as follows The epoch of passage through pericentre being given, let t be the interval of time between this epoch and that for which the position of the body is required.
To form a conception of this problem it is to be noted that since the position of the body in space can be computed from the six elements of the orbit at any time we may ideally conceive the coordinates of the body to be algebraically expressed as functions of the six elements and of the time.
t, representing the six elements and the time.
Then by solving these equations, regarding the six elements as unknown quantities, the values of the latter may be computed.
Instead of the six ideal equations just described we have to combine a number of equations of various forms containing other quantities than the elements.
Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1903, 1 37, p. 229) by the direct combination of the two elements in the electric furnace.
As soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; afterwards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio Maurique, duke of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and prudence which marked his after life.
Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
But whether he lived or not, and whenever he lived, it is certain that many mythical elements are contained in his story.
How certain it is that the Robin Hood story attracted to it and appropriated other elements is illustrated by its subsequent history - its history after the 14th century.
In 1513 the arrival of its first bishop, who later also exercised the function of general inquisitor, added one more to the discordant elements ruling the island.
But it was hardly adapted to teach a people utterly without political experience the essential elements of self-government.
His name is best known for the share he had in the periodic classification of the elements.
His book on Die modernen Theorien der Chemie, which was first published in Breslau in 1864, contains a discussion of relations between the atomic weights and the properties of the elements.
His idea was to combine the more conservative elements of both sections in favour of a settlement which would concede the Southern view on two questions, the Northern view on two, and balance the fifth.
The fundamental chemical classification of matter, on the other hand, recognizes two groups of substances, namely, elements, which are substances not admitting of analysis into other substances, and compounds, which do admit of analysis into simpler substances and also of synthesis from simpler substances.
Here is treated the history of descriptive inorganic chemistry; reference should be made to the articles on the separate elements for an account of their preparation, properties, &c.
Any change which a substance may chance to undergo was simply due to the discarding or taking up of some proportion of the primary " elements " or qualities: of these coverings " water," " air," " earth " and " fire " were regarded as clinging most tenaciously to the essence, while " cold," " heat," " moistness " and " dryness " were more easily cast aside or assumed.
In the view of some alchemists, the ultimate principles of matter were Aristotle's four elements; the proximate constituents were a " sulphur " and a " mercury," the father and mother of the metals; gold was supposed to have attained to the perfection of its nature by passing in succession through the forms of lead, brass and silver; gold and silver were held to contain very pure red sulphur and white quicksilver, whereas in the other metals these materials were coarser and of a different colour.
At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.
To him is also due a rigorous examination of the nature of elements and compounds; he held the same views that were laid down by Boyle, and with the same prophetic foresight predicted that some of the elements which he himself accepted might be eventually found to be compounds.
that fixed proportions of elements and compounds combine only under exceptional conditions, the general rule being that the composition of a compound may vary continuously between certain limits.2
Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.
The denotation of elements by symbols had been practised by the alchemists, and it is interesting to note that the symbols allotted to the well-known elements are identical with the astrological symbols of the sun and the other members of the solar system.
elements received symbols composed of circles, arcs of circles, and lines, while certain class symbols, such as1W for metals, - - foracids, for alkalies, for salts, U for calces, &c., were used.
Hassenfratz and Adet, who assigned to each element a symbol, and to each compound a sign which should record the elements present and their relative quantities.
Straight lines and semicircles were utilized for the non-metallic elements, carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur!
Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.
If two compounds combined, the + signs of the free compounds were discarded, and the number of atoms denoted by an Arabic index placed after the elements, and from these modified symbols the symbol of the new compound was derived in the same manner as simple compounds were built up from their elements.
Berzelius objected to the hypothesis that if two elements form only one compound, then the atoms combine one and one; and although he agreed theory.
While successfully investigating the solid elements and their compounds gravimetrically, Berzelius was guilty of several inconsistencies in his views on gases.
From a study of the free elements Cannizzaro showed that an element may have more than one molecular weight; for example, the molecular weight of sulphur varied with the temperature.
We have seen how its utilization in the " structure theory " permitted great clarification, and attempts were not wanting for the deduction of analogies or a periodicity between elements.
