Inside, out in the elements.
Every chain of events starts with one push, a catalyst, the perfect mix of different elements that craft a path and make an outcome more likely.
It's important whatever garments you wear, that you get good protection against the elements.
There's elements to consider.
Parkside was nothing more than an innocent battleground for disreputable elements of our society, at war with one another.
The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.
One section of the law expresses the fact that the weights of two substances, not necessarily elements, that are equivalent in one reaction, are often found to be equivalent in a number of other reactions.
these two elements are associated with a third, sometimes affords a very good test for the theory.
The "symbols" for the elements used by Dalton, apparently suggested by those of the alchemists, have been rejected in favour of those which were introduced by Berzelius.
He held that every fermentation consisted of molecular motion which is transmitted from a substance in a state of chemical motion - that is, of decomposition - to other substances, the elements of which are loosely held together.
The amino derivatives are stable bases which readily yield substitution derivatives when acted upon by the halogen elements.
Other elements of the problem there are none, except mere numbers and angles, which do not depend upon the fundamental measurements of space, time and mass.
The somewhat remarkable resemblance between the diurnal variation for the two elements, first remarked on by J.
Regular observations were made of both elements.
The Different Elements Potential Gradient, Dissipation, Ionization And Radioactivityare Clearly Not Independent Of One Another.
Thus unfortunate in his birth, young Hastings received the elements of education at a charity school in his native village.
His manual on Graphical Statics and his Elements of Projective Geometry (translated by C. Leudesdorf), have been published in English by the Clarendon Press.
Each problem was something unique; the elements of transition from one to another were wanting; and the next step which mathematics had to make was to find some method of reducing, for instance, all curves to a common notation.
Such are the four points of Cartesian method: (1) Truth requires a clear and distinct conception of its object, excluding all doubt; (2) the objects of knowledge naturally fall into series or groups; (3) in these groups investigation must begin with a simple and indecomposable element, and pass from it to the more complex and relative elements; (4) an exhaustive and immediate grasp of the relations and interconnexion of these elements is necessary for knowledge in the fullest sense of that word.4 " There is no question," he says in anticipation of Locke and Kant, " more important to solve than that of knowing what human knowledge is and how far it extends."
Amongst the elements of our thought there are some which we can make and unmake at our pleasure; there are others which come and go without our wish; there is also a third class which is of the very essence of our thinking, and which dominates our conceptions.
We think of things not in the abstract elements of the things themselves, but in connexion with, and in language which presupposes, other things.
The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution.
The views of Becher on the composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt, mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the combustible earths.
He had some knowledge of authentic history, and rejected the more marvellous elements of the story.
He received the first elements of his artistic education from Cosimo Roselli; and after leaving him, devoted himself to the study of the great works of Leonardo da Vinci.
Thence, when the opportunity came under Cyrus, some 50,000 Jews, the spiritual heirs of the best elements of the old Israel, returned to found the new community.
He then made the acquaintance of Aaron Solomon Gumperz, who taught him the elements of French and English.
Climate and a fertile soil have been important elements in this growth.
This large influx of Europeans, however, is modifying the population by reducing the Indian and mestizo elements to a minority, although they are still numerous in the mesopotamian, northern and north-western provinces.
It was stated that, according to proposed arrangements, the~ principal fighting elements of the fleet would be, in 1919, 34 battleships, 36 armoured cruisers, 6 smaller cruisers of modern type, 109 destroyers, 170 torpedo boats and 171 submersibles and submarines.
BORON (symbol B, atomic weight ii), one of the non-metallic elements, occurring in nature in the form of boracic (boric) acid, and in various borates such as borax, tincal,.
It rapidly absorbs the elements of water wherever possible, so that a strip of paper plunged into the gas is rapidly charred.
Boron bromide BBr 3 can be formed by direct union of the two elements, but is best obtained by the method used for the preparation of the chloride.
Boron sulphide B 2 S 3 can be obtained by the direct union of the two elements at a white heat or from the tri-iodide and sulphur at 44 0 ° C., but is most conveniently prepared by heating a mixture of the trioxide and carbon in a stream of carbon bisulphide vapour.
16), and recent excavation has shown how far the cultus of these cities was removed from Mosaic religion and ritual and how long the grosser elements persisted.'
But dissensions arose between the German and Celtic elements of Civilis's following.
By the time the third stage, which placed the seat of soul-life in the brain, was reached through the further advance of anatomical knowledge, the religious rites of Greece and Rome were too deeply incrusted to admit of further radical changes, and faith in the gods had already declined too far to bring new elements into the religion.
Here also he wrote Lucinde (1799), an unfinished romance, which is interesting as an attempt to transfer to practical ethics the Romantic demand for complete individual freedom, and Alarcos, a tragedy (1802) in which, without much success, he combined romantic and classical elements.
The heterogeneous elements of the new organization could not be made to unite on a man who for so many years had devoted his energies to purely Whig measures, and he was considered less "available" than Fremont in 1856 and than Lincoln in 1860.
His writings include: Mathematical Investigations in the Theory of Value and Prices (1892); Elements of Geometry (with A.
The free use of discords and of wider intervals, together with the influence of the florid elements of solo-singing, enlarged the bounds of choral expression almost beyond recognition, while they crowded into very narrow quarters the subtleties of 16th-, century music. These, however, by no means disappeared; :and such devices as the crossing of parts in the second Kyrie of Bach's B Minor Mass (bars 7, 8, 14, 15, 22, 23, 50) abundantly show that in the hands of the great masters artistic truths are not things which a change of date can make false.
This simple form of crane thus embodies the essential elements of foundation, post, framework, jib, tie-rods and gearing.
It contains all the essential elements of the hammer-headed crane, of which it may be considered to be the parent; in fact, the only essential difference is that the Titan is portable and the hammer-head crane fixed.
There are numerous and important variations of these two types, but the above contain the elements out of which most cranes of the class are built.
The instrument consists of two cams, the form of which regulates the components of the curbed signal, one cam being for the dot element and the other for the dash element, which by their sequence give the letter signals; these cams, by means of clutches controlled by the relay, are mechanically rotated by clockwork, the speed of rotation being approximately adjusted to the rate of transmission of a single element, so that the requisite number of consecutive elements is transmitted corresponding to the duration of contact of the relay arm with the side controlling that particular element.
34 shows the effect of the interpolator in dissecting the consecutive elements of any letter combination.
As the direction and intensity of this induced current are a function of the position of the second coil in its field, and as this position is determined by its mechanical connexion with the recorder coil, it is evident that, by a suitable choice of the electrical elements of the second coil and its alternating field, the indications on the siphon recorder can be magnified to any reasonable extent.
The inhabitants of the north—the Piedmontese, Lombards and Genoese especially—have suffered less than those of the rest of the peninsula from foreign domination and from the admixture of inferior racial elements, and the cold winter climate prevents the heat of summer from being enervating.
Each provincial administrative junta is composed, in part, of government nominees, and in larger part of elective elements, elected by the provincial council for four years, half of whom require to be elected every two years.
It is clear, however, that the Celtic and Etruscan elements together occupied the greater part of the district between the Apennines and the Alps down to its Romanization, which took place gradually in the course of the 2nd century B.C. Their linguistic neighbors were Ligurian in the south and south-west, and the Veneti on the east.
Those who believe that the Italians would have gained strength by unification in a single monarchy must regret that this Gothic kingdom lacked the elements of stability.
The pope was unable to check this revolution, which is now chiefly interesting as further proof of the insurgence of the Latin as against the feudal elements in Italy at this period.
The war against the castles became a war against the palaces; and the system of government by consuls proved inefficient to control the clashing elements within the state.
On the 15th of November he was assassinated, and as no one was punished for this crime the insolence of the disorderly elements increased, and shots were exchanged with the Swiss Guard.
He ended by dominating the cabinet, but owing to his having negotiated a union of the Right Centre and the Left Centre (the Con nubio) in the conviction that the country needed the moderate elements of both parties, he quarrelled with DAzeglio (who, as an uncompromising conservative, failed to see the value of such a move) and resigned.
His disappearance snapped the chief link with the heroic period, and removed from the helm of state a ruler of large heart, great experience and civil courage, at a moment when elements of continuity were needed and vital problems of internal reorganization had still to be faced.
The men of the Left believed themselves subtle enough to retain the confidence and esteem of all foreign powers while coquetting at home with elements which some of these powers had reason to regard with suspicion.
Firmness such as this secured for him the support of all constitutional elements, and after three years premiership his position was infinitely stronger than at the outset.
Com posed mainly of elements drawn from the Left, and dependent for a majority upon the support of the subversive groups of the Extreme Left, the formation of this cabinet gave the signal for a vast working-class movement, during which the Socialist party sought to extend its political influence by means of strikes and the organization of labor leagues among agricultural laborers and artisans.
This result was most satisfactory to all the best elements in the country, and great hopes were entertained that the 1909.