Carbon was joined with silicon, zirconium and titanium, while boron, being trivalent, was relegated to another group. A general classification of elements, however, was not realized by Frankland, nor even by Odling, who had also investigated the question from the valency standpoint.
The solution came abOut by arranging the elements in the order of their atomic weights, tempering the arrangement with the results deduced from the theory of valencies and experimental observations.
These two works, and especially the latter, were the models followed by Thenard, Liebig, Strecker, Wohler and many others, including Thomas Graham, upon whose Elements of Chemistry was founded Otto's famous Lehrbuch der Chemie, to which H.
Elements.-The following table gives the names, symbols and atomic weights of the perfectly characterized elements: International Atomic Weights, 1910.
The elements are usually divided into two classes, the metallic and the non-metallic elements; the following are classed as non-metals, and the remainder as metals: Of these hydrogen, chlorine, fluorine, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, neon, krypton, xenon and helium are gases, bromine is a liquid, and the remainder are solids.
The non-metallic elements are also sometimes termed metalloids, but this appellation, which signifies metal-like substances (Gr.
eilos, like), strictly belongs to certain elements which do not possess the properties of the true metals, although they more closely resemble them than the non-metals in many respects; thus, selenium and tellurium, which are closely allied to sulphur in their chemical properties, although bad conductors of heat and electricity, exhibit metallic lustre and have relatively high specific gravities.
But when the properties of the elements are carefully contrasted together it is found that no strict line of demarcation can be drawn dividing them into two classes; and if they are arranged in a series, those which are most closely allied in properties being placed next to each other, it is observed that there is a more or less regular alteration in properties from term to term in the series.
Those elements which are disengaged at the negative pole are termed electro-positive, or positive, or basylous elements, whilst those disengaged at the positive pole are termed electro-negative, or negative, or chlorous elements.
But the difference between these two classes of elements is one of degree only, and they gradually merge into each other; moreover the electric relations of elements are not absolute, but vary according to the state of combination in which they exist, so that it is just as impossible to divide the elements into two classes according to this property as it is to separate them into two distinct classes of metals and non-metals.
The following, however, are negative towards the remaining elements which are more or less positive:-Fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, oxygen, sulphur, selenium, tellurium.
Elements which readily enter into reaction with each other, and which develop a large amount of heat on combination, are said to have a powerful affinity for each other.
The tendency of positive elements to unite with positive elements, or of negative elements to unite with negative elements, is much less than that of positive elements to unite with negative elements, and the greater the difference in properties between two elements the more powerful is their affinity for each other.
Hydrogen and oxygen are, therefore, of very opposite natures, and this is well illustrated by the circumstance that oxygen combines, with very few exceptions, with all the remaining elements, whilst compounds of only a limited number with hydrogen have been obtained.
Com pounds .-A chemical compound contains two or more elements; consequently it should be possible to analyse it, i.e.
In general, a compound has properties markedly different from those of the elements of which it is composed.
The molecule of every compound must obviously contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are as follows: I.
- The same compound always contains the same elements combined together in the same mass proportion.
When the same two elements combine together to form more than one compound, the different masses of one of the elements which unite with a constant mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another.
The masses of different elements which combine separately with one and the same mass of another element, are either the same as, or simple multiples of, the masses of these different elements which combine with each other.
If more than one compound be formed from the same two elements,, the difference is shown by prefixing such words as mono-, di-, tri-, sesqui-, per-, sub-, &c., to the last part of the name, or the suffixes -ous and -ic may be appended to the name of the first element.
Usually, when the symbols of the elements are written or printed with a figure to the right, it is understood that this indicates a molecule of the element, the symbol alone representing an atom.
Before explaining these formulae it will be necessary, however, to consider the differences in combining power exhibited by the various elements.
In explanation of these facts it is supposed that each element has a certain number of " units of affinity," which may be entirely, or only in part, engaged when it enters into combination with other elements; and in those cases in which the entire number of units of affinity are not engaged by other elements, it is supposed that those which are thus disengaged neutralize each other, as it were.
Compounds in which all the units of affinity of the contained elements are engaged are said to be saturated, whilst those in which the affinities of the contained elements are not all engaged by other elements are said to be unsaturated.
According to this view, it is necessary to assume that, in all unsaturated compounds, two, or some even number of affinities are disengaged; and also that all elements which combine with an even number of monad atoms cannot combine with an odd number, and vice versa, - in other words, that the number of units of affinity active in the case of any given element must be always either an even or an odd number, and that it cannot be at one time an even and at another an odd number.
The number of units of affinity active in the case of any particular element is largely dependent, however, upon the nature of the element or elements with which it is associated.
It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.
- Chemical change or chemical action may be said to take place whenever changes occur which involve an alteration in the composition of molecules, and may be the result of the action of agents such as heat, electricity or light, or of two or more elements or compounds upon each other.
Changes of the first and second kind, according to our views of the constitution of molecules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements are all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or more units of affinity, according to their valencies.
If this be the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction between the reactions which take place when two elements combine together and when an element in a compound is displaced by another.
This difference in behaviour of the three elements, chlorine, bromine and iodine, which in many respects exhibit considerable resemblance, may be explained in the following manner.
We may suppose that in the formation of gaseous hydrochloric acid from gaseous chlorine and hydrogen, according to the equation H2 +C1 2 = HCI+HC1, a certain amount of energy is expended in separating the atoms of hydrogen in the hydrogen molecule, and the atoms of chlorine in the chlorine molecule, from each other; but that heat is developed by the combination of the hydrogen atoms with the chlorine atoms, and that, as more energy is developed by the union of the atoms of hydrogen and chlorine than is expended in separating the hydrogen atoms from each other and the chlorine atoms from one another, the result of the action of the two elements upon each other is the development of heat, - the amount finally developed in the reaction being the difference between that absorbed in decomposing the elementary molecules and that developed by the combination of the atoms of chlorine and hydrogen.
Lastly, in the production of gaseous hydriodic acid from hydrogen and solid iodine H2 - 1 - 12=HI+HI, so much energy is expended in the decomposition of the hydrogen and iodine molecules and in the conversion of the iodine into the gaseous condition, that the heat which it may be supposed is developed by the combination of the hydrogen and iodine atoms is insufficient to balance the expenditure, and the final result is therefore negative; hence it is necessary in forming hydriodic acid from its elements to apply heat continuously.
Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is concerned with the descriptive study o f the elements and their compounds, except those of carbon.
Reference should be made to the separate articles on the different elements and the more important compounds for their preparation, properties and uses.
Towards the middle of the 18th century two new elements were isolated: cobalt by G.
Returning to the history of the discovery of the elements and their more important inorganic compounds, we come in 1789 to M.
Cleve, the first to make a really thorough study of these elements and their compounds.
The beginning of the 19th century witnessed the discovery of certain powerful methods for the analysis of compounds and the isolation of elements.
Berzelius's investigation of the action of the electric current on salts clearly demonstrated the invaluable assistance that electrolysis could render to the isolator of elements; and the adoption of this method by Sir Humphry Davy for the analysis of the hydrates of the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, and the results which he thus achieved, established its potency.
The success which attended his experiments in the case of silicon led him to apply it to the isolation of other elements.
Balard completed for many years Berzelius's group of " halogen " elements; the remaining member, fluorine, notwithstanding many attempts, remained unisolated until 1886, when Henri Moissan obtained it by the electrolysis of potassium fluoride dissolved in hydrofluoric acid.
Chemically related to vanadium are the two elements tantalum and columbium or niobium.
These elements occur in the minerals columbite and tantalite, and their compounds became known in the early part of the 19th century by the labours of C. Hatchett, A.
Nilson, and subsequently (1904) by Hall, rendered notable additions to our knowledge of these elements and their compounds.
Since their day many chemists have entered the lists, new and powerful methods of research have been devised, and several new elements definitely characterized.
Our knowledge on many points, however, is very chaotic; great uncertainty and conflict of evidence circulate around many of the " new elements " which have been announced, so much so that P. T.