Moral elements must enter into theism at some point: and, as against empiricism, intuitionalism is morally strong.
Thirdly: we cannot explain how these three elements - sensation; time anfl space; thought - work together.
Alongside of this there are other elements in Spencer's composite system of " Naturalism and Agnosticism " (J.
From them are developed two distinct types of histological elements; the genital cells and the cnidoblasts or mothercells of the nematocysts.
Schulze.) elements, more especially by nervous (ganglion) cells and musclecells derived from the epithelial layer.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
The buds may all become detached after a time and give rise to separate and independent individuals, as in the common Hydra, in which only polyp-individuals are produced and sexual elements From Allman's Gymnoblastic Hydroids, by permission of are developed the Council of the Ray Society.
on the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.
After a time the polyps, or certain of them, produce by budding medusa-individuals, which sooner or later develop sexual elements; in some cases, however, the founder_ polyp remains solitary, that is to say, does not produce polypbuds, but only medusa-buds, from the first (Corymorpha, fig.
cn, N, o.c, x, b, the 1.0¦6 From Gegenbaur's Elements of Comparative Anatomy.
We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"
Empedocles took an important step in the direction of modern conceptions of physical evolution by teaching that all things arise, not by transformations of some primitive form of matter, but by various combinations of a number of permanent elements.
The force which brings the atoms together in the forms of objects is inherent in the elements, and all their motions are necessary.
The origin of things, which is also their substance, is thus laid in the simplest and most homogeneous elements or principles.
In the Jewish speculations of the middle ages may be found curious forms of the doctrine of emanations uniting the Biblical idea of creation with elements drawn from the Persians and the Greeks.
He argues, from the principle quicquid est in effectibus esse et in causis, that the elements and the whole world have sensation, and thus he appears to derive the organic part of nature out of the so-called " inorganic."
He is indeed careful to keep right with the orthodox doctrine of creation by saying that he does not believe the world actually arose in this mechanical way out of the three kinds of elements which he here supposes, but that he simply puts out his hypothesis as a mode of conceiving how it might have arisen.
Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law, New York, i.
Smith, Elements of Ecclesiastical Law (New York, 1889-1890); S.
He was the first to discover uranium, zirconium and titanium, and to characterize them as distinct elements, though he did not obtain any of them in the pure metallic state; and he elucidated the composition of numerous substances till then imperfectly known, including compounds of the then newly recognized elements: tellurium, strontium, cerium and chromium.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
Galen believed in the doctrine of humours originated by Hippocrates, which supposes the condition of the body to depend upon the proper mixture of the four elements, hot, cold, moist and dry, and that drugs possess the same elementary qualities, and that on the principle of contraries one or other was indicated, e.g.
There was little of originality in Luria's doctrines; the theory of emanations, the double belief in the process of the Divine Essence as it were self-concentrating (Zimzum) and on the other hand as expanding throughout creation; the philosophical " sceptism '° which regards God as unknowable but capable of direct intuition by feeling - these were all common elements of mystical thought.
Molybdenum combines with the halogen elements in varying proportions, forming with chlorine a di-, tri-, tetraand penta-chloride, and similar compounds with bromine and iodine.
The beak is made up of horny elements, like the labial teeth, fused together; its edge, when sufficiently magnified, is seen to be denticulate, each denticle representing the cusp of a single tooth.
In later times Orphic theology engaged the attention of Greek philosophersEudemus the Peripatetic, Chrysippus the Stoic, and Proclus the Neoplatonist, but it was an especially favourite study of the grammarians of Alexandria, where it became so intermixed with Egyptian elements that Orpheus came to be looked upon as the founder of mysticism.
As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.
The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.
Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing.
This consists of a few xylem elements, e a a segment of phloem, pericycle, and usually an arc of h~s endodermis, which closes round the bundle as it detaches ~
13, 23), the xylem of which is usually wedgeshaped in cross-section with the protoxylem elements at the inner extremity, while the phloem forms a band on the outer side of the xylem, and separated from it by a band of conjunctive tissue (mesodesm).
In the very frequent cases where the bundles have considerable individuality, the fibrous pericyclic cap very clearly has a common origin from the same strand of tissue as the vascular elements themselves.
The parenchyma is often arranged in tangential bands between the layers of sievetubes and tracheal elements.
The xylem parenchyma is often found in strands associated with the tracheal elements.
In a few cases some of the tracheids have very thick walls and reduced cavities, functioning as mechanical rather than as waterconducting elements.