In the separation of the constituents of the complex mixture of oxides obtained from the " rare earth " minerals, the methods generally forced upon chemists are those of fractional precipitation or crystallization; the striking resemblances of the compounds of these elements rarely admitting of a complete separation by simple precipitation and filtration.
Other elements predicted and characterized by Mendeleeff which have been since realized are gallium, discovered in 1875, and germanium, discovered in 1885 by Clemens Winkler.
He established the existence of two new elements, samarium and gadolinium, since investigated more especially by Cleve, to whom most of our knowledge on this subject is due.
In addition to the rare elements mentioned above, there are a score or so more whose existence is doubtful.
After having been somewhat neglected for the greater attractions and wider field presented by organic chemistry, the study of the elements and their inorganic compounds is now' rapidly coming into favour; new investigators are continually entering the lists; the beaten paths are being retraversed and new ramifications pursued.
The phlogistonists endeavoured to introduce chemical notions to support it: Becher, in his Physica subterranea (1669), stated that mineral, vegetable and animal matter contained the same elements, but that more simple combinations prevailed in the mineral kingdom; while Stahl, in his Specimen Becherianum (1702), held the " earthy " principle to predominate in the mineral class, and the " aqueous " and " combustible " in the vegetable and animal classes.
Theoretical speculations were revived by Lavoisier, who, having explained the nature of combustion and determined methods for analysing compounds, concluded that vegetable substances ordinarily contained carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, while animal substances generally contained, in addition to these elements, nitrogen, and sometimes phosphorus and sulphur.
Lavoisier, to whom chemistry was primarily the chemistry of oxygen compounds, having developed the radical theory initiated by Guyton de Morveau, formulated the hypothesis that vegetable and animal substances were oxides of radicals composed of carbon and hydrogen; moreover, since simple radicals (the elements) can form more than one oxide, he attributed the same character to his hydrocarbon radicals: he considered, for instance, sugar to be a neutral oxide and oxalic acid a higher oxide of a certain radical, for, when oxidized by nitric acid, sugar yields oxalic acid.
Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
Dumas went no further that thus epitomizing his observations; and the next development was made in 1836 by Auguste Laurent, who, having amplified and discussed the applicability of Dumas' views, promulgated his Nucleus Theory, which assumed the existence of " original nuclei or radicals " (radicaux or noyaux fondamentaux) composed of carbon and hydrogen, and " derived nuclei " (radicaux or noyaux derives) formed from the original nuclei by the substitution of hydrogen or the addition of other elements, and having properties closely related to the primary nuclei.
The brilliant researches of Frankland on the organo-metallic compounds, and his consequent doctrine of saturation capacity or valency of elements and radicals, relieved Kolbe's views of all obscurity.
Thus the thio-alcohols or mercaptans (q.v.) contain the group - CH2 SH; and the elimination of the elements of sulphuretted hydrogen between two molecules of a thio-alcohol results in the formation of a thio-ether or sulphide, R 2 S.
Of these, undoubtedly the simplest are the ethers (q.v.), formed by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules of the same alcohol, " simple ethers," or of different alcohols, " mixed ethers."
In fact, the analogy between the alkyl groups and metallic elements forms a convenient basis from which to consider many derivatives.
Considering derivatives primarily concerned with transformations of the hydroxyl group, we may regard our typical acid as a fusion of a radical R CO - (named acetyl, propionyl, butyl, &c., generally according to the name of the hydrocarbon containing the same number of carbon atoms) and a hydroxyl group. By replacing the hydroxyl group by a halogen, acid-haloids result; by the elimination of the elements of water between two molecules, acid-anhydrides, which may be oxidized to acid-peroxides; by replacing the hydroxyl group by the group. SH, thio-acids; by replacing it by the amino group, acid-amides (q.v.); by replacing it by the group - NH NH2, acid-hydrazides.
Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.
In classifying closed chain compounds, the first step consists in dividing them into: (1) carbocyclic, in which the ring is composed solely of carbon atoms - these are also known as homocyclic or isocyclic on account of the identity of the members of the ring - and (2) heterocyclic, in which different elements go to make up the ring.
Similar considerations will apply to rings containing other elements besides carbon.
It has already been stated that benzene derivatives may be regarded as formed by the replacement of hydrogen atoms by other elements or radicals in exactly the same manner as in the aliphatic series.
A larger and more important series of condensations may be grouped together as resulting from the elimination of the elements of water between carbonyl (CO) and methylene (CH 2) groups.
From the fact that reduction products containing either one or two double linkages behave exactly as unsaturated aliphatic compounds, being readily reduced or oxidized, and combining with the halogen elements and haloid acids, it seems probable that in benzenoid compounds the fourth valencies are symmetrically distributed in such a manner as to induce a peculiar stability in the molecule.
The elements which go to form heterocyclic rings, in addition to carbon, are oxygen, sulphur, selenium and nitrogen.
The methods of chemical analysis may be classified according to the type of reaction: (I) dry or blowpipe analysis, which consists in an examination of the substance in the dry condition; this includes such tests as ignition in a tube, ignition on charcoal in the blowpipe flame, fusion with borax, microcosmic salt or fluxes, and flame colorations (in quantitative work the dry methods are sometimes termed " dry assaying "); (2) wet analysis, in which a solution of the substance is treated with reagents which produce specific reactions when certain elements or groups of elements are present.
Closely related to the flame-colorations, we have to notice the great services rendered by the spectroscope to the detection of elements.
Potassium gives a blue-violet flame which may be masked by the colorations due to sodium, calcium and other elements.
Other elements do not interfere with this method.
The flame coloration may give information as to which elements are present.
It is unnecessary here to dwell on the precautions which can only be conveniently acquired by experience; a sound appreciation of analytical methods is only possible after the reactions and characters of individual substances have been studied, and we therefore refer the reader to the articles on the particular elements and compounds for more information on this subject.
The elements which play important parts in organic compounds are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, bromine, iodine, sulphur, phosphorus and oxygen.
We shall here consider the qualitative and quantitative determination of these elements.
The most direct manner in which to test any property for additive relations is to determine the property for a number of elements, and then investigate whether these values hold for the elements in combination.
Want of data for the elements, however, restricts this method to narrow limits, and hence an indirect method is necessary.
These values hold fairly well when compared with the experimental values determined from other compounds, and also with the molecular volumes of the elements themselves.
The relation between the atomic volumes and the atomic weights of the solid elements exhibits the periodicity which generally characterizes the elements.
Specific Heat and Composition.-The nature and experimental determination of specific heats are discussed in the article Calorimetry; here will be discussed the relations existing between the heat capacities of elements and compounds.
Their observations on the solid elements led to a remarkable generalization, now known as Dulong and Petit's law.
This states that " the atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific heat) of all elements is a constant quantity."
He regarded these anomalies as solely due to the chemical nature of the elements, and ignored or regarded as insignificant such factors as the state of aggregation and change of specific heat with temperature.
Trans., 1900, p. 233) investigated nickel and cobalt over a wide range of temperature (from -182.5° to loo°); his results are: It is evident that the atomic heats of these intimately associated elements approach nearer and nearer as we descend in temperature, approximating to the value 4.
Trans., 1904, 203 A, p. 139) for those elements whose atomic heats vary considerably with temperature.
The specific heat of a compound may, in general, be calculated from the specific heats of its constituent elements.
Conversely, if the specific heats of a compound and its constituent elements, except one, be known, then the unknown atomic heat is readily deducible.
Atomic refractions may be obtained either directly, by investigating the various elements, or indirectly, by considering differences in the molecular refractions of related compounds.
It is found, however, that the same element has not always the same atomic refraction, the difference being due to the nature of the elements which saturate its valencies.
A table of the atomic refractions and dispersions of the principal elements is here given: Dispersion and Composition.-In the preceding section we have seen that substances possess a definite molecular (or atomic) refraction for light of particular wave-length; the difference between the refractions for any two rays is known as the molecular (or atomic) dispersion.
It has been shown that certain elements and groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting crystal forms are nearly identical.
Mitscherlich, in the case of the acid phosphate and acid arsenate of potassium, KH 2 P(As)04, who adopted the term isomorphism, and regarded phosphorus and arsenic as isomorphously related elements.