The stereom is furnished either by cortical cells or by the tracheal elements, in a few cases by fibres which arc probably homologous with sievetubes.
In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.
The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.
The living elements die, and the walls of all the cells often become hardened, owing to the deposit in them of special substances.
There is at present also a want of agreement among botanists as to the path which the water takes in the structural elements of the tree, two views being held.
The layers appear to be made up of elements which are arranged radially.
While so many conspicuous Australian elements are wanting in New Zealand, one-eighth of its flora belongs to South American genera.
The direct geographical elements are the arrangement of land and sea (continents and islands standing in sharp contrast) and the vertical relief of the globe, which interposes barriers of a less absolute kind between portions of the same land area or oceanic depression.
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
Plant life, utilizing solar light to combine the inorganic elements of water, soil and air into living substance, is the basis of all animal life.
The so-called alkaline earth-metals are the elements beryllium, magnesium, calcium, strontium and barium.
The alkaline earths were assumed to be elements until 1807, when Sir H.
It is homologous with the distal ends of the ceratohyals or ventral elements of the hyoidean or second visceral arch.
This pad varies much; it is morphologically the homologue of the pair of basiventral elements which by their lateral extension give origin to the corresponding ribs.
The traditions would seem to point to the institution of new principles in the religion of Yahweh, and would associate with it not merely Moses but those foreign elements which are subsequently found in Israel and Judah.
18 (1903); C. Tiele, Elements of the Science of Religion (Gifford lectures,lect.
His son Moses, who died about the end of the 13th century, translated the rest of Maimonides, much of Averroes, the lesser Canon of Avicenna, Euclid's Elements (from the Arabic version), Ibn al-Jazzar's Viaticum, medical works of IIunain ben Isaac (Johannitius) and Razi (Rhazes), besides works of less-known Arabic authors.
In biology conception is the coalescence of the male and female generative elements, producing pregnancy.
In correcting the elements of Delambre's solar tables he had been led to suspect an inequality overlooked by their constructor.
In each case the Arab or the Norman was the kernel, the centre round which all other elements gathered and which gave its character to the whole.
In the end something like a Sicilian nation did arise; but it arose rather by the dying out of several of the elements in the country, the Norman element among them, than by any such fusion as took place in England.
Out of these elements the Saracens of Sicily had formed a noble and beautiful style, grand and simple in its construction, rich and graceful in its characteristic detail.
At Bari, Trani and Bitonto we see a style in which Italian and strictly Norman elements are really mingled.
GERMANIUM (symbol Ge, atomic weight 72.5); one of the metallic elements included in the same natural family as carbon, silicon, tin and lead.
Sulphur also combines directly with most of the elements to form sulphides.
It reacts most energetically with many organic compounds, removing the elements of water in many cases and leaving a carbonized mass.
It combines directly with many elements and compounds and frequently acts as energetic oxidizing agent.
Condillac's sensationalism - Locke's philosophy purged of its more ideal if less logical elements - leading on to materialism in J.
One of his most important works was the Elements de Philosophic published in 1759, in which he discussed the principles and methods of the different sciences.
Alembert was much interested in music both as a science and as an art, and wrote Elements de musique theorique et pratique (1779), which was based upon the system of P. Rameau with important modifications and differences.
In the college itself the voting - secret and by ballot throughout - is by majority; and since this majority consists, under the actual system, of very conservative elements (the landowners and urban delegates having 8ths of the votes), the progressive elements - however much they might preponderate in the country - would have no chance of representation at all save for the curious provision that one member at least in each government must be chosen from each of the five classes represented in the college.
That in the Duma any Radical elements survive at all is mainly due to the peculiar franchise enjoyed by the seven largest towns - St Petersburg, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Riga and the Polish cities of Warsaw and Lodz.
The Russians have absorbed and assimilated in the course of their history a variety of Finnish and Turko-Finnish elements.
But a closer observation of what is going on in the recently colonized confines of the empire - where whole villages live without mixing with the natives, but slowly bringing them over to the Russian manner of life, and then slowly taking in a few female elements from them - gives the key to this feature of Russian life.
The primary distinctions between these branches have been increased during the last nine centuries by their contact with different nationalities - the Great Russians absorbing Finnish elements, the Little Russians undergoing an admixture of Turkish blood, and the White Russians submitting to Lithuanian influence.
was pressed by the more reactionary elements to model his parliament on this rough equivalent of the Western states-general.
" the Union of the Russian People," began an organized extermination of the elements supposed to be hostile to the traditional regime.