Other isomorphously related elements and groups were soon perceived, and it has been shown that elements so related are also related chemically.
Isomorphism is most clearly discerned between elements of analogous chemical properties; and from the wide generality of such observations attempts have been made to form a classification of elements based on isomorphous replacements.
For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystallography.
The bare conception of such art as this shows how perfect is the unity between the different elements in Wagner's later musicdrama.
(d) The most fundamental elements in the system of thought do not differ from those of the earlier epistles.
How to equate this foreign civilizing race from Asia with the Semitic elements in the ancient Egyptian speech we do not yet know.
Seleniumand tellurium-ultramarine, in which these elements replace the sulphur, have also been prepared.
The Bulgars of the Volga were of Turkish origin, but may have assimilated Finnish and, later, Slavonian elements.
The existence of these Christian elements in the text misled nearly every scholar for the past four hundred years into believing that the book itself was a Christian apocryph.
He explained not only the gods but also the heroes Agamemnon, Achilles, Hector, as representing primary elements and natural phenomena.
The only work of his that has come down to us is the three books of the Elements of Harmony (5v0121.1
The Aryan folkreligion was polytheistic. Worship was paid to popular divinities, such as the war-god and dragon-slayer Indra, to natural forces and elements such as fire, but the Aryans also believed in the ruling of moral powers and of an eternal law in nature (v.
He purified it from the grossly sensual elements of daeva worship, and uplifted the idea of religion to a higher and purer sphere.
The red matter proves to be the remains of wine, not of blood; and the conclusion of the ablest archaeologists is that the vessels were placed where they are found, after the eucharistic celebration or agape on 'the day of the funeral or its anniversary, and contained remains of the consecrated elements as a kind of religious charm.
Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.
43, where Yahweh occurs first, then Elohenu, and then again Yahweh, we are told " The voice though one, consists of three elements, fire (i.e.
The essential elements are five 1: diluvial plains, coast marshes, prairies, " bluffs " and " pine-hills " (to use the local nomenclature).
These different elements in the region W.
In its present form the law shows plainly the Latin and English elements.
Wallach (Ann., 1900, 312, p. 171) has shown that the saturated cyclic ketones yield oximes which by an application of the Beckmann reaction are converted into isoximes, and these latter on hydrolysis with dilute mineral acids are transformed into acyclic amino-acids; thus from cyclohexanone, e-amidocaproic acid (e-leucine) may be obtained: CH2" C NOH C CH 2 CH 2 7: ?12?CH2 CH2 NH /CH2 CH2 C02H CH2', An ingenious application of the fact that oximes easily lose the elements of water and form nitriles was used by A.
-> CH3C6H5CONHC6H51 N OH Syn-phenyltolylketoxime CH3 C6H4 C C6H5 CH3C6H4NH000,H5 HO N A nti-tolylphenylketoxime In the case of the aldoximes, that one which most readily loses the elements of water on dehydration is assumed to contain its hydroxyl radical adjacent to the movable hydrogen atom and is designated the syn-compound.
The selection of the topics of mathematical inquiry among the infinite variety open to it has been guided by the useful applications, and indeed the abstract theory has only recently been disentangled from the empirical elements connected with these applications.
Under the general heading "Algebra and Theory of Numbers" occur the subheadings "Elements of Algebra," with the topics rational polynomials, permutations, &c., partitions, probabilities; "Linear Substitutions," with the topics determinants, &c., linear substitutions, general theory of quantics; "Theory of Algebraic Equations," with the topics existence of roots, separation of and approximation to, theory of Galois, &c. "Theory of Numbers," with the topics congruences, quadratic residues, prime numbers, particular irrational and transcendental numbers.