The more moderate elements found a rallying cry in the manifesto of October, took the name of " the Party of 17 October," and became known as " Octobrists."
The Rocket possessed the three elements of efficiency of the modern locomotive - the internal water-surrounded fire-box and the multitubular flue in the boiler; the blast-pipe, by which the steam after doing its work in the cylinders was exhausted up the chimney, and thus served to increase the draught and promote the rapid combustion of the fuel; and the direct connexion of the steam cylinders, one on each side of the engine, with the two driving wheels mounted on one axle.
of track and yard room required to perform a unit of work;, it has diminished journal and rolling friction relatively to thetons hauled, since these elements of train resistance grow relatively less as the load per wheel rises; and finally, it has tended to reduce the labour costs as the train loads have become greater, because no more men are required to handle a heavy train than; a light one.
For other areas we have often no description of the procedure at all, but merely the briefest outline of the actual process of slaughter, and we are ignorant whether the form of the rite is in reality simple (either from a loss of primitive elements or from never having advanced beyond the stage at which we find it), or whether the absence of detail is due to the inattention or lack of interest of the observer.
The necessary elements of a Hindu sacrifice are: (I) the sacrificer, who provides the victim, and is affected, directly or indirectly, by the sacrifice; he may or may not be identical with (2) the officiant, who performs the rite; we have further (3) the place, (4) the instruments of sacrifice and (5) the victim; where the sacrificer enjoys only the secondary results, the direct influence of the sacrifice is directed towards (6) the object; finally, we may distinguish (7) three moments of the rite - (a) the entry, (b) the slaughter, (c) the exit.
The sacrifices of sacralization and desacralization mentioned above find their analogues in the Hindu scheme of the rite; sacralization and desacralization, sometimes performed by means of subsidiary sacrifices, are the essential elements of the preparation for sacrifice and the subsequent lustration.
2 The elements of the form are preserved exactly in the liturgy of the Church of England.
The innumerable theories which were framed as to the precise nature of the offering and as to the precise change in the elements all implied that conception of it.
He took stern measures against the revolutionary elements in southern Italy, and his new cabinet was essentially military and conservative.
the kadishtu of the temples of the Babylonian Ishtar) were foreign Canaanite elements which became imported into Hebrew worship during the period of the Hebrew settlement in Canaan.
For Amos and Isaiah were able to single out those loftier spiritual and ethical elements which lay implicit in Mosaism and to lift them into their due place of prominence.
The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.
The fetters of nationalism were to be broken, and the Hebrew religion in its essential spiritual elements was to become the heritage of all humanity.
In theology he was a Broad Churchman, seeking always to emphasize the permanent elements in religion, and ignoring technicalities.
In the Kulu and Ladakh country the tree is sacred to the deities of the elements.
The last eighteen months of this residence abroad saw the infusion of two new elements - one of them at least of considerable importance - into his life.
de Traytorrens, went through the elements of algebra and geometry, and the three fi r st books of the Marquis de l'Hopital's Conic Sections.
The task of constructing a system of government from the bottom, of reconciling the conflicting and often jealously sensitive elements, called for tact, firmness, industry and deep insight into human nature, all of which Governor Taft displayed in a marked degree.
It is no longer possible to distinguish clearly the Greek and Roman elements in this curious cult, though it is itself quite intelligible as that of an Earth-goddess with mysteries attached.
Among elements of unhealthiness is next to be reckoned the proximity of native villages, the inhabitants of which are infected.
expresses that under certain conditions the intrinsic energy of hydriodic acid is greater than the intrinsic energy of its component elements by 12200 cal., i.e.
that hydriodic acid is formed from its elements with absorption of this amount of heat.
Thus by transposition we may write the last equation as follows 2HI =H2+12+12200 cal., and thus express that hydriodic acid when decomposed into its elements evolves 12200 cal.
- For thermochemical calculations it is of great importance to know the heat of formation of compounds from their elements, even when the combination cannot be brought about directly.
But since the elements cannot be converted one into the other, we are absolutely without knowledge of the relative values of their intrinsic energy.
This assumption has the great advantage, that the intrinsic energy of a compound relatively to its elements now appears as the heat of formation of the compound with its sign reversed.
its heat of decomposition into its elements.
Some of these pass into their elements with explosive violence, owing to the heat generated by their decomposition and the gaseous nature of the products.
The oxygen contained in the compound was deducted, together with the equivalent amount of hydrogen, and the heat of combustion of the compound was then taken to be equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in the residue.
Wilson, Elements of Thermal Chemistry (London, 1885); P. Duhem, Traite de Mecanique Chimique (Paris, 18 97-99); J.
The elements he had to deal with could not be welded together.
Even before authentic history begins, the elements of religion and society had already crystallized into a solid coherent structure which was to persist without essential modification.
From a variety of independent reasons one is forced to conclude that, whatever historical elements they may contain, the stories of this remote past represent the form which tradition had taken in a very much later age.
Many of the elements lie outside questions of time and place and are almost immemorial.
that of " Israel " and " Samaria ") is involved with the incorporation of non-Judaean elements.
- The elements of the thought and religion of the Hebrews do not sever them from their neighbours; similar features of cult are met with elsewhere under different names.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
OLD] and ritualistic; the other, more cosmopolitan, extended a freer welcome to strangers, and tolerated the popular elements and the superstitious cults which are vividly depicted (Isa.
70), it will be seen that the recurrence of similar causes leads to a similarity in the contemporary literary productions (with a reshaping of earlier tradition), the precise date of which depends upon delicate points of detail and not upon the apparently obvious historical elements.
" It was a necessity that Judaism should incrust itself in this manner; without those hard and ossified forms the preservation of its essential elements would have proved impossible.
In him culminates the Jewish expression of the Spanish-Moorish culture; his writings had an influence on European scholasticism and contributed significant elements to the philosophy of Spinoza.
On account of the prejudices of her mother, who did not desire her to know more than was necessary for being useful in the family, she received in youth only the first elements of education.
Art was still by no means extinct, and its forms and decorative elements are simply later derivatives of the great palace style.
As to the character of the invading elements that hastened its close, and the date of their incursions, contemporary Egyptian monuments afford the best clue.
All the Semitic languages' are built up from triliteral roots: that is, the great majority of the words are derived from a simple verbal form, of which the essential elements are three consonants.
For example, the priests are not to be chosen by the people; penitents are not to be present at ordinations (lest they should hear the failings of candidates discussed); bishops are to be appointed by the metropolitan and his suffragan; sub-deacons may not distribute the elements of the Eucharist; clerics are forbidden to leave a diocese without the bishop's permission.
In either case it is of course open to anyone to maintain that the apparent completeness of synthesis really rests on the subtle intrusion of elements of feeling into the rational process.
Japan appears to have been formerly inhabited by the Ainus, who have traditions of an older but unknown population, but was invaded in prehistoric times by a race akin to the Koreans, which was possibly mingled with Malay elements after occupying the southern part of the islands.
The first contains many original elements.
Both China and Japan have felt through Buddhism the influence of Indian art, which contains at least two elements - one indigenous and the other Greco-Persian.
These excerpts, however, have been so pieced together, that it is often impossible to separate them with precision, and to distinguish accurately between earlier and later elements.
David was not only a great captain, he was a national hero in whom all the noblest elements of the Hebrew genius were combined.
7 6 5 ff., is a mixture of Greek traditions with a few oriental elements; here the first king is Medos (the Median empire); his nameless son is succeeded by Cyrus, a blessed ruler, beloved by the gods, who gave peace to all his friends and conquered Lydia, Phrygia, Ionia.
The commercial importance of the town dates from the second half of the r9th century; in 1870 its population had risen to 38,000, and after it was brought into railway connexion with Kharkov and Voronezh, and thus with the fertile provinces of south and south-east Russia, the increase was still more rapid, the number reaching 56,047 in 1885, and 58,928 in 1900 - Greeks, Jews, Armenians and West-Europeans being important elements.
A third account omits all the apocryphal elements in the story and says that Agrippa was assassinated by the Romans, who objected to his growing power.
Most of these were simple records of patient and laborious analytical operations, and it is perhaps surprising that among all the substances he analysed he only detected two new elements - beryllium (1798) in beryl and chromium (1797) in a red lead ore from Siberia.
But it lacked the elements of true greatness.
The rebellious elements allied themselves instinctively with the Poles, who thus found the absorption of the greater part of the lands of the Order an easy task.
It brought Ladislaus little immediate gain; but it stimulated the elements of unrest in Prussia to fresh activity.
In addition to the various works of Brewster already noticed, the following may be mentioned: - Notes and Introduction to Carlyle's translation of Legendre's Elements of Geometry (1824); Treatise on Optics (1831); Letters on Natural Magic, addressed to Sir Walter Scott (1831); The Martyrs of Science, or the Lives of Galileo, Tycho Brake, and Kepler (1841); More Worlds than One (1854).