Under the general heading "Analysis" occur the subheadings "Foundations of Analysis," with the topics theory of functions of real variables, series and other infinite processes, principles and elements of the differential and of the integral calculus, definite integrals, and calculus of variations; "Theory of Functions of Complex Variables," with the topics functions of one variable and of several variables; "Algebraic Functions and their Integrals," with the topics algebraic functions of one and of several variables, elliptic functions and single theta functions, Abelian integrals; "Other Special Functions," with the topics Euler's, Legendre's, Bessel's and automorphic functions; "Differential Equations," with the topics existence theorems, methods of solution, general theory; "Differential Forms and Differential Invariants," with the topics differential forms, including Pfaffians, transformation of differential forms, including tangential (or contact) transformations, differential invariants; "Analytical Methods connected with Physical Subjects," with the topics harmonic analysis, Fourier's series, the differential equations of applied mathematics, Dirichlet's problem; "Difference Equations and Functional Equations," with the topics recurring series, solution of equations of finite differences and functional equations.
Under the general heading "Geometry" occur the subheadings "Foundations," with the topics principles of geometry, non-Euclidean geometries, hyperspace, methods of analytical geometry; "Elementary Geometry," with the topics planimetry, stereometry, trigonometry, descriptive geometry; "Geometry of Conics and Quadrics," with the implied topics; "Algebraic Curves and Surfaces of Degree higher than the Second," with the implied topics; "Transformations and General Methods for Algebraic Configurations," with the topics collineation, duality, transformations, correspondence, groups of points on algebraic curves and surfaces, genus of curves and surfaces, enumerative geometry, connexes, complexes, congruences, higher elements in space, algebraic configurations in hyperspace; "Infinitesimal Geometry: applications of Differential and Integral Calculus to Geometry," with the topics kinematic geometry, curvature, rectification and quadrature, special transcendental curves and surfaces; "Differential Geometry: applications of Differential Equations to Geometry," with the topics curves on surfaces, minimal surfaces, surfaces determined by differential properties, conformal and other representation of surfaces on others, deformation of surfaces, orthogonal and isothermic surfaces.
After pointing out the immense difficulties which he had had to encounter owing to the absence of any regular accounts, and above all of any of " those statistics which constitute the soul, indeed the very life of a public administration," and that it was therefore impossible for him to pretend that he had been able to free himself altogether from the effects of the past, the minister continues, " every time we have endeavoured to have recourse to the previous elements of appreciation, we found ourselves faced by the chaos which characterized former years.
He was no more successful than Piri or his successor Murad in fighting the elements and the Portuguese in the Persian Gulf; but he was happier in his fate.
The deserters from Cicala's army, distributed in armed bands throughout Asia Minor, had become centres round which all the elements of discontent gathered, and formed the mainstay of the Jellali sectaries who, at this time, rose in insurrection and ravaged Anatolia.
With an inexperienced boy on the throne, divided and untrustworthycounsels in :the divan, and the defences of the empire shattered, the house of Osman seemed doomed and the Turkish Empire about to dissolve into its elements.
Janissaries and the suppression of the quasi-indepen dent power of the derebeys had removed the worst disturbing elements; the government had been centralized; a series of enactments had endeavoured to secure economy in the administration, to curb the abuses of official power, and ensure the impartiality of justice; and the sultan had even expressed his personal belief in the principle of the equality of all, Mussulman and non-Mussulman, before the law.
We thus see that the American and the European-Asiatic elements of the flora are nearly equivalent; and if the flora of Arctic North America were better known, the number of plants common to America might be still more enlarged.5 In the south, a few goats, sheep, oxen and pigs have been introduced.
Rice, dried fish, beans, pepper and oxen are the chief elements in the export trade of the country, which is in the hands of Chinese.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
The dorsal skeletal elements of the thorax and of the anterior six abdominal segments unite with the wing-cases to form a large respiratory chamber, containing five pairs of tracheal gills, with lateral slits for the inflow and a posterior orifice for the outflow of water.
- These are the materials which are utilized by the vegetable plankton in the synthesis of living material: they are water, carbonic acid, nitrates and nitrites of calcium, magnesium and other earthy and alkaline metals, phosphates, silica, traces of salts containing iron, sulphur, potassium and a few other elements.
The albumins contain in all cases the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen; their composition, however, varies within certain limits: C= 50-55%, H = 6.9-7'.3%,N = 15-19%,S =0.32.4%7 0=1 92 4%, General char- crystallized albumin is C = 51.48%, H = 6.76%, N= acters.