The higher parts of the plains, which are deeply trenched by the upper tributaries of the rivers, are inhabited by various Caucasian races - Kabardians and Cherkesses (Circassians) in the west, Ossetes in the middle, and several tribal elements from Daghestan, described under the general name of Chechens, in the east.
He wrote also Elements de metaphysique (1724), a "French Grammar on a new plan," and a number of historical essays.
Mill remarks that the uncertainty hanging over the very elements of moral and social philosophy proves that the means of arriving at the truth in those sciences are not yet properly understood.
The standard of life of the ordinary well-to-do middle class in England, for example, includes not only food, clothing and shelter of a kind different in many respects from that of a similar class in other countries and of other classes in England, but a highly complicated mechanism, both public and private, for ministering to these primary needs, habits of social intercourse, educational and sanitary organization, recreative arrangements and many other elements.
But it is doubtful whether the most complete investigation would ever enable us to include all the elements of the standard of life in a money estimate.
In the investigation of past times, the incommensurate elements of well-being are so numerous that merely money estimates are frequently misleading.
ganglia, rather than cord-like nerve- br', Parabranchia (= the tracts containing both nerve-cells or comb-like osphra ganglionic elements and nerve-fibres.
The detorted visceral commissure shows a tendency to the concentration of all its elements round the oesophagus, so that except in the Bullomorpha and in Aplysia the whole nervous system is aggregated in the cephalic region, either dorsally or ventrally.
To us, indeed, his conception of the universe, like that of Philo, seems a strange medley, and one may be at a loss to conceive how he could bring together such heterogeneous elements; but there is no reason to doubt that the harmony of all the essential parts of his system was obvious enough to himself.
He is, moreover, a judicious critic. The union of these four elements gives character to his theology, and in a certain degree to all subsequent theology.
Very many accepted these terms, rallied to the First Consul with more or less sincerity; and their return to France to strengthen the conservative elements in French society.
But the Arsacid kingdom never was a truly national state; with the Scythian and Parthian elements were united some elements of Greek civilization.
In 1881 and 1884 he printed some notes on the elements of vector analysis for the use of his students; these were never formally published, but they formed the basis of a text-book on Vector Analysis which was published by his pupil, E.
They crushed a civilization already hard hit; and it took two or three centuries for the artistic spirit, instinct in the Aegean area, and probably preserved in suspended animation by the survival of Aegean racial elements, to blossom anew.
Certain elements present themselves in feeling which seem stubbornly to resist any attempt to explain them in terms of thought.
religion compounded of Christian, heathen and Jewish elements on a type which is essentially that of ancient Gnosticism.
Into these regions descended Hibil the brilliant, in the power of Mana rabba, just as in the Manichaean mythology the "primal man," armed with the elements of the king of light, descends to a contest with the primal devil.
The Mandaeans observe also with the elements of bread (pehta) and wine (mambuha, lit.
The thoracic segments, as seen in an early stage of the ventral plate, display in a well-marked manner the essential elements of the insect segment.
These elements are a central piece or sternite, 12 and a lateral field on each side bearing the leg-rudi 1s ment.
The very elements now began to fight against the perishing but still unconquered host.
Of the foreign-born population these elements constituted respectively 35.6, 24 o, 7.6, 7 o, 6.7 and 5.3%.
Its characteristic civilization grew out of a mixture of various elements, Arabic, Aramaic, Greek and Roman.
A tenant is not responsible, under such a covenant, for deterioration due to diminution in value caused by lapse of time or by the elements.
The products of cotton seed have become important elements in the national industry of the United States.
Possessing soil, climate and apparently all the requisite elements from nature for the production of cotton to an almost boundless extent, and of a 1 Approximately.
Here you find articles in the encyclopedia about architectural elements.
As regards the first point, it is now generally held that miracles are exceptions to the order of nature as known in our common experience; and as regards the second, that miracles are constituent elements in the divine revelation, deeds which display, the divine character and purpose; but they are signs and not merely seals of truth.
This is the open place on which a power that commands in the name of this meaning can exert its influence; and if under this command the inner condition of the elements, the magnitudes of their relation and their opposition to each other, become altered, the necessity of the mechanical cause of the world must unfold this new state into a miraculous appearance, not through suspension but through strict maintenance of its general laws " (op. cit.
On the problem of evil and sin it is impossible here to enter; but this must be insisted on, that the miracles of Jesus at least express divine benevolence just under those conditions in which the course of nature obscures it, and are therefore, proper elements in a revelation of grace, of which nature cannot give any evidence.
Various elements in the Republican party, nevertheless, had stoutly opposed their appointment, so that the President's choice showed that he was prepared to exert his independence of party managers and to insist upon administrative efficiency.
The principal elements are found in various combinations, the hydrocarbons of the Pennsylvania oils being mainly paraffins (q.v.), while those of Caucasian petroleum belong for the most part to the naphthenes, isomeric with the olefines (q.v.).
The basis of this growth is partly the story-telling instinct innate in all men, which loves to heighten an effect, sharpen a point or increase a contrast - the instinct which breathes in Icelandic sagas like that of Burnt Njal; partly the instinct of idolization, if it may be so called, which leads to the perversion into impossible greatness of an approved character, and has created, in this instance, the legendary figures of Peter the Hermit and Godfrey of Bouillon (qq.v.); partly the religious impulse, which counted nothing wonderful in a holy war, and imported miraculous elements even into the sober pages of the Gesta.
At a very early period - as early probably as the 16th century B.C.- Syria became the meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian elements, resulting in a type of western Asiatic culture peculiar to itself, which through the commerce of the Phoenicians was carried to the western lands of the Mediterranean basin.
They or their confederacy remained, however, the most powerful of the Syrian elements till the westward extension of Assyria about 1050 B.C., under Tiglath-Pileser I.
In Carinella, Cephalothrix, Polia and the Metanemertines the two tegumentary layers with their different glandular elements are fused into one; a thick layer of connective tissue is situated beneath them (instead of between them) and keeps the entire cutaneous system more definitely separate from the muscular (fi g s.
The histological elements of this portion remain distinct both by transmitted light and in actual sections.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
At the council of Tours (1054) he found a protector in the papal legate, the famous Hildebrand, who, satisfied himself with the fact that Berengar did not deny the real presence of Christ in the sacramental elements, succeeded in persuading the assembly to be content with a general confession from him that the bread and wine, after consecration, were the body and blood of the Lord, without requiring him to define how.
Philosophical sanction and explanation of this belief was then found by bringing it into relation with the theory of the prima materia, which was identical in all bodies but received its actual form by the adjunction of qualities expressed by the Aristotelian elements - earth, air, fire and water.
In the Greek alchemists it appears as the symbol at once of the art and of the universe, enclosing within itself the four elements; and there is sometimes a play of words between rï¿½dv and rï¿½c30v.
The prima materia was early identified with mercury, not ordinary mercury, but the " mercury of the philosophers," which was the essence or soul of mercury, freed from the four Aristotelian elements - earth, air, fire and water - or rather from the qualities which they represent.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
pp. The extent to which elements of heathen cult entered into purer types of religion is illustrated in the worship of Yahweh.
The Old Testament depicts the history of the people as a series of acts of apostasy alternating with subsequent penitence and return to Yahweh, and the question whether this gives effect to actual conditions depends upon the precise character of the elements of Yahweh worship brought by the Israelites into Palestine.
Two elements define the position of the plane passing through the attracting centre in which the orbit lies.
Hence the number of independent elements assigned to a planet or other body moving around the sun is commonly six.
In these cases therefore the mean distance and mean motion are regarded as different elements, and the whole number of the latter is seven.
The process by which the position of a planet at any time is determined from its elements may now be conceived as follows The epoch of passage through pericentre being given, let t be the interval of time between this epoch and that for which the position of the body is required.
To form a conception of this problem it is to be noted that since the position of the body in space can be computed from the six elements of the orbit at any time we may ideally conceive the coordinates of the body to be algebraically expressed as functions of the six elements and of the time.
t, representing the six elements and the time.
Then by solving these equations, regarding the six elements as unknown quantities, the values of the latter may be computed.
Instead of the six ideal equations just described we have to combine a number of equations of various forms containing other quantities than the elements.
Moissan (Comptes rendus, 1903, 1 37, p. 229) by the direct combination of the two elements in the electric furnace.
As soon as he had learnt the elements of reading and writing, he was sent as a page to the court of Ferdinand and Isabella; afterwards, until his twenty-sixth year, he took service with Antonio Maurique, duke of Nagera, and followed the career of arms. He was free in his relations with women, gambled and fought; but he also gave indications of that courage, constancy and prudence which marked his after life.
Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
But whether he lived or not, and whenever he lived, it is certain that many mythical elements are contained in his story.
How certain it is that the Robin Hood story attracted to it and appropriated other elements is illustrated by its subsequent history - its history after the 14th century.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.